WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste long-term management

  1. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  2. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  3. Long-term management USDOE transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Gilbert, K.V.; Lowrey, R.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Activities for permanent disposal of US DOE TRU waste are presently focused on newly generated and stored waste. The buried waste and contaminated soils pose no near term problem. Decisions on any possible actions for these wastes will be deferred until the newly generated and stored wastes are being placed into disposal on a routine basis. Several elements must be in place before such disposal can become routine. These elements consist of: a disposal facility; waste acceptance criteria; waste certification mechanisms; waste processing facilities; and a waste transportation system. Each of these elements has been the subject of considerable activity in the recent past. Progress and plans for each element are summarized. As of January 1981, DOE has 60,500 m 3 of waste classified as Transuranic waste (TRU) in retrievable storage, and projects that additional TRU waste will be generated at an average rate of 4500 m 3 per year for the next 10 years. Over 99% of this waste is contact handled, with the remainder being remote handled, i.e., surface radiation dose levels exceeding 200 mrem/h. An estimated 273,000 m 3 of TRU waste were placed in shallow land burial prior to establishment of the 1970 policy. In addition, large quantities of soil at DOE sites are contaminated with TRU elements due to disposal of liquid wastes and by contact of soil with solid, buried waste whose original containers are now badly degraded. Possibly as much as 10,000,000 m 3 of soil are contaminated above 10 nCi/gm. Less than 1,000,000 m 3 are estimated to be contaminated above 100 nCi/gm

  4. Long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study analyses questions of a legal, administrative and financial nature connected with the implementation of programmes for the storage and disposal of radioactive waste. It demonstrates that institutional controls do not involve technically different operations nor do they require the marshalling of large-scale industrial and administrative resources. Finally, the study analyses the different possible approaches in the light of regulations already adopted in certain OECD countries. The annex to the study gives examples of relevant provisions. (NEA) [fr

  5. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.; Lavelle, S.

    2006-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  6. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  7. Industrial long-term waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term industrial management of radioactive waste in France is carried out by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA). ANDRA is in charge of design, siting, construction and operation of disposal centers. The French national program of waste management is running on with the construction of a second near-surface disposal which is expected to be in operation in 1991 and a selection of a site for the construction of an underground laboratory for the qualification of this site for deep disposal

  8. High-level Waste Long-term management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long-term management system(A-KRS) which deals with spent fuels from domestic nuclear power stations, HLW from advanced fuel cycle and other wastes that are not admitted to LILW disposal site. Also, this project demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the key technologies applied in the A-KRS by evaluating them under in-situ condition such as underground research laboratory and provide important information to establish the safety assessment and long-term management plan. To develop the technologies for the high level radioactive wastes disposal, demonstrate their reliability under in-situ condition and establish safety assessment of disposal system, The major objects of this project are the following: Ο An advanced disposal system including waste containers for HLW from advanced fuel cycle and pyroprocess has been developed. Ο Quantitative assessment tools for long-term safety and performance assessment of a radwaste disposal system has been developed. Ο Hydrological and geochemical investigation and interpretation methods has been developed to evaluate deep geological environments. Ο The THMC characteristics of the engineered barrier system and near-field has been evaluated by in-situ experiments. Ο The migration and retardation of radionuclides and colloid materials in a deep geological environment has been investigated. The results from this project will provide important information to show HLW disposal plan safe and reliable. The knowledge from this project can also contribute to environmental conservation by applying them to the field of oil and gas industries to store their wastes safe

  9. Long-term management plan INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, J.D.

    1978-12-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory stores large quantities of transuranic-contaminated waste at its Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This report presents a 10-year plan for management of this transuranic waste and includes descriptions of projects involving nuclear waste storage, retrieval, processing, systems analysis, and environmental science. Detailed project schedules and work breakdown charts are provided to give the reader a clear view of transuranic waste management objectives

  10. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-01

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  11. Long term governance for radioactive waste management. Final report of Cowan2 - work package 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Th.; Schieber, C.; Lavele, S.

    2006-12-15

    This report aims at identifying key features for the long term governance of radioactive waste. It is proposed by the COWAN2 Work Package 4 the purpose of which was to identify, discuss and analyse the institutional, ethical, economic and legal considerations raised by long term radioactive waste storage or disposal on the three interrelated issues of: responsibility and ownership of radioactive waste on the long term, continuity of local dialogue between stakeholders and monitoring of radioactive waste management facilities, and compensation and sustainable development. The aim is also to propose guidelines in order to better address long term issues in decision-making processes and start long term governance

  12. The long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    After setting out the terms of reference of ANDRA (National agency for the management of radioactive waste), the author describes the current situation and the projects for the surface storage of waste of low and medium activity. He then discusses the work which has started on the construction of an underground laboratory for studying the storage of long life waste [fr

  13. Long term industrial management of radioactive wastes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.

    1981-01-01

    All human activities including energy generation entail the wastes. This definitely applies also to nuclear power generation. Currently the nuclear power program is very extensive, and the plans of fuel reprocessing proceed along this line. In consequence, the Government has decided on tackling the problem of industrial radioactive waste management in earnest. For the purpose, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) was created in November, 1979, within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Its main functions are the design, siting and construction of waste disposal centers and their management, the establishment of waste treatment and disposal standards, and the research and development. The following matters are described: the need for comprehensive industrial approach, the concept of industrial management, ANDRA business program, the industrial policy on waste disposal, and ANDRA financing. (J.P.N.)

  14. Long term management of wastes contaminated by plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the different categories of wastes, the evolution of the cumulated production until the year 2000 is described by curves and the general situation of production points is presented, all that in France. The storage conditions are specified according to the type of wastes, category A, B, or C; the threshold under which the waste is classified in A category being fixed by the safety authorities at 2.10 4 CMA (maximum permissible concentration), that is to say for plutonium 1Ci/m 3 . The knowledge of waste activity is another basic element of the management of such wastes, the fixing of the threshold, above which wastes contaminated by plutonium have to be stored underground, still keeping to be specified [fr

  15. Environmental effects of the long term management of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, L.C.

    1980-08-01

    Criteria for interim application in uranium mill tailings management, pending the outcome of a thorough investigation of the tailings problem, are outlined. For a closed-out tailings site only passive or natural barriers are to be used to control releases; surface water recharge is to be limited to that from direct natural precipitation, and no permanent water pool will be allowed; all designed systems must be evaluated in terms of their long-term durability; long-term performance and economic guarantees will be required; access must be limited to the maximum extent practical; and pathway analyses should be performed to determine the health, safety and environmental impacts of the expected level of releases. Releases to water should be no greater than those experienced during the operating phase of the facility. Radon emanation should not exceed 2-10 pCi/m 2 .s, and gamma radiation should be reduced to 10-50 μR/hr at 1 metre above the surface. Particulate emissions originating from the tailings material should be virtually non-existent

  16. Stepwise Decision Making for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, Claudio; Vari, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Consideration is increasingly being given, in radioactive waste management (RWM), to concepts such as 'stepwise decision making' and 'adaptive staging' in which the public, and especially the local communities, are also meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability and provided they meet the requirements of an acceptable safety case. Stepwise decisions are designed to provide reassurance that actions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. Stepwise decision making has thus come to the fore as being especially important for making progress for radioactive waste management in a manner which is acceptable to large sectors of society. Despite its early identification within the RWM community as an important means for reaching decision in which there is broad-based confidence, stepwise decision making has not been widely debated. Accepted guiding principles of any such process have not yet been formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. This paper reviews the current developments regarding stepwise decision making in RWM with the aim to pinpoint where it stands, to highlight its societal dimension, to analyse its roots in social sciences, and to identify guiding principles and issues in implementation. It is observed that there is convergence between the approach taken by the practitioners of RWM and the indications received from field studies in social research, and that general guiding principles can be proposed at least as a basis for further discussion. A strong basis for dialogue across disciplines thus exists. General methodological issues are also identified. This paper was developed in the framework of the activities of the NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence, which is presented in a

  17. Long-term management of radioactive waste. Ethics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    1999-01-01

    The protection of the environment and the ethical issues that it raises are important topics in the debate on the long-term management of radioactive waste. An overview of the general ethical principles developed in the wider context of the debate on the environment is presented and the specific case of the management of long-lived radioactive waste is addressed. (author)

  18. Taking into account the long term dimension associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.; Lavelle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste introduces a new time dimension in the field of risk management. This is why, for more than 10 years, there have been reflections on the societal and organisational mechanisms allowing a responsible management over the long term of the risk associated with radioactive waste. These reflections lead one to ask questions regarding interactions between what is at stake for societal and radiation protection criteria, demanding a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Within the framework of the European project C.O.W.A.M. 2, dedicated to the improvement of governance of radioactive waste management in Europe, a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and N.G.O.s, discussed the stakes associated with the long term dimension. This article presents the main results of this working group, organised around four themes: meaning of the long term and what is at stake, the ethical dimension regarding long term issues, continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  19. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  20. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that data are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  1. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.

  2. Hanford long-term high-level waste management program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reep, I.E.

    1978-05-01

    The objective is the long-term disposition of the defense high-level radioactive waste which will remain upon completion of the interim waste management program in the mid-1980s, plus any additional high-level defense waste resulting from the future operation of N Reactor and the Purex Plant. The high-level radioactive waste which will exist in the mid-1980s and is addressed by this plan consists of approximately 3,300,000 ft 3 of damp salt cake stored in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks, 1,500,000 ft 3 of damp sludge stored in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks, 11,000,000 gallons of residual liquor stored in double-shell waste tanks, 3,000,000 gallons of liquid wastes stored in double-shell waste tanks awaiting solidification, and 2,900 capsules of 90 SR and 137 Cs compounds stored in water basins. Final quantities of waste may be 5 to 10% greater, depending on the future operation of N Reactor and the Purex Plant and the application of waste treatment techniques currently under study to reduce the inventory of residual liquor. In this report, the high-level radioactive waste addressed by this plan is briefly described, the major alternatives and strategies for long-term waste management are discussed, and a description of the long-term high-level waste management program is presented. Separate plans are being prepared for the long-term management of radioactive wastes which exist in other forms. 14 figures

  3. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John

    2006-01-01

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management

  4. Moving Forward with Lessons Learned About Long-term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, Elizabeth; Dalton, John [UK Nirex Ltd., Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    A range of lessons have been identified from previous attempts to implement long term radioactive waste management policy in the UK and internationally. Many of these relate to the way the decision-making process is undertaken and the fact that there needs to be an open, transparent process that enables continuous stakeholder involvement. Nirex believes that using the SEA and EIA frameworks will help to incorporate the lessons learned into the future decision-making process relating to long-term radioactive waste management.

  5. Spent fuel, plutonium and nuclear waste: long-term management; Le combustible use et le plutonium en tant que dechets nucleaires: gestion a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, G

    1998-11-01

    Different options for the management of nuclear waste arising from the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Special emphasis is on reprocessing followed by geological disposal, geological disposal of reprocessing waste, direct geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel, long term storage. Particular emphasis is on the management of plutonium including recycling, immobilisation and disposal, partitioning and transmutation.

  6. Refurbishment implications on long-term waste management strategies at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Point Lepreau Generating Station's waste management experiences during the Refurbishment outage. In short, Point Lepreau GS has been challenged during the outage due to the amount of low and intermediate level waste that has been generated compared to that which was expected, which has driven the need to develop a new waste management strategy in the middle of the outage. The paper presents an overview of pre-outage waste handling, what process changes and schedule changes occurred during the outage, and provides a discussion of the operational and financial consequences of those changes. Key issues highlighted by the paper include the need for adequate provision of waste management facilities during large outages, the importance of ensuring that contractors have a stake in waste minimization activities, and long term waste management implications that need to be considered for large outages.

  7. Evolution of safety standards for the long-term management of nuclear waste, and their application in Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempe, T.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the need to develop current radiation protection methodologies further in order to take account of the special features of long-term waste management. The need to expand the scope and nature of regulatory submissions is also addressed. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging as to requirements for a safety case for long-term waste management, and on safety assessment approaches and criteria to be applied in the regulation of long-term waste management facilities. The application of some of this methodology in preliminary concept assessments carried out by OPG for long-term waste management facilities is described. (author)

  8. Predicted environmental impacts of long-term waste management at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, S.V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the different alternative approaches to long-term waste management at SRP, along with their probable relative costs, risks, and uncertainties; the issue of methodology for decision-making in nuclear waste management is also raised. This paper contains a preliminary listing of the SRP alternaties including a simple cost-risk analysis. The alternatives are: glass shipped offsite to Federal repository; air-cooled vault with glass at SRP; liquid waste slurry stored in SRP bedrock cavern; and continued tank farm operation with salt and sludge

  9. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.; Reyners, P.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the principal features of a study undertaken by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency on the institutional problems raised by the long-term management of radioactive waste. The purpose of this study is to provide the competent national authorities with a common approach based on experience. All management operations which may extend over periods of more than 50 years are covered by the study, which analyses the control measures or other institutional measures that must be taken with regard to such operations. It distinguishes between ''active'' and ''passive'' control measures and describes their application ''before closure'' and ''after closure'' of the disposal or storage sites. An attempt is made to evaluate the lifetime of such institutional control measures and it is proposed, on this basis, that a period of several centuries, at most 300 years, should be considered reasonable in view of the need to avoid imposing an excessive burden on future generations. The study also provides a description of relations between governments and industry, stressing the increased responsibility of governments in the context of long-term management of radioactive waste. Specific questions of financing and responsibility for civil nuclear activities which relate to long-term management are also analysed. The general conclusion arrived at is that a long-term management strategy must be based on a viable combination of technological methods and institutional measures. (author)

  10. Estimation of long-term probabilities for inadvertent intrusion into radioactive waste management areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eedy, W.; Hart, D.

    1988-05-01

    The risk to human health from radioactive waste management sites can be calculated as the product of the probability of accidental exposure (intrusion) times the probability of a health effect from such exposure. This report reviews the literature and evaluates methods used to predict the probabilities for unintentional intrusion into radioactive waste management areas in Canada over a 10,000-year period. Methods to predict such probabilities are available. They generally assume a long-term stability in terms of existing resource uses and society in the management area. The major potential for errors results from the unlikeliness of these assumptions holding true over such lengthy periods of prediction

  11. Study of scenarios of long term management of low-activity long-life wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This document reports the study of scenarios for the management of different low-activity long-life radioactive wastes with reference to different French legal texts. After a presentation of the legal and technical context, the report presents different existing and projected storages (description and safety principles for the Cires and Aube centres and for the Cigeo project of deep geological storage centre). It addresses the various aspects of radiferous and graphite waste management on a long term: inventory, parcel, waste peculiarities, management scenarios, assessment of storage in SCR. It also addresses the case of other wastes such as bituminous coated wastes, those presenting a reinforced natural radioactivity or residues of uranium conversion processing. The last part presents the main orientations for the project

  12. Parameter values for the long-term nuclear waste management food chain model LIMCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen parameters of LIMCAL, a comprehensive food chain model for predicting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents to man due to long-term nuclear waste management are reviewed. The parameters are: soil bulk density, plowlayer depth, soil surface layer depth, resusupension factor, atmospheric dust load, deposition velocity, plant interception fraction, plant environmental half-time, translocation factor, time of above-ground exposure, plant yield, holdup time, animals' feed consumption rate, animals' water consumption rate, man's water consumption rate, food type calorie conversion factors, man's total caloric intake rate and food type calorie fractions. LIMCAL has both traditional and unique parameters. The former occur in most of the currently used assessment models for nuclear installations, whereas the latter do not. For each of the parameters of LIMCAL, a suitable generic value for long-term nuclear waste management was determined. Thus, the general literature and the values currently used or recommended by various agencies were reviewed

  13. Long-term management of high-level radioactive waste. The meaning of a demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The ''demonstration'' of the safe management of high level radioactive waste is a prerequisite for the further development of nuclear energy. It is therefore essential to be clear about both the meaning of the term ''demonstration'' and the practical means to satisfy this request. In the complex sequence of operations necessary to the safe management of high level waste, short term activities can be directly demonstrated. For longer term activities, such as the long term isolation of radioactive waste in deep undergroung structures, demonstration must be indirect. The ''demonstration'' of deep underground disposal for high level radioactive waste involves two steps: one direct, to prove that the system could be built, operated and closed safely and at acceptable costs, and one indirect, to make a convincing evaluation of the system's performance and long term safety on the basis of predictive analyses confirmed by a body of varied technical and scienfic data, much of it deriving from experimental work. The assessment of the evidence collected from current operations, existing experience in related fields and specific research and development activities, calls for specialized scientific expertise. Uncertainties in far future situations and probabilistic events can be taken into account in a scientific assessment. Competent national authorithies will have to satisfy themselves that the proposed waste management solutions can meet long term safety objectives. An element of judgement will always be needed in determining the acceptability of a waste disposal concept. However, the level of confidence in our ability to predict the performance of waste management systems will increase as supporting evidence is collected from current research and development activities and as our predictive techniques improve

  14. Long-term radiological aspects of management of wastes from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Due to the contamination of uranium mill tailings by long-lived natural radionuclides, their management presents specific radiation protection aspects in the long term. This report presents several examples of the application of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) methodology for the optimisation of radiation protection to these types of waste. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach are discussed and several important limitations are identified

  15. Integrated system for long-term radioactive waste management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, J.; Wisbey, S.

    2003-01-01

    Since the failure of Nirex application to build a Rock Characterisation Facility near Sellafield in 1997, Nirex has been applying lessons learnt from that failure. Some of the issues involved are generic and relate to the process by which legitimate authority can be gained for government policy development, the structure of the nuclear industry and the behaviour of institutions. Transparency must be central to the culture of organisations attempting to win public acceptance. In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) have started a consultation process - stage one completed in March 2002 - to consult about the safe management of radioactive waste. Nirex has modified its approach to long-term waste management, using a concept of phased (stepwise and reversible) geological disposal. Nirex also provides waste producers with advice on, and endorsement of, the packaging and transport of wastes. Through these examples, this paper will demonstrate how Nirex is providing an integrated approach to the long-term management of radioactive wastes in the UK. (orig.)

  16. Legal, administrative and financial aspects of long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, Pierre.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive waste management raises technical, political and legal problems. The technical question covers mainly choice of the method and the location for waste disposal or storage: seabed, geologic formations or a disposal facility. The political problem is mainly acceptability by the public of decisions taken or planned by the competent authority. Finally, the legal frame is an important factor in the definition of long-term control. The institutional system to be created requires political consensus and an efficient and credible technique so as to be successful. (NEA) [fr

  17. Safeguards issues of long-term waste management at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1992-06-01

    Waste management at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites is not often regarded as a safeguard-sensitive step in the nuclear fuel cycle because the material concerned is relatively unattractive for diversion or theft. However, the accumulation of large amounts of fissile materials in wastes over a period of time can be a safeguards concern. One estimate shows that high-level and transuranic wastes and some miscellaneous radioactive materials at DOE sites may contain as much as 15 Mt of fissile materials. In the context of present US strategies for the disposal of these radioactive wastes, this study identifies safeguards issues relevant to proposed scenarios for the long-term management and permanent disposal of the above-mentioned waste forms in geologic repositories. This study points out areas of concern and the need to examine the issues before the wastes are processed for geologic disposal. Good waste management practices may offer unique opportunities to address the safeguards issues identified here. A judicious approach to examining the safeguards requirements of waste disposal programs may also contribute to DOE's new effort to establish and maintain public confidence in its environmental restoration programs

  18. Technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management - a feasible option for small nuclear programmes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Mathieson, J.

    2007-01-01

    The EU project CATT - Co-operation and technology transfer on long-term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes investigated the feasibility of countries with small nuclear programmes implementing long-term radioactive waste management solutions within their national borders, through collaboration on technology transfer with those countries with advanced disposal concepts. The main project objective was to analyse the existing capabilities of technology owning Member States and the corresponding requirements of potential technology acquiring Member States and, based on the findings, to develop a number of possible collaboration models and scenarios that could be used in a technology transfer scheme. The project CATT was performed as a specific support action under the EU sixth framework programme and it brought together waste management organisations from six EU Member States: UK, Bulgaria, Germany, Lithuania, Slovenia and Sweden. In addition, the EC Joint Research Centre from the Netherlands also participated as a full partner. The paper summarises the analyses performed and the results obtained within the project. (author)

  19. Stepwise decision making for the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Vari, A.

    2003-01-01

    The context of long-term radioactive waste management is being shaped by changes in modern society. Values such as health, environmental protection and safety are increasingly important. This changes in turn necessitate new forms of dialogue and decision-making processes that include a large number of stakeholders. This paper deals with the new features of a stepwise decision-making approach, taking into account the public involvement and social learning processes, and showing the complexity of the new situation. (A.L.B.)

  20. Context of the long-term management of low-level short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still going on, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. On 16 January 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at a local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of 16 January 1998 forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. The agency set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  1. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, Ontario L1A 3S4 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities

  2. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David; Case, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities. Preliminary

  3. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations. The future of Nirex will be

  4. Evaluation of waste management options in view of long-term maintenance-free landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, P.H.; Doeberl, G.; Huber, R.; Eder, M.; Pierrard, R.; Schoenbaeck, W.; Fruehwirth, W.; Hutterer, H.; Woeginger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The present case study compares and evaluates different waste management options with special consideration to their long-term implications. Multiple scenarios of these options were created and investigated as to which of term best fulfilled the goals of the Austrian waste management act (Abfallwirtschaftgesetz, AWG). Serving as a basis for this study, an elaborated model of the Austrian waste management, as described in GUA and IFIP (1998, 'Management of Household and Household-like Waste in Austria'), was used. Alterations to the GUA and IFIP study were done in order to best fulfill the needs of this assessment. Household and household-like waste, as well as municipal sewage sludge have been defined as the system input. The following list of scenarios were investigated against an up-dated status-quo (P0): M1 maximum landfilling of untreated waste; M2a maximum incineration without any after treatment; M2b maximum incineration with cement stabilization of the residual material; M2c maximum high temperature process; M3a maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the light fraction from sorting and splitting processed in a fluidized-bed furnace; M3b maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the light fraction from sorting and splitting processed in a rotary kiln for use in the cement industry; M3c maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the high caloric heavy fraction after decomposition processed in a fluidized-bed furnace; M3d maximum mechanical-biological treatment with the high caloric heavy fraction after decomposition processed in a rotary kiln for use in the cement industry. In order to oblige to the precautionary principle of the AWG, each of the scenarios were investigated, with regards to the short, middle, and long-term landfills behaviors of the deposited residual material. The macro-economical Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA) was used in the assessment. Additionally a so-called 'modified-Cost-Effect-Analysis' (MCEA) was developed. Unlike the

  5. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  6. Stepwise decision making for the long-term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Vari, A.

    2005-01-01

    The context of long-term radioactive waste management is being shaped by changes in modern society. Values such as health, environmental protection and safety are increasingly important, as are trends towards improved forms of participatory democracy that demand new forms of risk governance in dealing with hazardous activities. These changes in turn necessitate new forms of dialogue and decision-making processes that include a large number of stakeholders. The new dynamic of dialogue and decision-making process has been characterised as a shift from a more traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, focused on technical assurance, to one of 'engage, interact and cooperate', for which both technical assurance and quality of the process are of comparable importance to a constructive outcome. Consequently, the scientific and engineering aspects of waste management safety are no longer of exclusive importance. Organisational ability to communicate and to adapt to the new context has emerged as a critical contributor to public confidence. In the new decision-making context it is clear that (a) any significant decisions regarding the long-term management of radioactive waste will be accompanied by a comprehensive public review with involvement of a diverse range of stakeholders; (b) the public, and especially the local public, are not willing to commit irreversibly to technical choices on which they have insufficient familiarity and understanding; and (c) any management options will take decades to be developed and implemented, which will involve stakeholders who have not yet been born. Thus, a 'decision' no longer means opting for, in one go and for all time, a complete package solution. Instead, a decision is one step in an overall, cautious process of examining and making choices that preserve the safety and well-being of the present generation and the coming ones while not needlessly depriving the latter of their right of choice. Consideration is thus

  7. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition. This

  8. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition. This

  9. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition

  10. Policy legitimacy - The key to long term Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, E.; Dalton, J.; Wild, D.

    2003-01-01

    Experience in the UK has shown that the central theme of delivering a solution is contingent on building a broad base of support for the long term management project. This is multi-layered, both in terms of local, regional and national political actors, but also across societal groups. Legitimacy is the key to success and needs to be understood in three main domains - equity, competence and economics. Finding the appropriate balance is essential for progress in the long term. (authors)

  11. Long term management of wastes to be produced by the conversion process. PNGMDR 2013-2015. Study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Within the frame of the French national plan for the management of radioactive wastes (PNGMDR), this report addresses the issue of long term management of wastes to be produced by Comurhex installation in Malvesi (the first step of natural uranium processing in France, with purification and transformation into uranium tetrafluoride). The author studied how these wastes could be stored, and also a possible synergy with some uranium-containing or thorium-containing wastes in order to design optimised industrial processes. After a recall of the origin and an inventory of the concerned wastes, this document reports a preliminary acceptability study in a context of very-low-level wastes, and a preliminary acceptability study for a shallow storage

  12. Long-term management of wastes resulting from dismantling operations. Storing the very low-level activity wastes at Morvilliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, F.; Dutzer, M.; Beranger, V.; Lecoq, P.

    2003-01-01

    Extension of dismantling operations in France in the years to come poses the question of availability of long-term waste facility. Large amount of such wastes will be produced after progressive shutdown of the 58 pressurized water reactors now in operation, not before 2010. However, France is already confronted with dismantling of 9 power reactors (6 of which of gas cooled graphite type), the first reprocessing plant at Marcoule, as well as, dismantling of other installations, for instance the CEA reactors or laboratories. The systems of processing the dismantling waste are not different from those used for wastes resulting from nuclear operations. For the high-level or long-term intermediate level activity disposal the debates must start by 2006, as based on the results of the research conducted according to different provisions of the December 30, 1991 law. These wastes represent however small amounts from the dismantling (around 2000 t for the 9 reactors at shutdown) and they will be stored until a decision will be made. A specific storing system should be implemented by 2008-2010 for the graphite wastes (around 23,000 t) which contain significant amount of long-lived radioelements, although their gross activity is low. But the most significant amount will come from low-level or intermediate-level of short lifetime or from wastes of very low activity. The first category is stored at Storage Center at Aube (CSA), its capacity being of 1,000,000 m 3 of drums. The total volume stored by the end of 2002 amounted 136,500 m 3 with an annual delivering of 12-15,000 m 3 at design rate of 30,000 m 3 /y. This center will be able to absorb the flux increase resulting from dismantling of the decommissioned nuclear installations (around 50,000 t from the dismantling of the 9 power reactor). The Center at Aube can be also adapted for storing wastes of large sizes as for instance the lid of the reactor vessel. According to the French regulation, the wastes produced within a

  13. Technology development for long-term management of Hanford high-level waste. Quarterly report, January 1976--March 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounts, J S [ed.

    1976-06-01

    This document is the seventh in a series of quarterly reports on work in support of long-term management of Hanford high-level wastes. The work reported here was performed during the period January through March 1976. The specific topics discussed are grouped into the subject areas of: Storage System Integrity and Engineered Improvements; Waste Retrieval; Waste Immobilization and Storage; Contaminated Equipment Volume Reduction; and Analytical Methods Development. Previous reports were published as ARH-ST-110 A through D and ARH-ST-132 A and B.

  14. Radioactive waste industrial management in France for medium- and long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.-M.

    1981-01-01

    The context within which the industrial scale management of radioactive wastes takes place is briefly outlined. The regulations already in force or envisaged in France in this field are exposed. Emphasis is given to the activities of the National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA). The reasons why this organization was created are discussed together with the type of work conferred to it, its present workload, the industrial management concepts it applies, its present and future potential, the costs envisaged for waste disposal and the financial solutions adopted. The industrial technical assistance policy of ANDRA is presented [fr

  15. Long-term management of radioactive waste - will the Price-Anderson system work for third party liability issues arising from the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznick, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Two pieces of legislation have been enacted in the United States to provide a framework for the management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel: the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (1980) and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Neither of these statutes provide a means for resolving third party liability issues arising out of radioactive waste management. However, the Price Anderson Act (originally enacted in 1957) provides a system of financial protection that can be applied to waste management activities and that can resolve most issues pertaining to liability for nuclear damage that may result from long-term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. (NEA) [fr

  16. Low-level waste management in the South. Task 4.2 - long-term care requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the long-term care requirements of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Among the topics considered are the technical requirements for long-term care, the experiences of the three inactive and three active commercial disposal facilities concerning perpetual care and maintenance, and the financial management of a perpetual care fund. In addition, certain recommendations for the establishment of a perpetual care fund are provided. The predominant method of disposing of low-level radioactive wastes is shallow land burial. After studying alternative methods of disposal, the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concluded that there are no compelling reasons for abandoning this disposal method. Of the 22 shallow land burial facilities in the U.S., the federal government maintains 14 active and two inactive disposal sites. There are three active (Barnwell, South Carolina; Hanford, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada) and three inactive commercial disposal facilities (Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Sheffield, Illinois; and West Valley, New York). The life of a typical facility can be broken into five phases: preoperational, operational, closure, postclosure observation and maintenance, and institutional control. Long-term care of a shallow land burial facility will begin with the disposal site closure phase and continue through the postclosure observation and maintenance and institutional control phases. Since the postclosure observation and maintenance phase will last about five years and the institutional control phase 100 years, the importance of a well planned long-term care program is apparent. 26 references, 1 table

  17. Long-term management of Canada's spent nuclear fuel: the nuclear waste management organizations recommendation to government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaver, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Like many countries with nuclear power programs, Canada is in the process of addressing the long-term management of its spent fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) was tasked through federal legislation to conduct a three-year study of approaches for the long-term management of spent fuel, and to recommend a preferred approach to the Government of Canada. Legislation required NWMO to compare at least three approaches -approaches based on deep geological disposal in the Canadian Shield, storage at nuclear reactor sites, and centralized storage either above or below ground. In assessing the options, NWMO sought a recommendation that would be socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible and economically feasible. The study drew on a vast base of social, technical, engineering, and financial research, and included an extensive engagement program with the public and Aboriginal peoples. The recommendation emerged from a collaborative dialogue with specialists and citizens, for an approach that is built on sound science and technology and responsive to citizen values. NWMO submitted its completed options study, with recommendation, to the Government in November 2005. NWMO has proposed an alternative approach, Adaptive Phased Management, which has as its key attributes: central containment and isolation of spent fuel in a deep repository, in an appropriate geological formation; contingency provision for central shallow storage; monitoring and retrievability; and a staged, adaptive process of concept implementation, reflecting the complex nature of the task and the desire of citizens to proceed through cautious, deliberate steps of technical demonstration and social acceptance. This paper will review: 1) the development of the assessment framework for comparing the technical options, which incorporated social and ethical considerations expressed by citizens; 2) findings of the assessment; and 3) features of the proposed

  18. UK Regulators Long-term Management of Higher Activity Radioactive Wastes on Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are long time frames from the production of waste to packaging, transport, storage and final disposal in a repository. This entails changing custodians, as the responsible individuals and organisations change. This presentation once again pointed out the importance of a life cycle approach towards RK and M preservation and RWM in general. The traditional focus for the safety case has been examining individual facilities and short term goals (put bluntly, on 'getting the permit'). This approach does not lend itself to forward planning, or a holistic vision of the process. The 'Radioactive waste management case' is an effort to integrate the different individual safety cases, and focus on waste streams rather than facilities, so that the trail of decisions is documented. The concept of 'waste streams' was explained as having been developed in the context of decommissioning, in order to make concrete the idea of 'cradle to grave' life cycle analysis. The importance of creating an 'information management culture' at the level of organisations was underscored. With regard to needing to find a balance between completeness and overload, it was once again pointed out that one needs to wary to avoid a situation of 'Keep everything, find nothing'

  19. Partnering for long-term management of radioactive waste. Evolution and current practice in thirteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    National radioactive waste management programmes are in various phases of siting facilities and rely on distinct technical approaches for different categories of waste. In all cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and the potential or actual host community to build a meaningful, workable relationship. Partnership approaches are effective in achieving a balance between the requirements of fair representation and competent participation. With host community support, they also help ensure the desirable combination of a licensable site and management concept as well as a balance between compensation, local control and development opportunities. This report provides up-to-date information on experience with local partnership arrangements in 13 countries. The characteristics, advantages and aims of community partnerships are also described in addition to the concept's evolution over the past decade. (authors)

  20. The problem of the long-term management of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the proceedings of the synthesis meeting of Dunkerque. It comprises an introduction which recalls the stakes and modalities of the debate, followed by a talk from the president of the national association of local commissions for nuclear activities information (ANCLI), and three synthesis talks from the particular commission of the public debate, the ministry of industry, and the committee of experts and counter-experts. These proceedings end with some questions and answers with the public. A slide presentation by B. Dessus about the progresses made in the debate on nuclear wastes management is attached to the document. (J.S.)

  1. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  2. The role of long-term geologic changes in the regulation of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavelle, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is recognized that the geosphere is a dynamic system over the long time frames of nuclear fuel waste disposal. This paper describes how consideration of a dynamic geosphere has impacted upon the evolving regulatory environment in Canada, and how the approach taken to comply with the regulatory requirements can affect the evaluation of long-term geologic changes. AECB staff opinion is that if the maximum possible effect of geologic changes can be demonstrated to have negligible impact on the safety of a nuclear fuel waste repository, then further consideration of a dynamic geosphere is unnecessary for the current review of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs

  3. Stepwise approach to decision making for long-term radioactive waste management. Experience, issues and guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste exists as a result of both past and current practices. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. Although significant technical progress has been made in developing management schemes that, according to technical experts, would ensure long-term safety (e.g. engineered geologic disposal), the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected. The contrast between expected and observed rates may be partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism. More significant, however, are the setbacks, which have arisen mainly from an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. In long-term radioactive waste management, consideration is increasingly being given to concepts such as stepwise decision making and adaptive staging in which the public, and especially the local public, are to be meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability. This is designed to provide reassurance that decisions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. A stepwise approach to decision making has thus come to the fore as being of value in advancing long-term radioactive waste management solutions in a societally acceptable manner. Despite its early identification within the radioactive waste management community as an important means for reaching solutions and decisions in which there is broad-based confidence, the bases for and application of stepwise decision making has not been widely reviewed. Guiding principles of any such process are still being formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. The report reviews current

  4. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  5. Conceptual costing study for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    Comparative conceptual cost estimates for several possible options for the long-term management of the Port Hope area low-level radioactive wastes have been developed. Five potentially applicable concepts were considered in the study: shallow land burial, using either unlined trenches, lined trenches or concrete canisters; engineered storage mounds; above-ground concrete vaults; below-ground concrete vaults; and intermediate-depth caverns using either open stopes or shrinkage mining. The objective was to develop comparative estimates. The differences in costs between concepts reflect the differences in handling methodology or costs of additional engineered barriers around the stored waste. An in situ waste volume of 805 000 m 3 , relatively favorable site conditions, a four-year disposal schedule and a consistent costing basis were assumed for each concept. Limited effort was made to optimize specific facility designs or disposal operations. The projected disposal costs vary from $68/m 3 of waste for shallow land burial in unlined trenches, to $312/m 3 of waste disposal in concrete canisters in trenches. The results of this study are reasonably consistent with previous estimates prepared for the low-level Radioactive Waste Management Office

  6. Solid Waste Management Units And Areas Of Concern Annual Long-Term Monitoring & Maintenance Report For Calendar Year 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, Patrick Wells [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Long-term controls were maintained at 21 Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) in accordance with the requirements of the “Long-Term Monitoring and Maintenance Plan for SWMUs and AOCs Granted Corrective Action Complete with Controls” in Attachment M of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit, which took effect February 26, 2015. Maintenance and controls at these SWMUs and AOCs are described and documented in this report. Conditions requiring maintenance or repair activities were not identified for any of the inspected SWMUs or AOCs. Based upon the inspections performed and site conditions observed, the administrative and physical institutional controls in place at the SWMUs and AOCs are effectively providing continued protection of human health and the environment. This report does not present monitoring and maintenance activities for SWMU 76, the Mixed Waste Landfill; those activities adhere to the approved MWL LTMM Plan, Section 4.8.1 requiring a separate annual report which will be submitted to the NMED by June 30, 2017.

  7. Alternatives for long-term management of defense high-level radioactive waste, Hanford Reservations, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information or alternatives that are being considered for the long-term management of defense high-level radioactive waste stored at Hanford in underground tanks and in stainless steel-lined concrete basins. For purposes of basic programmatic decision making, four major alternatives based on disposal location are considered. The steps leading to placement of the waste in the following locations are illustrated: existing waste tanks; onsite engineered surface facilities; onsite geologic repository; and offsite geologic repository. The four major disposal alternatives are expanded into 27 alternative plans by considering: (1) variations in the final form of the high-level fraction (with radionuclide removal) to include glass, concrete, and powder; (2) variations in the final form of the dehydrated waste product to include glass, calcined clay, and powder; and (3) variations in the treatment and handling of encapsulated waste to include packaging of capsules in canisters and conversion of the strontium fluoride and cesium chloride to glass; canisters stored in sealed casks on the surface are disposed of in a surface vault after the radionuclides have decayed sufficiently to avoid a heat-transfer problem. A description of the technology, a preliminary risk assessment, and preliminary cost estimates for each of these 27 plans are presented. The technology required to implement any of the 27 alternative plans has not been developed to the point where any plan can be considered completely technically sound and feasible

  8. The long-term management of information and records on radioactive waste packages in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshall, I.R.; Wisbey, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that information associated with the creation, conditioning and packaging of radioactive waste must be maintained for a considerable period of time. During the retention period not only must the storage media be preserved, but the data must remain accessible and in a form that can be interpreted with minimum 'processing'. This will ensure, as far as practicable, that the information accurately represents the nature of the waste and its packaging, that the media employed is suitable for long-term storage and that the storage conditions provide a stable environment. Careful consideration must be given to the type and form of the retained information and the threats to its continued integrity. United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex), in association with experts in records media and management, has undertaken a programme of work to consider the range of media currently available, the threats to media integrity and the implications of a general move towards 'electronic' records. The results of this study are being used to develop an information management system strategy, capable of retaining data for all future phases of radioactive waste management. (author)

  9. Application of 10CFR61 to long-term fusion waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to be accepted by the public, as well as by regulatory authorities, fusion reactors will have to meet both quantitative and qualitative criteria for the disposal and/or reuse of radioactive wastes. The most important quantitative criteria, which will be used primarily by the regulatory agencies, are presently codified in 10CFR61, which governs the near-surface disposal of radioactive wastes in the United States. Because of the variety of materials that may be present in a fusion, a large number of activation products could be produced. These isotopes as well as differences in physical form will require revision of 10CFR61 for application to fusion. The qualitative criteria, which will be used by the general public in assessing fusion, are much more difficult to foresee at this time, but will be equally important in determining the viability of fusion as an energy source. Comparisons readily perceived by the public, such as the volumes of waste generated or the robustness of the waste form, will in the end be more important to the acceptance of fusion than comparisons of Curies or man-rems. In the second part of the paper methods developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for reducing low level waste volumes and mobility could be applied to fusion waste to reduce public concerns. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  10. OBRA: a European project to create an observatory for long-term governance on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, Meritxell; Duro, Lara; Bruno, Jordi; Kopetz, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper introduces a number of topics that will be addressed by the 'OBRA' project. The OBRA project (2006-2008) is a 2-year Coordination Action under the 6. EURATOM Framework Program (FP) which started on 1. November 2006 and will finish on 31. October 2008. The project aims to assess the feasibility of creating an Observatory for Long-term Governance on Radioactive Waste Management in Europe. OBRA will devise an Observatory to promote appropriate forms of interaction between stakeholders, mainly local and regional communities and experts. The focus and value of OBRA lies on the development of a concrete tool to promote governance processes. With respect to this objective, the paper introduces the project and some of the key questions that have been addressed in the first creative workshop and which will be the focus of OBRA in the following months. (authors)

  11. The problem of the long-term management of nuclear wastes; Le probleme de la gestion a long terme des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the proceedings of the synthesis meeting of Dunkerque. It comprises an introduction which recalls the stakes and modalities of the debate, followed by a talk from the president of the national association of local commissions for nuclear activities information (ANCLI), and three synthesis talks from the particular commission of the public debate, the ministry of industry, and the committee of experts and counter-experts. These proceedings end with some questions and answers with the public. A slide presentation by B. Dessus about the progresses made in the debate on nuclear wastes management is attached to the document. (J.S.)

  12. Securing the long-term financing of decommissioning and radioactive waste management - From cost estimates to a comprehensive financing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, Michael

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important issues in the area of waste disposal concerns the long-term securing of the necessary financing. Large amounts of money will have to be invested, managed and subsequently spent at the appropriate time, over an extended period of 100 years or more. In an electricity market that is opening up across Europe and is characterised by complicated legal structures, a focus on a handful of major groups and cost pressure due to increased competition, it will be necessary to create the corresponding background conditions. The anticipated costs for decommissioning and disposal will have to be calculated or estimated on the basis of available know-how and criteria. The required funds will then have to be collected and invested on the domestic and international money markets, which given the current situation on the stock markets will by no means be an easy task. But the assurance that enough money will be available is essential for public confidence. Using Switzerland as an example, the author wishes to demonstrate which steps are necessary in order to calculate the potential decommissioning and waste disposal costs based on a defined disposal concept and programme, determine the annual contributions to be paid in by operators, and establish a suitable system for securing the necessary funding. This paper deals with the following issues: 1. Political background and legislative framework in Switzerland; 2. Swiss radioactive waste management policy and programmes; 3. Calculating the decommissioning and waste management costs; 4. Calculating the contributions to the Funds; 5. Financing system

  13. LIMCAL: a comprehensive food chain model for predicting radiation exposure to man in long-term nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, Reto.

    1982-08-01

    A food chain model, LIMCAL, has been designed to aid in the assessment of the effects of long-term nuclear waste management on man far into the future. LIMCAL is particularly suited to the evaluation of an underground vault. Energy budgets, a basic feature of food chains, have been introduced in LIMCAL to help overcome uncertainties imposed by long time spans. LIMCAL includes all the ingestion pathways leading to man, which comprise terrestrial, fresh-water and saltwater food types and man's and animals' drinking water. The terrestrial pathways include both root uptake and leaf deposition. The basic input terms for LIMCAL are annual average radionuclide concentrations in soil, fresh water and saltwater. Annual average air concentrations can be calculated from soil concentrations by using the resuspension factor or the mass-loading approach. Many of the equations in LIMCAL are similar to those in FOOD II and NEPTUN, existing food chain models for contemporary assessments. The basic output of LIMCAL consists of radionculide concentrations in various food types and drinking water, and the resulting ICRP 26 50-year committed effective dose equivalents for infant and adult man. Dose/ concentration ratios can also be calculated readily by LIMCAL. LIMCAL is best described as a deterministic generic quasi-equilibrium assessment model of the linear-chain type. The parameters of LIMCAL have been reviewed in detail in a separate document

  14. The Role of the Government and the Public in the Planning of Long Term Management for Nuclear Fuel Wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diah Hidayanti; Yudi Pramono

    2007-01-01

    The generation of electricity from nuclear power has the consequence of producing some wastes that are radioactive, especially in the form of spent fuels which are classified as high level nuclear wastes. Nuclear fuel wastes must be managed properly in order to protect public and environment from its big potential hazard. One type of long term management for nuclear fuel wastes is the final disposal in a permanent storage. Because of the importance of safety aspects for final disposal, it needs the involvement of government and the public to determine the reliability and the acceptance of final disposal concept. Those involvements can be implemented in some aspects such as regulation aspect, review and assessment process, and the public feedback. The evaluation on the plan of long term management for nuclear fuel wastes in Canada provides Indonesia an overview of its long term management plans for all radioactive materials, including nuclear fuel wastes generated from the nuclear power plant which is planned to be in service by 2016. (author)

  15. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig

  16. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  17. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  18. Long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The statement assesses and compares several alternatives for long-term management of the existing radioactive wastes and residues at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS), Lewiston, New York. The alternatives include: (1) no action (continued interim storage at NFSS within a diked and capped containment area), (2) long-term management at NFSS (improved containment, with or without modified form of the residues), (3) long-term management at other DOE sites (Hanford, Washington, or Oak Ridge, Tennessee), and (4) offsite management of the residues at Hanford or Oak Ridge and either leaving the wastes at NFSS or removing them for disposal in the ocean. In addition to alternatives analyzed in depth, several options are also considered, including: other modifications of residue form, modification of the basic conceptual designs, other containment design options, transportation routes, and transportation modes. The radiological health effects (primarily increased risk of cancer) associated with long-term management of the wastes and residues are expected to be smaller than the nonradiological risks of occupational and transportation-related injuries and deaths. During the action period, the risk is highest for workers if all wastes and residues are moved to Hanford. The risk is highest for the general public if the residues are moved to Hanford and the wastes are moved to the ocean. Dispersal of the slightly contaminated wastes in the ocean is not expected to result in any significant impacts on the ocean environment or pose any significant radiological risk to humans. For all alternatives, if controls ceased, there would be eventual dispersion of the radioactive materials to the environment. If it is assumed that all controls cease, predicted time for loss of covers over the buried materials ranges from several hundred years to more than two million years, depending on the use of the land surface

  19. Long-term high-level waste technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a comprehensive program to isolate all US nuclear wastes from the human environment. The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy - Waste (NEW) has full responsibility for managing the high-level wastes resulting from defense activities and additional responsiblity for providing the technology to manage existing commercial high-level wastes and any that may be generated in one of several alternative fuel cycles. Responsibilities of the Three Divisions of DOE-NEW are shown. This strategy document presents the research and development plan of the Division of Waste Products for long-term immobilization of the high-level radioactive wastes resulting from chemical processing of nuclear reactor fuels and targets. These high-level wastes contain more than 99% of the residual radionuclides produced in the fuels and targets during reactor operations. They include essentially all the fission products and most of the actinides that were not recovered for use

  20. Topical report on release scenario analysis of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.W.; Landstrom, D.K.; Blair, S.C.; Howes, B.W.; Robkin, M.A.; Benson, G.L.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Walters, W.H.; Zimmerman, M.G.

    1980-11-01

    Potential release scenarios for the defense high-level waste (HLW) on the Hanford Site are presented. Presented in this report are the three components necessary for evaluating the various alternatives under consideration for long-term management of Hanford defense HLW: identification of scenarios and events which might directly or indirectly disrupt radionuclide containment barriers; geotransport calculations of waste migration through the site media; and consequence (dose) analyses based on groundwater and air pathways calculations. The scenarios described in this report provide the necessary parameters for radionuclide transport and consequence analysis. Scenarios are categorized as either bounding or nonbounding. Bounding scenarios consider worst case or what if situations where an actual and significant release of waste material to the environment would happen if the scenario were to occur. Bounding scenarios include both near-term and long-term scenarios. Near-term scenarios are events which occur at 100 years from 1990. Long term scenarios are potential events considered to occur at 1000 and 10,000 years from 1990. Nonbounding scenarios consider events which result in insignificant releases or no release at all to the environment. Three release mechanisms are described in this report: (1) direct exposure of waste to the biosphere by a defined sequence of events (scenario) such as human intrusion by drilling; (2) radionuclides contacting an unconfined aquifer through downward percolation of groundwater or a rising water table; and (3) cataclysmic or explosive release of radionuclides by such mechanisms as meteorite impact, fire and explosion, criticality, or seismic events. Scenarios in this report present ways in which these release mechanisms could occur at a waste management facility. The scenarios are applied to the two in-tank waste management alternatives: in-situ disposal and continued present action

  1. Solid waste - the long term strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    Until deep underground repository sites for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes can be identified and prepared by Nirex Limited, these products are being encapsulated into solid concrete form by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), and stored in 500- litre drums. Low-level solid waste is dealt with at BNFL's Drigg plant where it is buried in trenches. Recent improvements in rainwater leaching are outlined. Concrete-lined vaults and compactification devices are now operational as well. High-level waste which contains 97% of the radioactivity from irradiated fuel reprocessing, is converted into a vitrified glass product at the new Windscale Vitrification Plant. Together these form BNFL's comprehensive strategy for the treatment, interim storage and disposal of nuclear waste arising from its operations. Progress in the provision of waste management and of disposal facilities has been substantial. U.K

  2. Long Term Behaviour Evaluation of Cement Conditioning Matrices Used for Management of Radioactive Wastes at IFIN-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragolici, F.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical and structural characterization of the radioactive waste conditioning matrix is very important during the final disposal stage in the radioactive waste management cycle. The conditioning products should be a monolith with acceptable mechanical, chemical and physical properties that are maintained over an appropriate time such that the release of radioactivity from the waste form in the environment is minimized. The aim of this work is the XRD application for the phase identification of matrix that simulates the conditioned radioactive waste and the correlation with mechanical performance. The selected matrices for the study are normal cement with iron precipitates (hydroxide and phosphate), mineral additives (bentonite and volcanic tuff) and complexing agents (tartaric, citric and oxalic acids). The results obtained by this analysis give information about the chemical reactions between the radioactive precipitates and the hydrates, hydrolysis products of the cement. (author)

  3. Comurhex Malvesi - Study related to long term management of stored wastes and transmitted within the frame of the PNGMDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the frame of the French National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR), the IRSN studied the Comurhex site in Malvesi where uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) has been produced since 1964 from concentrated uranium ores, and where uranium has been produced from 1959 to 1991, and reprocessed uranium has been transformed into UF 4 between 1960 and 1983. This report describes how effluents and wastes have been managed during all this time, and then proposes an assessment of wastes to be stored. This assessment is based on the past activity and on a sampling and characterization campaign aimed at establishing the physical-chemical characteristics of sludge. The report indicates and discusses the three storage options defined by Comurhex: a surface storage, a small depth storage in an ancient mine, and a geological small depth storage

  4. Technical status report on environmental aspects of long-term management of high-level defense waste at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1944, radioactive wastes have accumulated at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) 1500-km 2 Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, where nine nuclear reactors have produced nuclear materials for National defense. Today, only one production reactor is still operating, but a large inventory of radioactive high-level waste (HLW), the residue from processing the spent fuel to recover plutonium and uranium, remains stored in underground tanks and in metal capsules in water basins. So that this waste will pose no significant threat to the public health and safety, it must be isolated from the biosphere for thousands of years. This document contains an evaluation of environmental impacts of four alternative methods for long-term management of these HLW. The alternatives range from continuing the present action of storing the waste near the surface of the ground to retrieving the waste and disposing of it deep underground in a mined geologic repository. The alternatives are: near-term geologic disposal of stored waste; deferred geologic disposal of in-tank waste; in situ disposal of in-tank waste; and continued present action for stored waste. The environmental impacts of the four alternatives are small relative to that radiation received from natural sources or the available natural resources in the earth

  5. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parotte, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  6. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parotte, C. [Spiral Research Center, Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Law, University of Liege (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  7. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  8. Deliberations of working group 5: are waste management institutions set up for achieving confidence over the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.

    2000-01-01

    Working Group 5 started with a presentation providing an overview of recent research on the issue of public acceptance of waste management. It identified a trustworthy and credible organisation as one that could be also described as: Open, innovative, flexible, responsive, and fair. This presentation was followed by a discussion about 'Which re structural requirements for the effective performance of waste management institutions?'; The WG continued then with a round around the table during which it was possible to compile the views of all participants on the question 'What would characterise a organisation that would earn the trust from the stakeholders (a high reliability organisation)?'. In answering this question, each participant was also asked to consider whether there are differences to be noted according to whether the organisation is an implementing one, authority, municipality or a NGO. Most answers concentrated on the implementer's role. It was concluded, however, that many of the items listed below are valid for the other actors and, especially, the authorities. When compiling the list there was a need to structure the answers into 3 groups, which are discussed in this paper: - Organisational aspects. - Mission(s). - Behaviour. (author)

  9. OPG's long term management proposal for low and intermediate level radioactive waste: project description, operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) is approximately 8 years away from being placed into service, it is time to start planning for operations. Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) Nuclear Waste Management Division (NWMD) has a systematic approach to preparing for operation of any new facility that is readily applicable to the DGR. The DGR Operational Readiness Plan has been benchmarked at similar facilities in North America and Europe. The operating vision is a living model, and is constantly being reviewed and refined to align with the detailed design of the DGR as it proceeds through its phases of development. Combined with 40 years of operating surface storage facilities for the storage of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), the DGR operating vision will enable NWMD to provide meaningful input during COMS (Constructability, Operability, Maintainability, and Safety) review in the DGR project detailed-design phase in 2011/2012. A Work Breakdown Structure has been used to communicate the detail of the operating vision, and also to estimate the costs of Operational Readiness and Operations during the lifetime of the facility. (author)

  10. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, John V. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); Gueretta, Jeanie [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the

  11. Long-term management of liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The statement assesses and compares environmental implications of possible alternatives for long-term management of the liquid high-level radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. Four basic alternatives, as well as options within these alternatives, have been considered in the EIS: (1) onsite processing to a terminal waste form for shipment and disposal in a federal repository (the preferred alternative); (2) onsite conversion to a solid interim form for shipment to a federal waste facility for later processing to a terminal form and shipment and subsequent disposal in a federal repository; (3) mixing the liquid wastes with cement and other additives, pouring it back into the existing tanks, and leaving onsite; and (4) no action (continued storage of the wastes in liquid form in the underground tanks at West Valley). Mitigative measures for environmental impacts have been considered for all alternatives. No significant stresses on supplies or irreversible and irretrievable resources are anticipated, and no scarce resource would be required

  12. Long term aspects of uranium tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.

    1980-05-01

    This paper sets out the background issues which lead to the development of interim close-out criteria for uranium mill tailings. It places the current state-of-the-art for tailings management into both a national and international perspective and shows why such interim criteria are needed now. There are seven specific criteria proposed dealing with the need to have: passive barriers, limits on surface water recharge, durable systems, long term performance guarantees, limits to access, controls on water and airborne releases and finally to have a knowledge of exposure pathways. This paper is intended to serve as a focus for subsequent discussions with all concerned parties. (auth)

  13. Synthesis on taking the long term into consideration in the management of high level radioactive wastes. Report nr 293

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, L.; Schneider, T.; Gadbois, S.

    2005-11-01

    The first part of this report proposes a bibliographic synthesis on safety and radiation protection indicators which are used for the assessment of high activity and long-lived waste disposals (conventional indicators, use of radionuclide concentrations or fluxes, and of duration reference), discusses their liability (in relationship with biosphere and meteorology), and discusses their use with respect to the considered time scale. Then, it discusses the expectations of the different stakeholders in Switzerland (the EKRA group), Germany (the AkEnd Committee) and France (stakeholders in Meuse and Haute-Marne)

  14. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  15. [Perioperative management of long-term medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel Kahmann, I; Ruppen, W; Lurati Buse, G; Tsakiris, D A; Bruggisser, M

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesiologists and surgeons are increasingly faced with patients who are under long-term medication. Some of these drugs can interact with anaesthetics or anaesthesia and/or surgical interventions. As a result, patients may experience complications such as bleeding, ischemia, infection or severe circulatory reactions. On the other hand, perioperative discontinuation of medication is often more dangerous. The proportion of outpatient operations has increased dramatically in recent years and will probably continue to increase. Since the implementation of DRGs (pending in Switzerland, introduced in Germany for some time), the patient enters the hospital the day before operation. This means that the referring physician as well as anesthesiologists and surgeons at an early stage must deal with issues of perioperative pharmacotherapy. This review article is about the management of the major drug classes during the perioperative period. In addition to cardiac and centrally acting drugs and drugs that act on hemostasis and the endocrine system, special cases such as immunosuppressants and herbal remedies are mentioned.

  16. Comprehensive monitoring and management of a long-term thermophilic CSTR treating coffee grounds, coffee liquid, milk waste, and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofie, Mohammad; Qiao, Wei; Li, Qian; Takayanagi, Kazuyuki; Li, Yu-You

    2015-09-01

    The CSTR process has previously not been successfully applied to treat coffee residues under thermophilic temperature and long term operation. In this experiment, the CSTR was fed with mixture substrate (TS ∼ 70 g/L) of coffee grounds, coffee wastewater, milk waste and municipal sludge and it was operated under 55 °C for 225 days. A steady state was achieved under HRT 30 days and OLR 4.0 kg-COD/m(3)/d. However, there was an 35 days inhibition with VFA accumulation (propionic acid 700-1900 mg/L) when doubling the OLR by shortening HRT to 15 days. But, an addition of microelements and sulfate (0.5 g/L) in feedstock increased reactor resilience and stability under high loading rate and propionic acid stress. Continuous monitoring of hydrogen in biogas indicated the imbalance of acetogenesis. The effectiveness of comprehensive parameters (total VFA, propionic acid, IA/PA, IA/TA and CH4 content) was proved to manage the thermophilic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  18. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  19. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the process for formulation of future policy for the long term management of UK solid radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report sets out the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's (RWMAC's) view of the way in which policy for the long-term management of the United Kingdom's (UK's) solid radioactive waste should be developed. It does not cover subsequent policy implementation stages, which will need to be the subject of separate consideration. It is RWMAC's view that 'do nothing' or 'decide-announce-defend' approaches to policy formulation are inappropriate, and what is needed is a consensus-building approach involving full and open discussion of the issues. Such an approach now offers the best chance of identifying a policy that can ultimately be delivered. This process must be founded on a set of clear guiding principles. These should be: provision of adequate time for exploration and resolution of complex issues; early involvement of the public and other stakeholders; openness and transparency; a deliberative and accessible process in decision-making; and commitment to appropriate peer review of scientific and other expert input. The issue of equity, that is the extent to which both the process for deciding policy and the policy itself are generally perceived and accepted to be fair, will also need to be explored. The process should provide for all the practicable options for the long-term management of the UK's radioactive waste to be assessed against a set of common evaluation criteria. Both the list of practicable options and the criteria against which they are evaluated should be developed through a process of open discussion.

  20. The Evolving Image and Role of the Regulator in Societal Decision Making for the Long-term Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Carmen Ruiz; Pescatore, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Institutions involved in long-term management of radioactive waste are facing a rapidly evolving environment stemming from societal changes, the new information technology, new roles for media, etc. This is taking place at the same time as some national programmes are in transition from research and development to site selection and implementation of a repository, whilst others are reviewing and defining their policies in the waste management area. As in many environmental areas, a demand for public participation in decision-making leads to a need for new approaches to involving stakeholders. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has identified Public Perception and Confidence as one of the strategic areas where progress would be of most benefit to the further development of radioactive waste management programmes. The Committee intends to promote common understanding amongst its institutional members and provide bases for enhanced dialogue amongst all interested parties. In this light, the RWMC launched the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC). The FSC is intended to keep under review the worldwide experience of its participating organisations in outreach programs, to identify and examine stakeholder confidence issues, to distil the lessons that can be learnt and to help prepare the dialogue across institutional and non-institutional boundaries. The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) has carried out an intense and fruitful activity since its inauguration in August 2000. The alternation of workshops with FSC plenary meetings to analyse the lessons learnt has proved to be highly efficient, providing: A wide range of views by stakeholders, including implementers, regulators, policy makers, representatives of municipalities, oversight bodies, academics, and NGOs. A productive interaction between technical experts and experts in social sciences. Culture, politics, and history vary from country to country, providing differing contexts for

  1. Waste transmutation with minimal fuel cycle long-term risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M. [Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, Cadarache (France)

    1995-10-01

    Hybrid systems (source-driven subcritical reactors), are investigated at CEA, mainly from a conceptual point of view, in order to assess their potential to transmute radioactive wastes (mainly long-lived fission products, LLFP) and their potential to insure a minimal long-term radiological risk related both to the fuel inventory inside the system and to the full fuel cycle (mass flows, reprocessing transport, waste disposal). The physics of these systems has been explored and work is in progress both in the field of basic data and INC code validation, in the frame of international collaborations and in the field of conceptual design studies. The most interesting feature of subcritical source-driven system is related to the possibility to obtain an {open_quotes}excess{close_quotes} of neutrons per fission, which can be used to reduce the long-term radiological risk. A specific example will be discussed here.

  2. Long-term elevated temperature leaching of solid waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.; Levine, H.S.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term soxhlet leaching of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials was initiated to elucidate leaching behavior of complex wasteforms. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20 month period. Maxima and minima were observed in the leaching rates of all components studied with the minima coinciding. The data suggested several mechanistic features which are described, but they did not conform with reported simple leaching mechanisms

  3. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  4. Long Term Management of Spent Fuel from NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegel, L.; Zeleznik, N.; Lokner, V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO started together with Croatian sister organization APO elaboration of a new revision of Decommissioning, Radioactive waste and Spent fuel management program for NPP Krsko. In scope of this work also new studies for spent fuel storage and disposal were prepared in which technical solutions were analyzed and proposed for specific spent fuel (SF) from NPP Krsko. Time schedules for main activities of SF disposal development were elaborated for two alternative scenarios which correspond to normal NPP Krsko operation and 20 - year lifetime extension. All technical activities were financially assessed and costs estimates of SF storage and geological disposal development provided. The prepared studies were verified by international experts in order to confirm the correctness of technical inputs, proposed solutions, time schedules of activities and costs evaluations. The calculated nominal and discounted costs of spent fuel management served for the recalculation of annuities in the integral scenarios of interrelated activities on NPP Krsko decommissioning, LILW and SF management. Besides new first proposal of long-term management of spent fuel from NPP Krsko the joint work also opened additional questions. One of this is time schedule of proposed activities for long term SF management - what were the criteria used in the determination of actions and are they optimal for both countries. How the process of site selection for SF storage or disposal should be prepared having in mind that it will bring many questions in both countries? Is direct disposal of SF still the best solution in current development of nuclear prospects? The paper will present the current development and solutions for SF management from NPP Krsko and will try to answer questions which need to be solved and future development in the SF management.(author).

  5. Long-Term Safety Analysis of Baldone Radioactive Waste Repository and Updating of Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The main objective of the project was to provide advice to the Latvian authorities on the safety enhancements and waste acceptance criteria for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities of the Baldone repository. The project included the following main activities: Analysis of the current status of the management of radioactive waste in Latvia in general and, at the Baldone repository in particular Development of the short and long-term safety analysis of the Baldone repository, including: the planned increasing of capacity for disposal and long term storage, the radiological analysis for the post-closure period Development of the Environment Impact Statement, for the new foreseen installations, considering the non radiological components Proposal of recommendations for future updating of radioactive waste acceptance criteria Proposal of recommendations for safety upgrades to the facility. The work programme has been developed in phases and main tasks as follows. Phase 0: Project inception, Phase 1: Establishment of current status, plans and practices (Legislation, regulation and standards, Radioactive waste management, Waste acceptance criteria), Phase 2: Development of future strategies for long-term safety management and recommendations for safety enhancements. The project team found the general approach use at the installation, the basic design and the operating practices appropriate to international standards. Nevertheless, a number of items subject to potential improvements were also identified. These upgrading recommendations deal with general aspects of the management (mainly storage versus disposal of long-lived sources), site and environmental surveillance, packaging (qualification of containers, waste characterization requirements), the design of an engineered cap and strategies for capping. (author)

  6. Prediction of long-term behaviour for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; King, F.; Sunder, S.

    1996-09-01

    The modelling procedures developed for the long-term prediction of the corrosion of used fuel and of titanium and copper nuclear waste containers are described. The corrosion behaviour of these materials changes with time as the conditions within the conceptual disposal vault evolve from an early warm, oxidizing phase to an indefinite period of cool, anoxic conditions. For the two candidate container materials, this evolution of conditions means that the containers will be initially susceptible to localized corrosion but that in the long-term, corrosion should be more general in nature. The propagation of the pitting of Cu and of the crevice corrosion of Ti alloys is modelled using statistical models. General corrosion processes are modelled deterministically. For the fuel, deterministic electrochemical models have been developed to predict the long-term dissolution rate of U0 2 . The corrosion behaviour of materials in the disposal vault can be influenced by reengineering the vault environment. For instance, increasing the areal loading of containers will produce higher vault temperatures resulting in more extensive drying of the porous backfill materials. The initiation of crevice corrosion on Ti may then be delayed, leading to longer container lifetimes. For copper containers, minimizing the amount Of O 2 initially trapped in the pores of the backfill, or adding reducing agents to consume this O 2 faster, will limit the extent of corrosion, permitting a reduction of the container wall thickness necessary for containment. (author). 55 refs., 19 figs

  7. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  8. Long-term behavior of domestic waste slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombel, Pascale

    1996-01-01

    Vitrification is one of the envisaged solutions to face French legal requirements related to the solidification/stabilisation of some wastes. It results in glassy or crystallized aluminosilicate and calcium-rich materials which trap heavy metals notably contained by the ashes of purification residues from incineration smokes of domestic wastes. This research thesis addresses the study of the long term behaviour of such materials in order to check that toxic compounds they contain will not be released in the environment so that these materials can become common and even valorised. Four vitrified products have been studied. It appeared that their alteration mechanisms in aqueous phase are close to that of already known natural and artificial silicate materials. Alteration rates depend on material composition and structure on the one hand, and on solution temperature, pH, composition and renewal rate on the other hand. The influence of surrounding materials is also taken into account within the frame of a scenario of use in road construction. Modelling studies are also performed and it appears that the containment of toxic elements contained in vitrified products obtained from domestic waste is sustainable [fr

  9. Long-term stability of high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Loida, A.; Malow, G.; Marples, J.A.C.; Matzke, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The long-term stability of HLW forms is reviewed with regard to temperature, irradiation and aqueous corrosion in a geological environment. The paper focuses on borosilicate glasses, but the radiation stability results are compared with some HLW ceramics. Thermal stability: most nuclear waste glass compositions have been adjusted to ensure a low final crystallized fraction. The crystallization of highly active Pamela glass samples was similar to that of nonradioactive glass. Radiation stability: No adverse effect of irradiation damage was found in glasses doped with short-lived actinides: volume changes were small, no significant change in the leach rate was observed, and the fracture toughness increased. For most ceramics investigated, volume changes of up to 9%, amorphization and higher leach rates were observed as a consequence of high α decay doses. For the KAB 78 ceramic, however, none of these effects were detected since the matrix was not subject to α recoil damage. Chemical stability: It has been demonstrated that alteration by water depends largely on the repository conditions. Most clay act as silica sinks, and increase the glass corrosion rate. It is possible, however, to specify realistic temperature, pressure and environmental conditions to ensure glass integrity for more than 10 000 years

  10. Nuclear Waste Management Organization: moving forward together - program update: Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, K.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for safeguarding the public and environment over the very long time in which used nuclear fuel must be managed. The plan requires that Canada's used nuclear fuel be safely and securely contained and isolated from people and the environment in a deep geological repository in a suitable rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO published a process for identifying an informed and willing community to host the project and currently a number of communities in northwestern Ontario and Saskatchewan have expressed interest in learning about the project. The NWMO anticipates that it will take between seven and ten years to decide on where to locate the deep geological repository and associated facilities. By international standards, this is an ambitious timeline. Ultimately, there will have to be a compelling demonstration of willingness expressed by the citizens of any interested community after a long period of site assessment, and learning about the project, before it is selected to host the project. The presentation will cover the history leading to the 2007 government decision and the full range of activities being undertaken to implement that decision.

  11. San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy for Dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The San Francisco Bay Long Term Management Strategy (LTMS) is a cooperative effort to develop a new approach to dredging and dredged material disposal in the San Francisco Bay area. The LTMS serves as the Regional Dredging Team for the San Francisco area.

  12. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is reasonable to ask to what extent anaesthetic management might influence long-term outcomes. The distinction being made here is between the classical definition of anaesthetic complications, which is restricted to the immediate perioperative period, perhaps extending to a few days after surgery, and the ...

  13. Wildfire Mitigation and Private Lands: Managing Long-Term Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Muller; Stacey Schulte

    2006-01-01

    Long-term management of wildfire vulnerability requires strategies that address complex interactions between fire ecology and human settlement. In this paper, we examine the integration of wildfire mitigation and land use planning in county governments in the western U.S. This research relies on data from two sources. First, we conducted a survey of land use...

  14. Management of long term sickness absence: a systematic realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam

    2012-09-01

    The increasing impact and costs of long term sickness absence have been well documented. However, the diversity and complexity of interventions and of the contexts in which these take place makes a traditional review problematic. Therefore, we undertook a systematic realist review to identify the dominant programme theories underlying best practice, to assess the evidence for these theories, and to throw light on important enabling or disabling contextual factors. A search of the scholarly literature from 1950 to 2011 identified 5,576 articles, of which 269 formed the basis of the review. We found that the dominant programme theories in relation to effective management related to: early intervention or referral by employers; having proactive organisational procedures; good communication and cooperation between stakeholders; and workplace-based occupational rehabilitation. Significant contextual factors were identified as the level of support for interventions from top management, the size and structure of the organisation, the level of financial and organisational investment in the management of long-term sickness absence, and the quality of relationships between managers and staff. Consequently, those with responsibility for managing absence should bear in mind the contextual factors that are likely to have an impact on interventions, and do what they can to ensure stakeholders have at least a mutual understanding (if not a common purpose) in relation to their perceptions of interventions, goals, culture and practice in the management of long term sickness absence.

  15. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1980-10-01

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  16. Complex containment design for long-term encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungaila, M.A.; San, E.K.W.; Palmeter, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Port Granby Project is part of the larger Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI), a community-based program for the development and implementation of a safe, local, long-term management solution for historic low-level radioactive waste in the Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington. The Port Granby Project includes the construction of a long-term low-level radioactive waste management facility, the transfer of the contaminated material to the new facility from existing storage, construction and operation of a new waste water treatment facility, and monitoring and maintenance of the facility for a period of several hundred years. A key component of the new long-term facility is a highly-engineered containment mound incorporating a composite base liner, a leachate collection system, and a multi-layer final cover system. Issues of interest include the details of the design, the evolution of the design, as well as the field quality assurance measures that will be specified to ensure that the design is correctly implemented. (author)

  17. 'When you use the term 'long term', how long is that term'. Risk, Exclusion, and the Politics of Knowledge Production in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Risk operates within Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) management policy making as a heuristic for knowledge production about its effects which reconciles the knowledge of the nuclear industry with the outcomes of the NFW management process. In so doing it marginalizes the present and historical experiences of Aboriginal peoples with the nuclear industry, and removes from view the ways in which they have been implicated in the geography and political economy of the nuclear industry. Risk is a discursive form that protects a particular group's claims about the effects of NFW by providing it a universalizing epistemological structure with which to obscure its connection to context. Further risk discourse provides the nuclear industry with a conceptual vocabulary that deliberately casts all competing knowledge as perceptions, values, or as an object of inquiry. The arguments of Aboriginal peoples about the residual effects of radiation in their lands which hosted nuclear activities, such as uranium mining and disposal, have no representation in how the discourse of risk defines and represents knowledge, and thus no purchase in the policy debate. As a result the challenge they present to the nuclear industry's claims are contained. The arrangements which permit the unloading of the negative effects of nuclear power generation onto Aboriginal peoples are thus reproduced (both materially and conceptually), but not shown, by the policy making process and likely, its outcome. In order to raise critical questions about the democratic abilities of risk, this paper has examined the role of 'risk' in Canadian NFW policy making. I have shown how when the politics of knowledge production within the philosophy of risk is analyzed, and the use and role of the notion of risk are interrogated, difficult questions are posed for the democratic potential of risk. I have suggested, through an analysis of the NWMO's representations of Aboriginal content in their process, that in this

  18. Long Term Cost Efficiency through Green Management Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vukania Adda, Nancy; Qin, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Title: Long term cost efficiency through green management control systems.Authors: Nancy Vukania &Xiaochen QinSupervisor: Åsa Karin-EngstrandBackground: The worldwide financial crisis of 2008 has reconfigured the economic turf leading to a more uncertain and turbulent playing field – a greater challenge for business strategy and the quest for optimization- The oil price hike of 2008 (Furlong 2010)1 caused its rippling effect to affect various cost categories including energy, labor and lo...

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste: can long-term safety be evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The long-term safety of any hazardous waste disposal system must be convincingly shown prior to its implementation. For radioactive wastes, safety assessments over timescales far beyond the normal horizon of social and technical planning have already been conducted in many countries. These assessments provide the principal means to investigate, quantify, and explain long-term safety of each selected disposal concept and site for the appropriate authorities and the public. Such assessments are based on four main elements: definition of the disposal system and its environment, identification of possible processes and events that may affect the integrity of the disposal system, quantification of the radiological impact by predictive modelling, and description of associated uncertainties. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee and the IAEA International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee have carefully examined the current scientific methods for safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal systems, as briefly summarized in this report. The Committees have also reviewed the experience now available from using safety assessment methods in many countries, for different disposal concepts and formations, and in the framework of both nationally and internationally conducted studies, as referenced in this report [fr

  20. Chemistry indices for long term plant health management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galt, K.J.; Cerisier, S.D.M.; Caris, N.B.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom's Koeberg Nuclear Power Station has maintained and reported on the WANO Chemistry Performance Index for a number of years. Because of the masking effects of multiple averaging, the value of the Index was questionable. The modified WANO Chemistry Performance Indicator, introduced recently, was considered an improvement. However, it was felt that it is too general to adequately address the long-term plant health management needs of a specific plant; a more tailored, plant-specific indicator is needed. A system of indices for measuring and managing long-term plant health at Eskom's 10 large fossil-fired power stations had been developed in 1996. The major success of these indices in improving plant performance management lay in their inclusion in station performance contracts. The Fossil Chemistry Index was based on the original WANO Chemistry Performance Index and suffered from the same shortcomings. Consequently, a major revision of this index was initiated to address these deficiencies. The objectives set for the revised common indicator were that target and limit values from Eskom Chemistry Standards should be incorporated, that the masking effect of multiple averaging be minimised or eliminated, that weighting factors be introduced to reflect the relative importance of selected parameters, that conditioning chemical effectiveness be monitored, and that ranges of values be accommodated. In tandem with this revision, there was requirement to include Koeberg in the reporting of long term plant health indicators. Instead of developing completely separate chemistry indicators for fossil and nuclear plant. A commonality of approach to Long Term Plant Health indicators was sought. This has resulted in a single indicator determination, with parameter selection, limit values, and target values providing the required plant specificity. (J.P.N.)

  1. Assessment of costs related to the implementation of management solutions on the long term for high and medium level long life radioactive wastes. ANDRA's proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This huge document contains several volumes which propose detailed costing of the various parts of the Cigeo project after sketch studies (this project deals with the deep geological storage of high and medium level long life radioactive wastes). It notably states the various hypotheses regarding the inventory of radioactive wastes, the waste supply prediction, and works closure. This cost assessment takes the different project stages into account and a cost update. Various aspects are thus assessed, some related to investments (design studies, preliminary works, construction of the various installations, renewal of equipment during exploitation, installation dismantling and works closure, insurance, commissioning authority and engineering subcontracting), to exploitation (production and maintenance, support, activities related to safety, radiation protection and control of the environment, operating costs, utilities, storage containers, insurance), and to other expenses (tax, research and development, technological tests, control after closure)

  2. Efficient management vital to large, long-term engineering projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes the ways in which firms manage large hazardous waste mitigation projects efficiently. Staffing concerns, control systems and report mechanisms critical to effective and timely management of these large-scale programs are explored

  3. Long term governance of radioactive waste - research and guidance on governance methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2007-01-01

    levels, creating the conditions for an improved dialogue among representatives of civil society and the traditional public and private actors of RWM; Developing guidance on innovative democratic governance of RWM, integrating local, national and European levels of decision as well the key non technical and technical dimensions involved; Developing best practices and benchmarking on practical and sustainable decision making processes recognised as fair and equitable by the stakeholders involved at the local, national and European levels as well as consistent on the short, medium and long term of RWM; Contributing to enable European societies to make actual progress in the governance of RWM, in order to reach practicable, accountable and sustainable decisions. SCK-CEN-PISA engaged in work packages on 'Implementing Local Democracy' (WP1), 'Long Term Governance' (WP4) and 'Integration and Knowledge Management' (WP5)

  4. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kisig

    2012-01-01

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e. g. 30 or 40 years). Out of a total of 445 (369 GWe) operating nuclear power plants, 349 units (297 GWe) have been in operation for more than 20 years (as of November 2011). The need for engineering support to operation, maintenance, safety review and life management for long term operation as well as education and training in the field is increasingly evident. In addition the Fukushima accident has rendered all stake holders even more attentive to safety concerns and to the provision of beyond safety measures in the preparation and scrutiny of applications for operational design life extensions. In many countries, the safety performance of NPPs is periodically followed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) approach. The regulatory The regulatory review and acceptance of the PSR gives the licensee the permission to operate the plant for up to the end of the next PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and other countries operating US designed plants, the license renewal application is based on the five pre-requisite requirements and ageing management programme for passive long life system structure and components(SSCs) and active systems is adequately addressed by the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. Other Member States have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both PSR and additional LRA specific requirements primarily focused on time limited ageing analysis. Taking into account this variety of approaches, the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) initiated work for collecting and sharing information among Member States about good practices on plant life management for long term operation in

  5. Diverse perspectives on governance on the very long term. Biodiversity, climatic change, CO2 storage, radioactive wastes, space wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, Gilles; Gouyon, Pierre Henry; Rollinger, Francois; Besnus, Francois; Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles; Dahan, Amy; Alby, Fernand; Arnould, Jacques; Fabriol, Hubert; Hoummady, Moussa; Demarcq, Francois; Farret, Regis; Hubert, Philippe; Weber, Jacques; Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Lopez, Mirelle; Devisse, Jean-Jacques; Mathy, Sandrine; Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Bourcier, Danielle; Roure, Francoise; Henry, Claude; Bartet, Jean Hughes; Calame, Mathieu; Biteau, Benoit; Kastler, Guy; Ducret, Pierre; Berest, Pierre; Charron, Sylvie; Clin, Francois; Gadbois, Serge; Gueritte, Michel; Heriard-Dubreuil, Bertrand; Laville, Bettina; Marie, Michel; Marignac, Yves; Ollagnon, Henry; Pelegrin, Flora; Roure, Francoise; Rouyer, Michel; Schellenberger, Thomas; Toussaint, Jean-Francois

    2013-03-01

    This bibliographical note contains the program of a workshop and a presentation of a book based on the contributions to this workshop proposed by experts, representatives of institutional bodies and associations, or local representatives. This workshop addressed the issue of the governance on the very long term with respect to the management of resources such as climate, geology, biodiversity or space. How to make a possible usage of these resources while ensuring their protection and durability? What are the solutions or new challenges are raising these usages on the very long term? The first part addresses the main challenges and ethical issues for governance on the very long term for each of the examined topics: biodiversity, climatic change, CO 2 storage, radioactive waste storage, and space debris). The next parts propose contributions from different origins and disciplines, present relevant data, and report evidences

  6. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  7. Long-term surgical-orthodontic management of hemimandibular hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Samuel C; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2016-05-01

    Hemimandibular hyperplasia (HH), also known as hemimandibular hypertrophy, is characterised by excessive unilateral three-dimensional growth of the mandible after birth. Vertical unilateral elongation of the mandible becomes clinically evident as a rare form of vertical facial asymmetry. Aberrant growth of the facial skeleton affects the developing dentition and the dental compensatory mechanism is usually unable to maintain optimal occlusal relationships. The resulting malocclusion is effectively managed by combined surgical-orthodontic care to address the facial, skeletal and dental problems that confront clinicians. Orthodontists are advised to assess patients with HH during the post-treatment retention stage for continuing mandibular growth and assess the stability of treatment outcomes with long-term follow-up and records as required. To present a case of hemimandibular hyperplasia treated successfully by combined surgical-orthodontic care and evaluated for stability over a seven-year follow-up period. Surgical-orthodontic management was accomplished in four stages: 1) pre-surgical orthodontic; 21 surgical; 3) post-surgical orthodontic; and 4) post-treatment orthodontic retention. Complete orthodontic records, including extra- and intra-oral photographs, study models, and cephalograms plus panoramic radiographs were taken at the pretreatment, post-treatment, and seven-year orthodontic retention time-points. Facial, skeletal and dental goals were achieved in the three planes of space and the long-term stability of the treatment results was shown during a post-treatment orthodontic retention period of seven years. Hemimandibular hyperplasia is a true growth anomaly which may be managed effectively. Clinicians may expect successful long-term correction and stability by utilising a comprehensive surgical-orthodontic treatment approach.

  8. Long-Term Information Management (LTIM) of Safeguards Data at Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddal, R.; Finch, R.; Baldwin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has noted that long-term information management (LTIM) of safeguards data at geological repositories will be a significant challenge in the future as information and records management systems evolve and permanent disposal of nuclear materials becomes a high-priority in many countries. Identifying approaches to how information on buried high-level nuclear waste will be managed, handled, organized, archived, read, interpreted, and secured for the long-term (1000 years after repository closure and beyond) will be key to safeguards at repositories). The purpose of this study is to explore various long-term information management systems and how they may or may not be adapted for geological repositories for high-level waste. The study will also examine what types of safeguards-related data should be included in such a system. The study will also consider hypotheses about future needs and analyze the pros and cons of very long-term information management. (author

  9. Acute and long-term management of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September...... management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended...... helpful, but allergen-specific immunotherapy may be disease modifying and therefore warrants further exploration. CONCLUSIONS: Food allergy can be debilitating and affects a significant number of people. However, the evidence base about acute and longer-term management is weak and needs to be strengthened...

  10. Relative toxicity and long-term problems of actinide bearing wastes from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, H.O.

    1976-01-01

    Waste management systems are being developed that are capable of adequate protection during operational phases and providing the necessary long-term isolation for the long-lived radioisotopes to decay. For the assessment of the safety of proposed systems for managing wastes, methods for risk analysis are being developed in several countries. Risk analysis identifies the most likely sequences of failure events (for example by fault free analysis) possibly leading to release of radioactive material into man's environment, and evaluates the probabilities of these sequences. However, parts of the risk analysis are not yet developed to the necessary degree and will be a difficult task for the years ahead. We have therefore looked into some models and approaches which give no risk analysis but may be useful for entering into the magnitude and correlations of some of the problems

  11. The long-term management of nuclear emergencies: The principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cherp, A.; Gray, P.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term impact of the Chernobyl accident on the most affected populations in Belarus (Ukraine)) and the Russian Federation is still evident in terms of a continuing elevated level of thyroid cancer, prominent psychosocial effects, a depressed economy and a low level of well being. Some of these impacts are directly and primarily attributable to exposure to ionising radiation, while others have more complex origins and have evolved over the period since the accident. It is argued that although these latter impacts were largely unpredictable at the time of the accident, they could have been minimised had an appropriate management plan been in force. The principles underlying such a management plan for use in future accidents are enumerated. An essential component in further developing such a plan would be a thorough review of the experience of the Chernobyl accident in order to 'learn the lessons' that accident holds. (authors)

  12. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  13. Plant life time management for safe long term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, Danes

    2010-01-01

    The topics discussed include LTO (long-term operation) and licensing procedure in general and specifically for the Dukovany NPP, components of an LTO programme, the PLIM (plant life management) concept for Dukovany and Temelin, the LTO implementation project for Dukovany, LTO strategy, LTO risk study, international verification. The Conclusions include the following items: (i) Technical-economic study of Dukovany NPP LTO demonstrates technical feasibility and economic profitability of Dukovany NPP LTO with perspective for up to 60 years of operation. (ii) Safety part of Program for assurance of Dukovany NPP LTO complies with IAEA SALTO recommendations. (iii) Dukovany NPP LTO programme incorporated IAEA SALTO Peer Review Mission recommendations. (iv) LTO Implementation Project for 2009-2015 was approved with major targets to renew operational permission and prepare NPP for operation up to 60 years. (v) Preparation of Temelin NPP LTO programme has been started. (P.A.)

  14. Long-term management of intractable epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yu-jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Achievement of seizure free is the ultimate goal of patients with epilepsy. Lifelong treatment may be needed in some epileptic children, especially in those with intractable epilepsy. To be more realistic, this goal may be modified to reduce the frequency of more disabling types of seizures. Chronic seizures influence children in social activities, psychology,cognition as well as many other aspects. Therefore, their long-term management requires concerted lifelong care of pediatricians, neurologists and social workers. During the course of treatment, doctors should evaluate the patients regularly, prevent and control the side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and monitor patients for AEDs-associated adverse events. In addition, doctors should choose the optimal therapeutic regimen for patients with refractory epilepsy, and achieve a balance between benefit and risk in order to improve the quality of life of patients.

  15. Long-term experiences with pluvial flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritsch Kathrina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of pluvial (rain-related flood risk has grown significantly in the past few years but pluvial flooding is not handled with the same intensity throughout Europe. A variety of methods and modelling technologies are used to assess pluvial flood hazard and risk and to develop suggestions for flood mitigation measures. A brief overview of current model approaches is followed by the description of a modelling methodology that has been developed throughout the last 15 years with the focus on processing large scale areas. Experiences from several projects show that only high quality models of whole catchment areas yield results with enough accuracy to gain credibility among stakeholders, planners and the public. As a best practice example shows, the model approach also helps to plan effective decentral flood protection measures. To ensure successful flood risk management, a long-term preservation of flood risk awareness among local authorities and the public is necessary.

  16. Long-term emissions from mechanically biologically treated waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste treatment in passively aerated open windrows, using the Dome Aeration Technology (DAT), was identified as an appropriate technology due to low construction and operational resource requirements. Three self-aerated windrows were set up at the Bisasar Road Landfill in order to study the efficiency of the process ...

  17. Maintenance management during long-term stop of JRR-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Yutaka; Suwa, Masayuki; Wada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    JRR-3 has been continuing its stop state for more than 5 years as of FY2015 after stopping the use operation of the reactor in November 2010. Different responses are required in the maintenance management for operation resumption, compared with those in normal operation. This paper introduces part of the maintenance managements that are performed during long-term stop. The water qualities of primary coolant and secondary coolant are controlled by measuring pH and conductivity, and the prevention of crevice corrosion of equipment is performed. In the management of pumps for coolant circulation, vibration measurement is performed to confirm that there are no signs of abnormality. As the management of the core structure, the bend measurement of beryllium reflector is performed to confirm that there is no hindrance to operation resumption, and the visual inspection of high burnup fuel elements is performed to confirm that abnormality has not occurred. As for the management of monitoring equipment, the equipment required in shutdown period is subjected to calibration work, and the equipment required in operation period is subjected to soundness check based on the results of cooling system operation. As the functional maintenance of the cooling system, cooling system operating test and 10-day continuous operation of the cooling system are monthly performed to confirm the soundness of equipment. In addition, the competence maintenance and capacity improvement of operators are performed through the cooling system operation and reactor simulator training. (A.O.)

  18. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and Pu released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution

  19. Long-term leach rates of glasses containing actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.R.; LeRoy, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Leach rates of borosilicate glasses that contained actual Savannah River Plant waste were measured. Leaching was done by water and by buffer solutions of pH 4, 7, and 9. Leach rates were then determined from the amount of 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and plutonium released into the leach solutions. The cumulative fractions leached were fit to a mathematical model that included leaching by diffusion and glass dissolution. 5 figures, 3 tables

  20. The role of peer review in responsive decisions - a case study of clean-up and safe long-term management of historic waste at Port Hope and Clarington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, D.

    2006-01-01

    'Full text:' The Municipalities of Port Hope and Clarington ('Municipalities') are committed to leading the clean- up and safe long-term management of historic low- level radioactive and hazardous wastes deposited in Port Granby (in the Municipality of Clarington) and several locations in the Municipality of Port Hope. They are supported by the Government of Canada through Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Low- Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO). The wastes are the result of radium and uranium processing in Port Hope by Eldorado since the 1930s. To establish the parameters of the clean- up, including the ability to veto the project, the local municipalities negotiated and signed a Legal Agreement with the Government of Canada in 2001. As a Responsible Authority, Natural Resources Canada has defined and approved the scope of the two projects. The LLRWMO is designated as the proponent. Accordingly, the LLRWMO is conducting the Environmental Assessment (EA) Studies and seeking approval of a preferred method of conducting the clean up for each municipality. The municipalities recognized that these large and complex environmental assessment studies would challenge the resources of citizens, municipal professional staff and politicians. Thus, the Legal Agreement specified that both municipalities would have funded staff to work together to coordinate and expedite the project. A Peer Review Team (PRT) would be retained by the municipalities and funded by the Government of Canada. The PRT is made up of experienced professionals led by Hardy Stevenson and Associates Limited in disciplines appropriate to the peer review tasks on hand. The PRT has brought a unique approach to the peer review. The PRT is headed by planners and social scientists trained to be sensitive to the 'people aspects' of the EA process as a major priority. They are supported by engineers and technical specialists. The team includes a physician with a family practice who is also an

  1. [Outsourcing in long-term care: a risk management approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Cristina Machado; Carvalho, José Crespo de

    2012-05-01

    This article seeks to investigate outsourcing decisions in supply chain management of healthcare organizations, namely the motives and constraints behind the decision, the selection criteria for activities to be outsourced to third parties, the type of possible agreements, and the impact of this decision on the organization per se. A case study of the start-up phase of a Long-term Care unit with an innovative approach and high levels of customization was conducted to understand the outsourcing process in a start-up context (not in the standard context of organizational change) and a risk evaluation matrix was created for outsourcing activities in order to define and implement a performance monitoring process. This study seeks to understand how to evaluate and assess the risks of an outsourcing strategy and proposes a monitoring model using risk management tools. It was shown that the risk management approach can be a solution for monitoring outsourcing in the organizational start-up phase. Conclusions concerning dissatisfaction with the results of outsourcing strategies adopted are also presented.

  2. Management challenges faced by managers of New Zealand long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madas, E; North, N

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a postal survey of 78 long-term care managers in one region of New Zealand, of whom 45 (58%) responded. Most long-term care managers (73.2%) were middle-aged females holding nursing but not management qualifications. Most long-term care facilities (69%) tended to be stand-alone facilities providing a single type of care (rest home or continuing care hospital). The most prominent issues facing managers were considered to be inadequate funding to match the growing costs of providing long-term care and occupancy levels. Managers believed that political/regulatory, economic and social factors influenced these issues. Despite a turbulent health care environment and the challenges facing managers, long-term care managers reported they were coping well and valued networking.

  3. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  4. Long-term management of chronic spontaneous urticaria with omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Gouveia, M; Gameiro, A; Pinho, A; Gonçalo, M

    2017-10-01

    Clinical trials have shown the efficacy of omalizumabs efficacy in refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU), but real-life management strategies are lacking. To assess the long-term efficacy and safety of omalizumab, and to identify predictive factors and optimum dosage regimens. This was a prospective study of 13 patients (11 women, 2 men) with severe CSU [weekly urticaria activity score (UAS7) > 28] resistant to anti-H1 antihistamines. Patients were started on omalizumab 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. Dose and interval between administrations were adjusted according to clinical response (189 administrations; treatment duration range 2-38 months). Mean UAS7 was 36.3 ± 5.4. Of the 13 patients, all had experienced angio-oedema, while in addition, 7 had delayed pressure urticaria (DPU) and 1 had solar urticaria (SU). After omalizumab treatment, 4 (30.8%) of the 13 patients had complete response (CR), and the remaining 8 (61.5%) had partial response. CR was achieved with a dose of 150 mg every 4 (n = 2 patients) or 5 (n = 2) weeks. One of these patients remained disease-free after stopping treatment. Partial responses were achieved with 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 4) and with 300 mg (n = 4) at intervals of 5 weeks (n = 1), 4 weeks (n = 2) or 3 weeks (n = 1). Only one patient (7.7%) did not show significant improvement, despite a dose of 300 mg every 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data between the different response groups. Only two adverse events were observed: one was mild headache and the other was severe angio-oedema and aggravation of urticaria within 6 h of omalizumab administration. Omalizumab dose and interval between administrations could be individualized for long-term management of CSU. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Liabilities identification and long-term management - Review of French situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In France, long term liabilities due to nuclear activities concern four main operators: Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA (an industrial group created on September 3, 2001 and covering the entire fuel cycle from ore extraction and transformation to the recycling of spent fuel), the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA, the French public research organism in the nuclear sector) and the French Agency for radioactive waste management (ANDRA, in charge with the long term operation of radioactive waste installations). Long term liabilities are due to the financing of both decommissioning of nuclear installations and radioactive waste long term management. In the current French organisational scheme, the different operators must take the responsibility of these long term liabilities. The setting of national policies and the establishment of the legislation are carried out at a national level by the French state. These include the supervision of the three operators through different Ministries and the regulatory control of safety trough the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). EDF, AREVA, CEA and ANDRA are responsible for all aspects of the decommissioning (from a technical and financial point of view). Within a safety regulatory frame, they have their own initiative concerning future expenses, based on estimated costs and the expected operational lifetime of the installations. They are responsible of the definition and implementation of the technical options. Through its supervision activities, the French State regularly requires updating studies of these estimated costs, which are conducted by the operators. A general review of the management of these long-term liabilities is also carried out on a four years basis by the French Court of Accounts. Operators are due to constitute provisions during the life cycle of their installations. Provisions are calculated for each installation on the basis of the decommissioning expenses and of the reasonably estimated lifetime. They are re

  6. Diagnosis, management, and long-term outcomes of rectovaginal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad NS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nash S Moawad,1 Andrea Caplin21Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florida, 2University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis.Keywords: pelvic pain, dyspareunia, bowel resection, endometriosis, rectovaginal

  7. Regulatory issues related to long-term storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.; Romanenko, O.; Tazhibayeva, I.; Zhunussova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Reported material is a result of activity accomplished in the framework of cooperation program between Kazakhstan and Norway within 2009-2012. This work was divided into three distinctive parts, as follows: 1. Analysis of existing threats associated with radioactive wastes in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The objective of this part of the work was to reveal the most important threats in the sphere of radioactive waste management in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which require an increased regulatory attention. Threat assessment needed to identify: main radiological threats both for people who work with radioactive wastes and for population living near the radioactive waste storage places now and in the long term which require an increased regulatory attention; problems that need urgent and detailed analysis; and main problems in the realization of regulatory process in Kazakhstan including weakness in the regulatory and legal framework. Threat assessment analysis showed that in order to reduce the level of threats it was necessary to begin developing a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management which need to be approved by the Government, to develop proposals for Radioactive Wastes new classification, including identification of relevant categories of Radioactive Wastes, as well as criteria for their disposal in accordance with IAEA recommendations and experience from other countries. 2. Development of new classification system for radioactive wastes in Kazakhstan. Following the results of threat assessment performed within the first stage, the objective of the second part of work was to develop a proposal to adopt a new Radioactive Wastes classification in Kazakhstan in accordance with the IAEA recommendations, including implementation of new categories, taking into account international experience and current situation in Kazakhstan. The result of this stage of work was a proposal for a new Radioactive Wastes classification and

  8. Cement Waste Matrix Evaluation and Modelling of the Long Term Stability of Cementitious Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, P.; Cronstrand, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cement based materials are often used as a solidification matrix for wet radioactive waste from nuclear power plants such as ion exchange resins, sludge and evaporator concentrates. The mechanical and chemical properties of the cement-waste matrix are affected by the type and the concentration of the waste. For this reason the recipe used in the solidification process has to be carefully adjusted to respond to the variations of the waste. At the Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (RNPP) an evaporator was to be taken into operation during the mid 2005. As a result of this process an evaporator concentrate containing boric acid was expected. The aims of the present study were to develop a recipe for the solidification of artificial evaporator concentrates, (AEC), containing H 3 BO 3 and measure the compressive strength of the waste/cement matrix over a period of 4 years. The confirmation of the previously reported retarding properties of H 3 BO 3 and the studies of AEC without H 3 BO 3 were also included as a part of this work. Finally, thermodynamic calculations were used as a tool in order to predict the evolution of the mineralogy and integrity for the different cement-waste specimens over very long periods of time, i.e. up to about 100 000 years. The most important finding was that when an optimized waste/cement matrix recipe was used the compressive strength increased during the entire 4 year period and no signs of degradation were noticed. It was also found that the long-term performance of the waste matrices is to a large extent site-specific. In general, the composition of the infiltrating water is more influential than the waste matrices, both on the degradation of the waste matrices itself as well as on the engineered barriers. (author)

  9. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinjoo Oh, Ph.D., RN, GNP; Seieun Oh, Ph.D., RN

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for ...

  10. Long-term durability experiments with concrete-based waste packages in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatti, A.

    1993-03-01

    Two extensive experiments on long-term durability of waste packages in simulated repository conditions are described. The first one is a 'half-scale experiment' comprising radioactive waste product and half-scale concrete containers in site specific groundwater conditions. The second one is 'full-scale experiment' including simulated inactive waste product and full-scale concrete container stored in slowly flowing fresh water. The scope of the experiments is to demonstrate long-term behaviour of the designed waste packages in contact with moderately concrete aggressive groundwater, and to evaluate the possible interactions between the waste product, concrete container and ground water. As the waste packages are made of high-quality concrete, provisions have been made to continue the experiments for several years

  11. Digital health system for personalised COPD long-term management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velardo, Carmelo; Shah, Syed Ahmar; Gibson, Oliver; Clifford, Gari; Heneghan, Carl; Rutter, Heather; Farmer, Andrew; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2017-02-20

    Recent telehealth studies have demonstrated minor impact on patients affected by long-term conditions. The use of technology does not guarantee the compliance required for sustained collection of high-quality symptom and physiological data. Remote monitoring alone is not sufficient for successful disease management. A patient-centred design approach is needed in order to allow the personalisation of interventions and encourage the completion of daily self-management tasks. A digital health system was designed to support patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in self-managing their condition. The system includes a mobile application running on a consumer tablet personal computer and a secure backend server accessible to the health professionals in charge of patient management. The patient daily routine included the completion of an adaptive, electronic symptom diary on the tablet, and the measurement of oxygen saturation via a wireless pulse oximeter. The design of the system was based on a patient-centred design approach, informed by patient workshops. One hundred and ten patients in the intervention arm of a randomised controlled trial were subsequently given the tablet computer and pulse oximeter for a 12-month period. Patients were encouraged, but not mandated, to use the digital health system daily. The average used was 6.0 times a week by all those who participated in the full trial. Three months after enrolment, patients were able to complete their symptom diary and oxygen saturation measurement in less than 1 m 40s (96% of symptom diaries). Custom algorithms, based on the self-monitoring data collected during the first 50 days of use, were developed to personalise alert thresholds. Strategies and tools aimed at refining a digital health intervention require iterative use to enable convergence on an optimal, usable design. 'Continuous improvement' allowed feedback from users to have an immediate impact on the design of the system (e

  12. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Dept. de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Mateus, A. [Lisboa Univ., Dept. de Geologia and Creminer, Faculdade de Ciencias (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  13. Suitable areas for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, P.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R.; Mateus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive wastes in Portugal result mainly from the application of radioactive materials in medicine, research, industry and from U-ores mining and milling activities. Sealed and unsealed sources (including liquid effluents and N.O.R.M.) classified as radioactive wastes have been collected, segregated, conditioned and stored in the Portuguese Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility (P.R.W.I.S.F.) since the sixties. The Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (D.P.R.S.N.) of the Nuclear and Technological Institute (I.T.N.) is responsible for the R.W.I.S.F. management, located nearby Lisbon (S.a.c.a.v. ). Despite recent improvements performed at R.W.I.S.F., the 300 m3 storage capacity will be soon used up if current average store-rate remains unaltered. Being aware of the tendency for radioactive waste production increase in Portugal and of the international rules and recommendations on disposal sites for this kind of wastes, it becomes clear that the P.R.W.I.S.F. must be updated. In this work, a first evaluation of suitable areas to host a long-term radioactive waste storage facility was carried out using a Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) base. Preference and exclusionary criteria were applied, keeping constant the map scale (1:1000000). After processing exclusionary criteria, remaining areas were scored by overlaying three preference criteria. A composite score was determined for each polygon (problem solution) by summing the three preference criteria scores. The highest scores resulted from the combination of these criteria correspond to 4% of the territory, spatially distributed in seven of the eighteen Portuguese mainland administrative districts. Work in progress will use this area as reference for site selection, criss-crossing appropriate criteria for scales ranging from 1:50000 to 1:25000. (authors)

  14. Scientific basis for long-term prediction of waste-form performance under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fundamental principles involved in predicting long-term performance of waste forms by the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable approach. Repository conditions which make up the waste-form environment, the aging of the waste form, the important radionuclides in the waste form, the chemistry of repository fluids, and multicomponent interactions testing were considered in order to describe these principles. The need for confidence limits on the prediction of waste-form performance and ways of achieving a definition of the confidence limits are discussed

  15. Characteristics of asthma attack with long-term management for bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Noriko; Hasegawa, Shunji; Hashimoto, Kunio; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Ichiyama, Takashi; Furukawa, Susumu

    2009-10-01

    There have been no reports on the evaluation of the usefulness of long-term asthma management based on the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Bronchial Asthma 2005 (JPGL 2005). The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the records of 350 patients admitted to Yamaguchi University Hospital who had asthma attacks from January 2006 to June 2008. There were 149 patients who were treated for more than 3 months in accordance with the guideline (long-term management group) and 201 who were not (non-long-term management group). The patients were divided into three age groups: 100 infants, 159 toddlers, and 91 schoolchildren. The onset age of asthma in the long-term management group was earlier than that in the non-long-term management group in toddlers and schoolchildren. The white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in the non-long-term management group in schoolchildren, suggesting the complication of some infections. The severity of asthma in the long-term management group was greater than that in the non-long-term management group among all three age groups. There were no significant differences, however, in the severity of asthma attack at admission between the long-term and non-long-term management groups in the three age groups. Patients who had severe asthma tended to be treated with long-term management, which suggests that long-term asthma management according to JPGL 2005 may reduce the severity of asthma attack at that admission, because the severity of asthma in patients undergoing long-term management correlates with the severity of asthma attack.

  16. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  17. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  18. Technology for the long-term management of defense HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Knecht, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Management Plan of June 1983 includes a reference plan for the long-term management of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) high-level waste (HLW), with a goal of disposing of the annual output in 500 canisters a year by FY-2008. Based on the current vitrification technology, the ICPP base-glass case would produce 1700 canisters per year after FY-2007. Thus, to meet the DWMP goal processing steps including fuel dissolution, waste treatment, and waste immobilization are being studied as areas where potential modifications could result in HLW volume reductions for repository disposal. It has been demonstrated that ICPP calcined wastes can be densified by hot isostatic pressing to multiphase ceramic forms of high loading and density. Conversion of waste by hot isostatic pressing to these forms has the potential of reducing the annual ICPP waste production to volumes near those of the goal of the DWMP. This report summarizes the laboratory-scale information currently available on the development of these forms

  19. Long-term storage of radioactive waste: IAEA perspectives on safety and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowat, J.H.; Louvat, D.; Metcalf, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    As the amounts of radioactive waste in surface storage have increased, concern has grown over the safety and sustainability of storage in the long term. In response to increasing concerns, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has included an action to address the safety implications of the long-term storage (LTS) of radioactive waste in its action plan for waste safety; the action plan was endorsed by the IAEA's Member States in 2001. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper on the safety and sustainability of LTS as part fulfilment of the action in question. A key theme of the position paper is the contrast of safety and sustainability implications of LTS with those of disposal. The present paper provides a summary of the position paper, describes current IAEA activities that deal with the subject of LTS, and discusses findings from the 2004 Cordoba symposium on disposal of low activity radioactive waste that pertain to LTS. (author)

  20. Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nummi, O.; Kylloenen, J.; Eurajoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report, Long-term safety of the maintenance and decommissioning waste of the encapsulation plant, presents the disposal concept for the low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) that is generated during the operation and decommissioning of the encapsulation plant, and assesses the long-term safety of the disposal of the waste. Radioactive waste originates from the spent nuclear fuel transferred and dried in the encapsulation plant. Radioactive waste accumulates also in the maintenance of the components and systems of the encapsulation plant. The waste is collected, exempted from control if possible and treated for final disposal if necessary. The waste is disposed of in the L/ILW hall which is currently planned to be located at a depth of -180 meters along the access tunnel to the repository for spent fuel. The main engineered barrier in the L/ILW hall is a concrete basin that encases the dried liquid waste. The safety concept of L/ILW disposal is based on the slow release of radioactivity from the L/ILW hall and its limited transport through the bedrock into biosphere. The release and transport of the radioactivity is described by the assessment scenarios, which include expected evolution and unlikely events affecting the long-term safety. The scenarios act as guidelines according to which the conceptual and mathematical models are formed. The long-term safety of the L/ILW hall is assessed using deterministic and probabilistic modeling. Special issues such as human intrusion and radiation effects on other biota are also assessed. The most significant contributor to the dose rates is the short-lived radionuclide 90 Sr followed by long-lived nuclides 129 I and 108 mAg. The annual doses to the public, and release rates of radioactive substances stay below the regulatory constraints in all analyzed scenarios. (orig.)

  1. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  2. The long-term management of contaminated areas; the principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.; Cherp, A.; Gray, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: There are three primary aspects to be considered in the remediation of areas contaminated by the accidental release of radioactivity, these are: the environment; health and well-being, including the psychological impact on the resident and adjaqent populations; the economic and social status of the affected populations. These aspects cannot be seen as independent of one another. In the case of the Chernobyl accident they have mutually interacted to produce a downward spiral in the quality of life of the affected populations. This paper will discuss the lessons that have emerged from that experience and propose ways in which. There is much, in practical terms, that can be done to manage, in both the short and the long term, the environmental aspects of the contamination, both at the collective and the individual levels. How effectively this is done and is seen to be done, will be a powerful determinant of the success in dealing with the other two primary aspects. Ring fencing the risk into the contaminated areas by the prohibition of processes that disperse the risk to populations outside the affected areas can be counterproductive for the affected population with minimal real detriment for the wider unaffected populations. In the case of the Chernobyl accident it can be argued that health and well-being have been more adversely affected by the psychosocial aspects of the accident than by the direct effects of radiation. A larger than real effect an health is perceived and this leads to the five dimensions of the psychosocial effect, social disruption of communities, illness behaviour, readiness to attribute illness to radiation, changed lifestyle habits, stress related illness. The effects of radiation exposure, if any, will appear after a few to tens of years. Their incidence should be carefully monitored in relation to the previous experience and the experience in comparable populations, in an open and objective way. The perception that health

  3. Long-term storage of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magleby, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Under Federal law, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for safe disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Waste (GTCC LLW) generated by licenses of the Nuclear Regulatory commission (NRC) or Agreement States. Such waste must be disposed of in a facility licensed by the NRC. It is unlikely that licensed disposal of GTCC LLW will be available prior to the year 2010. Pending availability of disposal capacity, DOE is assessing the need for collective, long-term storage of GTCC LLW. Potential risks to public health and safety caused by long-term storage of GTCC LLW at the place of generation will be evaluated to determine if alternative facilities are warranted. If warranted, several options will be investigated to determine the preferred alternative for long-term storage. These options include modification of an existing DOE facility, development of a new DOE facility, or development of a facility by the private sector with or without DOE support. Reasonable costs for long-term storage would be borne by the waste generators. 5 refs., 1 fig

  4. Effects of aqueous environment on long-term durability of phosphate-bonded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, S.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically-bonded phosphate ceramics for solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. This technology is crucial for stabilizing waste streams that contain volatile species and off-gas secondary waste streams generated by high-temperature treatment of such wastes. Magnesium phosphate ceramic has been developed to treat mixed wastes such as ash, salts, and cement sludges. Waste forms of surrogate waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between the mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and the wastes, and phosphoric acid or acid phosphate solutions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with ash waste streams spiked with hazardous and radioactive surrogates. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and TCLP were conducted on the final waste forms. Fates of the contaminants in the final waste forms were established by electron microscopy. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated with long-term water-immersion tests

  5. NAGRA - Long-term safety - The main task of deep repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the necessity for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in Switzerland and discusses the requirements placed on such long-term waste depositories The effects of ionizing radiation on people and the protection provided by the deep repositories are examined. The construction of such deep repositories is looked at, as are the developments expected in the depositories over thousands of years. A comparison with natural occurrences is made and lessons to be learned from nature are discussed. Ideas for the marking of the depository sites are presented. A glossary of relevant terms completes the report

  6. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It's possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties

  7. Remaining uncertainties in predicting long-term performance of nuclear waste glass from experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1994-01-01

    The current knowledge on the glass dissolution mechanism and the representation of glass dissolution concepts within overall repository performance assessment models are briefly summarized and uncertainties related to mechanism, radionuclide chemistry and parameters are discussed. Understanding of the major glass dissolution processes has been significantly increased in recent years. Long-term glass stability is related to the long-term maintenance of silica saturated conditions. The behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass has not been sufficiently and results do no yet allow meaningful predictions. Conserving long-term predictions of glass matrix dissolution as upper limit for radionuclide release can be made with sufficient confidence, however these estimations generally result in a situation where the barrier function of the glass is masked by the efficiency of the geologic barrier. Realistic long-term predictions may show that the borosilicate waste glass contributes to overall repository safety to a much larger extent than indicated by overconservatism. Today realistic predictions remain highly uncertain and much more research work is necessary. In particular, the long-term rate under silica saturated conditions needs to be understood and the behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass deserves more systematic investigations

  8. [Laparoscopic management of ureteroileal stenosis: Long term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, Esteban; Gavrilov, Pavel; Mayordomo, Olga; Salvador, Josep; Palou, Joan; Rosales, Antonio; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2017-05-01

    To describe the laparoscopic approach for uretero-ileal anastomosis strictures and to analyse our long term series. A retrospective review was performed evaluating our series of patients with benign ureteroileal anastomosis strictures treated laparoscopically from 2011 to 2017. Demographics and perioperative data were obtained and analyzed. Complications were described with the Clavien-Dindo classification. The surgical technique was described and a literature review was performed. Eleven procedures were performed in ten patients. Mean blood loss was 180 ml. All the operations were performed laparoscopically without conversion. Mean hospital stay was 10 days (4-23). Early complications were Clavien-Dindo I y II: Two cases of limited anastomosis leakage, one lymphorrea, one paralitic ileum and one accidental descent of the ureteral catheter. Mean follow-up was 56 months (12-179) No late complications have been described. Based on our series with 5 year follow up, the laparoscopic approach for uretero-ileal anastomosis strictures is feasible and safe.

  9. Long-term risk assessment of radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.; D'Alessandro, M.

    1978-01-01

    Methods for long-term safety analysis of waste from nuclear power production in the European Community are under study at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) at Ispra, Italy. Aim of the work is to develop a suitable methodology for long-term risk assessment. The methodology under study is based on the assessment of the quantitative value of a system of barriers which may be interposed between waste and man. The barriers considered are: a) quality of the segregation afforded by the geological formation, b) chemical and physical stability of conditioned waste, c) interaction with geological environments (subsoil retention), d) distribution in the biosphere. The methodology is presently being applied to idealized test cases based on the following assumptions: waste are generated during 30 years of operations in a nuclear park (reprocessing + refabrication plant) capable of treating 1000 ton/yr of LWR fuel. High activity waste is conditioned as borosilicate glass (HAW) while low- and medium-level wastes are bituminized (BIP). All waste is disposed off into a salt formation. Transport to the biosphere, following the containment failure occurs by groundwater, with no delay due to retention on adsorbing media. Distribution into the biosphere occurs according to the terrestrial model indicated. Under these assumptions, information was drawn concerning environmental contamination, its levels, contributing elements and pathways to man

  10. Safety and optimization aspects of radioactive waste long-term storage at the ''Vector'' site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarevs'kij, O.V.; Kondrat'jev, S.M.; Aleksjejeva, Z.M.; Ribalka, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes links between the final disposal option and needs for long-term storage of radioactive waste taking into proposals on possible changes in radwaste classification as regards disposal. It considers the conceptual approach to design facilities for long-term storage of long-lived radioactive waste at the Vector site and approaches to apply requirements of regulatory documents, radiation safety principles and criteria for long-term storage of radwaste and safety assessment.

  11. DOE progress in assessing the long term performance of waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berusch, A.; Gause, E.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA)[1], the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) is conducting activities to select and characterize candidate sites suitable for the construction and operation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. DOE is funding three first repository projects: Basalt Waste Isolation Project, BWIP; Nevada Nuclear Waste Isolation Project, NNWSI; and Salt Repository Project Office, SRPO. It is essential in the licensing process that DOE demonstrate to the NRC that the long-term performance of the materials and design will be in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.113 on substantially complete containment within the waste packages for 300 to 1000 years and a controlled release rate from the engineered barrier system (EBS) for 10,000 years of 1 part in 10 5 per year for radionuclides present in defined quantities 100 years after permanent closure. Obviously, the time spans involved make it impractical to base the assessment of the long term performance of waste package materials on real time, prototypical testing. The assessment of performance will be implemented by the use of models that are supported by real time field and laboratory tests, monitoring, and natural analog studies. Each of the repository projects is developing a plan for demonstrating long-term waste package material performance depending on the particular materials and the package-perturbed, time-dependent environment under which the materials must function. An overview of progress in each of these activities for each of the projects is provided in the following

  12. Nuclear wastes: vitrification and long term behaviour. Information available on Internet sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This document reports an information search on the long-term behaviour of vitrified nuclear wastes. This search has been performed on the Internet and this report presents 21 forms corresponding to the 21 relevant Internet web sites. These forms contain the name of the organization, its country, its Internet address, its language, a brief description of the available information, the concerned public (general public, scholars and students, scientific community)

  13. Evaluation on the long-term durability and leachability of cemented waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Lee, Jae Won; Ryue, Young Gerl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-08-01

    The long-term durability and leachability on the cemented waste form containing boric acids produced in domestic nuclear nuclear power plants were evaluated. Compressive strength of waste form after durability test such as thermal stability and water immersion cycle was higher than before test and consistently increased with increasing of test time in range of 83 of 286 kgf/cm{sup 2}. Long-term leachability was evaluated by standard test methods, leach affecting factors, and prediction of long-term leachability with result data of short-term leach test. In all leach tests, the release of Cs-137 was controlled by diffusion, whereas release of Co-60 was not controlled by diffusion. Leach rate of Cs-137 was relatively constant at standard leach test methods such as NAS 16.1, IAEA, ISO-6961, and MCC-1, but that of Co-60 increased with leachant-renewal frequencies. The leach rate of both Cs-137 and Co-60 increased as test temperature raised. The release of Co-137 decreased in simulated seawater as leachant, but increased with increasing leachant volume. The prediciton of long-term release of Cs-137 from large-scale waste form using the results from short-term leach test of small-scale waste form were within {+-} 5% of actual release. The leachability indexes of Cs-137 were between 6.5 and 7.5 and those of Co-60 were ranged from 11.6 to 13.3, increasing as cumulative leaching time increased. (author). 22 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  15. Radiolytic gas production during long-term storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1976-01-01

    Gases produced by in situ radiolysis of sealed solidified nuclear wastes during long-term storage could conceivably breach containment. Therefore, candidate waste forms (matrices containing simulated nuclear wastes) were irradiated with 60 Co-γ and 244 Cm-α radiation. These forms were: cement containing simulated fission product sludges, vermiculite containing organic liquids, and cellulosics contaminated with α-emitting transuranic isotopes. For cement waste forms exposed to γ-radiolysis, an equilibrium hydrogen pressure was reached that was dose rate dependent. For α-radiolysis, equilibrium was not reached. With organic wastes (n-octane on vermiculite), H 2 and traces of CO 2 and CH 4 were produced, and O 2 was consumed with both radiations. Only energy absorbed by the organic material was effective in producing H 2 . At low dose rates with both α- and γ-irradiations, G(H 2 ) was 4.5 and G(-O 2 ) was 5.0. Also, equilibrium was not obtained. For cellulosic material, H 2 , CO 2 , and CO were produced in the ratio of 1.0:0.7:0.3, and O 2 was consumed. With α-radiolysis, G(gas) was dose dependent; measured values ranged from 2.2 to 0.6 as the dose increased. Implications of all these results on long-term storage of radioactive waste are discussed. Some data from an actual nuclear wasteform are also presented

  16. Improvement of Regulatory Framework for Long-Term Operation and Ageing Management of NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenko, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework for long-term operation and ageing management of NPP units in Ukraine was reviewed and deficiencies were identified. The procedure for improving regulatory framework for long-term operation and ageing management is presented. It takes into consideration IAEA recommendations and international practices, as well as experience obtained in long-term operation efforts for Rivne NPP-1, 2 and South Ukraine NPP-1. The paper demonstrates interrelations between standards and technical documents on long-term operation and ageing management. The information is presented regarding the current state of regulatory and legal documentation development and industry-specific standards on long-term operation and ageing management of NPP units in Ukraine

  17. 2010 Survey on long-term preservation of information and memory for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Preservation of information and memory across generations is a cross-cutting theme of increasing importance for radioactive waste management. Because of the experience accumulated by the advanced national programmes that the RWMC represents, and the breadth of its related high-level initiatives, the Committee is uniquely placed internationally to combine resources and help develop state-of-the-art guidance on the long-term preservation of information and memory. In the context of fostering knowledge consolidation and transfer (KCT), the RWMC has already identified - in its reference document on KCT - the area of inter-generational transfer of knowledge as one of two areas needing development. In 2009, the RWMC decided to implement its programme of work in the area of information preservation and long-term memory as a series of projects or lines of actions opened by the RWMC and supervised by its Bureau. In order to better define its first series of projects the RWMC preformed a survey of its organisations needs and available materials and experience. At its meeting in 2010 the RWMC determined that the survey materials provided by organisations from 12 NEA countries constitute a good contribution to the literature in this field, and certainly to the upcoming projects. They provide as well a good baseline of information against which to measure progress a few years hence. This document reports the answers provided by organisations from 12 countries (Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA,) to five questions related to long-term preservation of information and memory in the field of geological disposal. The questions are as follows: o What specific priority areas for long-term memory development have been identified in your agencies/countries? Which are the time scales of largest interest? o Do these priority proceed from good practice or/and from specific laws, regulations, policies exist in

  18. Use of Long-Term Lysimeter Data in Support of Shallow Land Waste Disposal Cover Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desotell, L.T.; Hudson, D.B.; Yucel, V.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Water balance studies using two precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site in support of low-level radioactive waste disposal since 1994. The lysimeters are located in northern Frenchman Flat approximately 400 meters (m) from the southwest corner of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Frenchman Flat is in the northern Mojave Desert and has an average annual precipitation of 125 millimeters (mm). Each lysimeter consists of a 2 m by 4 m by 2 m deep steel tank filled with native alluvium, supported on a sensitive scale. The scale is instrumented with an electronic load-cell and data-logger for continuous measurement of total soil water storage with a precision of approximately ±800 grams or ±0.1 mm of soil water storage. Data-loggers are linked to cell phone modems for remote data acquisition. One lysimeter is vegetated with native creosote bush, four wing salt bush, and annual grass at the approximate density of the surrounding landscape while the other is maintained as bare soil. Since no drainage has been observed from the bottom of the lysimeters and run-on/run-off is precluded, the change in soil-water storage is equal to precipitation minus evaporation/evapotranspiration. After equilibration, the bare lysimeter contains approximately 20.2 centimeters (cm) of water (10.1 % volumetric water content) and the vegetated lysimeter contains approximately 11.6 cm of water (5.8 % volumetric water content). The finite difference code UNSAT-H was used to simulate the continuous water balance of the lysimeters. Calibrated one-dimensional model simulations were generally in agreement with field data. 30-year model simulations were conducted to evaluate long-term potential transport of radionuclides via the soil water migration pathway. A 30-year climate record was generated by repeating the existing data record. Simulations indicate a 2 m thick closure cover, in conjunction with native vegetation, will essentially eliminate drainage

  19. Design surface covers: an approach to long-term waste site stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.; McShane, M.C.

    1983-02-01

    The wide range of existing environmental conditions, potential contaminants and available cover materials at waste disposal sites necessitates site-specific designing of surface covers for effective long-term erosion resistance. This paper presents a systematic approach to designing surface covers for hazardous waste repositories that can be tailored to conditions at any site. The approach consists of three phases: (1) an assessment, during which the degree of required surface protection (erosion potential) is determined; (2) a preliminary design that integrates surface cover design with the need to minimize transport of contaminants; and (3) a final design, where the cost and effectiveness of the surface cover are determined. 1 figure

  20. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C. R.

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Dept. of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940's at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima (Japan)), the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares (Spain)). This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. (authors)

  1. Regulatory objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes - long-term aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    It is the purpose of this document to present the regulatory basis for judging the long-term acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options, assuming that the operational aspects of waste emplacement and facility closure satisfy the existing regulatory framework of requirements. Basic objectives of radioactive waste disposal are given, as are the regulatory requirements which must be satisfied in order to achieve these objectives. In addition, guidelines are given on the application of the radiological requirements to assist proponents in the preparation of submissions to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The primary focus of the requirements is on radiation protection, although environmental protection and institutional controls are also addressed in a more general way since these factors stem directly from the overall objectives for radioactive waste disposal

  2. Prediction of long term stability for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Koide, Hitoshi; Kono, Itoshi

    1998-01-01

    On geological disposal of radioactive wastes, study on prediction of diastrophism has been paid many attentions, and then long term future prediction ranging from some thousands to some tends thousands years may be necessary for some target nuclides. As there are various methods in the future prediction, it is essential to use a computational dynamic procedure to conduct a quantitative prediction. However, it causes an obstacle to advancement of the prediction method that informations on deep underground have a lot of uncertain elements because of their few and indirect data. In this paper, a long term prediction procedure of diastrophism relating to geological disposal of radioactive wastes with low level but isolation terms required to some thousands years was investigated and each one example was shown on flow of the investigation and its modeling method by using the finite element method. It seems to be a key to upgrade accuracy of future diastrophism prediction how an earth fault can be analyzed. And, as the diastrophism is a long term and complex phenomenon and its prediction has many uncertain elements, it is important to judge comprehensively results of its numerical analysis geologically and on rock engineering. (G.K.)

  3. The Methodology of Management for Long Term Energy Efficiency Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebergs, V.; Kehris, O.; Savickis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2010-01-01

    The paper has shown that the Member States of the European Union (EU) do what they can in order to accelerate the raising of energy efficiency (EE). In each EU Member State investigations are conducted in the planning and management methods with a view to achieve faster and greater EE gains. In Latvia, which imports almost 70% of the total energy resources consumed, saving of each 'toe' is of great importance. Adaptation of the general policy assessment methodology is being studied for planning and management of the EE process. 12 EE management methods have been analysed and recommendations worked out for the introduction of several most topical methods.(author).

  4. Long term cross asset management of critical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Asset management requires tools for optimisation. SHM delivers the required information. SHM helps to reduce the uncertainties. Life Cycle methodologies are mature. Life Time Extension can be justified and monitored. Life Cycle Engineering is a must nowadays

  5. Significance of actinide chemistry for the long-term safety of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Il

    2006-01-01

    A geochemical approach to the long-term safety of waste disposal is discussed in connection with the significance of actinides, which shall deliver the major radioactivity inventory subsequent to the relatively short-term decay of fission products. Every power reactor generates transuranic (TRU) elements: plutonium and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), which consist chiefly of long-lived nuclides emitting alpha radiation. The amount of TRU actinides generated in a fuel life period is found to be relatively small (about 1 wt% or less in spent fuel) but their radioactivity persists many hundred thousands years. Geological confinement of waste containing TRU actinides demands, as a result, fundamental knowledge on the geochemical behavior of actinides in the repository environment for a long period of time. Appraisal of the scientific progress in this subject area is the main objective of the present paper. Following the introductory discussion on natural radioactivities, the nuclear fuel cycle is briefly brought up with reference to actinide generation and waste disposal. As the long-term disposal safety concerns inevitably with actinides, the significance of the aquatic actinide chemistry is summarized in two parts: the fundamental properties relevant to their aquatic behavior and the geochemical reactions in nanoscopic scale. The constrained space of writing allows discussion on some examples only, for which topics of the primary concern are selected, e.g. apparent solubility and colloid generation, colloid-facilitated migration, notable speciation of such processes, etc. Discussion is summed up to end with how to make a geochemical approach available for the long-term disposal safety of nuclear waste or for the Performance Assessment (PA) as known generally

  6. Long-term α-hazard of high activity waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardi, F.; Bertozzi, G.

    1974-01-01

    The concentration and decay of α-emitters in high activity waste arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing was calculated under specified reference conditions. An attempt to evaluate the long-term hazard of such waste is being made by applying the ''barrier'' approach derived from reactor safety studies. Four barriers were identified, which could be evaluated in a probabilistic way by taking into account the great uncertainties present in each of them. The barriers are: 1) quality of the segregation afforded by deep geological formations, 2) stability of conditioned waste (chemical and physical), 3) retention by immediate surrounding, 4) distribution pattern of actinides in the environment. The analysis of a fictional accident showed that the uncertainties connected with the evaluation of the barriers' value are rather large. Additional studies particularly on the stability of conditioned waste and ecological properties of the environment towards actinides, would considerably improve our knowledge of the value of the barrier system. Chemical separation of actinides from high activity waste would be an additional option of undoubted value for the disposal of high activity waste. Its value for the overall safety of the entire waste inventory depends on many factors which need better evaluation, such as safety of the disposal of the separated actinides and the amount and quality of the additional waste generated by the separation process. An analysis of various levels of possible separations suggests that a reasonable target might be: Pu, Am and Cm, decontamination factor 10 3 ; Np, coextraction with U and Pu with a 90% yield

  7. The Behaviours of Cementitious Materials in Long Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    Radioactive waste with widely varying characteristics is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. This waste must be treated and conditioned, as necessary, to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Many countries use cementitious materials (concrete, mortar, etc.) as a containment matrix for immobilization, as well as for engineered structures of disposal facilities. Radionuclide release is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the waste forms and packages, and on environmental conditions. In the use of cement, the diffusion process and metallic corrosion can induce radionuclide release. The advantage of cementitious materials is the added stability and mechanical support during storage and disposal of waste. Long interim storage is becoming an important issue in countries where it is difficult to implement low level waste and intermediate level waste disposal facilities, and in countries where cement is used in the packaging of waste that is not suitable for shallow land disposal. This coordinated research project (CRP), involving 24 research organizations from 21 Member States, investigated the behaviour and performance of cementitious materials used in an overall waste conditioning system based on the use of cement - including waste packaging (containers), waste immobilization (waste form) and waste backfilling - during long term storage and disposal. It also considered the interactions and interdependencies of these individual elements (containers, waste, form, backfill) to understand the processes that may result in degradation of their physical and chemical properties. The main research outcomes of the CRP are summarized in this report under four topical sections: (i) conventional cementitious systems; (ii) novel cementitious materials and technologies; (iii) testing and waste acceptance criteria; and (iv) modelling long

  8. The Behaviours of Cementitious Materials in Long Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Results of a Coordinated Research Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    Radioactive waste with widely varying characteristics is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. This waste must be treated and conditioned, as necessary, to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Many countries use cementitious materials (concrete, mortar, etc.) as a containment matrix for immobilization, as well as for engineered structures of disposal facilities. Radionuclide release is dependent on the physicochemical properties of the waste forms and packages, and on environmental conditions. In the use of cement, the diffusion process and metallic corrosion can induce radionuclide release. The advantage of cementitious materials is the added stability and mechanical support during storage and disposal of waste. Long interim storage is becoming an important issue in countries where it is difficult to implement low level waste and intermediate level waste disposal facilities, and in countries where cement is used in the packaging of waste that is not suitable for shallow land disposal. This coordinated research project (CRP), involving 24 research organizations from 21 Member States, investigated the behaviour and performance of cementitious materials used in an overall waste conditioning system based on the use of cement - including waste packaging (containers), waste immobilization (waste form) and waste backfilling - during long term storage and disposal. It also considered the interactions and interdependencies of these individual elements (containers, waste, form, backfill) to understand the processes that may result in degradation of their physical and chemical properties. The main research outcomes of the CRP are summarized in this report under four topical sections: (i) conventional cementitious systems; (ii) novel cementitious materials and technologies; (iii) testing and waste acceptance criteria; and (iv) modelling long

  9. Consol structures its management for long-term leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, P; Sanda, A; Sprouls, M

    1988-10-01

    This is a profile of Consolidation Coal which is the second largest coal producer in US. A business strategy has led to the development of a strong management team, to acquisitions and development of new mines, to increased miner productivity and use of innovative mining technologies, and to the application of well-planned, aggressive coal marketing strategies. 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Long-term behaviour of waste-forms in the near-field environment of a deep underground storage site, overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Lassabatere, Th.; Galle, Ch.; Cranga, M.; Trotignon, L.; Maillard, S.; Iracane, D.

    1997-01-01

    CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) is responsible for the achievement of high activity and/or long life waste conditioning processes. Various waste-forms are used (glass, bitumen, etc...). ANDRA (French National Agency for Nuclear Waste Management) has to integrate the long-term durability of such waste-forms in the conception of a deep disposal and the assessment of its long-term confinement performances. The influence of near-field and of the boundary conditions imposed by the far-field on the long-term evolution is being more and more documented. Transport properties and reactivity of silica in the near field is one of the best examples of such effects. A coherent framework with relevant successive events (site re-saturation, chemical evolution of the engineered barrier, overpack corrosion) and a thorough analysis of hierarchized couplings are necessary to evaluate the long term durability of waste-form, and finally, to deliver a near-field-integrated source-term of radionuclides versus lime. We present hereafter some preliminary results obtained in the framework of the CEA 'C3P' project - long-term behaviour of waste-forms in their near-field environment. (authors)

  11. Identification of liabilities and long-term management of the fund in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czoch, Ildiko

    2003-01-01

    According to the basic rules, laid down in the Act on Atomic Energy CXVI. of 1996, radioactive waste management shall not impose undue burden on future generations. To satisfy this requirement, the long-term costs of waste disposal and of decommissioning of the plant shall be paid by the generation that enjoys the benefits of nuclear energy production and applications of isotopes. Accordingly, by the Act and its executive orders, a Central Nuclear Financial Fund was established on 1 January 1998 to finance radioactive waste disposal, interim storage and disposal of spent fuel as well as decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Minister, supervising the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority is disposing of the Central Nuclear Financial Fund, while the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority is responsible for its management. The Fund is a separate state fund pursuant to Act XXXVIII of 1992 on Public Finance, exclusively earmarked for financing the construction and operation of disposal facilities for the final disposal of radioactive waste, as well as for the interim storage and final disposal of spent fuel, and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A long-term plan (up to the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities), a medium term plan (for five years) and an annual work schedule are to be prepared on the use of the Fund. The preparation of these plans/schedules is within the responsibilities of the Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. The long and medium term plans shall be annually reviewed and revised as required. The long and medium term plans and the annual work schedule shall be approved by the Minister supervising the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority. The payments into the Fund are defined in accordance with these plans. The liabilities of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant for annual payments into the Fund are included in the law on the central budget on the proposal of the Minister supervising the Hungarian Atomic Energy Authority. It is based upon

  12. Long term safety assessment of geological waste disposal systems: issues on release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geological insolation of high level nuclear waste is an attractive waste disposal concept. However, long term safety demonstration of this concept is a major challenge to the operators, regulators and the scientific community. Identification of the factors responsible for the release of radionuclides from geosphere to biosphere,is first step in this regard. Current understanding of the release scenarios indicates that faulting, ground after percolation, seismicity, volcanism and human intrusion are the dominating release factors for most of the candidate rock formations. The major source of uncertainties is the probability values of various release events due to random nature of catastrophic geological events and past poor historical records of the frequencies of such events. There is consensus among the experts that the waste release via human intrusion is the most unpredictable scenario at present state of the knowledge. (author)

  13. Community Solutions for Stormwater Management: A Guide for Voluntary Long-Term Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft guide describes how to develop a comprehensive long-term community stormwater plan that integrates stormwater management with communities’ broader plans for economic development, infrastructure investment and environmental compliance.

  14. Short, medium and long term consequences of inadequate defect fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.; McQueen, M.; Nashiem, R.; Ma, G.

    2011-01-01

    Defect fuel pencils result in short, medium and long term consequences to the environment within and external to the nuclear power station. The paper will describe these consequences and specify the Defect Fuel Management Practices required to avoid these consequences.

  15. Short, medium and long term consequences of inadequate defect fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.G. [CANTECH Associates Ltd., Burlington, ON (Canada); McQueen, M.; Nashiem, R.; Ma, G. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Defect fuel pencils result in short, medium and long term consequences to the environment within and external to the nuclear power station. The paper will describe these consequences and specify the Defect Fuel Management Practices required to avoid these consequences.

  16. Long term safety requirements and safety indicators for the assessment of underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This presentation defines: waste disposal, safety issues, risk estimation; describes the integrated waste disposal process including quality assurance program. Related to actinides inventory it shows the main results of calculated activity obtained by deterministic estimation. It includes the Radioactive Waste Safety Standards and requirements; features related to site, design and waste package characteristics, as technical long term safety criteria for radioactive waste disposal facilities. Fundamental concern regarding the safety of radioactive waste disposal systems is their radiological impact on human beings and the environment. Safety requirements and criteria for judging the level of safety of such systems have been developed and there is a consensus among the international community on their basis within the well-established system of radiological protection. So far, however, little experience has been gained in applying long term safety criteria to actual disposal systems; consequently, there is an international debate on the most appropriate nature and form of the criteria to be used, taking into account the uncertainties involved. Emerging from the debate is the increasing conviction that the combined use of a variety of indicators would be advantageous in addressing the issue of reasonable assurance in the different time frames involved and in supporting the safety case for any particular repository concept. Indicators including risk, dose, radionuclide concentration, transit time, toxicity indices, fluxes at different points within the system, and barrier performance have all been identified as potentially relevant. Dose and risk are the indicators generally seen as most fundamental, as they seek directly to describe the radiological impact of a disposal system, and these are the ones that have been incorporated into most national standards to date. There are, however, certain problems in applying them. Application of a variety of different indicators

  17. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH 4 /g VS added ) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  18. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-07-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO{sub 3} solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  19. Long-term interactions of full-scale cemented waste simulates with salt brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Metz, V.; Schlieker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1967 radioactive wastes have been disposed of in the Asse II salt mine in Northern Germany. A significant part of these wastes originated from the pilot reprocessing plant WAK in Karlsruhe and consisted of cemented NaNO 3 solutions bearing fission products, actinides, as well as process chemicals. With respect to the long-term behavior of these wastes, the licensing authorities requested leaching experiments with full scale samples in relevant salt solutions which were performed since 1979. The experiments aimed at demonstrating the transferability of results obtained with laboratory samples to real waste forms and at the investigation of the effects of the industrial cementation process on the properties of the waste forms. This research program lasted until 2013. The corroding salt solutions were sampled several times and after termination of the experiments, the solid materials were analyzed by various methods. The results presented in this report cover the evolution of the solutions and the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the solids including radionuclides and waste components, and the paragenesis of solid phases (corrosion products). The outcome is compared to the results of model calculations. For safety analysis, conclusions are drawn on radionuclide retention, evolution of the geochemical environment, evolution of the density of solutions, and effects of temperature and porosity of the cement waste simulates on cesium mobilization.

  20. The changing flow of management information systems in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, D F

    1997-08-01

    Over the past three decades, the long-term care community has seen continual increases in the complexity and sophistication of management information systems. These changes have been brought about by the ever-increasing demands on owners and managers to provide accurate and timely data to both regulators and financial investors. The evolution of these systems has increased rapidly in recent years as the nation attempts to reinvent the funding mechanisms for long-term care.

  1. Prediction of long-term crustal movement for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Morikawa, Seiji; Tabei, Kazuto; Koide, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Toshiharu

    2000-01-01

    Long-term stability of the geological environment is essential for the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, for which it is necessary to predict the crustal movement during an assessment period. As a case study, a numerical analysis method for the prediction of crustal movement in Japan is proposed. A three-dimensional elastic analysis by FEM for the geological block structure of the Kinki region and the Awaji-Rokko area is presented. Stability analysis for a disposal cavern is also investigated. (author)

  2. Long term evolution of waste disposal sites: scenario selection and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaudecerf, P.; Blanc, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The safety analysis of long term radioactive waste disposal projects must take into account the evolution of the sites natural environment. The present paper aims at reassessing some questions relating to the methods and to some lack of knowledge which may appear when we try to forecast such evolutions and their results, and to some solutions that can be considered. We will particularly discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the deterministic approaches and the construction and working out of scenarios. The presentation is illustrated by reference to recent examples. 5 refs., 6 figs [fr

  3. Modeling long-term aspects of nuclear waste disposal: the AEGIS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    Modeling the long-term aspects of nuclear waste disposal has its roots in risk analysis of man-made systems like nuclear reactors. Analytical problems can be introduced into the performance assessment of a site-specific repository if an appreciation for the behavior of a natural earth system is not maintained. However, this should not preclude the application of historically useful analytical techniques like bounding strategies in favor of emerging, data-intensive techniques. The technical challenge is to apply existing technology and available data to a complex problem and produce a useful result

  4. Long-term leaching behavior of vitrified high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Sonobe, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Noriaki; Kashihara, Hidechiyo

    1985-01-01

    A long-term Soxhlet leaching test, long-term static leaching test, solubility evaluation test and actual-scale glass solid leaching test were carried out for simulated vitrified wastes. Under high flow-rate leachate conditions, the leaching of high-solubility substances such as B and Na increases almost linearly with time while that of Fe, Ni and rare earth metals strongly depends on their solubility. The overall leaching rate changes (tends to decrease) with time under static conditions. The elution or diffusion is the rate determining step in the earlier region of the leaching process while the solubilities of major components have greater effects in the latter region. The change of the dominant leaching mechanism is delayed more largely as the surface-area to leachate-volume (SA/V) ratio decreases. Actual-scale glass specimens showed almost the same leaching behaviors as small-scale ones. If cracks exist in glass solid, the leaching in them is slow causing little effects on the overall leaching rate. This may be due to the fact that solubility-dependent leaching is occuring in the cracks. The long-term static leaching observations were not satisfactorily explained by the MCC-3 type solubility test results. It is important to clarify the solubility-dependent leaching behaviors at large SA/V ratios. (Nogami, K.)

  5. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  6. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sociu F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa, to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  8. Long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.I.; Stark, D.C.; Kaar, P.H.

    1982-04-01

    This report has been prepared for the In Situ Waste Disposal Program Tank Assessment Task (WG-11) as part of an investigation to evaluate the long-term performance of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This report, prepared by the Portland Cement Association, presents the results of four years of concrete degradation studies which exposed concrete and reinforcing steel, under load and at 180 0 F, to simulated double-shell slurry, simulated salt cake solution, and a control solution. Exposure length varied from 3 months to 36 months. In all cases, examination of the concrete and reinforcing steel at the end of the exposure indicated there was no attack, i.e., no evidence of rusting, cracking, disruption of mill scale or loss of strength

  9. Material interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in a geologic repository will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. These materials are the steel canister that holds the glass, the steel overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and last, the repository host rock. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g., oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interaction(s) is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. Repository relevant interactions testing that requires further study before long-term predictions can be made are noted. 62 refs

  10. Radioactive waste disposal system for Cuba. Safety assessment for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Mirta Torrez, B.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is performed within the frame of evaluating the radiological impact of the post-closure stage of the facility for disposal of the radioactive wastes generated in Cuba, including a description of the waste disposal systems defined in the country, and taking account of significant elements of their long term safety. The Methodology for Safety Assessment includes: the definition of possible scenarios for evaluation, the identification of principal present uncertainties, the model simulating the release of the radionuclides of the facility, their transport through the geosphere, and their final access to man, evaluating ultimately the radiological impact of the disposal system considering the dose for a critical group. The results obtained allow to demonstrate the radiological safety of the nominative barrier in the design of the system for the particular conditions of Cuba. (author)

  11. Role of water balance in the long-term stability of hazardous waste site cover treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Rodgers, J.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-01-01

    After the 30-year post-closure maintenance period at hazardous waste landfills, long-term stability must be assured without continued intervention. Understanding water balance in the established vegetative cover system is central to predicting such stability. A Los Alamos National Laboratory research project has established a series of experimental cover treatment plots on a closed waste disposal site which will permit the determination of the effects of such critical parameters as soil cover design, leaf area index, and rooting characteristics on water balance under varied conditions. Data from these experiments are being analyzed by water balance modeling and other means. The results show consistent differences in soil moisture storage between soil profiles and between vegetation cover treatments

  12. Waste partitioning and transmutation as a means towards long-term risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1993-09-01

    It has been an idea for some time to reduce the long-term potential hazard of the waste by chemical removal of the actinides as well as some long-lived fission products and their subsequent transmutation in an intense neutron flux. Transmutation would thus shorten the required containment period of radioactive material in a repository. It is estimated, that development of such technology would take at least 40 years because facilities would be required to perform a clean actinide and fission product isolation and to fabricate the fuel elements that contained the separated nuclides. This latter requirements would involve a major expansion of new chemical process steps which are not available as yet. Development of new equipment to maintain occupational exposures as low as reasonably achievable and to minimize releases of radioactivity to the environment would also be necessary. Partitioning and transmutation should be introduced, if at all, as a long-term decision about new nuclear power technology as a future energy source. With regard to this, R and D work dealing with basic questions seems to be worthwhile, However, the introduction of partitioning and transmutation will not eliminate the need for radioactive waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The composition effect on the long-term corrosion of high-level waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Waste glass can be optimized for long-term corrosion behavior if the key parameters that control the rate of corrosion are identified, measured, and modeled as functions of glass composition. Second-order polynomial models have been used to optimize glass with respect to a set of requirements on glass properties, such as viscosity and outcomes of standard corrosion tests. Extensive databases exist for the 7-day Product Consistency Test and the 28-day Materials Characterization Center tests, which have been used for nuclear waste glasses in the United States. Models based on these tests are reviewed and discussed to demonstrate the compositional effects on the extent of corrosion under specified conditions. However, modeling the rate of corrosion is potentially more useful for predicting long-term behavior than modeling the extent of corrosion measured by standard tests. Based on an experimental study of two glasses, it is shown that the rate of corrosion can be characterized by simple functions with physically meaningful coefficients. (author)

  14. An assessment method for long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiss, W.

    2006-01-01

    The nine-member Assessment Team, assembled by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization in early 2004, reported the results of its work in the NWMO document, 'Assessing the Options: Future Management of Used Nuclear Fuel in Canada (June 2004). The team was responding to the challenge to develop a rigorous and credible evaluation of multiple options, and one which would also satisfy a complex set of objectives: a solution that would be 'socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible, and economically feasible.' This paper describes the special challenges faced by the Assessment Team in seeking to respond to this multifaceted assignment. I open by discussing the implications of the institutional and legal framework inherited by the NWMO from the Seaborn Panel (including the government's response to the Seaborn Panel report), which in effect set a new standard for the practice of risk management decision making in Canada. I then review the highlights of the Assessment Team's report, including its chosen method, namely, multi-objective utility analysis. I conclude with a discussion of the longer term implications of the assessment work done to date for the next stages in the process of finding a credible solution for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel in Canada. (author)

  15. Characterization, Improvement and Long Term Evaluation Of Cementitious Waste Products. An Indian Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaeotikar, R.G.; Rakesh, R.R.; Shirole, A.; Paul, B.; Valsala, T.P.; Choudhury, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cement is a very good matrix for immobilization for different types of wastes. In India, the cementation process has been adopted and used for the last four decades. Depending on the waste composition, there is need to formulate the cement waste matrix appropriately to ensure adequate compressive strength and chemical durability. This has been achieved by using different additives/backfill materials during the cementation process with cements for example Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Slag Based Cements (SBC). Backfill materials studied include vermiculite and bentonite. They were evaluated for sorption characteristics, particle size distribution, water equilibration, etc. They were incorporated in the OPC-CWP (Cement Waste Product) with various waste compositions. The composition developed for ILW generated during reprocessing and during spent solvent hydrolysis were successfully adopted on a plant scale. Some of the compositions which are being developed are also in the process of being adopted in-plant. The long-term evaluation study of the CWP was carried out at actual site conditions where CWP in carbon steel drum, plastic drums and bare CWP were disposed in 2001 and removed in 2010: parameters including compressive strength and release of activity to the soil were measured. (author)

  16. Evaluating the feasibility of biological waste processing for long term space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Alazraki, M. P.; Atkinson, C. F.; Finger, B. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Recycling waste products during orbital (e.g., International Space Station) and planetary missions (e.g., lunar base, Mars transit mission, Martian base) will reduce storage and resupply costs. Wastes streams on the space station will include human hygiene water, urine, faeces, and trash. Longer term missions will contain human waste and inedible plant material from plant growth systems used for atmospheric regeneration, food production, and water recycling. The feasibility of biological and physical-chemical waste recycling is being investigated as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. In-vessel composting has lower manpower requirements, lower water and volume requirements, and greater potential for sanitization of human waste compared to alternative bioreactor designs such as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Residual solids from the process (i.e. compost) could be used a biological air filter, a plant nutrient source, and a carbon sink. Potential in-vessel composting designs for both near- and long-term space missions are presented and discussed with respect to the unique aspects of space-based systems.

  17. Materials interactions relating to long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the geologic disposal of nuclear waste glass, the glass will eventually interact with groundwater in the repository system. Interactions can also occur between the glass and other waste package materials that are present. These include the steel canister that holds the glass, the metal overpack over the canister, backfill materials that may be used, and the repository host rock. This review paper systematizes the additional interactions that materials in the waste package will impose on the borosilicate glass waste form-groundwater interactions. The repository geologies reviewed are tuff, salt, basalt, and granite. The interactions emphasized are those appropriate to conditions expected after repository closure, e.g. oxic vs anoxic conditions. Whenever possible, the effect of radiation from the waste form on the interactions is examined. The interactions are evaluated based on their effect on the release and speciation of various elements including radionuclides from the glass. It is noted when further tests of repository interactions are needed before long-term predictions can be made. 63 references, 1 table

  18. Synthesis of knowledge on the long-term behaviour of concretes. Applications to cemented waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richet, C.; Galle, C.; Le Bescop, P.; Peycelon, H.; Bejaoui, S.; Tovena, I.; Pointeau, I.; L'Hostis, V.; Levera, P.

    2004-03-01

    As stipulated in the former law of December 91 relating to 'concrete waste package', a progress report (phenomenological reference document) was first provided in 1999. The objective was to make an assessment of the knowledge acquired on the long-term behaviour of cement-based waste packages in the context of deep disposal and/or interim storage. The present document is an updated summary report. It takes into account a new knowledge assessment, considers coupled mechanisms and should contribute to the first performance studies (operational calculations). Handling and radio-nuclides (RN) confinement are the two major functional properties requested from the concrete used for the waste packages. In unsaturated environment (interim storage/disposal prior to closing), the main problem is the generation of cracks in the material. This aspect is a key parameter from the mechanical point of view (retrievability). It can have a major impact on the disposal phase (confinement). In saturated environment (disposal post-closing phase), the main concern is the chemical degradation of the waste package concrete submitted to underground waters leaching. In this context, the major thema are: the durability of the concretes under water (chemical degradation) and in unsaturated medium (corrosion of reinforcement), matter transport, RN retention, chemistry / transport / mechanical couplings. On the other hand, laboratory data on the behaviour of concretes are used to evaluate the RN source term of waste packages in function of time (concrete waste package OPerational Model, i.e. 'Concrete MOP'). The 'MOP' provides the physico-chemical description of the RN release in relationship with the waste package degradation itself. This description is based on simplified phenomenology for which only dimensioning mechanisms are taken into account. The use of Diffu-Ca code (basic module for the MOP) on the CASTEM numerical plate-form, already allows operational predictions. (authors)

  19. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, July-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-02-01

    This composite quarterly technical report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The technical information included in this report is structured along the lines of the Work Breakdown Structure adopted for use in the High-Level Waste Management Technology (WBS) program. The functions and work elements of the WBS are as follows: function 1 - program management and support, which includes work elements of management and budget, environmental and safety assessments, and other support; function 2 - waste preparation, which includes in-situ storage or disposal, waste retrieval, and separation and concentration; function 3 - waste fixation with work elements of waste form development and characterization, and process and equipment development; and function 4 - final handling which includes canister development and characterization, and onsite storage or disposal

  20. Complications Associated with Long-Term Disposition of Newly-Generated Transuranic Waste: A National Laboratory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchard, B.J.; Harvego, L.A.; Carlson, T.L.; Grant, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a multipurpose national laboratory delivering specialized science and engineering solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sponsorship of INL was formally transferred to the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) by Secretary Spencer Abraham in July 2002. The move to NE, and designation as the DOE lead nuclear energy laboratory for reactor technology, supports the nation's expanding nuclear energy initiatives, placing INL at the center of work to develop advanced Generation IV nuclear energy systems; nuclear energy/hydrogen coproduction technology; advanced nuclear energy fuel cycle technologies; and providing national security answers to national infrastructure needs. As a result of the Laboratory's NE mission, INL generates both contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic (TRU) waste from ongoing operations. Generation rates are relatively small and fluctuate based on specific programs and project activities being conducted; however, the Laboratory will continue to generate TRU waste well into the future in association with the NE mission. Currently, plans and capabilities are being established to transfer INL's contact-handled TRU waste to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) for certification and disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Remote-handled TRU waste is currently placed in storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). In an effort to minimize future liabilities associated with the INL NE mission, INL is evaluating and assessing options for the management and disposition of all its TRU waste on a real-time basis at time of generation. This paper summarizes near-term activities to minimize future re handling of INL's TRU waste, as well as, potential complications associated with the long-term disposition of newly-generated TRU waste. Potential complications impacting the disposition of INL newly-generated TRU waste include, but are not limited to: (1

  1. Solid waste: terminological and long-term environmental risk assessment problems exemplified in a power plant fly ash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardowska, Irena; Szczepanska, Jadwiga

    2002-02-21

    Legal definitions exert a significant impact on the waste management strategy. Waste that is technically suitable for recovery does not automatically become a raw material if there is no market for it, or its use is not commercially effective and, hence, they should be disposed of. The majority of disposed wastes, including recyclable waste, are not environmentally safe. Waste as a freshly generated anthropogenic material is not geochemically stable. Przezchlebie fly ash surface pond (Upper Silesia, Poland) in the post-closure stage was subject to field validation of the results of laboratory leaching/extraction tests and long-term column experiments on fly ash (FA) leaching behaviour under controlled conditions for environmental risk assessment. The study showed: (i) the possibility of a discontinuous non-linear time delayed increase of pollution potential of disused 'non-hazardous' large-volume waste in the dumping sites to the hazardous level; (ii) inconsistency of the laboratory leaching tests and the actual leaching behaviour of trace metals, particularly when equilibria conditions are dictated by kinetically determined reactions where the test results reflected entirely wash-out (I) and dissolution (II) phases, but did not comprise delayed release (III) phase; and (iii) necessity of life-cycle screening/monitoring of 'non-hazardous' dumping sites for contaminant release as a function of the primary (pH-Eh, ionic strength, ionic composition of solute) and secondary controlling factors (L/S-liquid to solid ratio, water flow conditions) along the vertical profile of an anthropogenic or natural vadose zone. These data are to be used to develop long-term predictive hydrogeochemical models and their field validation, and for providing an early warning and remedial actions with respect to the particular site. The formation of pH (and Eh) as a function of time-dependent (kinetically defined) processes appeared to be a key issue for a correct prediction of the

  2. The long-term acceleration of waste glass corrosion: A preliminary review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-07-01

    Whereas a prior conception of glass dissolution assumed a relatively rapid initial dissolution which then slowed to a smaller, fairly constant longer-term rate, some recent work suggests that these two stages are followed by a third phase of dissolution, in which the dissolution rate is accelerated with respect to what had previously been thought of as the final long-term rate. The goals of the present study are to compile experimental data which may have a bearing on this phenomena, and to provide an initial assessment of these data. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is contracted to develop glass formulation models for vitrification of Hanford low-level waste (LLW), in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System Technology Development Program. The phenomenon of an increase in corrosion rate, following a period characterized by a low corrosion rate, has been observed by a number of researchers on a number of waste glass compositions. Despite inherent ambiguities arising from SA/V (glass surface area to solution volume ratio) and other effects, valid comparisons can be made in which accelerated corrosion was observed in one test, but not in another. Some glass compositions do not appear to attain a plateau region; it may be that the observation of continued, non-negligible corrosion in these glasses represents a passage from the initial rate to the accelerated rate. The long-term corrosion is a function of the interaction between the glass and its environment, including the leaching solution and the surrounding materials. Reaction path modeling and stability field considerations have been used with some success to predict the changes in corrosion rate over time, due to these interactions. The accelerated corrosion phenomenon highlights the need for such integrated corrosion modeling and the scenario-specific nature of a particular glass composition's durability

  3. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  4. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra 226 , Rn 222 and Sn 126 are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra 226 and Rn 222 , solubility limit of Se 79 . (authors)

  5. Long-term environmental assessment of waste from PyroGreen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Heejae; Hahm, Inhye; Sohn, Sungjune; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    We have conducted a long-term environmental assessment of a geological repository for Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) arising from PyroGreen processes that has been developed to decontaminate all HLW from the pyrochemical partitioning of spent nuclear fuels (SNF). PyroGreen process has been designed so that final ILW can meet conservative acceptance criteria such as one established for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in U.S.A. The nuclide inventory of final vitrified PyroGreen waste is calculated using ORIGEN 2.1 based on the design decontamination factor of PyroGreen processes applied to 18,171 metric tons of PWR SNF with 45 GWD/MTU burnup. Using GoldSim model, the environmental impact of ILW upon geological disposal at an intermediate depth. Among radioactive nuclides, Ra{sup 226}, Rn{sup 222} and Sn{sup 126} are identified as key contributors to radiological dose for general public. The environmental impact of PyroGreen wastes satisfies the Korean dose limit of 0.1 mSv/year with sufficiently high margin. Sensitivity studies have shown that the predicted dose can vary significantly by distribution coefficient of Ra{sup 226} and Rn{sup 222}, solubility limit of Se{sup 79}. (authors)

  6. High level radioactive wastes storage characterization and long-term behaviour of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.P.; Garcia Serrano, J.; Mendez Martin, F.J.; Quinones Diez, J.; Rodriguez Almazan, J.L.; Serrano Agejas, J.A.; Esteban Hernandez, J.A.

    1997-04-01

    The knowledge of long term spent fuel behaviour in a repository is one of the main goals in the waste management assessment due to its influence on repository design topics and on the performance assessment. At the moment, Spain has not selected a geological formation for a final repository. Therefore, R AND D activities are performed by considering granite, salt and clay as candidate options. This report summarises the activities carried out in CIEMAT from 1991 to 1995 in the frame of the Agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA in the Area of spent fuel direct disposed. Experimental activities include leaching experiments of spent fuel, UO 2 and SIMFUEL and co-precipitation/solubility experiments of relevant secondary solid phases expected under repository conditions. The objective of leaching studies is to understand the processes which will occur when the underground water accede to the source term and to provide leaching rates of spent fuel and the influence of several variables as pH, Eh, etc. The co-precipitation/solubility experiments are focused on the knowledge of the formation conditions of relevant secondary phases, to characterise these phases and to determine their solubility, which could control the leaching of spent fuel. One of the main items to carry out the objectives before indicated in both leaching and co-precipitation/solubility experiments is to perform a extensive solid phases characterisation in order to facilitate the understanding of the processes involved. This report is structured in three parts, the first include experimental procedures, characterisation techniques and solid and solution analyses. The second shows the leaching results obtained by considering the effect of pH, complex formation, redox conditions, surface/volume ratio, etc. The third supply the results of the co-precipitation/solubility studies. The conclusions obtained in this work are considered as the start point of going on and more extensive studies on the mechanisms

  7. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. Copyright 2004 Oxford University Press

  8. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  9. Long-term performance of aged waste forms treated by stabilization/solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antemir, Aurora; Hills, Colin D; Carey, Paula J; Gardner, Kevin H; Bates, Edward R; Crumbie, Alison K

    2010-09-15

    Current regulatory testing of stabilized/solidified (S/S) soils is based on short-term performance tests and is insufficient to determine their long-term stability or expected service life. In view of this, and the significant lack of data on long-term field performance in the literature, S/S material has been extracted from full-scale remedial operations and examined using a variety of analytical techniques to evaluate field performance. The results, including those from X-ray analytical techniques, optical and electron microscopy and leaching tests are presented and discussed. The microstructure of retrieved samples was found to be analogous to other cement-based materials, but varied according to the soil type, the contaminants present, the treatment applied and the field exposure conditions. Summary of the key microstructural features in the USA and UK is presented in this work. The work has shown that during 16 years of service the S/S wastes investigated performed satisfactorily. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term performance of aged waste forms treated by stabilization/solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antemir, Aurora; Hills, Colin D.; Carey, Paula J.; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bates, Edward R.; Crumbie, Alison K.

    2010-01-01

    Current regulatory testing of stabilized/solidified (S/S) soils is based on short-term performance tests and is insufficient to determine their long-term stability or expected service life. In view of this, and the significant lack of data on long-term field performance in the literature, S/S material has been extracted from full-scale remedial operations and examined using a variety of analytical techniques to evaluate field performance. The results, including those from X-ray analytical techniques, optical and electron microscopy and leaching tests are presented and discussed. The microstructure of retrieved samples was found to be analogous to other cement-based materials, but varied according to the soil type, the contaminants present, the treatment applied and the field exposure conditions. Summary of the key microstructural features in the USA and UK is presented in this work. The work has shown that during 16 years of service the S/S wastes investigated performed satisfactorily.

  11. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjoo Oh, Ph.D., RN, GNP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for successful case management. Methods: Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Medical Aid case managers with 3 or more years of case management experience were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural regions. Data were collected through in-depth interviews: 12 nurse case managers participated in focus group interviews and 11 participated in individual one-on-one interviews. Results: Four major themes emerged: on-site obstacles that hinder work progress; going in an opposite direction; ambiguous position of case managers; and work-related emotions. Eleven subthemes were discovered: chasing potential candidates; becoming an enemy; discharging patients who have nowhere to go; welfare-centered national policies increasing medical costs; Medical Aid Program that encourages hospitalization; misuse of hospitalization; feeling limited; working without authority; fulfilling the expected role; fretting about social criticism; and feeling neglected and unprotected. Conclusion: The findings highlight the complexity and ambiguity of the issues faced by case managers. Successful management of Medical Aid resources requires the orchestrated efforts and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. More systematized support and resources for nurse case managers are essential to fully implement this nursing innovation in Korea. Keywords: case management, focus groups, hospitalization, qualitative research, vulnerable populations

  12. Report on the long-term interim storage of spent fuels and vitrified wastes; Gutachten zur Langzeitzwischenlagerung abgebrannter Brennelemente und verglaster Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-03

    Long-term interim storage for several hundred years is an option on the management of high-level radioactive wastes. The decision on final disposal is postponed. Worldwide the long-term interim storage is not part of the disposal concept - a geologic final repository is the ultimate aim. Using today's technology the interim storage over several hundred years is supposed to be uncritical. Aging management is the most important challenge - the renewal of the facilities would have to be expected. Possible social change and their impact on the interim storage problem has not been considered.

  13. Nurse Case Managers' Experiences on Case Management for Long-term Hospitalization in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jinjoo; Oh, Seieun

    2017-12-01

    The implementation of case management for long-term hospitalization use has been approved for controlling medical cost increases in other countries. But, introduction of the case management in Korea has created issues that hinder its effective operation. This qualitative study aimed to obtain further understanding of the issues surrounding the management of Medical Aid beneficiaries' use of long-term hospitalization from the case managers' perspectives and to provide suggestions for successful case management. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Medical Aid case managers with 3 or more years of case management experience were recruited from urban, suburban, and rural regions. Data were collected through in-depth interviews: 12 nurse case managers participated in focus group interviews and 11 participated in individual one-on-one interviews. Four major themes emerged: on-site obstacles that hinder work progress; going in an opposite direction; ambiguous position of case managers; and work-related emotions. Eleven subthemes were discovered: chasing potential candidates; becoming an enemy; discharging patients who have nowhere to go; welfare-centered national policies increasing medical costs; Medical Aid Program that encourages hospitalization; misuse of hospitalization; feeling limited; working without authority; fulfilling the expected role; fretting about social criticism; and feeling neglected and unprotected. The findings highlight the complexity and ambiguity of the issues faced by case managers. Successful management of Medical Aid resources requires the orchestrated efforts and collaboration of multiple stakeholders. More systematized support and resources for nurse case managers are essential to fully implement this nursing innovation in Korea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Impact of microbial activity on the radioactive waste disposal: long term prediction of biocorrosion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Marie; Schütz, Marta Kerber; Esnault, Loïc; Féron, Damien; Bildstein, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    This study emphasizes different experimental approaches and provides perspectives to apprehend biocorrosion phenomena in the specific disposal environment by investigating microbial activity with regard to the modification of corrosion rate, which in turn can have an impact on the safety of radioactive waste geological disposal. It is found that iron-reducing bacteria are able to use corrosion products such as iron oxides and "dihydrogen" as new energy sources, especially in the disposal environment which contains low amounts of organic matter. Moreover, in the case of sulphate-reducing bacteria, the results show that mixed aerobic and anaerobic conditions are the most hazardous for stainless steel materials, a situation which is likely to occur in the early stage of a geological disposal. Finally, an integrated methodological approach is applied to validate the understanding of the complex processes and to design experiments aiming at the acquisition of kinetic data used in long term predictive modelling of biocorrosion processes. © 2013.

  15. Investigation on polyetheretherketone composite for long term storage of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Sivakumar, Venugopal; Varshney, Lalit; Kumar, Virendra; Abraham, Mathew

    2015-12-01

    This investigation highlights the effect of radiation, chemical and thermal environments on mechanical and thermal properties of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites, which could prove to be an alternative material for long term storage of nuclear wastes. The tests are conducted on specimens made from PEEK and PEEK reinforced with carbon short fiber. The specimens are subjected to radiation doses, equivalent to the cumulative dosage for 500 years followed by exposure under highly corrosive and thermal environments. Studies under optical microscopy reveal that the dispersion of carbon short fiber in the PEEK Composites is significantly uniform. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that there are no significant changes in thermal properties of PEEK composite when exposed to aggressive environments. It is further observed that there are no significant changes in mechanical properties of the composite after exposure to radiation and thermo-chemical environment.

  16. Evaluating long-term performance of in situ vitrified waste forms: Methodology and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrail, B.P.; Olson, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an emerging technology for the remediation of hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The concept relies on the principle of Joule heating to raise the temperature of a soil between an array of electrodes above the melting temperature. After cooling, the melt solidifies into a massive glass and crystalline block similar to naturally occurring obsidian. Determining the long-term performance of ISV products in a changing regulatory environment requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms controlling the dissolution behavior of the material. A series of experiments was performed to determine the dissolution behavior of samples produced from the ISV processing of typical soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory subsurface disposal area. Dissolution rate constant measurements were completed at 90 degrees C over the pH range 2 to 11 for one sample obtained from a field test of the ISV process

  17. Investigation on polyetheretherketone composite for long term storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Sivakumar, Venugopal; Varshney, Lalit; Kumar, Virendra; Abraham, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    This investigation highlights the effect of radiation, chemical and thermal environments on mechanical and thermal properties of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites, which could prove to be an alternative material for long term storage of nuclear wastes. The tests are conducted on specimens made from PEEK and PEEK reinforced with carbon short fiber. The specimens are subjected to radiation doses, equivalent to the cumulative dosage for 500 years followed by exposure under highly corrosive and thermal environments. Studies under optical microscopy reveal that the dispersion of carbon short fiber in the PEEK Composites is significantly uniform. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that there are no significant changes in thermal properties of PEEK composite when exposed to aggressive environments. It is further observed that there are no significant changes in mechanical properties of the composite after exposure to radiation and thermo-chemical environment.

  18. Long-Term Performance of Transuranic Waste Inadvertently Disposed in a Shallow Land Burial Trench at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shott, Gregory J.; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-01-01

    In 1986, 21 m3 of transuranic (TRU) waste was inadvertently disposed in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste must be disposed in accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standard for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is the only facility meeting these requirements. The National Research Council, however, has found that exhumation of buried TRU waste for disposal in a deep geologic repository may not be warranted when the effort, exposures, and expense of retrieval are not commensurate with the risk reduction achieved. The long-term risks of leaving the TRU waste in-place are evaluated in two probabilistic performance assessments. A composite analysis, assessing the dose from all disposed waste and interacting sources of residual contamination, estimates an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 0.01 mSv, or 3 percent of the dose constraint. A 40 CFR 191 performance assessment also indicates there is reasonable assurance of meeting all requirements. The 40 CFR 191.15 annual mean TEDE for a member of the public is estimated to reach a maximum of 0.055 mSv at 10,000 years, or approximately 37 percent of the 0.15 mSv individual protection requirement. In both assessments greater than 99 percent of the dose is from co-disposed low-level waste. The simulated probability of the 40 CFR 191.13 cumulative release exceeding 1 and 10 times the release limit is estimated to be 0.0093 and less than 0.0001, respectively. Site characterization data and hydrologic process modeling support a conclusion of no groundwater pathway within 10,000 years. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is reasonable assurance of meeting all regulatory requirements. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the results

  19. Guide to effective research-management collaboration at long-term environmental research sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick J. Swanson; Steve Eubanks; Mary Beth Adams; John C. Brissette

    2010-01-01

    The Forest Service system of experimental forests and ranges (EFRs) and other sites of long-term silvicultural, watershed, and ecological research have contributed to science and natural resource management for more than a century. An important aspect of the success of EFR programs is strong collaboration between the research and land manager communities. This guide...

  20. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, January-March 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-08-01

    This composite quarterly technical report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The report is structured along the lines of the Work Breakdown Structure adopted for use in the High-Level Waste Management Technology program. These are: (1) program management and support with subtasks of management and budget, environmental and safety assessments, and other support; (2) waste preparation with subtasks of in-situ storage or disposal, waste retrieval, and separation and concentration; (3) waste fixation with subtasks of waste form development and characterization, and process and equipment development; and (4) final handling with subtasks of canister development and characterization and onsite storage or disposal. Some of the highlights are: preliminary event trees defining possible accidents were completed in the safety assessment of continued in-tank storage of high-level waste at Hanford; two low-cost waste forms (tailored concrete and bitumen) were investigated as candidate immobilization forms at the Hanford in-situ disposal studies of high-level waste; in comparative impact tests at the same impact energy per specimen volume, the same mass of respirable sizes was observed at ANL for SRL Frit 131 glass, SYNROC B ceramic, and SYNROC D ceramic; leaching tests were conducted on alkoxide glasses; glass-ceramic, concrete, and SYNROC D; a process design description was written for the tailored ceramic process

  1. New results on long term aging tests for rad-waste container alloy selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, H.; Wahl, V.; Ibas, O.; Stenner, F.

    2004-01-01

    The current design of containers for high level nuclear waste proceeds on using an outer barrier of corrosion resistant Ni-based super alloy. The current alloy of choice is alloy 22 (UNS N06022). It is a quaternary Ni-Cr- Mo-W alloy system. The new but well established alloy 59 (UNS N06059) is an excellent equal or even a superior alternative to alloy 22 for the 10,000 years reliability being sought. Alloy 59 is a pure ternary alloy in the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system. Objective of this paper is to present data comparing these two alloys. Therefore the behaviour of alloy 59 and alloy 22 was characterised after aging in air for 10,000 h and 20,000 h at different temperatures (200, 300 and 427 deg. C). Since the performance of weldments is of great concern, both welded and unwelded specimens were studied. Mechanical properties of the air aged alloys were measured at room temperature by tensile and notch impact-bending test. Thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are considered to be the key issues in the long-term performance of container materials proposed for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The long-term thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the alloy 59 compared to alloy 22 is discussed. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in ASTM G28 A and 'green death' solution laboratory tests; hereby corrosion rates and depth of attack were determined. Metallo-graphical studies were performed in mill annealed and air aged conditions. The results of the aging tests at 10,000 h and 20,000 h show that alloy 59 is an equal or better candidate material due to its superior localised corrosion resistance behaviour (pitting and crevice corrosion resistance) and better thermal stability needed especially in multi-pass welding of thick sections. Therefore alloy 59 seems to be the most promising alternative to alloy 22. (authors)

  2. New results on long term aging tests for rad-waste container alloy selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, H.; Wahl, V.; Ibas, O.; Stenner, F. [ThyssenKrupp VDM GmbH, Altena (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The current design of containers for high level nuclear waste proceeds on using an outer barrier of corrosion resistant Ni-based super alloy. The current alloy of choice is alloy 22 (UNS N06022). It is a quaternary Ni-Cr- Mo-W alloy system. The new but well established alloy 59 (UNS N06059) is an excellent equal or even a superior alternative to alloy 22 for the 10,000 years reliability being sought. Alloy 59 is a pure ternary alloy in the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy system. Objective of this paper is to present data comparing these two alloys. Therefore the behaviour of alloy 59 and alloy 22 was characterised after aging in air for 10,000 h and 20,000 h at different temperatures (200, 300 and 427 deg. C). Since the performance of weldments is of great concern, both welded and unwelded specimens were studied. Mechanical properties of the air aged alloys were measured at room temperature by tensile and notch impact-bending test. Thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are considered to be the key issues in the long-term performance of container materials proposed for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. The long-term thermal stability and corrosion resistance of the alloy 59 compared to alloy 22 is discussed. Corrosion resistance was evaluated in ASTM G28 A and 'green death' solution laboratory tests; hereby corrosion rates and depth of attack were determined. Metallo-graphical studies were performed in mill annealed and air aged conditions. The results of the aging tests at 10,000 h and 20,000 h show that alloy 59 is an equal or better candidate material due to its superior localised corrosion resistance behaviour (pitting and crevice corrosion resistance) and better thermal stability needed especially in multi-pass welding of thick sections. Therefore alloy 59 seems to be the most promising alternative to alloy 22. (authors)

  3. Monitoring and inspection techniques for long term storage of higher activity waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, following recent changes in United Kingdom (UK) Government Policy, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) identified a knowledge gap in the area of long term interim storage of waste packages. A cross-industry Integrated Project Team (IPT) for Interim Storage was created with responsibility for delivering Industry Guidance on the storage of packaged Higher Activity Waste (HAW) for the current UK civil decommissioning and clean-up programmes. This included a remit to direct research and development projects via the NDA's Direct Research Portfolio (DRP) to fill the knowledge gap. The IPT for Interim Storage published Industry Guidance in 2012 which established a method to define generic package performance criteria and made recommendations on monitoring and inspection. The package performance method consists of the following steps; identification of the package safety function, identification of evolutionary processes that may affect safety function performance, determination of measurable indicators of these evolutionary processes and calibration of the indicators into package performance zones. This article provides an overview of three projects funded by the NDA's DRP that the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) have completed to address monitoring and inspection needs of waste packages in interim storage. (orig.)

  4. The value and need for long term conservation of information regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    An important question in safety assessment of all repositories where toxic waste is disposed is how long should information be available to society about the repository and its content? Future societies right to knowledge must be considered and actions must already today be taken to ensure that proper information conservation, transfer and retrieval are provided. Collection of relevant information must be planned for at the research, construction and the operational phase of a repository. One of the main areas for information conservation and transfer is to mitigate future human intrusion. A system for best possible mitigation of human intrusion should with the present knowledge comprise the following parts: (a) development of planning procedures for long-term conservation of gathered information (present and future national and international archives, markers etc.); (b) continuous follow up of the state-of-the-art of information media; (c) preparations for national rules and regulations on nuclear waste information; (d) participation in international cooperation on issues concerning nuclear waste information keeping, transfer and retrieval.

  5. Long-term impacts on sewers following food waste disposer installation in housing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Jonathan; Hedström, Annelie; Viklander, Maria

    2014-01-01

    To increase biogas generation and decrease vehicle transportation of solid waste, the integration of food waste disposers (FWDs) into the wastewater system has been proposed. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term impact of the additional load of the FWDs on sewer systems. To examine the said impact, this study has used closed-circuit television inspection techniques to evaluate the status of 181 concrete pipes serving single family housing areas with a diameter of 225 mm, ranging from a 100% connection rate of households with an FWD to none. A minor study was also performed on a multi-family housing area, where mainly plastic pipes (200 mm) were used. The extent and distribution of deposits related to the ratio of FWDs, inclination and pipe sagging (backfalls) were ascertained by using linear regression and analysis of variance. The results showed that FWDs have had an impact on the level of deposits in the sewer, but this has, in turn, been of minor significance. With a high connection rate of FWDs upstream of a pipe, the extent of the total level of deposits, as well as finer sediments, was statistically determined to be greater. However, the majority of the deposits were observed to be small, which would suggest the impact of FWDs on sewer performance to be minor. As food waste not compatible with the FWD was seen in the sewers, educational campaigns could be beneficial to further lower the risks of sewer blocking.

  6. Criteria for long-term hazard assessment of chemotoxic and radiotoxic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Present-day human activities generate chemotoxic as well as radiotoxic wastes. They must likewise be considered as extremely hazardous. If wastes are composed simultaneously of both kinds, as may occur in nuclear facility operations or nuclear medical applications, the material is called mixed waste. Whereas radioactive waste management and disposal have received considerable attention in the past, less care has been devoted to chemotoxic wastes. Also, mixed wastes may pose problems diverging from singly composed materials. The disposal of mixed wastes is not sufficiently well regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany. Currently, non-radioactive hazardous wastes are mostly disposed of by shallow land burial. Much more rigorous safety precautions are applied with regard to radioactive wastes. According to the orders of the German Federal Government, their disposal is only permitted in continental underground repositories. These repository requirements for radioactive waste disposal should be superior to the near-surface disposal facilities. At present, federal and state legislation do not permit hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes to be deposited simultaneously. It is doubtful whether this instruction is always suitable and also justified. This paper presents a modified strategy

  7. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  8. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Nisbet, A; Cox, G; Oughton, D H; Hunt, J; Alvarez, B; Andersson, K G; Liland, A; Voigt, G

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed.

  9. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Nisbet, A.; Cox, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunt, J.; Alvarez, B.; Andersson, K.G.; Liland, A.; Voigt, G.

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed

  10. Regulatory document R-104, Regulatory objectives, requirements and guidelines for the disposal of radioactive wastes - long-term aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this document is to present the regulatory basis for judging the long-term acceptability of radioactive waste disposal options. The basic objectives of radioactive waste disposal are given as are the regulatory requirements to be satisfied. (NEA)

  11. Organizing and delivering case management services: lessons from the National Long Term Care Channeling Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, J B; Applebaum, R; Carcagno, G; Phillips, B

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses issues relating to the design and internal administration of a case-management agency for community based home care for the elderly. Included in the article are issues relating to screening procedures, assessment and case management activities, cost controls, automated management information systems, and personnel matters. The analysis is based on the experience of the National Long Term Care Demonstration ("Channeling") which established and evaluated ten case management projects nationwide under federal funding.

  12. Emergency Response and Long Term Planning: Two sides of the Coin for Managing Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metchis, K.; Beller-Simms, N.

    2014-12-01

    As projected by the US National Climate Assessment and the IPCC, extreme climate and weather events are occurring more frequently and with more intensity across the nation. Communities - and the water resource managers that serve them - are facing difficult choices to increase emergency preparedness, recover from costly impacts, and increase long term resilience. The presentation is based on a recent set of case studies about what happened in six communities that experienced one or more extreme events, focusing on water resource management. Two of the case studies will be presented, revealing that building climate resilience is not just about long term planning - it is also about taking the steps to be prepared for - and to be able to recover from - emergency events. The results of this study have implications for educating local officials on ways to think about resilience to balance both long-term and short-term preparedness.

  13. Composite quarterly technical report: long-term high-level waste technology, October-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-04-01

    The technical information in this report summarizes work performed at participating sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes. The areas reported are in: program management and support; waste preparation; waste fixation; and final handling. Majority of the studies were in the area of waste fixation, some of which are: leaching tests of ceramic forms, high silica glass, graphite powder and other carbon preparations; viscosity measurements for a range of waste-glass compositions from references borosilicate glass to high-alumina glasses; neutron activation analysis for measuring leach rates; preparation of SYNROC D spheres; formulations for preparing ceramics from defense waste composition; development of a pilot-scale glass melter, and kinetic studies of slag formation in glass melters

  14. CONCRETE CONTAINERS FOR LONG TERM STORAGE AND FINAL DISPOSAL OF TRU WASTE AND LONG LIVED ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Asano, H.; Tunaboylu, K.; Mayer, G.; Klubertanz, G.; Kobayashi, S.; Komuro, T.; Wagner, E.

    2003-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste packaging development has been conducted since 1998 by the Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC) to support the TRU waste disposal concept in Japan. In this paper, the overview of development status of the reinforced concrete package is introduced. This package has been developed in order to satisfy the Japanese TRU waste disposal concept based on current technology and to provide a low cost package. Since 1998, the basic design work (safety evaluation, manufacturing and handling procedure, economic evaluation, elemental tests etc.) have been carried out. As a result, the basic specification of the package was decided. This report presents the concept as well as the results of basic design, focused on safety analysis and handling procedure of the package. Two types of the packages exist: - Package-A: for non-heat generating TRU waste from reprocessing in 200 l drums and - Package-B: for heat generating TRU-waste from reprocessing

  15. Long-term management of GERD in the elderly with pantoprazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Calabrese

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Calabrese, Anna Fabbri, Giulio Di FeboDepartment of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, ItalyAbstract: The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD increases with age and elderly are more likely to develop severe disease. Older patients often complain of less severe or frequent heartburn than younger patients and they may present with atypical symptoms such as dysphagia, weight loss, or extraesophageal symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs are central in the management of GERD and are unchallenged with regards to their efficacy. They are considered safe and more effective than histamine receptor antagonists for healing esophagitis and for preventing its recurrence using a long term maintenance treatment. PPI have minimal side effects and few slight drug interactions and are considered safe for long term treatment. Pantoprazole is significantly effective both for acute and long-term treatment with excellent control of relapse and symptoms. It is well tolerated even for long-term therapy and its tolerability is optimal. Pantoprazole shows to have minimal interactions with other drugs because of a lower affinity for cytocrome P450 than older PPIs. Although the majority of elderly has concomitant illnesses and receive other drugs, this does not adversely effect the efficacy of pantoprazole because of its pharmacokinetics, which are independent of patient age. Clinical practice suggests that a low dose maintenance of PPIs should be used in older patients with GERD.Keywords: GERD, long-term management, pantoprazole, safety, efficacy, tolerability

  16. Analysis on long-term strategy for radwaste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haicheng

    1998-08-01

    Radwaste presents a worldwide issue in the management of environmental protection. Most countries carrying out nuclear programs have developed strategies for their radwastes management. China has been executing its strategy, but the development of nuclear power is representing new challenges for the national radwastes management. This paper tries an analysis on the long-term management of radwastes in China. The exiting system of China's radwastes management is explained. Two important issues on radwastes management i.e. economics and social issues are analyzed. The future issues that will affect China's radwastes management are discussed. A short summary of the national radwastes management in NEA countries is involved in the paper. The analysis indicates that in China the exiting system of radwastes management is comprehensive but remains to be perfected. Improvements of long-term management need to be made in the aspects of economics and social issue. A financing system for long-term management, as a supplement for the exiting system of radwastes management, is expected to be created. (author)

  17. Analysis on long-term strategy for radwaste management in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Haicheng [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    Radwaste presents a worldwide issue in the management of environmental protection. Most countries carrying out nuclear programs have developed strategies for their radwastes management. China has been executing its strategy, but the development of nuclear power is representing new challenges for the national radwastes management. This paper tries an analysis on the long-term management of radwastes in China. The exiting system of China`s radwastes management is explained. Two important issues on radwastes management i.e. economics and social issues are analyzed. The future issues that will affect China`s radwastes management are discussed. A short summary of the national radwastes management in NEA countries is involved in the paper. The analysis indicates that in China the exiting system of radwastes management is comprehensive but remains to be perfected. Improvements of long-term management need to be made in the aspects of economics and social issue. A financing system for long-term management, as a supplement for the exiting system of radwastes management, is expected to be created. (author)

  18. Approaches to long-term conditions management and care for older people: similarities or differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Michael; Neno, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    In the past few years, there has been an increased emphasis both on the care for older people and the management of long-term conditions within the United Kingdom. Currently, the Department of Health and the Scottish Executive identify and manage these two areas as separate entities. The aim of this article is to examine the current approaches to both of these areas of care and identify commonalities and articulate differences. The population across the world and particularly within the United Kingdom is ageing at an unprecedented rate. The numbers suffering long-term illness conditions has also risen sharply in recent years. As such, nurses need to be engaged at a strategic level in the design of robust and appropriate services for this increasing population group. A comprehensive literature review on long-term conditions and the care of older people was undertaken in an attempt to identify commonalities and differences in strategic and organizational approaches. A policy analysis was conducted to support the paper and establish links that may inform local service development. Proposing service development based on identified needs rather than organizational boundaries after the establishment of clear links between health and social care for those with long-term conditions and the ageing population. Nurse Managers need to be aware of the similarities and differences in political and theoretical approaches to the care for older people and the management of long-term conditions. By adopting this view, creativity in the service redesign and service provision can be fostered and nurtured as well as achieving a renewed focus on partnership working across organizational boundaries. With the current renewed political focus on health and social care, there is an opportunity in the UK to redefine the structure of care. This paper proposes similarities between caring for older people and for those with long-term conditions, and it is proposed these encapsulate the wider

  19. Batch-wise final disposal made feasible by long-term interim storage of waste: the choice of the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans D.K.; Vrijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in the Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste. All kinds and categories of radwaste generated in the next 50-100 years will be stored in above ground engineered structures which allow retrieval at all times. After this long-term storage, the wastes will finally be disposed of in a deep geologic repository. At the political level no firm decisions have yet been taken with respect to the final disposal. Disposal in rock salt, which is available in the Netherlands, is explored as an option. Immediate disposal requires the availability of a large amount of money as well as a site. Neither of the two are available at present in the Netherlands, nor are they required at this time. Based on economic considerations, immediate disposal into a rock salt facility in not an acceptable option for the wastes presently produced in the Netherlands. Only after sufficient capital has been generated through an interest bearing fund can this option be considered for implementation

  20. Stability and buffering capacity of the geosphere for long-term isolation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Most experts worldwide agree that radioactive waste disposal in engineered facilities, or repositories, located in appropriate formations deep underground, provide a suitable waste management option for protecting humans and the environment now and. in the future. An NEA workshop was organised on 9-11 December 2003 in Braunschweig, Germany, devoted specifically to argillaceous settings for deep geological repositories. The workshop brought together scientists from academic institutions, engineers from various research institutions or companies, consultants, regulatory authorities and national waste management organisations to establish the scientific basis for stability and buffering capacity of deep geological waste management systems. The present report synthesizes the main outcomes of that workshop and presents a compilation of the related abstracts. (author)

  1. Alteration of medieval stained-glasses. Contribution to the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpenich, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of glasses during alteration have been studied in two different ways: 1)study of the alteration of medieval stained-glasses 2)experimental leaching of modelled glasses. Medieval stained-glasses have a silico-calcic and alkaline composition. It appears three different alteration modes for these glasses: 1)by condensation waters 2)by atmospheric agents 3)by porosity waters and humic acids. A chemical study of the altered areas has allowed to understand the alteration behaviour of a lot of elements: in particular transition elements, heavy metals and some rare earths. On the other hand, two vitrified wastes and a glass having the same composition of the potassic medieval stained-glasses have been leached in a static mode (pH=1 to 10, T=20 to 80 degrees Celsius, T=12 hours to 6 months). These experiments have revealed that the alteration mechanisms depend on the pH of the solution and on the chemical composition of the glass. An increasing durability of glasses in terms of the global polymerization degree has been revealed too. At last, the behaviours of glasses during alteration, observed with natural and experimental conditions, show that it is necessary to study natural analogous for predicting the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes. (O.M.)

  2. Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth's geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include 235 U, 233 U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth's geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with 238 U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the 238 U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with- 238 U to 1 wt % 235 U equivalent

  3. R and D applied to the non-destructive characterization of waste packages for long term storage or deep disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malvache, P.; Perot, B.; Ma, J.L.; Pettier, J.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Dechets, DED, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Capdevila, J.M.; Huot, N. [CEA Saclay, Dir. du Developpement et de l' Innovation Nucleares DDIN, 91 - Gif Sur Yvette (France); Moulin, V. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique, de Technologie de l' Information LETI, DSYS, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    To ensure the quality and traceability of waste package management in the long term, knowledge on these packages is necessary so as to confirm their compliance to storage or disposal specifications. Research is focused on the management of the knowledge on these packages (fabrication means, materials contained,...) and on the acquisition, through measurement, of their characteristics. Within this context, many studies are underway at the CEA in the field of measurements so as to obtain non- destructive tools to access the parameters which allow the waste packages to be characterized. The two main R and D investigations concern: the nuclear measurement methods for the detection and quantification of radionuclides and of chemical elements considered as important for storage or disposal safety ; the measurement methods for the physical characteristics of the packages by high energy photon imaging, thus allowing pictures of the contents of large, high density and sometimes irradiating packages to be known. During the last five years, the research at the CEA focused on these two areas and resulted in a significant evolution in the non-destructive characterization means for long lived waste packages. (author)

  4. R and D applied to the non-destructive characterization of waste packages for long term storage or deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvache, P.; Perot, B.; Ma, J.L.; Pettier, J.L.; Capdevila, J.M.; Huot, N.; Moulin, V.

    2001-01-01

    To ensure the quality and traceability of waste package management in the long term, knowledge on these packages is necessary so as to confirm their compliance to storage or disposal specifications. Research is focused on the management of the knowledge on these packages (fabrication means, materials contained,...) and on the acquisition, through measurement, of their characteristics. Within this context, many studies are underway at the CEA in the field of measurements so as to obtain non- destructive tools to access the parameters which allow the waste packages to be characterized. The two main R and D investigations concern: the nuclear measurement methods for the detection and quantification of radionuclides and of chemical elements considered as important for storage or disposal safety ; the measurement methods for the physical characteristics of the packages by high energy photon imaging, thus allowing pictures of the contents of large, high density and sometimes irradiating packages to be known. During the last five years, the research at the CEA focused on these two areas and resulted in a significant evolution in the non-destructive characterization means for long lived waste packages. (author)

  5. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlhac, X.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO 4 , CeCO 2 , ZnCr 2 O 4 ). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO 2 SiO 2 ) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  6. Long-term high-solids anaerobic digestion of food waste: Effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuya; Zhang, ShangYi; Li, Lei; Zhao, Xiaofei; Ma, Yao; Shi, Dezhi

    2018-04-22

    A long-term high solids anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted to identify microbial mechanisms of ammonia inhibition during digestion and to clarify correlations between ammonia accumulation, microbial community dynamics (diversity, composition, and interactions), and process stability. Results show that the effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community were indirectly caused by volatile fatty acid accumulation. Excess free ammonia blocked acetate metabolism, leading to process instability. Accumulated acetate caused feedback inhibition at the acetogenesis stage, which resulted in considerable accumulation of propionate, valerate, and other long-chain fatty acids. This high concentration of volatile fatty acids reduced the abundance of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria and allowed hydrolytic fermentative bacteria to dominate. The normally interactive and orderly metabolic network was broken, which further exacerbated the process instability. These results improve the understanding of microbial mechanisms which contribute to process instability and provide guidance for the microbial management of anaerobic digesters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quality indicators for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Sheikh, Aadam; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The quality of acute and long-term anaphylaxis management is variable and this contributes to the poor outcomes experienced by many patients. Clinical practice guidelines have the potential to improve outcomes, but implementing guideline recommendations in routine practice is challeng...

  8. Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, K. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Our mission is to develop and implement collaboratively with Canadians, a management approach for the long-term care of Canada's used nuclear fuel that is socially acceptable, technically sound, environmentally responsible, and economically feasible. The technical method is for Isolation of used nuclear fuel in deep geological repository with continuous monitoring and potential for retrievability.

  9. Long-term management impacts on carbon storage in Lake States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Powers; Randall Kolka; Brian Palik; Rachel McDonald; Martin. Jurgensen

    2011-01-01

    We examined carbon storage following 50+ years of forest management in two long-term silvicultural studies in red pine and northern hardwood ecosystems of North America’s Great Lakes region. The studies contrasted various thinning intensities (red pine) or selection cuttings, shelterwoods, and diameter-limit cuttings (northern hardwoods) to unmanaged controls of...

  10. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG TERM MANAGEMENT OF EXCESS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the use of a systematic method for comparing options for the long term management and retirement of surplus mercury in the U.S. The method chosen is the Analytical Hierarchy Procedure (AHP) as embodied in the Expert Choice 2000 software. The goal, criteria, ...

  11. Short, medium and long term consequences of inadequate defect fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.G. [CANTECH Associates Limited, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Nashiem, R.; McQueen, M.; Ma, G. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Defect fuel pencils result in short, medium and long term consequences to the environment within and external to the nuclear power station. The paper will describe these consequences and specify the Defect Fuel Management Practices required to avoid these consequences. (author)

  12. Short, medium and long term consequences of inadequate defect fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.; Nashiem, R.; McQueen, M.; Ma, G.

    2011-01-01

    Defect fuel pencils result in short, medium and long term consequences to the environment within and external to the nuclear power station. The paper will describe these consequences and specify the Defect Fuel Management Practices required to avoid these consequences. (author)

  13. Short, medium and long term consequences of inadequate defect fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.G., E-mail: alchemy@tnt21.com [CANTECH Associates Ltd., Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Nashiem, R.; McQueen, M.; Ma, G., E-mail: Rod.nashiem@brucepower.com, E-mail: Maureen.mcqueen@brucepower.com, E-mail: guoping.ma@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Defect fuel pencils result in short, medium and long term consequences to the environment within and external to the nuclear power station. The paper will describe these consequences and specify the Defect Fuel Management Practices required to avoid these consequences. (author)

  14. ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR THE LONG TERM MANAGEMENT OF EXCESS MERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a systematic method for comparing options for the long-term management of surplus elemental mercury in the U.S., using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as embodied in commercially available Expert Choice software. A limited scope multi-criteria decisionan...

  15. Creature comforts: personal communities, pets and the work of managing a long-term condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Helen L; Rogers, Anne; Kapadia, Dharmi; Pilgrim, Jack; Reeves, David; Vassilev, Ivaylo

    2013-06-01

    To explore in the context of peoples' personal social networks, the contribution that pets make to 'the work' associated with the management of long-term conditions. Mixed methods survey with nested parallel qualitative study; 300 participants were drawn from diabetes and chronic heart disease registers of General Practices across Greater Manchester in the North West of England. Notions of 'work' were used to describe the illness and everyday activities associated with chronic illness. Nineteen percent of participants identified at least one pet within their network. Pets contributed mostly to managing emotions (emotional work), to enhancing a sense of self identity (biographical work) and to a lesser extent practical tasks (everyday work). There were indicators that pets mediated relationships for people living with a long-term condition through very weak ties with others in domestic and community settings. The findings suggest that pets have unique qualities and are not simply substitutes for human relationships in long-term condition management. The study has potential implications for furthering a social contextual analysis of chronic illness, the understanding of relationships, and the meaning and the role of companion animals in long-term condition management.

  16. Short, medium and long term consequences of inadequate defect fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.; Nashiem, R.; McQueen, M.; Ma, G.

    2010-01-01

    Defect fuel pencils result in short, medium and long term consequences to the environment within and external to the nuclear power station. The paper will describe these consequences and specify the Defect Fuel Management Practices required to avoid these consequences. (author)

  17. WIPP Regulatory Compliance Strategy and Management Plan for demonstrating compliance to long-term disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to provide a strategy by which the WIPP will demonstrate its ability to perform as a deep geologic repository. The document communicates the DOE's understanding of the regulations related to long-term repository performance; and provides the most efficient strategy that intergrates WIPP Project elements, ensures the sufficiency of information, and provides flexibility for changes in the TRU waste generation system to facilitate the disposal of defense-generated TRU wastes. In addition, this document forms a focal point between the DOE and its various external regulators as well as other stakeholders for the purpose of arriving at compliance decisions that consider all relevant input

  18. The potential benefits of a new poliovirus vaccine for long-term poliovirus risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the incremental net benefits (INBs) of a hypothetical ideal vaccine with all of the advantages and no disadvantages of existing oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines compared with current vaccines available for future outbreak response. INB estimates based on expected costs and polio cases from an existing global model of long-term poliovirus risk management. Excluding the development costs, an ideal poliovirus vaccine could offer expected INBs of US$1.6 billion. The ideal vaccine yields small benefits in most realizations of long-term risks, but great benefits in low-probability-high-consequence realizations. New poliovirus vaccines may offer valuable insurance against long-term poliovirus risks and new vaccine development efforts should continue as the world gathers more evidence about polio endgame risks.

  19. Long-term capital planning considering nuclear plant life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Simpson, J.M.; Hostetler, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    The creation of a Life Cycle Management (LCM) group at utilities to evaluate the long term capital refurbishment needs is gaining favor. Among the functions of such groups can be the responsibility for recommending long term capital planning projects based on results of evaluations of systems, structures, and components that are not only essential to achieving the full current license term of operation, but also to extend the service life of the plant. Making such recommendations, in content and timing, requires the ability to view all recommendations in the context of an overall capital budget and long range outage impacts. This report illustrates an approach for creating a Long-Term Capital Plan with methods for deciding on, compiling, integrating, and presenting projects from the perspective of an LCM program for a nuclear power plant. It also addresses a rationale for capitalization of LCM program activities that would not be allowed under current accounting treatment

  20. 'When you use the term 'long term', how long is that term'. Risk, Exclusion, and the Politics of Knowledge Production in Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Anna [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    Risk operates within Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste (NFW) management policy making as a heuristic for knowledge production about its effects which reconciles the knowledge of the nuclear industry with the outcomes of the NFW management process. In so doing it marginalizes the present and historical experiences of Aboriginal peoples with the nuclear industry, and removes from view the ways in which they have been implicated in the geography and political economy of the nuclear industry. Risk is a discursive form that protects a particular group's claims about the effects of NFW by providing it a universalizing epistemological structure with which to obscure its connection to context. Further risk discourse provides the nuclear industry with a conceptual vocabulary that deliberately casts all competing knowledge as perceptions, values, or as an object of inquiry. The arguments of Aboriginal peoples about the residual effects of radiation in their lands which hosted nuclear activities, such as uranium mining and disposal, have no representation in how the discourse of risk defines and represents knowledge, and thus no purchase in the policy debate. As a result the challenge they present to the nuclear industry's claims are contained. The arrangements which permit the unloading of the negative effects of nuclear power generation onto Aboriginal peoples are thus reproduced (both materially and conceptually), but not shown, by the policy making process and likely, its outcome. In order to raise critical questions about the democratic abilities of risk, this paper has examined the role of 'risk' in Canadian NFW policy making. I have shown how when the politics of knowledge production within the philosophy of risk is analyzed, and the use and role of the notion of risk are interrogated, difficult questions are posed for the democratic potential of risk. I have suggested, through an analysis of the NWMO's representations of Aboriginal content in their

  1. The essential conditions for the choice of location for a long-term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.

    1964-10-01

    The paper deals with a long-term storage of radioactive wastes with a special reference to the parameters to be considered in choosing the location. It gives a short account of methods for disposal of radioactive liquid and solid wastes used in nuclear centers in the world. The possibilities of radioactive wastes disposal in our country using the methods investigated are also presented (author)

  2. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling; Etude de la stabilite thermique du verre nucleaire. Modelisation de son evolution a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlhac, X

    2000-07-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO{sub 4}, CeCO{sub 2}, ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO{sub 2}SiO{sub 2}) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  3. RBMK-1500 accident management for loss of long-term core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uspuras, E.; Kaliatka, A.

    2001-01-01

    Results of the Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina NPP has shown that in topography of the risk, transients dominate above the accidents with LOCAs and failure of the core long-term cooling are the main factors to frequency of the core damage. Previous analyses have shown, that after initial event, as a rule, the reactivity control, as well as short-term and intermediate cooling are provided. However, the acceptance criteria of the long-term cooling are not always carried out. It means that from this point of view the most dangerous accident scenarios are the scenarios related to loss of the core long-term cooling. On the other hand, the transition to the core condition due to loss of the long-term cooling specifies potential opportunities for the management of the accident consequences. Hence, accident management for the mitigation of the accident consequences should be considered and developed. The most likely initiating event, which probably leads to the loss of long term cooling accident, is station blackout. The station blackout is the loss of normal electrical power supply for local needs with an additional failure on start-up of all diesel generators. In the case of loss of electrical power supply MCPs, the circulating pumps of the service water system and MFWPs are switched-off. At the same time, TCV of both turbines are closed. Failure of diesel generators leads to the non-operability of the ECCS long-term cooling subsystem. It means the impossibility to feed MCC by water. The analysis of the station blackout for Ignalina NPP was performed using RELAP5 code. (author)

  4. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  5. Long-term leach testing of solidified radioactive waste forms (International Standard Publication ISO 6961:1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    2001-01-01

    Processes are developed for the immobilization of radionuclides by solidification of radioactive wastes. The resulting solidification products are characterized by strong resistance to leaching aimed at low release rates of the radionuclides to the environment. To measure this resistance to leaching of the solidified materials: glass, glass-ceramics, bitumen, cement, concrete, plastics, a long-term leach test is presented. The long-term leach test is aimed at: a) the comparison of different kinds or compositions of solidified waste forms; b) the intercomparison between leach test results from different laboratories on one product; c) the intercomparison between leach test results on products from different processes

  6. Long-term prediction of corrosion damage in nuclear waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidekazu Asano; Feron, Damien; Gens, Robert; Padovani, Cristiano; Naoki Taniguchi

    2014-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The Fifth International Workshop on Long-Term Prediction of Corrosion Damage in Nuclear Waste Systems was held at the Taisetsu Crystal Hall in Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan from October 6 to 10, 2013, following the four previous successful workshops (Cadarache, France, 2001; Nice, France, 2004; Pennsylvania State University, USA, 2007 and Bruges, Belgium, 2010). It was organised by the Japan Society of Corrosion Engineering (JSCE) and supported by the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC): Nuclear Corrosion Working Party (WP4) as of EFC event No.360. Furthermore, it was supported by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Environment (NUCE) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) and The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSME). Twenty nine (29) oral presentations were distributed among eleven (11) sessions covering a broad range of subjects. Another twenty eight (28) studies were presented at a poster session. A total of sixty seven (67) participants from twelve (12) countries attended the event. The presentations and the following discussion provided contextual information about the state of some national programmes and covered in detail a range of experimental and modelling studies aimed at evaluating the corrosion behaviour of a range of candidate materials and designs for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes considered across the globe. These included modelling studies aimed at evaluating the durability of container designs for high level waste (HLW), spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and intermediate level waste (ILW), experimental studies of the corrosion behaviour of copper, carbon steel, and stainless steel in conditions relevant to storage (atmospheric) or disposal (near neutral or alkaline), as well as studies of archaeological artifacts and natural analogues aimed at supporting long-term predictions. Specific sessions were dedicated to microbial induced corrosion (MIC) and to the corrosion properties of

  7. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  8. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  9. Plant life management for long term operation of light water reactors. Principles and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this report was originally suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. It was then approved by the IAEA for work to begin in 2004. The participants in the group felt that it was time to address plant life management and ageing issues from the point of view of long term operation and licence renewal. It is believed that the nuclear power industry will only be able to survive if plant economics are favourable and safety is maintained. Therefore, the issue of ageing and obsolescence has to be addressed from an operational and safety standpoint, but also in the context of plant economics in terms of the cost of electricity production, including initial and recurring capital costs. Use of new technologies, such as advanced in-service inspection and condition based maintenance, should be considered, not only to predict the consequences of ageing and guard against them, but also to monitor equipment performance throughout the lifetime of the plant and to help establish replacement schedules for critical systems, structures and components, and to better estimate the optimum end of the operating licence, which means the end of the nuclear power plant's lifetime. The importance of nuclear power plant life management in facilitating the technical and economic goals of long term operation is presented in this report in terms of the requirement to ensure safe long term supplies of electricity in the most economically competitive way. Safe and reliable operation is discussed in terms of the overall economic benefits when plant life management is implemented. Preconditions for plant life management for long term operation are identified and approaches are reviewed. Plant life management should not be associated only with the extension of the operational lifetime of the nuclear power plant, but with an owner's attitude and a rational approach of the operating company towards running the business economically and safely

  10. A United States perspective on long term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The United States has far-reaching experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. The events resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the Marshall Islands, follow-up from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accidents, and the environmental cleanup of our weapons complex have resulted in an extensive body of lessons learned and best practices. The lack of trust created in the affected population, regardless of cause of the spread of radioactive material, creates the working environment for long-term management of the situation. The extent of advanced planning for such an event will define and bound your ultimate success in reaching a conclusion acceptable to the affected parties. The two key issues to be addressed in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials are the two 'T's' - technical and trust. The technical issues to be resolved include: access to the affected area; infrastructure to support operations; local and imported staffing; health care for the affected population; and payment to name a few. In addressing the issue of trust it is critical to establish open, honest and inclusive communications and decision making with the affected population and stakeholders, with clear roles and responsibilities defined. Actions must be sensitive to local cultural issues and agreements reached with affected populations prior to actions being taken. Establishment of an alternative views resolution process helps build trust and allow actions to taken. Government to government relations and agreements must be established with an acceptance and understanding of the long term investment in time and resources needed. Planning ahead for such an eventuality and putting in place procedures, agreements and resources needed to address the technical and trust issues associated with the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials enhances success. (author)

  11. The Application of Long Term Asset Management (LTAM) Strategy of KHNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boo, Myung Hwan; Park, Young Sheop

    2007-01-01

    In KHNP, 20 units of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are operating and 6 units are under construction. As increase of the number of power plants and operating year, it is needed to develop the integrated cost-effective asset management. Long Term Asset Management (LTAM) strategy is the process by which the nuclear power plants integrate operations, maintenance, engineering, regulatory, and economic planning activities. This paper introduces the application of LTAM strategy of nuclear power plants

  12. Application of geostatistical methods to long-term safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term safety analyses are an important part of the design and optimisation process as well as of the licensing procedure for final repositories for radioactive waste in deep geological formations. For selected scenarios describing possible evolutions of the repository system in the post-closure phase, quantitative consequence analyses are performed. Due to the complexity of the phenomena of concern and the large timeframes under consideration, several types of uncertainties have to be taken into account. The modelling work for the far-field (geosphere) surrounding or overlaying the repository is based on model calculations concerning the groundwater movement and the resulting migration of radionuclides which possibly will be released from the repository. In contrast to engineered systems, the geosphere shows a strong spatial variability of facies, materials and material properties. The paper presented here describes the first steps towards a quantitative approach for an uncertainty assessment taking into account this variability. Due to the availability of a large amount of data and information of several types, the Gorleben site (Germany) has been used for a case study in order to demonstrate the method. (orig.)

  13. Modelling the long-term durability of concrete barriers for radioactive waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, B.; Didry, O.; Marchand, J.; Gerard, B.; Breysse, D.; Hornain, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the past decades, cement-based materials have been increasingly used for the construction of radioactive-waste barriers. The design of durable structures for this specific application requires a precise knowledge of the evolution of the engineering properties of the materials over a 1000-year period. Given the intricate nature of the physical mechanisms involved, a reliable prediction of the long term behavior of the concrete barriers can only be made through modelling and numerical developments. After a brief literature survey in which the main aspects of the problem are outlined, the features of a new modelling approach are presented. The main originality of this approach resides in the fact that the model considers the various chemical and mechanical solicitations and their eventual couplings. The physical and thermodynamical bases behind the development of the model are detailed. A section of the paper is specifically devoted to the experimental techniques (accelerated leaching test, assessment of the permeability and mechanical behavior of concretes under tensile loading, characterization of the concrete microstructure and microcracking by image-analysis) designed to validate the model. Results of selected numerical simulations are presented in the last section of the paper. The main difficulties associated with the implantation of such a model in a finite-element code are discussed. (author)

  14. Modelling Long-Term Evolution of Cementitious Materials Used in Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Perko, J.; Seetharam, S.; Govaerts, J.; Mallants, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the latest developments at SCK-CEN in modelling long-term evolution of cementitious materials used as engineered barriers in waste disposal. In a first section chemical degradation of concrete during leaching with rain and soil water types is discussed. The geochemical evolution of concrete thus obtained forms the basis for all further modelling. Next we show how the leaching model is coupled with a reactive transport module to determine leaching of cement minerals under diffusive or advective boundary conditions. The module also contains a simplified microstructural model from which hydraulic and transport properties of concrete may be calculated dynamically. This coupled model is simplified, i.e. abstracted prior to being applied to large-scale concrete structures typical of a near-surface repository. Both the original and simplified models are then used to calculate the evolution of hydraulic, transport, and chemical properties of concrete. Characteristic degradation states of concrete are further linked to distribution ratios that describe sorption onto hardened cement via a linear and reversible sorption process. As concrete degrades and pH drops the distribution ratios are continuously updated. We have thus integrated all major chemical and physical concrete degradation processes into one simulator for a particular scale of interest. Two simulators are used: one that can operate at relatively small spatial scales using all process details and another one which simulates concrete degradation at the scale of the repository but with a simplified cement model representation. (author)

  15. Current Understanding and Remaining Challenges in Modeling Long-Term Degradation of Borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, John D.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Gin, Stephane; Inagaki, Yaohiro

    2013-01-01

    Chemical durability is not a single material property that can be uniquely measured. Instead it is the response to a host of coupled material and environmental processes whose rates are estimated by a combination of theory, experiment, and modeling. High-level nuclear waste (HLW) glass is perhaps the most studied of any material yet there remain significant technical gaps regarding their chemical durability. The phenomena affecting the long-term performance of HLW glasses in their disposal environment include surface reactions, transport properties to and from the reacting glass surface, and ion exchange between the solid glass and the surrounding solution and alteration products. The rates of these processes are strongly influenced and are coupled through the solution chemistry, which is in turn influenced by the reacting glass and also by reaction with the near-field materials and precipitation of alteration products. Therefore, those processes must be understood sufficiently well to estimate or bound the performance of HLW glass in its disposal environment over geologic time-scales. This article summarizes the current state of understanding of surface reactions, transport properties, and ion exchange along with the near-field materials and alteration products influences on solution chemistry and glass reaction rates. Also summarized are the remaining technical gaps along with recommended approaches to fill those technical gaps

  16. Through the Eyes of Nurse Managers in Long-Term Care: Identifying Perceived Competencies and Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Kathleen H

    2018-05-01

    Nurse managers (NMs) in long-term care supervise health care services for individuals with high acuity levels and numerous comorbidities. There is minimal research identifying NMs' skills and competencies as unit leaders within the long-term care environment. The current mixed-methods study identified NMs' leadership skills and competencies. Nineteen NMs with ≥5 years' long-term care management experience completed the Nurse Manager Inventory Tool and were individually interviewed. They rated their clinical skills at the competent level and their financial/strategic management skills at the novice level. All other skill categories, including leadership reflective practice, diversity, human resource leadership/management, relationship management, performance improvement, and problem solving, were rated at a competent level. Emergent interview qualitative themes included their visibility on the unit, trial and error learning, a sense of "aloneness" due to the absence of other RNs, NM position being a tough job, need for peer support, role modeling, and importance of supporting the resident through their "final journey." [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 44(5), 32-38.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Thermal and physicochemical properties important for the long term behavior of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.; Matzke, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    High level nuclear waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has to be solidified in a stable matrix for safe long-time storage. Vitrification in borosilicate glasses is the technique accepted worldwide. A number of different glasses was developed in different national programs. The criteria and the reasons for selecting the final compositions are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the French product R7T7 and on thermal and physicochemical properties though glasses developed in other national projects (e.g. the German product GP 98/12 etc.) are also treated. The basic physical and mechanical properties and the chemical durability of the glass in contact with water or other aqueous solutions are described. The basic mechanisms of aqueous corrosion are discussed and the evolving modelling of the leaching process is dealt with, as well as effects of container material, backfill, etc. The thermal behavior has also been studied and extensive data exist on diffusion of glass constituents (Na) and of interesting elements of the waste such as the alkalis Rb and Cs or the actinides U and Pu, as well as on crystallization processes in the glass during storage at elevated temperatures. Emphasis is placed on the radiation stability of the glasses, based on extensive studies using short-lived actinides (e.g. Cm-244) or ion-implantation to produce the damage expected during long storage at an accelerated rate. The radiation stability is shown to be very good, if realistic damage conditions are used. The knowledge accumulated in the past years is used to evaluate and predict the long-term evolution of the glass under storage conditions

  18. Qualification of polysiloxanes for long-term storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucharczyk, P.

    2005-12-01

    At present German policy envisages interim storage of all radioactive waste (for approximately 30 years) until a final repository is available. This therefore leads to higher standards for storage containers. Silicone elastomers (polysiloxanes), materials on the basis of silicon and oxygen with organic substituents, have various physical and chemical properties and seem to be suitable for the long-term storage of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The aim of the present work is the qualification of a new coating material for storage containers. The use of polysiloxanes in other applications was also investigated. An important criterion for the coating is the simplicity of its application. Moreover, it should also have a high adhesion on steel as well as providing protection against corrosion. These properties were investigated for different polysiloxanes. The spraying tests showed that polysiloxane material with a viscosity of up to 45 000 mPas could be applied by the airless spraying method. An elastic coating was produced which could ensure protection against mechanical impacts. In the framework of water vapour experiments, a very high diffusion constant was determined. The corrosion test confirmed that the polysiloxane coating provided only insufficient corrosion protection if the sample was in contact with water and water vapour at the same time. This problem was solved by using an additional priming coat of 60 μm zinc paint. The adhesion test showed that polysiloxanes have different levels of adhesion. The best adhesion was determined for condensation-cured silicones. The addition-cured materials had a lower adhesion, which was improved by the application of a priming coat. The outcome of these investigations is a wide spectrum of applications for polysiloxanes which can be used as firmly adhering coatings or removable decontamination layers. (orig.)

  19. Long-term corrosion behaviour of low-/medium-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendras, M.; Bach, F.W.; Behrens, S.; Birr, Ch.; Hassel, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Storage of low- and medium-level radioactive waste requires safe packages. This means that all materials used for the manufacturing of such packages have to show a sufficient resistance especially against corrosive attacks. Since these packages are generally made from carbon steel an additional coating for corrosion protection - mainly solvent-based polymers - is necessary. However, it is not enough to consider the selection and combination of the materials. Regarding the construction and manufacturing of corrosion-resistant drums for low- and medium-level radioactive waste there also has to be paid closer attention to the joining technologies such as welding. For lifetime prediction of low-/medium-level waste packages reliable experimental data concerning the long-term corrosion behaviour of each material as well as of the components is needed. Therefore sheet metals from carbon steel were galvanized or coated with different solvent-based and water-based corrosion protection materials (epoxy as well as silicone resins). After damaging the anti-corrosion coating of some of these sheets with predefined scratches sets of these samples were stored at higher temperatures in climatic chamber, in simulated waste or aged according to standard DIN EN ISO 9227. All corrosion damages were analyzed by means of metallography (light microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy of micro-sections). The quantitative influence of the corrosive attacks on the mechanical properties of the materials was examined by mechanical testing according to DIN EN 10002. Besides reduction of tensile strength drastic reduction of percentage of elongation after fracture (from 30 % to 10 %) was found. Further experiments were carried out using components or scaled-down drums joined by means of innovative welding techniques such as Cold Arc or Force Arc. The relevant welding parameters (e.g. welding current, proper volume of shielding gas or wire feed) were

  20. Long-term leaching behavior of simulated Savannah River Plant waste glass: Part 1, MCC-1 leachability results, four-year leaching data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Stone, J.A.; Chandler, G.T.; Williams, S.

    1986-08-01

    Long-term leaching data were obtained on SRP 131/TDS waste glass using MCC-1 or slightly modified MCC-1 standard leaching tests. Experiments were conducted out to four years at 40 0 C and 3-1/2 years at 90 0 C. These experiments have produced the longest standardized leaching data currently available in the waste management community. Long-term leaching data provide important input to modeling of waste glass behavior and ultimate prediction of waste glass performance. In this study, the leaching behavior of SRP waste glass was found to be excellent; leachates based on a variety of elements were not only very low, but also improved with increasing time. In addition to these data, results are also reported from another independent Savannah River study. Leaching behavior at 40 0 C and 90 0 C was assessed not only for a similar SRP 131 waste glass composition, but also for extreme waste glass compositions involving high-iron and high-aluminum waste. In addition, these experiments were performed using not only a standard deionized water leachant, but also simplified brine and silicate groundwater simulations. These two large data bases will be summarized and correlated along with some of the more interesting results recently reported in another study, a two-year leaching program performed on a similar SRP waste glass composition at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories

  1. The essential value of long-term experimental data for hydrology and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Carey, S. K.; McNamara, J. P.; Laudon, H.; Soulsby, C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations and data from long-term experimental watersheds are the foundation of hydrology as a geoscience. They allow us to benchmark process understanding, observe trends and natural cycles, and are pre-requisites for testing predictive models. Long-term experimental watersheds also are places where new measurement technologies are developed. These studies offer a crucial evidence base for understanding and managing the provision of clean water supplies; predicting and mitigating the effects of floods, and protecting ecosystem services provided by rivers and wetlands. They also show how to manage land and water in an integrated, sustainable way that reduces environmental and economic costs. We present a number of compelling examples illustrating how hydrologic process understanding has been generated through comparing hypotheses to data, and how this understanding has been essential for managing water supplies, floods, and ecosystem services today.

  2. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy

  3. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  4. Mixing-controlled uncertainty in long-term predictions of acid rock drainage from heterogeneous waste-rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Beckie, R. D.; Mayer, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    The chemistry of drainage from waste-rock piles at mine sites is difficult to predict because of a number of uncertainties including heterogeneous reactive mineral content, distribution of minerals, weathering rates and physical flow properties. In this presentation, we examine the effects of mixing on drainage chemistry over timescales of 100s of years. We use a 1-D streamtube conceptualization of flow in waste rocks and multicomponent reactive transport modeling. We simplify the reactive system to consist of acid-producing sulfide minerals and acid-neutralizing carbonate minerals and secondary sulfate and iron oxide minerals. We create multiple realizations of waste-rock piles with distinct distributions of reactive minerals along each flow path and examine the uncertainty of drainage geochemistry through time. The limited mixing of streamtubes that is characteristic of the vertical unsaturated flow in many waste-rock piles, allows individual flowpaths to sustain acid or neutral conditions to the base of the pile, where the streamtubes mix. Consequently, mixing and the acidity/alkalinity balance of the streamtube waters, and not the overall acid- and base-producing mineral contents, control the instantaneous discharge chemistry. Our results show that the limited mixing implied by preferential flow and the heterogeneous distribution of mineral contents lead to large uncertainty in drainage chemistry over short and medium time scales. However, over longer timescales when one of either the acid-producing or neutralizing primary phases is depleted, the drainage chemistry becomes less controlled by mixing and in turn less uncertain. A correct understanding of the temporal variability of uncertainty is key to make informed long-term decisions in mining settings regarding the management of waste material.

  5. The long term storage of radioactive waste: Safety and sustainability. A position paper of international experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the report is to reflect the currently prevailing views among experts in the field of radioactive waste storage and disposal. It is intended for use as a central and authoritative reference point for national discussions and policy papers. It is therefore potentially useful to national committees and bodies concerned with the management of radioactive waste. It may also be of value to concerned members of the public since it is written in language that should be comprehensible to the informed lay person. It was produced as a result of several meetings of experts in the first part of 2002. Since then, it has been reviewed by the international Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), by the WASSC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste at its meeting in October 2000 and by a technical committee convened specifically to review the paper at a meeting held in November 2002. Finally, the essential conclusions of the paper were presented to and discussed with participants to the International Conference on Issues and Trends in Radioactive Waste Management, held in Vienna in December 2002.

  6. The long term storage of radioactive waste: Safety and sustainability. A position paper of international experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the report is to reflect the currently prevailing views among experts in the field of radioactive waste storage and disposal. It is intended for use as a central and authoritative reference point for national discussions and policy papers. It is therefore potentially useful to national committees and bodies concerned with the management of radioactive waste. It may also be of value to concerned members of the public since it is written in language that should be comprehensible to the informed lay person. It was produced as a result of several meetings of experts in the first part of 2002. Since then, it has been reviewed by the international Waste Safety Standards Committee (WASSC), by the WASSC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste at its meeting in October 2000 and by a technical committee convened specifically to review the paper at a meeting held in November 2002. Finally, the essential conclusions of the paper were presented to and discussed with participants to the International Conference on Issues and Trends in Radioactive Waste Management, held in Vienna in December 2002

  7. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report: April-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    This series of reports summarizes research and development studies on the immobilization of high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels. The reports are grouped under the following tasks: (1) program management and support; (2) waste preparation; (3) waste fixation; and (4) final handling. Some of the highlights are: leaching properties were obtained for titanate and tailored ceramic materials being developed at ICPP to immobilize zirconia calcine; comparative leach tests, hot-cell tests, and process evaluations were conducted of waste form alternatives to borosilicate glass for the immobilization of SRP high-level wastes, experiments were run at ANL to qualify neutron activation analysis and radioactive tracers for measuring leach rates from simulated waste glasses; comparative leach test samples of SYNROC D were prepared, characterized, and tested at LLNL; encapsulation of glass marbles with lead or lead alloys was demonstrated on an engineering scale at PNL; a canister for reference Commercial HLW was designed at PNL; a study of the optimization of salt-crete was completed at SRL; a risk assessment showed that an investment for tornado dampers in the interim storage building of the DWPF is unjustified

  8. A long-term risk management tool for electricity markets using swarm intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, F.; Vale, Z.A.; Khodr, H.M.; Oliveira, P.B. Moura

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the optimal involvement in derivatives electricity markets of a power producer to hedge against the pool price volatility. To achieve this aim, a swarm intelligence meta-heuristic optimization technique for long-term risk management tool is proposed. This tool investigates the long-term opportunities for risk hedging available for electric power producers through the use of contracts with physical (spot and forward contracts) and financial (options contracts) settlement. The producer risk preference is formulated as a utility function (U) expressing the trade-off between the expectation and the variance of the return. Variance of return and the expectation are based on a forecasted scenario interval determined by a long-term price range forecasting model. This model also makes use of particle swarm optimization (PSO) to find the best parameters allow to achieve better forecasting results. On the other hand, the price estimation depends on load forecasting. This work also presents a regressive long-term load forecast model that make use of PSO to find the best parameters as well as in price estimation. The PSO technique performance has been evaluated by comparison with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based approach. A case study is presented and the results are discussed taking into account the real price and load historical data from mainland Spanish electricity market demonstrating the effectiveness of the methodology handling this type of problems. Finally, conclusions are dully drawn. (author)

  9. Impacts of long-term waste-water irrigation on the development of sandy Luvisols: consequences for metal pollutant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Lamy, I.; Baize, D.; Chevallier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating macro- and microscopic aspects of impacts of long-term contaminative practices on soils are scarce. We performed such an approach by assessing the fate of metal pollutants in an area close to Paris, where sandy Luvisols were irrigated for 100 years with urban waste water. As a

  10. A Specific Long-Term Plan for Management of U.S. Nuclear Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Salomon

    2006-01-01

    A specific plan consisting of six different steps is proposed to accelerate and improve the long-term management of U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. The first step is to construct additional, centralized, engineered (dry cask) spent fuel facilities to have a backup solution to Yucca Mountain (YM) delays or lack of capacity. The second step is to restart the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), in a burner mode, because of its inherent safety characteristics and its extensive past development in contrast to Acceleration Driven Systems (ADS). The IFR and an improved non-proliferation version of its pyro-processing technology can burn the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MA) obtained by reprocessing LWR spent fuel. The remaining IFR and LWR fission products will be treated for storage at YM. The radiotoxicity of that high level waste (HLW) will fall below that of natural uranium in less than one thousand years. Due to anticipated increased capital, maintenance, and research costs for IFR, the third step is to reduce the required number of IFRs and their potential delays by implementing multiple recycles of Pu and Neptunium (Np) MA in LWR. That strategy is to use an advanced separation process, UREX+, and the MIX Pu option where the role and degradation of Pu is limited by uranium enrichment. UREX+ will decrease proliferation risks by avoiding Pu separation while the MIX fuel will lead to an equilibrium fuel recycle mode in LWR which will reduce U. S. Pu inventory and deliver much smaller volumes of less radioactive HLW to YM. In both steps two and three, Research and Development (R and D) is to emphasize the demonstration of multiple fuel reprocessing and fabrication, while improving HLW treatment, increasing proliferation resistance, and reducing losses of fissile material. The fourth step is to license and construct YM because it is needed for the disposal of defense wastes and the HLW to be generated under the proposed plan. The

  11. BIOPROTA: Key issues in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. Theme 2 Task 1: Model review and comparison for spray irrigation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, U.; Albrecht, A.; Kanyar, B.; Smith, G.; Thorne, M.C.; Yoshida, H.; Wasiolek, M.

    2006-04-01

    the relative significance of the pathway for contamination considered here with results for the effects of long term accumulation in soil, and exposures due to: root uptake; inhalation of suspended activity; and external irradiation. The first two of these three have been considered in Tasks 2 and 4 of Theme 2 of BIOPROTA, within which correspondingly similar model descriptions and data compilations have been prepared, as well as assessment results based on similar system descriptions. External irradiation is a relatively simple exposure pathway to address, once the activity level in the soil has been evaluated

  12. BIOPROTA: Key issues in biosphere aspects of assessment of the long-term impact of contaminant releases associated with radioactive waste management. Theme 2 Task 1: Model review and comparison for spray irrigation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, U.; Albrecht, A.; Kanyar, B.; Smith, G.; Thorne, M.C.; Yoshida, H.; Wasiolek, M.

    2006-04-15

    depend on the relative significance of the pathway for contamination considered here with results for the effects of long term accumulation in soil, and exposures due to: root uptake; inhalation of suspended activity; and external irradiation. The first two of these three have been considered in Tasks 2 and 4 of Theme 2 of BIOPROTA, within which correspondingly similar model descriptions and data compilations have been prepared, as well as assessment results based on similar system descriptions. External irradiation is a relatively simple exposure pathway to address, once the activity level in the soil has been evaluated.

  13. Managing aging effects on used fuel dry cask for very long-term storage - 59067

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Omesh; Diercks, Dwight; Ma, David; Shah, Vikram; Tam, Shiu-Wing; Fabian, Ralph; Liu, Yung; Nutt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the Unites States raises the prospect of very long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at the nuclear power plant sites. While long-term storage of used nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems (DCSSs) at Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs) is already a standard practice among U.S. utilities, recent rule-making activities of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) indicated additional flexibility for the NRC licensees of ISFSIs and certificate holders of the DCSSs to request initial and renewal terms for up to 40 years. The proposed rule also adds a requirement that renewal applicants must provide descriptions of aging management programs (AMPs) and time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) to ensure that the structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that are important to safety in the DCSSs will perform as designed under the extended license terms. This paper examines issues related to managing aging effects on DCSSs for very long-term storage (VLTS) of used fuels, capitalizing on the extensive knowledge and experience accumulated from the work on aging research and life cycle management at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) over the last 30 years. The technical basis for acceptable AMPs and TLAAs is described, as are generic AMPs and TLAAs that are being developed by Argonne under the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign for R and D on extended long-term storage and transportation. (authors)

  14. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  15. Long-term cost-effectiveness of disease management in systolic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, George; Randolph, Stephen; Forkner, Emma; Smith, Brad; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Although congestive heart failure (CHF) is a primary target for disease management programs, previous studies have generated mixed results regarding the effectiveness and cost savings of disease management when applied to CHF. We estimated the long-term impact of systolic heart failure disease management from the results of an 18-month clinical trial. We used data generated from the trial (starting population distributions, resource utilization, mortality rates, and transition probabilities) in a Markov model to project results of continuing the disease management program for the patients' lifetimes. Outputs included distribution of illness severity, mortality, resource consumption, and the cost of resources consumed. Both cost and effectiveness were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. Cost-effectiveness was computed as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Model results were validated against trial data and indicated that, over their lifetimes, patients experienced a lifespan extension of 51 days. Combined discounted lifetime program and medical costs were $4850 higher in the disease management group than the control group, but the program had a favorable long-term discounted cost-effectiveness of $43,650/QALY. These results are robust to assumptions regarding mortality rates, the impact of aging on the cost of care, the discount rate, utility values, and the targeted population. Estimation of the clinical benefits and financial burden of disease management can be enhanced by model-based analyses to project costs and effectiveness. Our results suggest that disease management of heart failure patients can be cost-effective over the long term.

  16. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  17. Enabling long-term oceanographic research: Changing data practices, information management strategies and informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karen S.; Chandler, Cynthia L.

    2008-09-01

    Interdisciplinary global ocean science requires new ways of thinking about data and data management. With new data policies and growing technological capabilities, datasets of increasing variety and complexity are being made available digitally and data management is coming to be recognized as an integral part of scientific research. To meet the changing expectations of scientists collecting data and of data reuse by others, collaborative strategies involving diverse teams of information professionals are developing. These changes are stimulating the growth of information infrastructures that support multi-scale sampling, data repositories, and data integration. Two examples of oceanographic projects incorporating data management in partnership with science programs are discussed: the Palmer Station Long-Term Ecological Research program (Palmer LTER) and the United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (US JGOFS). Lessons learned from a decade of data management within these communities provide an experience base from which to develop information management strategies—short-term and long-term. Ocean Informatics provides one example of a conceptual framework for managing the complexities inherent to sharing oceanographic data. Elements are introduced that address the economies-of-scale and the complexities-of-scale pertinent to a broader vision of information management and scientific research.

  18. Termite and earthworm abundance and taxonomic richness under long-term conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zida, Z.; Ouedraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Unsustainable crop and soil management practices are major causes of soil degradation and declining soil biodiversity in West Africa. Identifying soil management practices that favor macrofauna abundance is highly desirable for long-term soil health. This study investigates the effects of long-term

  19. Microbial processes relevant for the long-term performance of radioactive waste repositories in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshyn, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A number of investigations on occurrence and viability of microbes in compacted clays have been aimed at studying possible microbial effects on long-term performance of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF). Compacted clays are considered in current DGR designs either as a buffer material or as a host rock. The primary purpose of the present work was to qualitatively evaluate the relevance of microbial activity for the long-term performance of a DGR and to identify which safety-relevant processes and properties can be potentially influenced by this activity. The present analysis identified eight clay properties essential for maintaining safety functions of containment and retardation of the disposal system - swelling pressure, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, anion sorption capacity, porosity, permeability, fluid pressure, plasticity - which can potentially be influenced by microbial processes in clay buffer and Clay-stone within a DGR for HLW/SF. Iron(III)- and sulphate-reducing, fermentative, methane-producing and oxidizing microbes can be considered to be present in any clay formation. Each habitat includes a massive number of microbial niches with perhaps only a small proportion of the species being metabolically active at the habitat's conditions, the remainder becoming not extinct. Moreover, clays contain electron donors and electron acceptors in amounts sufficient for these microbes to remain active during very long periods of time. Additional sources of electron donors or electron acceptors will inevitably be added to the repository system as a result of DGR excavation, placement of radioactive waste as well as backfilling and sealing of the DGR. In no case should the potential impact of microbes be underestimated based on a possible argument of comparably low biomass of the microbes in contact with metal surfaces or dissolved

  20. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  1. 1. round table - Nuclear wastes and radioactive materials. 2. round table - risks linked with nuclear wastes and materials. 3. round table - the problem of long-term management of medium-high activity and long lived wastes. The process defined by the 1991 law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the first round table of Paris about the problems raised by nuclear wastes in the case of the geologic disposal option. Four families of questions have been tackled: 1 - the exhaustiveness of ANDRA's inventory, the solutions foreseen for the different types of wastes; 2 - the high-medium activity wastes and their processing; 3 - the management of non-reprocessed spent MOX fuels; 4 - the safety and security standards used and their establishment. Four presentations are attached to these proceedings and deal with: the measured and estimated inventory of all radioactive wastes; the inventory and management of radioactive wastes and the place of citizens; the point of view of the nuclear safety authority; conditioning and storage. (J.S.)

  2. Application of a Long Term Asset Management Strategy for HP Feedwater Heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Se Youl; Yun, Eun Sub; Park, Young Sheop

    2008-01-01

    As the commercial operating year of nuclear power plants is increased, it becomes imperative to develop integrated cost-effective asset management and to improve plans for degraded Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) in terms of safety and economical consideration. A long-term asset management (LTAM) strategy can improve the condition of nuclear plants, maximize their value, and optimize their operational life by maintaining their safety. This paper presents an optimized LTAM plan for HP feedwater heaters at a specific nuclear power plant

  3. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  4. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for management of osteoarthritis in long-term care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argoff CE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Charles E Argoff1, F Michael Gloth2 1Albany Medical College and Comprehensive Pain Center, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 2Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Osteoarthritis is common in patients ≥65 years of age. Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are often prescribed for osteoarthritis pain, they pose age-related cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal risks. Two topical NSAIDs, diclofenac sodium 1% gel (DSG and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution (D-DMSO, are approved in the US for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain. Topical NSAIDs have shown efficacy and safety in knee (DSG, D-DMSO and hand (DSG osteoarthritis. Analyses of data from randomized controlled trials of DSG in hand and knee osteoarthritis demonstrate significant improvement of pain and function in both younger patients (<65 years and older patients (≥65 years and suggest good safety and tolerability. However, long-term safety data in older patients are limited. Topical NSAIDs can ease medication administration and help address barriers to pain management in older patients, such as taking multiple medications and inability to swallow, and are a valuable option for long-term care providers. Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, long-term care, nursing homes, chronic pain, topical analgesics

  5. Unsaturated consolidation theory for the prediction of long-term municipal solid waste landfill settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Nan; Chen, Rong-Her; Chen, Kuo-Sheng

    2006-02-01

    The understanding of long-term landfill settlement is important for landfill design and rehabilitation. However, suitable models that can consider both the mechanical and biodecomposition mechanisms in predicting the long-term landfill settlement are generally not available. In this paper, a model based on unsaturated consolidation theory and considering the biodegradation process is introduced to simulate the landfill settlement behaviour. The details of problem formulations and the derivation of the solution for the formulated differential equation of gas pressure are presented. A step-by-step analytical procedure employing this approach for estimating settlement is proposed. The proposed model can generally model the typical features of short-term and long-term behaviour. The proposed model also yields results that are comparable with the field measurements.

  6. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Frid, Leonardo; Olsson, Aaryn D.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris) at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA). Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion results in the most

  7. Simulating long-term effectiveness and efficiency of management scenarios for an invasive grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resource managers are often faced with trade-offs in allocating limited resources to manage plant invasions. These decisions must often be made with uncertainty about the location of infestations, their rate of spread and effectiveness of management actions. Landscape level simulation tools such as state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs can be used to evaluate the potential long term consequences of alternative management strategies and help identify those strategies that make efficient use of resources. We analyzed alternative management scenarios for African buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare syn. Cenchrus ciliaris at Ironwood Forest National Monument, Arizona using a spatially explicit STSM implemented in the Tool for Exploratory Landscape Scenario Analyses (TELSA. Buffelgrass is an invasive grass that is spreading rapidly in the Sonoran Desert, affecting multiple habitats and jurisdictions. This invasion is creating a novel fire risk and transforming natural ecosystems. The model used in this application incorporates buffelgrass dispersal and establishment and management actions and effectiveness including inventory, treatment and post-treatment maintenance. We simulated 11 alternative scenarios developed in consultation with buffelgrass managers and other stakeholders. The scenarios vary according to the total budget allocated for management and the allocation of that budget between different kinds of management actions. Scenario results suggest that to achieve an actual reduction and stabilization of buffelgrass populations, management unconstrained by fiscal restrictions and across all jurisdictions and private lands is required; without broad and aggressive management, buffelgrass populations are expected to increase over time. However, results also suggest that large upfront investments can achieve control results that require relatively minimal spending in the future. Investing the necessary funds upfront to control the invasion

  8. Long-Term Information Management (LTIM) of Safeguards Data at Repositories: Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddal, Risa N.

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges of implementing safeguards for geological repositories will be the long-term preservation of safeguards-related data for 100 years or more. While most countries considering the construction and operation of such facilities agree that safeguards information should be preserved, there are gaps with respect to standardized requirements, guidelines, timescales, and approaches. This study analyzes those gaps and explores research to clarify stakeholder needs, identify current policies, approaches, best practices and international standards, and explores existing safeguards information management infrastructure. The study also attempts to clarify what a safeguards data classification system might look like, how long data should be retained, and how information should be exchanged between stakeholders at different phases of a repository's life cycle. The analysis produced a variety of recommendations on what information to preserve, how to preserve it, where to store it, retention options and how to exchange information in the long term. Key findings include the use of the globally recognized international records management standard, ISO15489, for guidance on the development of information management systems, and the development of a Key Information File (KIF). The KIF could be used to identify only the most relevant, high-level safeguards information and the history of decision making about the repository. The study also suggests implementing on-site and off-site records storage in digital and physical form; developing a safeguards data classification system; long-term records retention with periodic reviews every 5 to 10 years during each phase of the repository life cycle; and establishing transition procedures well in advance so that data shepherds and records officers can transfer information with incoming facility managers effectively and efficiently. These and other recommendations are further analyzed in this study.

  9. Long-Term Information Management (LTIM) of Safeguards Data at Repositories: Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Risa N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    One of the challenges of implementing safeguards for geological repositories will be the long-term preservation of safeguards-related data for 100 years or more. While most countries considering the construction and operation of such facilities agree that safeguards information should be preserved, there are gaps with respect to standardized requirements, guidelines, timescales, and approaches. This study analyzes those gaps and explores research to clarify stakeholder needs, identify current policies, approaches, best practices and international standards, and explores existing safeguards information management infrastructure. The study also attempts to clarify what a safeguards data classification system might look like, how long data should be retained, and how information should be exchanged between stakeholders at different phases of a repository’s life cycle. The analysis produced a variety of recommendations on what information to preserve, how to preserve it, where to store it, retention options and how to exchange information in the long term. Key findings include the use of the globally recognized international records management standard, ISO15489, for guidance on the development of information management systems, and the development of a Key Information File (KIF). The KIF could be used to identify only the most relevant, high-level safeguards information and the history of decision making about the repository. The study also suggests implementing on-site and off-site records storage in digital and physical form; developing a safeguards data classification system; long-term records retention with periodic reviews every 5 to 10 years during each phase of the repository life cycle; and establishing transition procedures well in advance so that data shepherds and records officers can transfer information with incoming facility managers effectively and efficiently. These and other recommendations are further analyzed in this study.

  10. Potential for long-term isolation by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must comply with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, which sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal. The regulation, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (hereafter referred to as the Standard), was vacated in 1987 by a Federal Court of Appeals and is underground revision. By agreement with the Sate of New Mexico, the WIPP project is evaluating compliance with the Standard as promulgated, in 1985 until a new regulation is available. This report summarizes the early-1990 status of Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) understanding of the Project's ability to achieve compliance. The report reviews the qualitative and quantitative requirements for compliance, and identifies unknowns complicating performance assessment. It discusses in relatively nontechnical terms the approaches to resolving those unknowns, and concludes that SNL has reasonable confidence that compliance is achievable with the Standard as first promulgated. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Numerical modelling of the long term mechanical behaviour of a storage cell for high level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, H.B.; Jia, Y.; Duveau, G.; Shao, J.F.; Poutrel, A.

    2010-01-01

    the various important processes in the storage structures, the coupling between the corrosion/strain processes and the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is death with in this study. The principal objective is to establish a numerical method capable to reproduce correctly the evolutionary interface between the metallic container and clay formation taking into account the decrease of mechanical resistance and the generated supplementary volume. Special attention is paid on the evolution of the interface of steel and rock, the amplitude of possible overpressure and stress and the evolution of the EDZ (Excavation Damaged Zone). In the numerical analyses, different materials are taken into account: limestone, argillite, steel and air. Firstly, a brief presentation of the constitutive models for the Callovo-Oxfordian clay is given. For the sake of simplicity, a poro-elastic model is used for limestone and an elasto-plasticity model using a Mises type criterion is applied to the steel. Then a series of parametric studies is performed in order to study the mechanical resistance of corroded steel.. Finally, a storage cell of High-Level Wastes is simulated. In the numerical model, the wastes cell is taken as a circular borehole. The loading path is composed of the following three steps: the excavation phase, the waiting phase for the installation of waste package, and the evolution phase after the backfilling of the storage cell. The proposed model is able to describe the main features of poro-mechanical behaviour for the clay formation: such as plastic deformation, material damage by microcracks, transition of volumetric compressibility/dilatancy and the viscoplastic strain. In spite of the simplifications used, the numerical results allow us to obtain some quantitative results describing the mechanical behaviour and the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes for a short and long-term in the storage cell. (authors)

  12. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  13. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  14. Long-term release from high level waste glass. Part IV. The effect of leaching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freude, E.; Grambow, B.; Lutze, W.; Rabe, H.; Ewing, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A linear time dependence for the corrosion under near saturation conditions is considered, and a rate equation in the QTERM code is used to model the long-term behavior of the German glass, C-31-3EC, JSS A, and SRL TDS 131. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Challenges Associated With Managing Suicide Risk in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riley, Alisa; Nadorff, Michael R; Conwell, Yeates; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-06-01

    Little information about suicidal ideation and behavior in long-term care (LTC) facilities is available. Nonetheless, the implementation of the Minimum Data Set 3.0 requires that LTC facilities screen their residents for suicide risk and have protocols in place to effectively manage residents' responses. In this article, the authors briefly discuss the risk factors of suicide in the elderly and the problems that suicidal ideation and behavior pose in the LTC environment. The authors explain issues that arise when trying to manage suicide risk in the elderly LTC population with general, traditional approaches. These inherent issues make it difficult to develop an effective protocol for managing suicide risk in LTC facilities, leading the authors to propose their own framework for assessing and managing suicide risk in the LTC setting.

  16. Towards sustainable groundwater use: Setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T.; Alley, W.M.; Allen, D.M.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Zhou, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Vandersteen, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  17. Long-term damage management strategies for optimizing steam generator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, G.R.; Besuner, P.M.; Fox, J.H.; Merrick, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Minimizing long-term impact of steam generator operating, maintenance, outage, and replacement costs is the goal of all pressurized water reactor utilities. Recent research results have led to deterministic controls that may be implemented to optimize steam generator performance and to minimize damage accumulation. The real dilemma that utilities encounter is the decision process that needs to be made in the face of uncertain data. Some of these decisions involve the frequency and extent of steam generator eddy current tube inspections; the definition of operating conditions to minimize the rate of corrosion reactions (T (hot) , T (cold) ; and the imposition of strict water quality management guidelines. With finite resources, how can a utility decide which damage management strategy provides the most return for its investment? Aptech Engineering Services, Inc. (APTECH) developed a damage management strategy that starts from a deterministic analysis of a current problem- primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). The strategy involves a probabilistic treatment that results in long-term performance optimization. By optimization, we refer to minimizing the total cost of operating the steam generator. This total includes the present value costs of operations, maintenance, outages, and replacements. An example of the application of this methodology is presented. (author)

  18. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, S.; Manet, M.

    1985-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled France to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsibilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  19. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.; Brignon, P.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired over forty years through an extensive nuclear power program has enabled FRANCE to develop a corresponding comprehensive waste management policy, covering rules and regulations, health and safety aspects for both the short and the long term, technologies from the design of installations to their decommissioning, and the conditioning, transport and disposal of the entailed wastes. The various partners, their role and responsabilities, specially those involved in industrial activities, are briefly introduced. The principles and objectives of French waste management policy, the techniques adopted and the long term disposal program are then presented [fr

  20. Developing and analyzing long-term fuel management strategies for an advanced Small Modular PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayat, Afshin, E-mail: ahedayat@aeoi.org.ir

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive introduction and supplementary concepts as a review paper. • Developing an integrated long-term fuel management strategy for a SMR. • High reliable 3-D core modeling over fuel pins against the traditional LRM. • Verifying the expert rules of large PWRs for an advanced small PWR. • Investigating large numbers of safety parameters coherently. - Abstract: In this paper, long-term fuel management (FM) strategies are introduced and analyzed for a new advanced Pressurized Light Water Reactor (PWR) type of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). The FM strategies are developed to be safe and practical for implementation as much as possible. Safety performances, economy of fuel, and Quality Assurance (QA) of periodic equilibrium conditions are chosen as the main goals. Flattening power density distribution over fuel pins is the major method to ensure safety performance; also maximum energy output or permissible discharging burn up indicates economy of fuel fabrication costs. Burn up effects from BOC to EOC have been traced, studied, and highly visualized in both of transport lattice cell calculations and diffusion core calculations. Long-term characteristics are searched to gain periodical equilibrium characteristics. They are fissile changes, neutron spectrum, refueling pattern, fuel cycle length, core excess reactivity, average, and maximum burn up of discharged fuels, radial Power Peaking Factors (PPF), total PPF, radial and axial power distributions, batch effects, and enrichment effects for fine regulations. Traditional linear reactivity model have been successfully simulated and adapted via fine core and burn up calculations. Effects of high burnable neutron poison and soluble boron are analyzed. Different numbers of batches via different refueling patterns have been studied and visualized. Expert rules for large type PWRs have been influenced and well tested throughout accurate equilibrium core calculations.

  1. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G.; Higgins, P.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs

  2. THEREDA - a contribution to long-term safety of repositories of nuclear and non-nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmaier, M.; Kienzler, B.; Marquardt, C.M.; Neck, V.; Voigt, W.; Wilhelm, S.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term safety analyses of German repositories of radioactive waste as well as underground repositories for chemical toxic waste and other uses (contaminated site remediation) urgently require a standardized, comprehensive thermodynamic reference database. The former 'Thermodynamic Standard Database Working Party' was set up to establish such a database. The activities of that group have been supported within the integrated 'THEREDA' (Thermodynamic Reference Database) project since July 2006 for an initial period of 3 years by the German Federal Ministries of Education and Research, of Economics, and by the Federal Office of Radiation Protection. THEREDA at present is composed of 5 partner institutions essentially representing the key German research institutions in the field of repository safety research. THEREDA is to improve the transparency and validity of safety analyses in Germany and, for the first time, provides consistent thermodynamic datasets for the repository options discussed in Germany. Quality levels are indicated for each thermodynamic quantity on the basis of unambiguously defined evaluation criteria, which allow users to either include or exclude data in accordance with the specific problems at hand. Missing thermodynamic data are substituted in THEREDA by well-founded estimates, thus permitting future model calculations for safety analysis to be carried out on a clearly broader basis of data. The data are managed centrally in a database and will be available to users free of charge on the Internet. Import formats allowing THEREDA to be transferred into the most common modeling codes (EQ3/6, PHREEQC, Geochemist's Workbench, CHEMAPP, etc.) are also made available free of charge. (orig.)

  3. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The public has demonstrated interest and even concern for radioactive waste. A fully demonstrated industrial solution already exists for 90% of the waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several solutions are currently under development for long-term management of long-lived waste. They could be implemented on an industrial scale within twenty years. The low volumes of this type of waste mean there is plenty of time to adopt a solution. (author). 5 photos

  4. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  5. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  6. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2015-2021

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; Shimada, Akiomi; Matsubara, Akihiro; Tamura, Hajimu; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Watanabe, Takahiro; Tokuyasu, Kayoko; Hama, Yuki

    2015-08-01

    The study on long-term geological stability has three objectives, namely, (1) development of technologies for determining the past and present conditions of the geological environment, (2) development of technologies for long-term prediction and evaluation of impacts and (3) development of dating techniques using advanced equipment on isotope geology and geochronology, in order to make contribution to site investigation and safety assessment for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This report is to outline 7 years plan (fiscal years 2015-2021) of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the HLW in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Background of this research is clarified with the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress in this report. The objectives, outline, contents and schedule during the next 7 years are described in detail. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and Systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  7. Long-term complications of JJ stent and its management: A 5 years review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rajendra Prasad; Mahapatra, Rajkumar Singha; Mondal, Partha Pratim; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To assess the long term complications of JJ stent, the management of complications and the role of endoscopic approach to manage these complications. Nineteen patients with indwelling JJ stent for a duration of more than 6 months were included in this study. Patients were assessed with X-ray KUB, USG KUB, blood urea, creatinine and DTPA renogram. Data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Out of 19 patients 12 (63.16%) were male and 7 (36.84%) were female. The mean age was 39.78 ± 13.69 years., Mean duration for which the stent was in situ was 29.56 months. The most common complication was broken stent, in 11 cases (57.89%). Other complications were migration in 5 (26.32%), encrustation in 2 (10.52%) and 1 case of (5.26%) stone formation. Eighteen cases were managed by endoscopic approaches. A total of 22 procedures were performed to treat the complications. Eleven cases were managed by a single procedure and 8 patients required multiple procedures. All were managed successfully with no death reported. Post-operative complications were seen in eight cases (42.11%). JJ stent related long-term complications are not uncommon and are usually seen after 6 months of indwelling time. Endourological procedure should be the initial approach with a high success rate. Coordinated use multimodality and technology helps in management of difficult cases. Open surgery is rarely required. Prevention of the complication by judicious use and early removal is the cornerstone.

  8. Long-term climatic change and sustainable ground water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), prominently carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and halocarbons, have risen from fossil-fuel combustion, deforestation, agriculture, and industry. There is currently heated national and international debate about the consequences of such increasing concentrations of GHGs on the Earth's climate, and, ultimately, on life and society in the world as we know it. This paper reviews (i) long-term patterns of climate change, secular climatic variability, and predicted population growth and their relation to water resources management, and, specifically, to ground water resources management, (ii) means available for mitigating and adapting to trends of climatic change and climatic variability and their impacts on ground water resources. Long-term (that is, over hundreds of millions of years), global-scale, climatic fluctuations are compared with more recent (in the Holocene) patterns of the global and regional climates to shed light on the meaning of rising mean surface temperature over the last century or so, especially in regions whose historical hydroclimatic records exhibit large inter-annual variability. One example of regional ground water resources response to global warming and population growth is presented.

  9. Management of bladder dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome with Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafarpour, Sarah; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Mojtahed, Ali; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Hossein; Shalileh, Keivan

    2015-07-01

    To present the long-term outcomes of appendicovesicostomy using the Mitrofanoff principle for end-stage Wolfram bladder dysfunction as an alternative to clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) per urethra mainly following blindness. Twelve Wolfram patients presenting with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis and advanced bladder dysfunction were included in this study. All patients were managed initially by CIC per urethra. All of these patients became blind during follow-up and were unable to perform urethral CIC independently. Out of these patients, six patients agreed to proceed to appendicovesicostomy. Appendicovesicostomy urinary diversion using the Mitrofanoff principle was performed in these six blind patients. The rest of the patients stopped CIC or performed CIC irregularly. Severe hydroureteronephrosis and large bladders were found in all patients prior to intervention. All patients were able to conduct CIC independently through the stoma and maintained overnight bladder free drainage. In all patients with urinary diversion and CIC, the hydroureteronephrosis was reduced and renal function returned to normal. However, the non-intervention group ended with different degrees of progressive renal failure with three mortalities during the follow-up. We suggest appendicovesicostomy as a safe and lifesaving procedure for long-term management of bladder dysfunction in Wolfram syndrome particularly after progression to blindness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. PROBCON-HDW: A probability and consequence system of codes for long-term analysis of Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.; Nguyen, T.H.

    1988-12-01

    The PROBCON-HDW (PROBability and CONsequence analysis for Hanford defense waste) computer code system calculates the long-term cumulative releases of radionuclides from the Hanford defense wastes (HDW) to the accessible environment and compares the releases to environmental release limits as defined in 40 CFR 191. PROBCON-HDW takes into account the variability of input parameter values used in models to calculate HDW release and transport in the vadose zone to the accessible environment (taken here as groundwater). A human intrusion scenario, which consists of drilling boreholes into the waste beneath the waste sites and bringing waste to the surface, is also included in PROBCON-HDW. PROBCON-HDW also includes the capability to combine the cumulative releases according to various long-term (10,000 year) scenarios into a composite risk curve or complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF). The system structure of the PROBCON-HDW codes, the mathematical models in PROBCON-HDW, the input files, the input formats, the command files, and the graphical output results of several HDW release scenarios are described in the report. 3 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  12. The basis for confidence in the long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.J.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1993-07-01

    Confidence in the acceptability and the long-term safety of deep geological disposal draws strength from a number of sources: the technical approach, i.e., the use of multiple barriers for redundancy and defence in depth; the adoption of the observational approach to site characterization and to disposal vault design, construction, operation and, eventually, closure; the overall approach, which is based on ongoing review and incremental decision making; and, active and effective involvement of the public in this process

  13. Assessment of long-term leaching from waste incineration air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Mosbæk, Hans; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of long-term leaching from MSWI air-pollution-control (APC) residues is discussed with respect to use in environmental impact assessment, such as life-cycle assessment (LCA). A method was proposed for estimating leaching as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in a long......-term perspective (L/S 5000l/kg). Data for changes in residue pH as a function of L/S was used in combination with pH dependent leaching data to predict leachate concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Ba, Mg, Ni, Pb, S, Pb, V and Zn as a function of L/S. Mass balance calculations were used to determine the element fractions...... leached with respect to L/S. The estimated long-term leaching from a semi-dry residue and a fly ash was compared with short-term leaching determined by batch tests at L/S 10l/kg, both carbonated and non-carbonated versions of the residues were investigated. Generally, very high L/S ratios above 2000l...

  14. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  15. Long-term high-level waste technology. Composite quarterly technical report, October-December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornman, W.R.

    1980-06-01

    This document summarizes work for the immobilization of high-level radioactive wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels. The progress is reported in two main areas: site technology, and alternative waste form development

  16. Effect of long-term industrial waste effluent pollution on soil enzyme activities and bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; Zhang, Li-Mei

    2016-02-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed the influence of exogenous pollutants on microorganisms, the effect of long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) pollution on the activity and diversity of soil bacteria was still unclear. Three soil samples characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) receiving mixed organic and heavy metal pollutants for more than 20 years through IWE were collected along the Mahi River basin, Gujarat, western India. Basal soil respiration and in situ enzyme activities indicated an apparent deleterious effect of IWE on microbial activity and soil function. Community composition profiling of soil bacteria using 16S rRNA gene amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method indicated an apparent bacterial community shift in the IWE-affected soils. Cloning and sequencing of DGGE bands revealed that the dominated bacterial phyla in polluted soil were affiliated with Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria, indicating that these bacterial phyla may have a high tolerance to pollutants. We suggested that specific bacterial phyla along with soil enzyme activities could be used as relevant biological indicators for long-term pollution assessment on soil quality. Graphical Abstract Bacterial community profiling and soil enzyme activities in long-term industrial waste effluent polluted soils.

  17. Stakeholder opinions on a transformational model of pain management in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Janzen Claude, Jennifer A; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather; Marchildon, Gregory P; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Gallagher, Romayne; Beattie, B Lynn

    2011-07-01

    Pain in older adults with dementia who reside in long-term care (LTC) facilities tends to be undertreated, despite important guidelines designed to ameliorate this problem. A group of public policy and geriatric pain experts recently concluded that existing guidelines are not being implemented because they fail to take into account policy and resource realities. The group published a set of more feasible guidelines that confront these realities (e.g., a recommendation for very brief pain assessments that can be conducted by nursing staff at least weekly). We asked stakeholders to provide opinions on the possibility of implementation of these guidelines within their LTC facilities. Our results support the feasibility of, interest in, and desirability of implementation. They also support an increased role for nurse leadership in LTC pain management. These results could be used to strengthen advocacy efforts for improvement in pain management. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Special issue on ageing management and long term operation of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashima, Koichi; Kanno, Masanori; Kimura, Itsurou

    2008-01-01

    Ageing management and long term operation of light water reactors became important in Japan and relevant research on physical and materials ageing has been carried out among organizations of government, academia and industry and establishment of technical standards and guideline based on the results is under way. The Japan Energy Policy Institute (JEPI) issued a special number discussing this theme, which consisted of ten reports of experts describing these activities. Main topics were ageing evaluation of reactor components due to neutron irradiation embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking, regulatory evaluation of deteriorations due to ageing with technical information basis, technology development in the area of inspection/monitoring, ageing evaluation and preventive maintenance/repairs, nuclear power plant life management of electric utilities, and advancement of reactor maintenance and inspection. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  20. The long-term functional outcome of type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Butler, J S

    2010-10-01

    Odontoid fractures currently account for 9-15% of all adult cervical spine fractures, with type II fractures accounting for the majority of these injuries. Despite recent advances in internal fixation techniques, the management of type II fractures still remains controversial with advocates still supporting non-rigid immobilization as the definitive treatment of these injuries. At the NSIU, over an 11-year period between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 2006, 66 patients (n = 66) were treated by external immobilization for type II odontoid fractures. The medical records, radiographs and CT scans of all patients identified were reviewed. Clinical follow-up evaluation was performed using the Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term functional outcome of patients suffering isolated type II odontoid fractures managed non-operatively and to correlate patient age and device type with clinical and functional outcome. Of the 66 patients, there were 42 males and 24 females (M:F = 1.75:1) managed non-operatively for type II odontoid fractures. The mean follow-up time was 66 months. Advancing age was highly correlated with poorer long-term functional outcomes when assessing neck pain (r = 0.19, P = 0.1219), shoulder and arm pain (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007), physical symptoms (r = 0.25, P = 0.472), functional disability (r = 0.24, P = 0.0476) and psychological distress (r = 0.41, P = 0.0007). Patients >65 years displayed a higher rate of pseudoarthrosis (21.43 vs. 1.92%) and established non-union (7.14 vs. 0%) than patients <65 years. The non-operative management of type II odontoid fractures is an effective and satisfactory method of treating type II odontoid fractures, particularly those of a stable nature. However, patients of advancing age have been demonstrated to have significantly poorer functional outcomes in the long term. This may be linked to higher rates of non-union.

  1. Comprehensive long-term management program for asthma: effect on outcomes in adult African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, T M; Abou-Shala, N; Heilker, G M; Arheart, K L; Portner, T S; Self, T H

    1996-06-01

    To determine if a comprehensive long-term management program, emphasizing inhaled corticosteroids and patient education, would improve outcomes in adult African-American asthmatics a nonrandomized control trial with a 2-year intervention was performed in a university-based clinic. Inclusion criteria consisted of (> or = 5) emergency department (ED) visits or hospitalizations (> or = 2) during the previous 2 years. Intervention patients were volunteers; a comparable control group was identified via chart review at hospitals within the same area and time period as the intervention patients. Individualized doses of beclomethasone with a spacer, inhaled albuterol "as needed," and crisis prednisone were the primary therapies. Environmental control, peak flow monitoring, and a partnership with the patient were emphasized. Detailed patient education was an integral part of management. Control patients received usual care from local physicians. ED visits and hospitalizations for 2 years before and 2 years during the intervention period were compared. Quality of life (QOL) measurements were made at baseline and every 6 months in the intervention group. Study group (n = 21) had a significant reduction in ED visits (2.3 +/- 0.2 pre-intervention versus 0.6 +/- 0.2 post-intervention; P = 0.0001). Control group (n = 18) did not have a significant change in ED visits during the 2-year post-intervention period (2.6 +/- 0.2 pre-intervention versus 2.0 +/- 0.2 post-intervention; P = 0.11). Both groups had significant reductions in hospitalizations, but the study group had a greater reduction. Sixty-two percent of study patients had complete elimination of ED visits and hospitalizations, whereas no control patients had total elimination of the need for institutional acute care. QOL in the study patients revealed significant improvements for most parameters. A comprehensive long-term management program emphasizing inhaled corticosteroids combined with other state-of-the-art management

  2. PEBS: an international challenge for improve understanding of the natural barriers to isolate long-term radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaus, I.

    2015-01-01

    The radioactive materials have a wide range of applications ranging from nuclear reactors to the use of isotopes in industries, medicine or research centres. These technologies generate waste whose disposal systems are becoming more sophisticated, to the point of using artificial barriers able to isolate them from contact with other materials, precipitation, surface water and groundwater subsurface. In this context, the European project long term Performance of the engineered Barrier Systems (PeBS), funded by the seventh framework (Fp7) Euratom and has counted with the participation of ENRESA, reviewed the evolution of the performance of sealing and barrier systems of artificial barriers in relevant time scales through the development of a comprehensive method that includes experiments, models, and a consideration of the potential impacts of long-term security functions. (Author)

  3. The challenge of long-term participatory repository governance. Lessons learned for high level radioactive waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landstroem, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    Voluntaristic siting procedures for deep geological repositories are becoming increasingly common; they reconfigure the relationship of repositories and society in ways that have implications for the long-term governance of these facilities. This paper identifies three challenges emerging in relation to this question: principles of monitoring, repository content, and facility closure. This paper discusses them in a comparison with similar challenges being addressed in Belgian partnerships founded to facilitate the siting and design of a low- and intermediate level short lived waste repository. The empirical exploration confirms the importance of securing stakeholder engagement throughout the repository lifecycle, for which there is a need to develop knowledge about how to encourage long-term democratic governance systems.

  4. Research plan on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal year 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Yasue, Kenichi; Kokubu, Yoko; Niwa, Masakazu; Asamori, Koichi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Tatsunori; Fujita, Natsuko; Shimizu, Mayuko; Hama, Yuki

    2016-08-01

    This report is a plan of research and development (R and D) on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan Atomic Energy Agency, in fiscal year 2016. The objectives and contents in fiscal year 2016 are described in detail based on the outline of 7 years plan (fiscal years 2015-2021). Background of this research is clarified with the necessity and the significance for site investigation and safety assessment, and the past progress in this report. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  5. Integrated Corrosion Facility for long-term testing of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estill, J.C.; Dalder, E.N.C.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    A long-term-testing facility, the Integrated Corrosion Facility (I.C.F.), is being developed to investigate the corrosion behavior of candidate construction materials for high-level-radioactive waste packages for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Corrosion phenomena will be characterized in environments considered possible under various scenarios of water contact with the waste packages. The testing of the materials will be conducted both in the liquid and high humidity vapor phases at 60 and 90 degrees C. Three classes of materials with different degrees of corrosion resistance will be investigated in order to encompass the various design configurations of waste packages. The facility is expected to be in operation for a minimum of five years, and operation could be extended to longer times if warranted. A sufficient number of specimens will be emplaced in the test environments so that some can be removed and characterized periodically. The corrosion phenomena to be characterized are general, localized, galvanic, and stress corrosion cracking. The long-term data obtained from this study will be used in corrosion mechanism modeling, performance assessment, and waste package design. Three classes of materials are under consideration. The corrosion resistant materials are high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys; the corrosion allowance materials are low-alloy and carbon steels; and the intermediate corrosion resistant materials are copper-nickel alloys

  6. Assessing climate change and socio-economic uncertainties in long term management of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Golnaz; Dawson, Richard; Walsh, Claire; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Glenis, Vassilis

    2015-04-01

    Long term management of water resources is challenging for decision makers given the range of uncertainties that exist. Such uncertainties are a function of long term drivers of change, such as climate, environmental loadings, demography, land use and other socio economic drivers. Impacts of climate change on frequency of extreme events such as drought make it a serious threat to water resources and water security. The release of probabilistic climate information, such as the UKCP09 scenarios, provides improved understanding of some uncertainties in climate models. This has motivated a more rigorous approach to dealing with other uncertainties in order to understand the sensitivity of investment decisions to future uncertainty and identify adaptation options that are as far as possible robust. We have developed and coupled a system of models that includes a weather generator, simulations of catchment hydrology, demand for water and the water resource system. This integrated model has been applied in the Thames catchment which supplies the city of London, UK. This region is one of the driest in the UK and hence sensitive to water availability. In addition, it is one of the fastest growing parts of the UK and plays an important economic role. Key uncertainties in long term water resources in the Thames catchment, many of which result from earth system processes, are identified and quantified. The implications of these uncertainties are explored using a combination of uncertainty analysis and sensitivity testing. The analysis shows considerable uncertainty in future rainfall, river flow and consequently water resource. For example, results indicate that by the 2050s, low flow (Q95) in the Thames catchment will range from -44 to +9% compared with the control scenario (1970s). Consequently, by the 2050s the average number of drought days are expected to increase 4-6 times relative to the 1970s. Uncertainties associated with urban growth increase these risks further

  7. Ecosystem responses to long-term nutrient management in an urban estuary: Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, H.; Janicki, A.; Sherwood, E. T.; Pribble, R.; Johansson, J. O. R.

    2014-12-01

    In subtropical Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, we evaluated restoration trajectories before and after nutrient management strategies were implemented using long-term trends in nutrient loading, water quality, primary production, and seagrass extent. Following citizen demands for action, reduction in wastewater nutrient loading of approximately 90% in the late 1970s lowered external total nitrogen (TN) loading by more than 50% within three years. Continuing nutrient management actions from public and private sectors were associated with a steadily declining TN load rate and with concomitant reduction in chlorophyll-a concentrations and ambient nutrient concentrations since the mid-1980s, despite an increase of more than 1 M people living within the Tampa Bay metropolitan area. Water quality (chlorophyll-a concentration, water clarity as indicated by Secchi disk depth, total nitrogen concentration and dissolved oxygen) and seagrass coverage are approaching conditions observed in the 1950s, before the large increases in human population in the watershed. Following recovery from an extreme weather event in 1997-1998, water clarity increased significantly and seagrass is expanding at a rate significantly different than before the event, suggesting a feedback mechanism as observed in other systems. Key elements supporting the nutrient management strategy and concomitant ecosystem recovery in Tampa Bay include: 1) active community involvement, including agreement about quantifiable restoration goals; 2) regulatory and voluntary reduction in nutrient loadings from point, atmospheric, and nonpoint sources; 3) long-term water quality and seagrass extent monitoring; and 4) a commitment from public and private sectors to work together to attain restoration goals. A shift from a turbid, phytoplankton-based system to a clear water, seagrass-based system that began in the 1980s following comprehensive nutrient loading reductions has resulted in a present-day Tampa Bay which looks and

  8. Implementation of a Diabetes Management Flow Sheet in a Long-Term Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Evelyn; Curtis, Ashley

    2015-08-01

    Physicians lack clear guidance about adaptation of clinical practice guidelines for elderly institutionalized patients with diabetes. In a large long-term care facility, a diabetes management flow sheet was trialed to determine which clinical parameters were found useful by clinicians in the management of diabetes in that setting. Clinical practice guidelines for diabetes management were reviewed with attending physicians. Diabetes management flow sheets were distributed for all patients coded as having diabetes on their most recent minimum data sets. After a period of 14 months, flow sheet completion rates were ascertained and physicians were surveyed regarding the utility of the flow sheet. Initial flow sheet data were completed in full or in part for only 57% of the 121 study subjects; 39% of the subjects died within 14 months. Quarterly follow-up data were completed for 58% of the flow sheets. The diabetes management flow sheet was not found to be useful by attending physicians as a chronic-disease management tool. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical properties and long-term behavior of french R7T7 nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernaz, E.

    1990-01-01

    The French R7T7 nuclear glass composition was carefully selected to allow incorporation of some thirty different oxides found in fission product solutions. The resulting glass exhibits very low crystallization, and its physical and chemical properties are very similar to those of standard industrial glasses. Nuclear glasses have been shown to withstand α doses corresponding to several hundred thousand years under repository conditions. Predicting the long-term behavior of fission product glasses subjected to aqueous corrosion is no doubt the most difficult aspect of the problem. Predictions are necessarily based on mathematical models. A substantial research effort has been undertaken to identify all the basic corrosion mechanisms liable to control long-term alteration. These mechanisms are now relatively well understood, and provide the basis for developing the indispensable models. Realistic storage conditions exist under which glass alteration occurs at a very slow rate, and can fulfill its role as the first containment barrier for several tens of thousands of years

  10. Methodologies for assessing long-term performance of high-level radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, K.; Boesch, L.; Crane, B.; Johnson, R.; Moler, R.; Smith, S.; Zaremba, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several methods the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use to independently assess Department of Energy (DOE) waste package performance were identified by The Aerospace Corporation. The report includes an overview of the necessary attributes of performance assessment, followed by discussions of DOE methods, probabilistic methods capable of predicting waste package lifetime and radionuclide releases, process modeling of waste package barriers, sufficiency of the necessary input data, and the applicability of probability density functions. It is recommended that the initial NRC performance assessment (for the basalt conceptual waste package design) should apply modular simulation, using available process models and data, to demonstrate this assessment method

  11. Engaging aboriginal peoples in Canada's plan for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, P.

    2011-01-01

    The interests and concerns of Aboriginal peoples are integral to development and implementation of Canada's plans for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has an ongoing statutory obligation and a commitment to active and meaningful participation with Aboriginal peoples. The organization has worked with Aboriginal organizations and individuals to develop long-term engagement and dialogue processes that respect traditional Aboriginal practices, culture, protocols and approaches to decision-making. Aboriginal peoples were significant participants in the 2003-2005 study that resulted in the recommendation for Adaptive Phased Management (APM). After the Canadian government agreed to proceed with APM, Aboriginal peoples provided valuable input into development of the process for selecting a site for a deep geological repository (DGR) for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The involvement of Aboriginal stakeholders continues to be important as Canada moves into the siting process. Engagement of Aboriginal peoples is guided by principles that respond to the unique interests, perspectives and culture of Aboriginal peoples. These principles recognize and honour the special relationship that Aboriginal peoples have with the natural environment, their unique stewardship responsibilities, and the fact that Aboriginal peoples are holders of Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge (ATK), which brings value to planning processes. The NWMO has been working with Aboriginal Elders and others to learn about ATK and to interweave this knowledge into its work. ATK includes important knowledge about the land, ecology and intergenerational decision-making. The NWMO and Aboriginal peoples have given life to engagement principles and the wisdom of ATK by collaboratively developing a number of programs including agreements with national, regional and local Aboriginal organizations. Additionally, the NWMO has

  12. Long-term monitoring as aging management component in the NPP Grohnde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, Sven H.; Seichter, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of aging management of safety relevant mechanical systems, structures and components (SSC) a classification is performed with respect to the safety relevance. For SSC of group M1 integrity has to be assured, i.e. components must not fail. The other safety relevant components are classified as group M2, i.e. failure is admissible as isolated case. SSC of group M1 in the NPP Grohnde are included into the long-term monitoring system, the annual status report ''fatigue'' has to identify the actual usage value and predict the end-of-life usage. The authors describe the used methodology concerning loading evaluation based on temperature cycling data, the thermal hydraulic modeling using finite element methods for fatigue relevant components.

  13. Establishing the long-term fuel management scheme using point reactivity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Jae-Hak; Lee, Young-Ouk; Song, Jae-Woong; Zee, Sung-Kyun

    1994-01-01

    A new approach to establish the long-term fuel management scheme is presented in this paper. The point reactivity model is used to predict the core average reactivity. An attempt to calculate batchwise power fraction is introduced through the two-dimensional nodal power algorithm based on the modified one-group diffusion equation and the number of fuel assemblies on the core periphery. Suggested is an empirical formula to estimate the radial leakage reactivity with ripe core design experience reflected. This approach predicts the cycle lengths and the discharge burnups of individual fuel batches up to an equilibrium core when the proper input data such as batch enrichment, batch size, type and content of burnable poison and reloading strategies are given. Eight benchmark calculations demonstrate that the new approach used in this study is reasonably accurate and highly efficient for the purpose of scoping calculation when compared with design code predictions. (author)

  14. Surgical Management for Destructive Atlantoaxial Spondyloarthropathy in Long-Term Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Je Hoon; Kim, Hee Kyung; Im, Soo Bin

    2017-01-01

    Atlantoaxial spondyloarthropathy most often results from rheumatoid arthritis, cancer metastasis, or basilar invagination. Dialysis-related spondyloarthropathy is a rare cause of spinal deformity and cervical myelopathy at the atlantoaxial joint. We report 2 patients on long-term hemodialysis who presented with atlantoaxial spondyloarthropathy. Two patients with end-stage renal failure presented with a history of progressively worsening neck pain, motion limitation, and gait disturbance. In both patients, radiologic findings showed a bone-destroying soft tissue mass lateral to C1 and C2, compressing the spinal cord and causing atlantoaxial instability. We performed a C1 laminectomy and C12 transarticular screw fixation and biopsied the osteolytic mass. The neck pain, hand numbness, and gait disturbance improved. Although the surgical management of these patients involves many challenges, appropriate decompression and fusion surgery is an effective treatment option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term experiment with orchard floor management systems: influence on apple yield and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Licznar-Malanczuk, Maria; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-05-07

    The study focuses on the response of apple primary and secondary metabolism and some important quality parameters to three living mulch treatments, classical herbicide fallow, and black polypropylene strip application in two apple cultivars. Primary and secondary metabolites were analyzed after 10 years of ground cover experiments. Soluble solids, firmness, and color measurements indicate differences among orchard floor management treatments. Significantly, lower levels of individual sugars have been measured in fruit of different living mulch treatments compared with fruit harvested from trees subjected to the herbicide strip treatment. Total sugar content was higher in fruit of the herbicide strip treatment in both cultivars analyzed. Significantly higher levels of total organic acids were only detected in 'Pinova' fruit of the Festuca ovina L. treatment. Long-term response of both cultivars to living mulch treatments indicated that apples increase the accumulation of almost all analyzed individual phenolic compounds.

  16. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  17. Peptide-based anti-PCSK9 vaccines - an approach for long-term LDLc management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergana Galabova

    Full Text Available Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL hypercholesterolemia, and its associated cardiovascular diseases, are some of the leading causes of death worldwide. The ability of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9 to modulate circulating LDL cholesterol (LDLc concentrations made it a very attractive target for LDLc management. To date, the most advanced approaches for PCSK9 inhibition are monoclonal antibody (mAb therapies. Although shown to lower LDLc significantly, mAbs face functional limitations because of their relatively short in vivo half-lives necessitating frequent administration. Here, we evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of PCSK9-specific active vaccines in different preclinical models.PCSK9 peptide-based vaccines were successfully selected by our proprietary technology. To test their efficacy, wild-type (wt mice, Ldlr+/- mice, and rats were immunized with highly immunogenic vaccine candidates. Vaccines induced generation of high-affine PCSK9-specific antibodies in all species. Group mean total cholesterol (TC concentration was reduced by up to 30%, and LDLc up to 50% in treated animals. Moreover, the PCSK9 vaccine-induced humoral immune response persisted for up to one year in mice, and reduced cholesterol levels significantly throughout the study. Finally, the vaccines were well tolerated in all species tested.Peptide-based anti-PCSK9 vaccines induce the generation of antibodies that are persistent, high-affine, and functional for up to one year. They are powerful and safe tools for long-term LDLc management, and thus may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and/or treatment of LDL hypercholesterolemia-related cardiovascular diseases in humans.

  18. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable.

  19. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Landman

    Full Text Available Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points, which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site

  20. Understanding long-term variations in an elephant piosphere effect to manage impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Marietjie; Schoeman, David S; Hall-Martin, Anthony J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2012-01-01

    Surface water availability is a key driver of elephant impacts on biological diversity. Thus, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of these impacts in relation to water is critical to their management. However, elephant piosphere effects (i.e. the radial pattern of attenuating impact) are poorly described, with few long-term quantitative studies. Our understanding is further confounded by the complexity of systems with elephant (i.e. fenced, multiple water points, seasonal water availability, varying population densities) that likely limit the use of conceptual models to predict these impacts. Using 31 years of data on shrub structure in the succulent thickets of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa, we tested elephant effects at a single water point. Shrub structure showed a clear sigmoid response with distance from water, declining at both the upper and lower limits of sampling. Adjacent to water, this decline caused a roughly 300-m radial expansion of the grass-dominated habitats that replace shrub communities. Despite the clear relationship between shrub structure and ecological functioning in thicket, the extent of elephant effects varied between these features with distance from water. Moreover, these patterns co-varied with other confounding variables (e.g. the location of neighboring water points), which limits our ability to predict such effects in the absence of long-term data. We predict that elephant have the ability to cause severe transformation in succulent thicket habitats with abundant water supply and elevated elephant numbers. However, these piosphere effects are complex, suggesting that a more integrated understanding of elephant impacts on ecological heterogeneity may be required before water availability is used as a tool to manage impacts. We caution against the establishment of water points in novel succulent thicket habitats, and advocate a significant reduction in water provisioning at our study site, albeit with greater

  1. Study on improvement in reliability of inventory assessment in vitrified waste for long-term safety of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masumi; Kaneko, Satoru; Kitayama, Kazumi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroyoshi; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Okumura, Keisuke; Chino, Masamichi; Moriya, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    Since quality control issues for vitrified waste are defined mainly with the focus on the transport and interim storage of the waste rather than the long-term safety of geological disposal, they do not cover inventories of long-lived nuclides that are of most interest in the safety assessment of geological disposal. Therefore, we suggest a flow chart for the assessment of inventories of long-lived nuclides in the vitrified waste focusing on the measured values. This includes an indirect assessment with indicative nuclides that have been already measured in the returned vitrified wastes from abroad. In order to apply this flow chart for commercial operation, its applicability should be examined for cases with a variation in burn-up history and with an uncertainty associated with carry-over fraction at reprocessing. We started an R and D program to examine the applicability as well as to improve the reliability of the nuclide generation/decay code and the nuclear data library using liquid waste from spent fuel with a clear irradiation history. To solve the issue of quality control for vitrified waste, a comprehensive study is needed in aspects not only of geological disposal field but also of operation of a nuclear power plant, reprocessing of spent fuel and vitrification of liquid waste. This study is a pioneering study conducted to integrate them. (author)

  2. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human factors in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moray, N.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors

  4. Modelling the Long Term Leaching Behaviour of 137CS from Different Stabilized Waste Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Leaching characteristics of ''1''3''7Cs from immobilized waste matrices in different cement-based grouts have been assessed to investigate the influence of the additives on the leaching behavior of the solid waste matrices. The International Atomic Energy's Agency (IAEA) standard leach method has been employed to study the leach pattern of 137 Cs radionuclide from the immobilized waste form. The examination of the leaching data revealed that clay additives reduces the leach rate for the studied radionuclide. The controlling leaching mechanism has been studied and the transport parameters were calculated for all studied waste matrices. Simplified analytical models have been derived to predict the Cumulative Leach Fraction (CLF) of radionuclides over the studied experimental period. These simplified research models could be used as a screening tool to assess the performance of the waste matrix under repository conditions. (author)

  5. Natural analogue studies for the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal. Lessons learned from the nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Yasuhisa

    2002-01-01

    'Natural analogues' can be defined as the processes or materials analogous to those operating in the geological disposal system of radioactive waste. Natural analogue studies provide the only means by which long-term data can be obtained under the real natural conditions, and also the most convincing support to the long-term performance assessment of the geological disposal system. The framework of our natural analogue studies concerning the stability of the engineered barrier materials for geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste is reviewed. One of the results is that the volcanic glass included in a clay bed did not alter during the past one million years. The Tono Uranium Deposits are studied as geochemical analogues of radioactive waste disposal in Japan. We conclude that although the deposits have been subjected to a variety of geological processes and events such as faulting, erosion and uplift/subsidence, the reducing condition has been maintained and uranium has not migrated for at least the past ten million years. Application and further development of the natural analogue studies are also discussed. (author)

  6. The strategic skills of business continuity managers: putting business continuity management into corporate long-term planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wei Ning Zechariah

    2009-11-01

    Despite its rapid development in the last two decades, business continuity management (BCM) as a discipline and a profession is still regarded by many as an operational entity of management. Two main issues are discussed in this paper: the role of BCM in strategic management and the strategic skills of business continuity managers. These issues are crucial as they represent the role of BCM in high-level corporate management. The paper discusses the importance of BCM in the long-term planning of organisational success and the preservation of future competitiveness. Finally, salient points that underpin the importance of its role in sustaining organisational performance are addressed.

  7. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  8. Risks of nuclear waste disposal in space. III - Long-term orbital evolution of small particle distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Wells, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    A study of long term risks is presented that treats an additional pathway that could result in earth reentry, namely, small radioactive particles released in solar orbit due to payload fragmentation by accidental explosion or meteoroid impact. A characterization of such an event and of the initial mass size distribution of particles is given for two extremes of waste form strength. Attention is given to numerical results showing the mass-time distribution of material and the fraction of initial mass intercepted by earth. It is concluded that it appears that program planners need not be to concerned about the risks of this particular failure mechanism and return pathway.

  9. Research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. Scientific programme for fiscal years 2010-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Yamada, Kunimi; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Kusano, Tomohiro

    2010-09-01

    The concept of geological disposal of HLW in Japan is based on a multibarrier system which combines a stable geological environment with an engineered barrier system. Potential geological host formations and their surroundings are chosen, in particular, for their long-term stability, taking into account the fact that Japan is located in a tectonically active zone. This report is to outline 5 years plan (fiscal years 2010-2014) of research and development (R and D) for geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste in JAEA. Background of this research are clarified with the necessity and the significance, and the past progresses in this report. The objectives, outline, contents and schedule during the next 5 years are described in detail. In addition, the plan framework is structured into the following categories: (1) Development and systematization of investigation techniques, (2) Development of models for long-term estimation and effective assessment, (3) Development of dating techniques. (author)

  10. Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project; Long-term Management Plan, Project Report 1993, Final Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew T.

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted on the Hellsgate Winter Range Mitigation Project area, a 4,943 acre ranch purchased for mitigating some habitat losses associated with the original construction of Grand Coulee Dam and innundation of habitat by Lake Roosevelt. A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was used to determine habitat quality and quantity baseline data and future projections. Target species used in the study were sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemoinus), mink (Mustela vison), spotted sandpiper (Actiius colchicus), bobcat (Felis reufs), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura). From field data collected, limiting life values or HSI's (Habitat Suitability Index's) for each indicator species was determined for existing habitats on project lands. From this data a long term management plan was developed. This report is designed to provide guidance for the management of project lands in relation to the habitat cover types discussed and the indicator species used to evaluate these cover types. In addition, the plan discusses management actions, habitat enhancements, and tools that will be used to enhance, protect and restore habitats to desired conditions. Through planned management actions biodiversity and vegetative structure can be optimized over time to reduce or eliminate, limiting HSI values for selected wildlife on project lands.

  11. Long-term issues associated with spent nuclear power fuel management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Sol, Lee; Kosaku, Fukuda; Burcl, R.; Bell, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuel management is perceived as one of the crucial issues to be resolved for sustainable utilisation of nuclear power. In the last decades, spent fuel management policies have shown diverging tendencies among the nuclear power production countries - a group has adhered to reprocessing- recycle and another has turned to direct disposal, while the rest of the countries have not taken decision yet, often with ''wait and see'' position. Both the closed and open fuel cycle options for spent fuel management have been subject to a number of debates with pros and cons on various issues such as proliferation risk, environmental impact, etc. The anticipation for better technical solutions that would mitigate those issues has given rise to the renewal of interest in partitioning and transmutation of harmful nuclides to be disposed of, and in a broader context, the recent initiatives for development of innovative nuclear systems. The current trend toward globalization of market economy, which has already brought important impacts on nuclear industry, might have a stimulating effect on regional-international co-operations for cost-effective efforts to mitigate some of those long-term issues associated with spent fuel management. (author)

  12. Congestion management in power systems. Long-term modeling framework and large-scale application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertsch, Joachim; Hagspiel, Simeon; Just, Lisa

    2015-06-15

    In liberalized power systems, generation and transmission services are unbundled, but remain tightly interlinked. Congestion management in the transmission network is of crucial importance for the efficiency of these inter-linkages. Different regulatory designs have been suggested, analyzed and followed, such as uniform zonal pricing with redispatch or nodal pricing. However, the literature has either focused on the short-term efficiency of congestion management or specific issues of timing investments. In contrast, this paper presents a generalized and flexible economic modeling framework based on a decomposed inter-temporal equilibrium model including generation, transmission, as well as their inter-linkages. Short and long-term effects of different congestion management designs can hence be analyzed. Specifically, we are able to identify and isolate implicit frictions and sources of inefficiencies in the different regulatory designs, and to provide a comparative analysis including a benchmark against a first-best welfare-optimal result. To demonstrate the applicability of our framework, we calibrate and numerically solve our model for a detailed representation of the Central Western European (CWE) region, consisting of 70 nodes and 174 power lines. Analyzing six different congestion management designs until 2030, we show that compared to the first-best benchmark, i.e., nodal pricing, inefficiencies of up to 4.6% arise. Inefficiencies are mainly driven by the approach of determining cross-border capacities as well as the coordination of transmission system operators' activities.

  13. Establishing Long Term Data Management Research Priorities via a Data Decadal Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Uhlir, P.; Meyer, C. B.; Robinson, E.

    2013-12-01

    We live in a time of unprecedented collection of and access to scientific data. Improvements in sensor technologies and modeling capabilities are constantly producing new data sources. Data sets are being used for unexpected purposes far from their point of origin, as research spans projects, discipline domains, and temporal and geographic boundaries. The nature of science is evolving, with more open science, open publications, and changes to the nature of peer review and data "publication". Data-intensive, or computational science, has been identified as a new research paradigm. There is recognition that the creation of a data set can be a contribution to science deserving of recognition comparable to other scientific publications. Federally funded projects are generally expected to make their data open and accessible to everyone. In this dynamic environment, scientific progress is ever more dependent on good data management practices and policies. Yet current data management and stewardship practices are insufficient. Data sets created at great, and often public, expense are at risk of being lost for technological or organizational reasons. Insufficient documentation and understanding of data can mean that the data are used incorrectly or not at all. Scientific results are being scrutinized and questioned, and occasionally retracted due to problems in data management. The volume of data is greatly increasing while funding for data management is meager and generally must be found within existing budgets. Many federal government agencies, including NASA, USGS, NOAA and NSF are already making efforts to address data management issues. Executive memos and directives give substantial impetus to those efforts, such as the May 9 Executive Order directing agencies to implement Open Data Policy requirements and regularly report their progress. However, these distributed efforts risk duplicating effort, lack a unifying, long-term strategic vision, and too often work in

  14. Long term stability of yttria-stabilized zirconia waste forms. Stability for secular change of partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Ken-ichi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Sakai, Etsuro; Uno, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, H.; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the stability of YSZ waste forms for secular change of partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration, one of important terms in long-term stability, is the special concern. Designed amount of waste and YSZ powder were mixed and sintered. These TRU waste forms were submitted to tests of phase stability, chemical durability, mechanical property and compactness. The results were compared with those of another YSZ waste forms, non-radioactive Ce and/or Nd doped YSZ samples, and glass and Synroc waste forms. Experimental results show following: (1) Phase stability of (Np+Am)-, (Np+U)-, and (Np+U+Bi)-doped YSZ waste forms could be maintained of that of the initial Np+Am-doped YSZ waste form permanently even when the composition of partitioned TRU waste were changed by disintegration. (2) Secular change also accelerated volume increase of YSZ waste forms as well as alpha-decay damage. (3) Hv, E and K IC of (Np+U)- and (Np+U+Bi)-doped YSZ waste forms were independent of the secular change of the partitioned TRU waste composition by disintegration. (4) Mechanical properties of YSZ waste forms were more than those of a glass and Synroc waste forms. (5) Compactness of YSZ waste forms was good as waste forms for the partitioned TRU wastes. (J.P.N.)

  15. Mobile phone messaging for facilitating self-management of long-term illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; Car, Josip; Atun, Rifat

    2012-12-12

    Long-term illnesses affect a significant proportion of the population in developed and developing countries. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), may present convenient, cost-effective ways of supporting self-management and improving patients' self-efficacy skills through, for instance, medication reminders, therapy adjustments or supportive messages. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging applications designed to facilitate self-management of long-term illnesses, in terms of impact on health outcomes and patients' capacity to self-manage their condition. Secondary objectives include assessment of: user evaluation of the intervention; health service utilisation and costs; and possible risks and harms associated with the intervention. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL,The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We selected only studies where it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features, characteristics of target populations, interventions and controls, and results data were extracted by two review authors and confirmed by

  16. Impact of short-term severe accident management actions in a long-term perspective. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    The present systems for severe accident management are focused on mitigating the consequences of special severe accident phenomena and to reach a safe plant state. However, in the development of strategies and procedures for severe accident management, it is also important to consider the long-term perspective of accident management and especially to secure the safe state of the plant. The main reason for this is that certain short-term actions have an impact on the long-term scenario. Both positive and negative effects from short-term actions on the accident management in the long-term perspective have been included in this paper. Short-term actions are accident management measures taken within about 24 hours after the initiating event. The purpose of short-term actions is to reach a stable status of the plant. The main goal in the long-term perspective is to maintain the reactor in a stable state and prevent uncontrolled releases of activity. The purpose of this short Technical Note, deliberately limited in scope, is to draw attention to potential long-term problems, important to utilities and regulatory authorities, arising from the way a severe accident would be managed during the first hours. Its objective is to encourage discussions on the safest - and maybe also most economical - way to manage a severe accident in the long term by not making the situation worse through inappropriate short-term actions, and on the identification of short-term actions likely to make long-term management easier and safer. The Note is intended as a contribution to the knowledge base put at the disposal of Member countries through international collaboration. The scope of the work has been limited to a literature search. Useful further activities have been identified. However, there is no proposal, at this stage, for more detailed work to be undertaken under the auspices of the CSNI. Plant-specific applications would need to be developed by utilities

  17. A long-term perspective on anthropogenic activities and management strategies in a prairie wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, J. M.; Hobbs, W.; LaFrancois, T.; Edlund, M.; Theissen, K. M.; Zimmer, K.; Hanson, M.

    2012-12-01

    Multiple stressors to shallow lake/wetland ecosystems have the ability to control the relative stability of alternative states (clear, macrophyte-dominated or turbid, algal dominated). As a consequence, the use of remedial biomanipulations to induce trophic cascades and shift a turbid lake to a clear state is often only a temporary solution. Here we show the instability of short-term manipulations in the shallow Lake Christina (a Class V wetland in the prairie ecoregion of western Minnesota, USA) is governed by the long-term state following a regime shift in the lake. During the modern, managed period of the lake, three top-down manipulations (fish kills) were undertaken inducing temporary (5-10 years) unstable clear-water states. Paleoecological remains of diatoms, along with proxies of primary production (total chlorophyll a and total organic carbon accumulation rate) and trophic state (total P) from sediment records clearly show a single regime shift in the lake during the early 1950s; following this shift, the functioning of the lake ecosystem is dominated by a persistent turbid state. We find that multiple stressors contributed to the regime shift. First, the lake began to eutrophy (from agricultural land use and/or increased waterfowl populations), leading to a dramatic increase in primary production. Soon after, the construction of a dam in 1936 effectively doubled the depth of the lake, compounded by increases in regional humidity; this resulted in an increase in planktivorous and benthivorous fish reducing phytoplankton grazers. These factors further conspired to increase the stability of a turbid regime during the modern managed period, such that switches to a clear-water state were inherently unstable and the lake consistently returned to a turbid state. We conclude that while top-down manipulations have had measurable impacts on the lake state, they have not been effective in providing a return to an ecosystem similar to the stable historical period

  18. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  19. Transforming long-term care pain management in north america: the policy-clinical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Marchildon, Gregory P; Fine, Perry G; Herr, Keela; Palley, Howard A; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Béland, François

    2009-04-01

    The undertreatment of pain in older adults who reside in long-term care (LTC) facilities has been well documented, leading to clinical guideline development and professional educational programs designed to foster better pain assessment and management in this population. Despite these efforts, little improvement has occurred, and we postulate that focused attention to public policy and cost implications of systemic change is required to create positive pain-related outcomes. Our goal was to outline feasible and cost-effective clinical and public policy recommendations designed to address the undermanagement of pain in LTC facilities. We arranged a 2-day consensus meeting of prominent United States and Canadian pain and public policy experts. An initial document describing the problem of pain undermanagement in LTC was developed and circulated prior to the meeting. Participants were also asked to respond to a list of relevant questions before arriving. Following formal presentations of a variety of proposals and extensive discussion among clinicians and policy experts, a set of recommendations was developed. We outline key elements of a transformational model of pain management in LTC for the United States and Canada. Consistent with previously formulated clinical guidelines but with attention to readily implementable public policy change in both countries, this transformational model of LTC has important implications for LTC managers and policy makers as well as major quality of life implications for LTC residents.

  20. Investigations on the long-term behaviour of high level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN) has a long-standing expertise in research concerning the compatibility of waste forms with the final disposal environment, in collaboration with NIRAS/ONDRAS. For high level waste, most attention goes to two waste forms that are relevant for Belgium, namely (1) vitrified HLW (High Level Waste) from the reprocessing of spent fuel, and (2) spent fuel as such, referring to the direct disposal scenario. The expertise lies especially in the study of the chemical interactions between the waste forms and the disposal environment. This is done by laboratory experiments, supported by modeling. Until 2004, the reference disposal design for HLW glass and spent fuel in Belgium was based on the use of a bentonite buffer. The experiments performed in that period therefore involved mostly the study of the influence of clay on the waste form behaviour. Since 2004 the Supercontainer design with Ordinary Portland Cement as buffer material (without bentonite) has been selected as the reference. The experiments related to this new design are therefore predominant now. Clay based disposal designs are still the reference in several other European countries. For this reason, the study of clay-waste interactions was not completely abandoned in the period 2004-2008, but continued in the framework of EC programmes. The first experiments focused on the Supercontainer design were started in 2006 (HLW) and 2007 (spent fuel). The first results are available now for HLW glass. Most results generated recently are, however, still related to the bentonite concept. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the minimum guaranteed durability of the waste form, which will be used as input in the safety assessment. The objective is not to obtain an absolute value for the durability or an interval of values, which will always be subject to caution, but rather to determine a lower limit for the life time of the waste form, which is conservative

  1. Long-term storage of radioactive solid waste within disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakerley, M.W.; Edmunds, J.

    1986-05-01

    A study of the feasibility and implications of operating potential disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste in a retrievable storage mode for extended periods of up to 200 years has been carried out. The arisings of conditioned UK radioactive waste up to the year 2030 have been examined. Assignments of these wastes to different types of underground disposal facilities have been made on the basis of their present activity and that which they will have in 200 years time. Five illustrative disposal concepts proposed both in the UK and overseas have been examined with a view to their suitability for adaption for storage/disposal duty. Two concepts have been judged unsuitable because either the waste form or the repository structure were considered unlikely to last the storage phase. Three of the concepts would be feasible from a construction and operational viewpoint. This suggests that with appropriate allowance for geological aspects and good repository and waste form design that storage/disposal within the same facility is achievable. The overall cost of the storage/disposal concepts is in general less than that for separate surface storage followed by land disposal, but more than that for direct disposal. (author)

  2. Plant life management for long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The world's fleet of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is approximately 20 years old on average, and most plants are believed to be able to operate for 60 years or more. The design life of a NPP is typically 30 to 40 years. This may be extended by 10 to 20 years, or more, provided that the plant can demonstrate by analysis, trending, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing, ageing management, and other means that license renewal presents no threat to public health and safety. The basic goal of Plant Life Management (PLiM) is to satisfy requirements for safe long-term supplies of electricity in an economically competitive way. The basic goal of the operating company and the owners to operate as long as economically reasonable and possible from safety point of view. PLiM is a management tool for doing that. PLiM is a system of programmes and procedures to satisfy safety requirements for safe operation and for power production in a competitive way and for time which is rational from technical and economical point of view. PLiM is not only a technical system, it is also an attitude of the operational company to keep the plant in operation as long as possible from safety and business point of view. The common objectives of PLiM assessment is to help and review the pre-conditions for PLiM and long-term operation approaches. PLiM should not be associated with extension of operational life-time of the NPP only. It is an owner's attitude and rational approach of the operating company to run the business economically and safely. The effectiveness of PLiM Programme can be assessed by three complementary kinds of assessment: self-assessment, peer review and comprehensive programme review by the plant owner/ operator. IAEA will provide the assessment service for peer review of PLiM. Preparation for a PLiM Assessment service will be initiated only after the IAEA has been formally approached by a MS and funding (e.g. an existing Technical cooperation project) has

  3. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  4. Climate Considerations in Long-Term Safety Assessments for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Claesson Liljedahl, Lillemor [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: jens-ove.naslund@skb.se

    2013-05-15

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  5. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  6. Nuclear waste management at DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    DOE is responsible for interim storage for some radioactive wastes and for the disposal for most of them. Of the wastes that have to be managed a significant part are a result of treatment systems and devices for cleaning gases. The long term waste management objectives place minimal reliance on surveillance and maintenance. Thus, the concerns about the chemical, thermal, and radiolytic degradation of wastes require technology for converting the wastes to forms acceptable for long term isolation. The strategy of the DOE airborne radioactive waste management program is to increase the service life and reliability of filters; to reduce filter wastes; and in anticipation of regulatory actions that would require further reductions in airborne radioactive releases from defense program facilities, to develop improved technology for additional collection, fixation, and long-term management of gaseous wastes. Available technology and practices are adequate to meet current health and safety standards. The program is aimed primarily at cost effective improvements, quality assurance, and the addition of new capability in areas where more restrictive standards seem likely to apply in the future

  7. Mineral-modeled ceramics for long-term storage of high-level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past ten years, Penn State's Materials Research Laboratory has done extensive work on mineral-modeled ceramics for high-level nuclear waste storage. These ceramics are composed of several mineral analogues that form a monolithic polycrystalline aggregate. Mineral-modeling can be made in a similar fashion to nuclear waste glasses, and their naturally occurring analogues are known to last millions, and even billions, of years in hot, wet conditions. It is believed that such ceramics could reduce dispersal of radionuclides by leaching to a minimum

  8. The UK system for regulating the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.

    1997-01-01

    The general system is described for regulation of disposal of solid, long-lived radioactive wastes. The relevant Government policy is outlined, and the framework of legislation and arrangements for implementation, the associated guidance produced by regulatory bodies and the approach to assessment by regulators of a safety case for radioactive waste disposal are reported. Also, for the purposes of discussion in the Workshop, some of the practical issues are considered which are still in development in the UK in regard to regulatory methodology. (author)

  9. Acute and long-term management of food allergy: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S; Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Roberts, G; Cardona, V; Dubois, A E J; Halken, S; Host, A; Poulsen, L K; Van Ree, R; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Agache, I; Sheikh, A

    2014-02-01

    Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2012, for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies. Experts were consulted for additional studies. There was no language or geographic restrictions. Two reviewers critically appraised the studies using the appropriate tools. Data were not suitable for meta-analysis due to heterogeneity so were narratively synthesized. Eighty-four studies were included, but two-thirds were at high risk of potential bias. There was little evidence about acute management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended, but apart from for infants with cow's milk allergy, there was little high-quality research on this management approach. To reduce symptoms in children with cow's milk allergy, there was evidence to recommend alternatives such as extensively hydrolyzed formula. Supplements such as probiotics have not proved helpful, but allergen-specific immunotherapy may be disease modifying and therefore warrants further exploration. Food allergy can be debilitating and affects a significant number of people. However, the evidence base about acute and longer-term management is weak and needs to be strengthened as a matter of priority. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Implementing a balanced scorecard as a strategic management tool in a long-term care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalm, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    The Capital Care Group, the largest public sector continuing care organization in Canada, had no ready access to information on its own performance and therefore was limited in its pursuit of evidence-informed decision-making. To remedy this, it was decided to introduce a balanced scorecard. A literature review was conducted together with interviews with 10 other health care organizations which had implemented balanced scorecards. With this information, a workshop was held that resulted in a framework and about 120 potential indicators. Subsequently the number of indicators was reduced to 29, using pre-determined criteria. Development of a corporate balanced scorecard facilitated executive strategic thinking and clarified the organization's strategic direction. In parallel, scorecards were developed at the level of care centres. These had a common core of indicators, plus some site-specific ones. Development of the corporate scorecard took three years and an additional six months for the care centre scorecards. A formal implementation plan has been accepted by the executive team. Key to this is communicating to staff the role of scorecards for strategic management and not just performance measurement. Traditional thinking needs to change from a short-term operational focus to long-term strategy. In addition, champions need to be identified in each care centre and they need to be networked together. Finally, the scorecard is being integrated into existing operational management as a routine component together with resources to support its use. The balanced scorecard has focused on its role as a strategic management tool. The indicators and dimensions need to be customized to the organization. Senior management must be seen to be driving its introduction. It is worth spending sufficient time developing and implementing a scorecard rather than trying to rush its introduction. The scorecard needs to be integrated with existing management processes and sufficient

  11. Ageing management and knowledge base for safe long-term operation of japanese light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, N.

    2008-01-01

    There are 55 operating commercial light water reactor plants (32 BWRs and 23 PWRs) in Japan. Twelve (12) plants have been operating for more than 30 years. Utility companies are required to perform an 'Ageing Management Technical Assessment' be-fore the end of 30 years operation of each plant. The assessments for each plant have been evaluated by the Nuclear and Industry Safety Agency (NISA) of the Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry (WTI) for these 12 plants. The Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation (JNES) has compiled Technical Review Manuals for six major degradation phenomena for the evaluation of Ageing Management Technical Assessment. A 'Road-map for Ageing and Plant Life Management' was established in 2005 by the Special Committee in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan under the commission from the JNES. Within the framework of the road-map, the major research and development fields are divided into the following four categories: 1) engineering information systems; 2) research and development of technologies for inspection, evaluation and repair of the components and materials; 3) development of codes and standards; 4) synthesised maintenance engineering. Continuous revision of the 'Strategy Maps for Ageing Management and Safe Long-term Operation' has been performed under the Coordinating Committee of Ageing Management to promote research and development activities by industries, government and academia, effectively and efficiently. Systematic development of the information basis for database and knowledge-base has been undertaken in addition to the development of codes and standards by academic societies through intensive domestic safety research collaborations and international collaboration. (author)

  12. Risk-adapted, long-term management in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hermann L

    2017-04-01

    This report is a review of findings on the diagnosis, treatment, clinical course, follow-up, and prognosis of craniopharyngioma patients with special regard to clinical trials and long-term management. Literature search on Pubmed for paper published after 1994. Craniopharyngiomas are rare, embryonic malformations of the sellar/parasellar region with low histological grade. Clinical manifestations are related to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment, and hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies. If the tumor is favorably localized, therapy of choice is complete resection, with care taken to preserve hypothalamic and optic functions. In patients with unfavorable tumor location (i.e. involvement of hypothalamic areas), recommended therapy is limited hypothalamus-sparing surgical strategy followed by irradiation. Irradiation has proven effective in treatment of recurrences and progression. Surgical lesions and/or anatomical involvement of posterior hypothalamic areas can result in serious sequelae, mainly hypothalamic syndrome. It is crucial that craniopharyngioma be managed as a frequently chronic disease, providing ongoing care of pediatric and adult patients' by experienced multidisciplinary teams in the context of multicenter trials.

  13. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, R J; Allain, C J; Laughton, P J; Henry, J G

    2004-01-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115,000 m3/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Université de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and "cumulative effects" as part of the overall biosolids management strategy are also discussed.

  14. Iron oxides dynamics in a subtropical Brazilian Paleudult under long-term no-tillage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vasconcellos Inda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing conventional tillage (CT with no-tillage (NT management alters the pedoenvironment and the rate of topsoil processes, with possible effects on dissolution processes associated with iron oxides and therefore soil mineralogy. This study aimed to determine the effect of NT on the content and distribution of types of iron oxides in a Rhodic Paleudult in southern Brazil. Soil samples were collected at eight depths within the 0.00-0.80 m layer under CT and NT in a long-term experiment (21 years. Mineralogical identification was conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD, and the Fe content related to specific types of iron oxides determined by selective dissolution and diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy. Kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite, and maghemite were identified in the clay fraction. In the NT-managed soil, there was a decrease in the content of crystalline iron oxides and an increase in the content of poorly crystalline iron oxides with increasing proximity to the soil surface. These results suggest that iron oxides are rearranged in this soil by reductive dissolution of the crystalline types and neoformation of metastable ferrihydrite in topsoil layers, which should be assessed further in laboratory studies.

  15. Our experience, technique and long-term outcomes in the management of posterior urethral strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Panda, Shasanka Shekhar; Bajpai, Minu; Jana, Manisha; Baidya, Dalim Kumar

    2014-02-01

    To share our experience, technique and long-term outcomes in posterior urethral stricture management. Thirty-seven boys with post-traumatic posterior urethral stricture underwent resection and end-to-end anastomosis through pre-anal coronal approach or in combination with trans-pubic approach from January 2000 to December 2011. Follow up included symptomatic evaluation by micturating cystourethrogram and retrograde urethrogram in all patients, and urethroscopy in patients with voiding symptoms. Pre-anal coronal approach was used in 29 (78%) cases and in 8 (21%) cases it was combined with trans-pubic approach. In 33 (89.1%) patients it was first attempt, while in 4 (10.9%) it was redo surgery. Two patients required buccal mucosal graft to bridge the deficient urethra. Patient age was 5-17 years (mean 10.8 years). Mean follow up was 48.5 months (range 6-132 months). Thirty-two (86%) patients were symptom free. Failed repairs were successfully managed by urethral dilation in 3 and by redo urethroplasty in the remaining 2. All patients were continent. There was no chordee, penile shortening or urethral diverticula. Resection and end-to-end anastomosis of posterior urethral stricture is possible through pre-anal coronal incision; however, if slightest difficulty is envisaged in creating a satisfactory end-to-end anastomosis, extension to trans-pubic approach should be done. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective biosolids management at a large Canadian wastewater treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBlance, R.J.; Allain, C.J.; Laughton, P.J.; Henry, J.G.

    2003-07-01

    The Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission's 115 000 m{sup 3}/d advanced, chemically assisted primary wastewater treatment facility located in New Brunswick, Canada, has developed an integrated, long term, sustainable, cost effective programme for the management and beneficial utilization of biosolids from lime stabilized raw sludge. The paper overviews biosolids production, lime stabilization, conveyance, and odour control followed by an indepth discussion of the wastewater sludge as a resource programme, namely: composting, mine site reclamation, landfill cover, land application for agricultural use, tree farming, sod farm base as a soil enrichment, topsoil manufacturing. The paper also addresses the issues of metals, pathogens, organic compounds, the quality control program along with the regulatory requirements. Biosolids capital and operating costs are presented. Research results on removal of metals from primary sludge using a unique biological process known as BIOSOL as developed by the University of Toronto, Canada to remove metals and destroy pathogens are presented. The paper also discusses an ongoing cooperative research project with the Universite de Moncton where various mixtures of plant biosolids are composted with low quality soil. Integration, approach to sustainability and ''cumulative effects'' as part of the overall biosolids management strategy is also discussed. (author)

  17. Hypertension management in the oldest old: Findings from a large long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Susan; McKay, Robin; Dinkel, Shirley; Mansfield, Bobbe; Da Cunha, Brooke Faria; Cummins, Savanna; Brunin, Krystal

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate hypertension (HTN) management in patients 80 years of age and older who reside in a large, long-term care (LTC) facility. A retrospective chart audit was conducted on 75 charts of patients 80 years of age and older and who had a diagnosis of HTN. Using the 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association (ACCF/AHA) Expert Consensus Document on Management of Hypertension in the Elderly as a guide, blood pressure readings, significant comorbidities, and antihypertensive medication utilization were analyzed. LTC residents in this sample were often not treated according to expert recommendations. Specifically, analysis revealed overtreatment of uncomplicated HTN and undertreatment of those with comorbid conditions. Additionally, those with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were infrequently prescribed ace inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, as recommended. Utilizing evidence-based practice (EBP) guidelines affords the best avenue for providing safe and effective treatment of HTN. While expert recommendations are available, researchers seldom recruit frail elders in LTC facilities into treatment investigations. In the absence of population-specific EBP guidelines, nurse practitioners must rely on expert opinion and diagnostic reasoning to individualize HTN treatment to this unique and vulnerable population. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. A strategic approach to short- and long-term irradiated WWER fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, P.; Conboy, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A methodology is presented for comparison of alternative options for short-term and long-term irradiated fuel management. The value of this methodology is that all interested parties can take part in the analysis and derive the basis for decision-making. The methodology can answer questions as: When can uranium and plutonium recovered by reprocessing be recycled cost effectively in WWER? If reprocessing is not the short-term option chosen, is storage of irradiated fuel at the original licensed nuclear reactor site preferable to a separate storage-only-site? Are modular vault dry stores and cooling ponds which necessitate significant capital investment prior to deployment, more costly overall than their options? Should the most suitable form of irradiated fuel management be determined only by cost constraints? The key stages of the methodology are: 1) Assessing the current situation; 2) Assessing priorities; 3) Option/possible solutions; 4) Generic storage systems; 5) Cost/funding analysis; 6) Selection criteria; 7) Optioneering/evaluation. The conclusions that can be reached from this methodological approach lead to firm recommendations based on objective assessments. The methodology builds on existing expertise. It is not an imposed solution allowing an excellent exchange of knowledge and skills between the people involved

  19. Short- and Long-Term Management of an Acute Pustular Psoriasis Flare: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Jorge R; Ighani, Arvin; Yeung, Jensen

    Generalised pustular psoriasis (GPP) and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) are chronic, relapsing variants of pustular psoriasis proven to be remarkably challenging to treat. Due to their uncommon presentation, there are few described cases in literature and scarce evidence for management. Further information is needed to help dermatologists formulate treatment plans for patients presenting with such diseases. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with a 3-year history of psoriasis presenting to our clinic with a severe breakout of GPP and associated ACH. The patient underwent treatment with cyclosporine A (200 mg PO twice daily) for a period of 2 weeks. This provided dramatic improvement in disease symptoms, with clearance of pustules, remarkable reduction of ACH lesions, and absence of pain. The patient was transitioned to infliximab (5 mg/kg intravenous) and apremilast (30 mg PO twice daily), displaying minimal GPP relapse and well-controlled onychodystrophy for several months. This case supports the use of cyclosporine as a first-line agent in providing immediate symptomatic relief for pustular psoriasis flares. Transitioning to infliximab and apremilast combination therapy offers a unique treatment regime for long-term GPP and ACH management.

  20. A strategic approach to short- and long-term irradiated WWER fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, P [BNFL International Ltd., Warrington (United Kingdom); Conboy, T M [BNFL Engineering Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    A methodology is presented for comparison of alternative options for short-term and long-term irradiated fuel management. The value of this methodology is that all interested parties can take part in the analysis and derive the basis for decision-making. The methodology can answer questions as: When can uranium and plutonium recovered by reprocessing be recycled cost effectively in WWER? If reprocessing is not the short-term option chosen, is storage of irradiated fuel at the original licensed nuclear reactor site preferable to a separate storage-only-site? Are modular vault dry stores and cooling ponds which necessitate significant capital investment prior to deployment, more costly overall than their options? Should the most suitable form of irradiated fuel management be determined only by cost constraints? The key stages of the methodology are: (1) Assessing the current situation; (2) Assessing priorities; (3) Option/possible solutions; (4) Generic storage systems; (5) Cost/funding analysis; (6) Selection criteria; (7) Optioneering/evaluation. The conclusions that can be reached from this methodological approach lead to firm recommendations based on objective assessments. The methodology builds on existing expertise. It is not an imposed solution allowing an excellent exchange of knowledge and skills between the people involved.

  1. Long term care staff beliefs about evidence based practices for the management of dementia and agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Arean, Patricia; Bornfeld, Heather; Beard, Renee

    2009-02-01

    Despite a growing literature on effective interventions for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and agitation, the management of these conditions in long term care (LTC) often is inadequate. The goals of the present study were: (a) to evaluate existing beliefs about evidence based practices (EBP) for the management of Alzheimer's disease and agitation among LTC staff; and (b) to evaluate the contribution of demographic and attitudinal variables to LTC staff beliefs about these EBP. A cross sectional study of 371 LTC staff members completed an EBP questionnaire, a short demographic questionnaire, and an attitudinal questionnaire about AD and agitation. Paraprofessional caregivers, those of lower educational level, and ethnic minorities were more likely to be in disagreement with the EBP views examined in this study. Those in disagreement with the EBP views also reported a preference towards not working with residents with AD and agitation and a sense of helplessness associated with such work. Disagreement with EBP views was associated with both normalization and stigmatization of AD and agitation. Paraprofessional caregivers, ethnic minorities, and people of lower educational level are most at need for educational activities about AD and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Educational efforts geared towards changing the belief system of LTC staff should target not only EBP but also information about AD and agitation as conditions that are deviant from the normal aging process, yet non-stigmatizing. It is expected that following EBP will empower staff and improve staff motivation to work with residents with AD and agitation. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Long-Term Study of Some mechanical and Chemical Properties of Polymer Modified Cement Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatta, H.A.; Eskander, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is a new experimental trend to study the long-term durability of polymer/cement/borate waste forms in storage and disposal sites during the long period of time. The data obtained indicate that all the samples of polymer modified cement waste forms immersed in both distilled and ground water (for more than 2700 days) show a slight increase in the compressive strength values. The chemical stability of the immobilized borate waste forms in distilled and ground water was studied. The cumulative leach fraction in percentage, of Cs-137 isotope from the final solidified waste forms in case of using ground water was lower than that in distilled water for all samples used and the presence of polymer lowered the percent release of radioactive Cs-137 isotope in all samples studied . The leach coefficients (Lc) and the leach indices (Li) of radioactive cesium-137 isotope for cement borate and polymer modified cement waste forms were also calculated. It was found that the leach indices values greater than 6

  3. Rock salt as a medium for long-term isolation of radioactive wastes - a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, L.

    1985-01-01

    Rock salt has been regarded as a suitable medium for the permanent disposal of high and medium level radioactive wastes since the National Academy of Sciences recommended it in 1957. As a result of detained site-specific studies conducted for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in New Mexico, however, several potential problems which are unique to bedded salt deposits have emerged. These include 1) the need to delineate the extent and rate of past dissolution and projections for the future, 2) the origin and significance of brines often found underlying the salt beds, 3) the rate and volume of migration of brine from the salt crystals towards the heat producing waste canisters, 4) the creep rates and implications for retrievability, and 5) the existence of potash and oil and gas resources with implications of human intrusion in the future. These questions will also be faced for sites in salt domes with added complications due to more complex structure and hydrology. The experience at WIPP shows that the site characterization process for high level waste repositories in bedded or dome salt should aim at identifying the important issues of site suitability early in the process and a clear program should be established to address these issues

  4. High-level radioactive wastes storage characterization and behaviour of spent fuels in long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Arocas, P.; Cobos, J.; Quinones, J.; Rodriguez Almazan, J. L.; Serrano, J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the long term spent fuel dissolution under repository this report shows the study performed by considering spent fuel as a part of the multi barriers containment system. The study takes into account that the oxidative alteration/dissolution of spent fuel matrix is influenced by the intrinsic spent fuel physicochemical characteristics and the repository environmental parameters. Experimental and modelling results for granite and saline repositories are reported. Parameters considered in this work were pH, pCO 2 , S/V ratio, redox conditions and the influence of the container material in the redox conditions. The influence of alpha, beta and gamma radiation and the resulting radiolytic products formed remains as one of the main uncertainties to quantify the spent fuel behaviour under repository conditions. It was studied in a first approach through dose calculations, modelling of radiolytic products formation and leaching experiments in the presence of external gamma irradiation source and leaching experiments of alpha doped UO 2 pellets. Materials considered are LWR spent fuel (UO 2 and MOX fuel) and their chemical analogues non irradiated UO 2 , SIMFUEL and alpha doped UO 2 . Lea chants were granite groundwater, synthetic granite groundwater, synthetic granite groundwater saturated in bentonite, and high concentrated saline solutions. The matrix dissolution rate and release rate of key radionuclides (i. e. actinides and fission products) obtained through the several experimental techniques and methodologies (dissolution, co-dissolution, precipitation and co-precipitation) together with modelling studies supported in geochemical codes are proposed. Moreover, secondary phases formed that could control release and retention of key nuclides are identified. Maximum concentration values for these radionuclides are reported. The data provided by this study were used in ENRESA-2000 performance assessment. (Author)

  5. A risk-based monitoring framework for the long term management of used fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization has a mandate from the Government of Canada to consult with the public and to recommend an approach for managing Canada's used nuclear fuel. Three main fuel management methods are being explored and evaluated by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization: disposal in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR); reactor-site extended storage (RES); and centralized extended storage (CES), either above ground or below ground. The used nuclear fuel management system, whether a DGR or an extended storage system will require monitoring. In this study, a risk-based monitoring framework was developed for the used fuel management program. The proposed approach addresses the unique challenges of used fuel management being implemented in a multi-stakeholder process, including: (i) the complexity of the facilities; (ii) the need to consider both science-based risk and perceived risk in the monitoring plans; and (iii) the difficulty in conducting 'invasive' measurements of sealed systems, particularly over a very long time frame. (author)

  6. Long-term behaviour of bituminized waste: modelling self-irradiation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B.; Vistoli, P.P.; Libert, M.; Gilardi, T.; Chaix, P.; Blanc, V.

    2001-01-01

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of bituminized wastes is radiolysis, due to self-irradiation. In deep disposal conditions, after site re-saturation and corrosion of the containers, the main evolution will be due to leaching. This paper deals with two models designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation (JACOB- 2) and bituminized waste leaching (COLONBO), and some of the typical results obtained from these two models. The first model describes radiolytic gas production, diffusive transport of gas, bubble nucleation and ripening and movement under buoyancy. The second one is based on descriptions of water sorption, solubilization, and diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts leading to alteration of the matrix and finally to diffusive transport of the salts outside the bitumenisate. (author)

  7. Long-term modeling of glass waste in portland cement- and clay-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.W.; Nagy, K.L.; Morris, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    A set of ''templates'' was developed for modeling waste glass interactions with cement-based and clay-based matrices. The templates consist of a modified thermodynamic database, and input files for the EQ3/6 reaction path code, containing embedded rate models and compositions for waste glass, cement, and several pozzolanic materials. Significant modifications were made in the thermodynamic data for Th, Pb, Ra, Ba, cement phases, and aqueous silica species. It was found that the cement-containing matrices could increase glass corrosion rates by several orders of magnitude (over matrixless or clay matrix systems), but they also offered the lowest overall solubility for Pb, Ra, Th and U. Addition of pozzolans to cement decreased calculated glass corrosion rates by up to a factor of 30. It is shown that with current modeling capabilities, the ''affinity effect'' cannot be trusted to passivate glass if nuclei are available for precipitation of secondary phases that reduce silica activity

  8. 1. round table - Nuclear wastes and radioactive materials. 2. round table - risks linked with nuclear wastes and materials. 3. round table - the problem of long-term management of medium-high activity and long lived wastes. The process defined by the 1991 law; 1. table ronde - dechets nucleaires et matieres radioactives. 2. table ronde - Les risques des dechets et matieres nucleaires. 3. table ronde - Le probleme de la gestion a long terme des dechets a MA/HAVL. Le processus defini par la loi de 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the first round table of Paris about the problems raised by nuclear wastes in the case of the geologic disposal option. Four families of questions have been tackled: 1 - the exhaustiveness of ANDRA's inventory, the solutions foreseen for the different types of wastes; 2 - the high-medium activity wastes and their processing; 3 - the management of non-reprocessed spent MOX fuels; 4 - the safety and security standards used and their establishment. Four presentations are attached to these proceedings and deal with: the measured and estimated inventory of all radioactive wastes; the inventory and management of radioactive wastes and the place of citizens; the point of view of the nuclear safety authority; conditioning and storage. (J.S.)

  9. Cross-Site Transfer System at Hanford: long-term strategy for waste acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekarriz, A.; Onishi, Y.; Smith, P.A.; Sterner, M.; Rector, D.R.; Virden, J.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes results of a technical panel review of the current methodology for accepting waste for transport through the Hanford Replacement Cross-Site Transfer System (RCSTS), which was constructed to replace the existing pipelines that hydraulically connect the 200 West and 200 East areas. This report is a complement to an existing document (Hudson 1996); the methodology proposed in that document was refined based on panel recommendations. The refinements were focused around predicting and preventing the 3 main modes suspected of plugging the existing CSTS: precipitation, gelation, particle dropout/settling. The proposed analysis will require integration of computer modeling and laboratory experiments to build a defensible case for transportability of a proposed slurry composition for a given tank. This will be validated by recirculating actual tank waste, in-tank and in-farm, prior to transport. The panel's recommendation was that the probability of success of waste transfer would be greatly improved by integrating the predictive analysis with real-time control during RCSTS operation. The methodology will be optimized

  10. Long-term pavement performance ancillary information management system (AIMS) reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This document provides information on the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program ancillary information. : Ancillary information includes data, images, reference materials, resource documents, and other information that : support and extend the...

  11. Short- and long-term effects of a quality improvement collaborative on diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niessen Louis W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study examined the short- and long-term effects of a quality improvement collaborative on patient outcomes, professional performance, and structural aspects of chronic care management of type 2 diabetes in an integrated care setting. Methods Controlled pre- and post-intervention study assessing patient outcomes (hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, blood lipid levels, and smoking status, professional performance (guideline adherence, and structural aspects of chronic care management from baseline up to 24 months. Analyses were based on 1,861 patients with diabetes in six intervention and nine control regions representing 37 general practices and 13 outpatient clinics. Results Modest but significant improvement was seen in mean systolic blood pressure (decrease by 4.0 mm Hg versus 1.6 mm Hg and mean high density lipoprotein levels (increase by 0.12 versus 0.03 points at two-year follow up. Positive but insignificant differences were found in hemoglobin A1c (0.3%, cholesterol, and blood lipid levels. The intervention group showed significant improvement in the percentage of patients receiving advice and instruction to examine feet, and smaller reductions in the percentage of patients receiving instruction to monitor blood glucose and visiting a dietician annually. Structural aspects of self-management and decision support also improved significantly. Conclusions At a time of heightened national attention toward diabetes care, our results demonstrate a modest benefit of participation in a multi-institutional quality improvement collaborative focusing on integrated, patient-centered care. The effects persisted for at least 12 months after the intervention was completed. Trial number http://clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00160017

  12. Enhancing AP1000 reactor accident management capabilities for long term accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Pingting; Liu Mengying; Duan Chengjie; Liao Yehong

    2015-01-01

    Passive safety actions are considered as main measures under severe accident in AP1000 power plant. However, risk is still existed. According to PSA, several probable scenarios for AP1000 nuclear power plant are analyzed in this paper with MAAP the severe accident analysis code. According to the analysis results, several deficiencies of AP1000 severe accident management are found. The long term cooling and containment depressurization capability for AP1000 power plant appear to be most important factors under such accidents. Then, several temporary strategies for AP1000 power plant are suggested, including PCCWST temporary water supply strategy after 72h, temporary injection strategy for IRWST, hydrogen relief action in fuel building, which would improve the safety of AP1000 power plant. At last, assessments of effectiveness for these strategies are performed, and the results are compared with analysis without these strategies. The comparisons showed that correct actions of these strategies would effectively prevent the accident process of AP1000 power plant. (author)

  13. Long-Term Metal Retention Performance of Media Filter Drains for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff, a substantial source of nonpoint pollution, can be treated using Best Management Practices (BMPs, such as the Media Filter Drain (MFD. An MFD is a trench filled with an engineered media mix, usually with a grass overlay, that receives runoff from the paved roadway next to it. The MFD was shown to remove dissolved metals (zinc and copper, typical pollutants from vehicles and urban areas, which might negatively impact aquatic species in receiving waters, but its long-term effectiveness was not known. Existing media filter mixes of different ages were collected from two different sites in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Columns made with these media mixes received concentrated copper and zinc loading to simulate accelerated aging for estimated total lifespans from 14 to 22 years of copper and zinc loading, with little or no decrease in sorption. Throughout the aging process, some columns were subjected to performance testing with higher levels of typical runoff concentrations and average concentration decreases from influent to effluent were found to be greater than 90% for both copper and zinc. Based on this study, the MFD’s lifespan for zinc and copper treatment is significantly greater than the initial ten-year estimate.

  14. Female urethral strictures: successful management with long-term clean intermittent catheterization after urethral dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ariana L; Ferlise, Victor J; Rovner, Eric S

    2006-07-01

    To report our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of urethral stricture in women. A retrospective review of records and video-urodynamics identified women treated for urethral stricture between 1999 and 2004 at one institution by one surgeon. Urethral stricture was defined as a fixed anatomical narrowing between the bladder neck and distal urethra of or = 30 F. After a period of indwelling catheterization, the women were placed on clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) at least once daily, and monitored every 3-6 months. At each follow-up, the urethra was catheterized to exclude recurrence. American Urological Association (AUA) symptom scores were obtained at presentation and at the initial 3 month follow-up. Seven women met the criteria for urethral stricture, and were followed for a mean (range) of 21 (6-34) months. All were initially maintained on daily CISC, and some were gradually reduced to weekly CISC for the duration of follow-up. No patient had a recurrent stricture while on CISC, and none has had a urethral reconstruction to manage their condition. AUA symptom scores improved in all of the women by a mean of 10.7 points. No complications related to catheterization were noted. Urethral stricture is rare in women. Long-term CISC in these women is safe and effective, and can avoid the need for major reconstructive surgery.

  15. The U.S. regulatory framework for long-term management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, C.; Bierley, D.; Bradshaw, M.

    1995-01-01

    The US established the regulatory structure for the management, disposal, and long-term care of uranium mill tailings in 1978 with the passage of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (Pub. L. 95-604). This legislation has governed the cleanup and disposal of uranium tailings at both inactive and active sites. The passage of the UMTRCA established a federal regulatory program for the cleanup and disposal of uranium mill tailings in the US. This program involves the DOE, the NRC, the EPA, various states and tribal governments, private licensees, and the general public. The DOE has completed surface remediation at 14 sites, with the remaining sites either under construction or in planning. The DOE's UMTRA Project has been very successful in dealing with public and agency demands, particularly regarding disposal site selection and transportation issues. The active sites are also being cleaned up, but at a slower pace than the inactive sites, with the first site tentatively scheduled for completion in 1996

  16. Processing, microstructure, leaching, and long-term stability studies related to titanate high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Headley, T.J.; Northrup, C.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1983-05-01

    A process leading to titanate-based waste forms for commercial high-level nuclear waste is described. Radionuclides are fixed on hydrous calcium titanate by ion exchange/sorption reactions and the material is converted to a dense, ceramic form by hot pressing. Transmission electron microscopy-electron microprobe characterization was done to determine the effects of compositional changes and process variations on microstructure. Leaching studies in the range of 22 to 150 0 C and pH 2 to 12 were done to assess the effects of the same variables on leaching behavior. Samples of a reference borosilicate glass waste form were leached under the same conditions to provide a direct comparison between the two waste forms. Lead-ion implantation was used to simulate long-term α-recoil damage in the crystalline titanate phases. Comparison of α-recoil damage in natural minerals with damage induced in synthesized samples of the same mineral suggest that Pb-ion implantation is a valid technique for simulating α-recoil effects. All the titanate phases sustained significant lattice damage at equivalent α-doses of 1 x 10 19 /cm 3 ; however, Rutherford backscattering and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that the damage did not result in significant matrix dissolution in these leaching tests

  17. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  18. Integrating Long-Term Avian Studies with Planning and Adaptive Management: Department of Energy Lands as a Case Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.

    2000-10-01

    Long-term bio-monitoring of avian communities have been initiated, but they often lack a management component. Integration of the managers needs at an early stage is suggested as a means to increase the use of the data. Variation in community structure is important in understanding impacts. In addition, reference site must be carefully selected.

  19. Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    2006-01-01

    The Productivity Commission’s inquiry report into ‘Waste Management’ was tabled by Government in December 2006. The Australian Government asked the Commission to identify policies that would enable Australia to address market failures and externalities associated with the generation and disposal of waste, and recommend how resource efficiencies can be optimised to improve economic, environmental and social outcomes. In the final report, the Commission maintains that waste management policy sh...

  20. FFSM, Long-Term Nuclear Waste Repository Site Simulation by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, L.R.; Hellstrom, D.I.; Mikulis, M.J.B.; Little, A.D.; Golis, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FFSM (Far Field State Model) predicts the approximate geologic and climatic state of a site for a nuclear waste repository over relatively long periods of time. The purpose of FFSM is to represent quantitatively certain events and processes that could alter the effectiveness of one or more natural barriers in a waste isolation system. The barriers treated by the model are primarily components of the geologic environment surrounding the repository, although biosphere components (e.g. climate parameters) that could affect the impact of radionuclide releases are also considered. These components are treated outside the realm of wastes or repository-induced effects, which is indicated by use of the term f ar field . The model treats both natural and man-induced changes in these barriers within a probabilistic framework, and it accounts for cumulative and interactive effects of multiple phenomena. 2 - Method of solution: Fifteen submodels are included in FFSM to account for phenomena that may be of importance individually or in combination in evaluating sites for repositories. These submodels include: undetected features, climate, worldwide glaciation, local glaciation, folding, salt dispersion, magmatic events, faulting, biosphere state, regional deformation, geomorphic processes, dissolution fronts, localized dissolution (breccia pipes), solution mining, and drilling. FFSM can be used in both a deterministic mode, to evaluate interactions or to calculate point values, and a probabilistic mode, to make statistical estimates of future changes. In the probabilistic mode, Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate output probabilities, based on user-supplied input, largely in the form of probability density functions for variable or uncertain parameters

  1. Analysis of the potential impact of capillarity on long-term geochemical processes in sulphidic waste-rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedretti, Daniele; Lassin, Arnault; Beckie, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Capillarity may affect geochemical reactions generating acid-rock drainage. • We studied its impact in a simplified, synthetic WRD. • Capillarity mainly affects the formation of secondary minerals. • It can strongly control long-term formation of gypsum and in turn sulfate release. • Capillarity can be also important for the analysis of calcite passivation. - Abstract: Assessing long-term production of acid rock drainage (ARD) from waste-rock dumps (WRDs) requires a careful analysis of the processes controlling acid-generating geochemical reactions under unsaturated conditions. In this work, we focus on the potential control of capillarity on these reactions, as previous studies showed that capillarity affects the activity of water and solutes in the unsaturated zone through the pore water pressure. We used capillarity-corrected thermodynamic databases and compared calculated speciation and solubility results with those from databases that do not account for capillarity. We developed a simple dynamic model with reduced geochemical components to analyze in detail the effect of capillarity. Results indicate that under low pH conditions simulations with capillarity-controlled reactions generate relatively larger dissolved sulfate concentrations from the WRDs over longer time scales, when compared against simulations without capillarity control. This occurs because capillarity strongly controls the formation of secondary sulfate-bearing minerals such as gypsum. When sufficient oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures are maintained within WRDs (such as in well-ventilated systems) and calcite content is insufficient to buffer acidity, the amount of secondary gypsum was calculated to be much larger in capillarity-corrected models. No appreciable effects of capillarity were observed under conditions where gypsum was not generated. Model results are also insensitive to temperature changes in typical climatic ranges. These results indicate some of

  2. Actinide cross section data and inertial confinement fusion for long term waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldner, H.

    1979-01-01

    Actinide cross section data at thermonuclear neutron energies are needed for the calculation of ICF pellet center burnup of fission reactor waste, viz. 14 MeV neutron fission of the very long-lived actinides that pose storage problems. A major advantage of pellet center burnup is safety: only milligrams of highly toxic and active material need to be present in the fusion chamber, whereas blanket burnup requires the continued presence of tons of actinides in a small volume. The actinide data tables required for Monte Carlo calculations of the burnup of 241 Am and 243 Am are discussed in connection with typical burnup reactor fusion and fission spectra. 2 figures

  3. Disposal and long-term storage in geological formations of solidified radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shischits, I.

    1996-01-01

    The special depository near Krasnoyarsk contains temporarily about 1,100 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from WWR- should be solidified and for the most part buried in geological formations. Solid wastes and SNF from RBMK reactors are assumed to be buried as well. For this purpose special technologies and underground constructions are required. They are to be created in the geological plots within the territory of Russian Federation and adjacent areas of CIS, meeting the developed list of requirements. The burial structures will vary greatly depending on the geological formation, the amount of wastes and their isotope composition. The well-known constructions such as deep wells, shafts, mines and cavities can be mentioned. There is a need to design constructions, which have no analog in the world practice. In the course of the Project fulfillment the following work will be conducted: -theoretical work followed by code creation for mathematical simulation of processes; - modelling on the base of prototypes made from equivalent materials with the help of simulators; - bench study; - experiments in real conditions; - examination of massif properties in particular plots using achievements of geophysics, including gamma-gamma density detectors and geo locators. Finally, ecological-economical model will be given for designing burial sites

  4. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing head values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance

  5. Incorporating long-term climate change in performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Rudeen, D.K.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico for the disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. Applicable regulations (40 CFR 191) require the DOE to evaluate disposal-system performance for 10,000 yr. Climatic changes may affect performance by altering groundwater flow. Paleoclimatic data from southeastern New Mexico and the surrounding area indicate that the wettest and coolest Quaternary climate at the site can be represented by that at the last glacial maximum, when mean annual precipitation was approximately twice that of the present. The hottest and driest climates have been similar to that of the present. The regularity of global glacial cycles during the late Pleistocene confirms that the climate of the last glacial maximum is suitable for use as a cooler and wetter bound for variability during the next 10,000 yr. Climate variability is incorporated into groundwater-flow modeling for WIPP PA by causing hydraulic head in a portion of the model-domain boundary to rise to the ground surface with hypothetical increases in precipitation during the next 10,000 yr. Variability in modeled disposal-system performance introduced by allowing had values to vary over this range is insignificant compared to variability resulting from other causes, including incomplete understanding of transport processes. Preliminary performance assessments suggest that climate variability will not affect regulatory compliance

  6. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality

  7. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  8. A look at new key performance criteria that could most affect the safety of long term storage of nuclear waste. A case study commissioned by CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A.; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C

    2002-01-01

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R and D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting research work to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as a few centuries. This goal is a significant departure from current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study in which MUTADIS Consultants and CEPN were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods of time - one dating back to the end of the 18th century - and identified off the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behaviour and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were and are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result the study group obtained a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered when technical studies are conducted. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality. (author)

  9. Safety and performance indicators for the assessment of long-term safety of deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Schneider, J.W.; Dorp, F. van; Zuidema, P.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of the ability to isolate radioactive waste and the assessment of the long-term safety of a deep geological repository is usually done in terms of the calculated dose and/or risk for an average individual of the population which is potentially most affected by the potential impacts of the repository. At present, various countries and international organisations are developing so-called complementary indicators to supplement such calculations. These indicators are called ''safety indicators'' if they refer to the safety of the whole repository system; if they address the isolation capability of individual system components or the whole system from a more technical perspective, they are called ''performance indicators''. The need for complementary indicators follows from the long time frames which characterise the safety assessment of a geological repository, and the corresponding uncertainty of the calculated radiation dose. The main reason for these uncertainties is associated with the uncertain long-term prognosis of the surface environment and the related human behaviour. (orig.)

  10. Long-term population dynamics of a managed burrowing owl colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.

  11. Threshold responses of songbirds to long-term timber management on an active industrial forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Douglas A.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Keyser, Patrick D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Dellinger, Rachel; Weakland, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Forest managers often seek to balance economic benefits from timber harvesting with maintenance of habitat for wildlife, ecosystem function, and human uses. Most research on the relationship between avian abundance and active timber management has been short-term, lasting one to two years, creating the need to investigate long-term avian responses and to identify harvest thresholds when a small change in habitat results in a disproportionate response in relative abundance and nest success. Our objectives were to identify trends in relative abundance and nest success and to identify landscape-scale disturbance thresholds for avian species and habitat guilds in response to a variety of harvest treatments (clear-cuts, heavy and light partial harvests) over 14 years. We conducted point counts and monitored nests at an industrial forest in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during 1996–1998, 2001–2003, and 2007–2009. Early successional species increased in relative abundance across all three time periods, whereas interior-edge and forest-interior guilds peaked in relative abundance mid-study after which the forest-interior guild declined. Of 41 species with >10 detections, four (10%) declined significantly, 13 (32%) increased significantly (only three species among all periods), and 9 (22%) peaked in abundance mid-study (over the entire study period, four species had no significant change in abundance, four declined, and one increased). Based on piecewise linear models, forest-interior and interior-edge guilds’ relative abundance harvest thresholds were 28% total harvests (all harvests combined), 10% clear-cut harvests, and 18% light partial harvests, after which abundances declined. Harvest thresholds for the early successional guild were 42% total harvests, 11% clear-cut harvest, and 10% light partial harvests, and relative abundances increased after surpassing thresholds albeit at a reduced rate of increase after the clear-cut threshold. Threshold

  12. Automated telephone communication systems for preventive healthcare and management of long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Pawel; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Ryan, Rebecca; Gunn, Laura H; Felix, Lambert M; Pappas, Yannis; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Julious, Steven A; Xiang, Liming; Oldenburg, Brian; Car, Josip

    2016-12-14

    Automated telephone communication systems (ATCS) can deliver voice messages and collect health-related information from patients using either their telephone's touch-tone keypad or voice recognition software. ATCS can supplement or replace telephone contact between health professionals and patients. There are four different types of ATCS: unidirectional (one-way, non-interactive voice communication), interactive voice response (IVR) systems, ATCS with additional functions such as access to an expert to request advice (ATCS Plus) and multimodal ATCS, where the calls are delivered as part of a multicomponent intervention. To assess the effects of ATCS for preventing disease and managing long-term conditions on behavioural change, clinical, process, cognitive, patient-centred and adverse outcomes. We searched 10 electronic databases (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; MEDLINE; Embase; PsycINFO; CINAHL; Global Health; WHOLIS; LILACS; Web of Science; and ASSIA); three grey literature sources (Dissertation Abstracts, Index to Theses, Australasian Digital Theses); and two trial registries (www.controlled-trials.com; www.clinicaltrials.gov) for papers published between 1980 and June 2015. Randomised, cluster- and quasi-randomised trials, interrupted time series and controlled before-and-after studies comparing ATCS interventions, with any control or another ATCS type were eligible for inclusion. Studies in all settings, for all consumers/carers, in any preventive healthcare or long term condition management role were eligible. We used standard Cochrane methods to select and extract data and to appraise eligible studies. We included 132 trials (N = 4,669,689). Studies spanned across several clinical areas, assessing many comparisons based on evaluation of different ATCS types and variable comparison groups. Forty-one studies evaluated ATCS for delivering preventive healthcare, 84 for managing long-term conditions, and seven studies for appointment reminders

  13. Approaches for treating uncertainty in the long term performance assessment of a geological waste repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Volckaert, G.; Wemaere, I.; Mallants, D.

    1998-01-01

    In Belgium the current strategy for high-level waste disposal is the geological disposal in a plastic clay layer. The performance assessment approach consists of a systematic scenario selection based on the FEP (features, events and processes) methodology followed by consequence analyses for the selected scenarios. In these consequence analyses the different sources of uncertainty are systematically considered. For the normal evolution scenario, i.e. the scenario which includes all FEP's which are about certain to occur, a stochastic technique of the Monte Carlo type is applied for treating uncertainty. For the altered evolution scenarios a deterministic approach is generally used to evaluate the uncertainties on the long-term. In the case of altered evolution scenarios, comparisons of fluxes from the far field into the biosphere with those calculated for the normal evolution scenario are used, beside dose calculations, to evaluate the safety consequences. Some typical examples of the above approaches will be presented. (author)

  14. Annual report for research on geosphere stability for long-term isolation of radioactive waste in fiscal years 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Ken-ichi; Asamori, Koichi; Niwa, Masakazu; Hanamuro, Takahiro; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Sueoka, Shigeru; Makuuchi, Ayumu; Ikuta, Masafumi; Matsubara, Akihiro; Tamura, Hajimu; Kobori, Kazuo; Ishimaru, Tsuneari; Umeda, Koji

    2014-03-01

    This annual report documents the progress of R and D in the 3rd fiscal year during the JAEA 2nd Midterm Plan (FY 2010 - 2014) to provide the scientific base for assessing geosphere stability for long-term isolation of the high-level radioactive waste. The planned framework is structured into the following categories: 1) development and systematization of investigation techniques for selecting suitable sites in geosphere stability, 2) development, application and verification of prediction models for evaluating the changes of geological environment in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical conditions for a long period of time, and 3) development of new dating techniques for providing information about geologic history and the timing of geologic events. In this report, the current status of R and D activities with previous scientific and technological progress is summarized. (author)

  15. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soule, H.F.

    1975-01-01

    Current planning for the management of radioactive wastes, with some emphasis on plutonium contaminated wastes, includes the provision of re-positories from which the waste can be safely removed to permanent disposal. A number of possibilities for permanent disposal are under investigation with the most favorable, at the present time, apparently disposal in a stable geological formation. However, final choice cannot be made until all studies are completed and a pilot phase demonstrates the adequacy of the chosen method. The radioactive wastes which result from all portions of the fuel cycle could comprise an important source of exposure to the public if permitted to do so. The objectives of the AEC waste management program are to provide methods of treating, handling and storing these wastes so that this exposure will not occur. This paper is intended to describe some of the problems and current progress of waste management programs, with emphasis on plutonium-contaminated wastes. Since the technology in this field is advancing at a rapid pace, the descriptions given can be regarded only as a snapshot at one point in time. (author)

  16. Vegetation cover and long-term conservation of radioactive waste packages: the case study of the CSM waste disposal facility (Manche District, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit-Berghem, Yves; Lemperiere, Guy

    2012-03-01

    The CSM is the first French waste disposal facility for radioactive waste. Waste material is buried several meters deep and protected by a multi-layer cover, and equipped with a drainage system. On the surface, the plant cover is a grassland vegetation type. A scientific assessment has been carried out by the Géophen laboratory, University of Caen, in order to better characterize the plant cover (ecological groups and associated soils) and to observe its medium and long term evolution. Field assessments made on 10 plots were complemented by laboratory analyses carried out over a period of 1 year. The results indicate scenarios and alternative solutions which could arise, in order to passively ensure the long-term safety of the waste disposal system. Several proposals for a blanket solution are currently being studied and discussed, under the auspices of international research institutions in order to determine the most appropriate materials for the storage conditions. One proposal is an increased thickness of these materials associated with a geotechnical barrier since it is well adapted to the forest plants which are likely to colonize the site. The current experiments that are carried out will allow to select the best option and could provide feedback for other waste disposal facility sites already being operated in France (CSFMA waste disposal facility, Aube district) or in other countries.

  17. Long-term evolution of radio-active waste storage in geological formations: analogy with the weathering of mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinolle, P.; Griffault, L.; Jebrak, M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select examples of mineral deposits and their weathering environment, showing the long-term behaviour, in geological time, measuring (area, volume) some constituent elements of radio-active waste storage subject to the hazards of hydrogeochemical weathering. Initially, a feasibility study was made to collate data available within the BRGM (mining group and public service) and from literature dealing with weathering of deposits. It was thus discovered that the analogy between radio-active waste storage and mineral deposits could be approached in two different yet complementary ways: - one approach is to observe the behaviour of a mineral deposit in relation to the country rocks. For this a bibliographic metallogenic study was made. The other approach is to observe the behaviour of chemical elements during deposition of a mineral deposit whose genesis is similar to the spatial and thermal environment of a deposit of radio-active waste in a geological formation. For this two sites were selected corresponding to hydrothermal systems showing strong analogies to those expected in the neighbourhood of the storage sites. These two sites, Langenberg in the Vosges and La Telhaie in Brittany, were the subject of complementary analytical work [fr

  18. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m 3 ) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time

  19. Liabilities identification and long-term management at national level (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo Hernandez, Jose Manuel; Gonzalez Gomez, Jose Luis

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive Waste in Spain is due to 9 reactors in operation (7 NPPs) and another one (Vandellos I) under decommissioning, the Juzbado Nuclear Fuel Factory and some 1,300 radioactive installations. From the legal and administrative standpoint, there is an organisation, based on a developed legislative framework in keeping with the evolution of international regulatory requirements, that defines and brings together the main responsibilities of the different parties involved in the process: the Government, through the Ministry of Economy (MECO), responsible for defining policies and awarding the corresponding permits and licenses; the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), as the sole party responsible for nuclear safety and radiological protection, that reports to the Parliament; ENRESA, a state owned corporation, as the company responsible for radioactive waste management, and the waste producers. From the economic-financial point of view since early 1983, there is a system that covers the financing of radioactive waste management costs, based on the principle of generating funds up-front, throughout the operational lifetime of the nuclear power plants. Those are collected by a fee, consisting of a percentage of the total electricity billing. The income collected through the application of the fee is accumulated in an interest-earning fund for financing of the costs that will normally occur years later. Small producers pay a tariff for the service of collecting and disposing of their waste. The fee is aimed to cover the total costs of managing all types of radioactive waste and spent fuel, as well as of decommissioning of nuclear installations. Although its amount is calculated by summing up the expected costs from all these areas, its collection, and accordingly the rules for it, does not make any distinction of the future destination of the money. ENRESA must evaluate every year the whole life system cost of radioactive waste management. The economical appraisal is

  20. Long-term effects of a shortsighted us political decision banning commercial waste reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterle, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    In 1977, US President Jimmy Carter ordered a drastic change in United States nuclear policy, banning all commercial reprocessing activities, and cancelling plans and funding for fast-breeding reactors. It was a political decision, influenced by immediate world events, and intended to be temporary. Contemporary documents and speeches given by Carter are examined in depth to determine the reasoning behind this dramatic change in US nuclear policy and the response by other countries. President Ronald Reagan rescinded these bans, but general mistrust by the US nuclear industry of further changes in political policy prevented further commercial reprocessing activities and construction of fast-breeding reactors in the US. The increase in the number of operating US fission reactors along with the lack of reprocessing activities caused concern among both Reagan and members of Congress. The resulting legislation set the stage for the proposed High-Level-Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. construction of the proposed repository had faced many serious setbacks due to several factors. The uncertainty regarding the project's timely completion has drastic repercussions for the involved parties. The conclusion of the author is that further evaluation into commercial reprocessing activities should be undertaken before final approval of the proposed repository is granted. (author)

  1. Technical considerations and problems associated with long-term storage of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1991-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) several years ago (1984--86) to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study were (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. In this summary of that study, the circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  2. Assessment of long-term pH developments in leachate from waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    influenced by changes in pH over time. The paper presents an approach for assessing pH changes in leachate from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air-pollution-control (APC) residues. Residue samples were subjected to a stepwise batch extraction method in order to obtain residue samples at a range...... of pH Values (similar to common pH-dependence tests), and then on these samples to determine leaching of alkalinity as well as remaining solid phase alkalinity. On a range of APC residues covering various pretreatment and disposal options, this procedure was used to determine leachable and residual...... alkalinity as a function of pH. Mass balance calculations for typical disposal scenarios were used to provide data on pH as a function of the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio in the leaching system. Regardless of residue type and pretreatment, pH was found to stay above 7 for L/S ratios up to about 2000 L kg(-1...

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  4. Flexible bronchoscopic management of benign tracheal stenosis: long term follow-up of 115 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Benjamin D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of benign tracheal stenosis (BTS varies with the type and extent of the disease and influenced by the patient's age and general health status, hence we sought to investigate the long-term outcome of patients with BTS that underwent minimally invasive bronchoscopic treatment. Methods Patients with symptomatic BTS were treated with flexible bronchoscopy therapeutic modalities that included the following: balloon dilatation, laser photo-resection, self-expanding metal stent placement, and High-dose rate endobronchial brachytherapy used in cases of refractory stent-related granulation tissue formation. Results A total of 115 patients with BTS and various cardiac and respiratory co-morbidities with a mean age of 61 (range 40-88 were treated between January 2001 and January 2009. The underlining etiologies for BTS were post - endotracheal intubation (N = 76 post-tracheostomy (N = 30, Wegener's granulomatosis (N = 2, sarcoidosis (N = 2, amyloidosis (N = 2 and idiopathic BTS (N = 3. The modalities used were: balloon dilatation and laser treatment (N = 98. Stent was placed in 33 patients of whom 28 also underwent brachytherapy. Complications were minor and mostly included granulation tissue formation. The overall success rate was 87%. Over a median follow-up of 51 months (range 10-100 months, 30 patients (26% died, mostly due to exacerbation of their underlying conditions. Conclusions BTS in elderly patients with co-morbidities can be safely and effectively treated by flexible bronchoscopic treatment modalities. The use of HDR brachytherapy to treat granulation tissue formation following successful airway restoration is promising.

  5. Minimizing the regrets of long-term urban floodplain management decisions under deeply uncertain climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, J. S.; Kirshen, P. H.; Vogel, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Making long-term floodplain management decisions under uncertain climate change is a major urban planning challenge of the 21stcentury. To support these efforts, we introduce a screening-level optimization model that identifies adaptation portfolios by minimizing the regrets associated with their flood-control and damage costs under different climate change trajectories that are deeply uncertain, i.e. have probabilities that cannot be specified plausibly. This mixed integer program explicitly considers the coupled damage-reduction impacts of different floodwall designs and property-scale investments (first-floor elevation, wet floodproofing of basements, permanent retreat and insurance), recommends implementation schedules, and assesses impacts to stakeholders residing in three types of homes. An application to a stylized municipality illuminates many nonlinear system dynamics stemming from large fixed capital costs, infrastructure design thresholds, and discharge-depth-damage relationships. If stakeholders tolerate mild damage, floodwalls that fully protect a community from large design events are less cost-effective than portfolios featuring both smaller floodwalls and property-scale measures. Potential losses of property tax revenue from permanent retreat motivate municipal property-tax initiatives for adaptation financing. Yet, insurance incentives for first-floor elevation may discourage locally financed floodwalls, in turn making lower-income residents more vulnerable to severe flooding. A budget constraint analysis underscores the benefits of flexible floodwall designs with low incremental expansion costs while near-optimal solutions demonstrate the scheduling flexibility of many property-scale measures. Finally, an equity analysis shows the importance of evaluating the overpayment and under-design regrets of recommended adaptation portfolios for each stakeholder and contrasts them to single-scenario model results.

  6. National plan for the radioactive and recyclable wastes management of the national inventory of the radioactive and recyclable wastes to an account and a prospective outlook of the pathways of long dated management of radioactive wastes in France; Plan national de gestion des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisables de l'inventaire national des dechets radioactifs et des matieres valorisable a un bilan et une vision prospective des filieres de gestion a long terme des dechets radioactifs en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    The introduction recalls the context of the development of the national plan of radioactive and recyclable wastes management (PNGDR-MV), its objectives and its position in the today studies on radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to the description of existing radioactive wastes management solutions, or engaged by today activities. The second part concerns the radioactive materials of the nuclear industry, which are not considered as wastes, but which can be recyclable because of their high energy potential as fuels for reactors of the future. The third part examines the pathways coherence. The last part is a synthesis of the evaluation, with more attention on the identifies problems. (A.L.B.)