WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste landfilling technologies

  1. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    -aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years......, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence of the active operations (i.e., leachate recirculation, waste flushing and air injection) on the environmental performance, the time horizon...

  2. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LANDFILLING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most important method of municipalsolid waste disposal in China. Landfill sites are always set up in mountain valley, on plain or beside seashore. A complete landfill consists of base system, cover system, and leachate collection and gas extraction system. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art landfilling technology in China and collection discusses research projects for engineers.

  3. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  4. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW, on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities, using the example of an actual landfill situated in the territory of Moscow. A scheme of reconstruction is recommended for the drainage water treatment plant at this landfill, which will lead to improvement of the environmental situation and contribute to the development of territories in the adjacent districts, and to reduction of pollution load on the river and atmosphere.

  5. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  6. Landfills - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  7. Estimating pollutant removal requirements for landfills in the UK: I. Benchmark study and characteristics of waste treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D H; Drury, D; Gronow, J R; Rosevear, A; Pollard, S J T; Smith, R

    2006-12-01

    Introduction of the EU Landfill Directive is having a significant impact on waste management in the UK and in other member states that have relied on landfilling. This paper considers the length of the aftercare period required by the municipal solid waste streams that the UK will most probably generate following implementation of the Landfill Directive. Data were derived from literature to identify properties of residues from the most likely treatment processes and the probable management times these residues will require within the landfill environment were then modelled. Results suggest that for chloride the relevant water quality standard (250 mg l(-1)) will be achieved with a management period of 40 years and for lead (0.1 mg I(-1)), 240 years. This has considerable implications for the sustainability of landfill and suggests that current timescales for aftercare of landfills may be inadequate.

  8. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  9. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  10. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...

  11. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...... of these issues focusing on pH-development in landfilled residues, effects of leaching test conditions on Cr leaching and effects of pre-treatment with FeSO4....

  12. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  14. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...... to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.......5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation...

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  16. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  17. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  18. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m(3) were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation. The construction of the landfill is only a significant contributor to the impact of resource depletion owing to the high use of gravel and steel.

  19. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recove...

  20. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  1. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  2. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included.

  3. Sanitary Landfilling – A Key Component of Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Fellner

    2013-01-01

    In many affluent countries waste management is experiencing a fast transition from landfilling to sophisticated recycling and waste to energy plants. Thus, landfilling of waste becomes less important in these countries. The present paper discusses whether a similar development will take place in transition economies, or waste management systems will mainly rely on landfilling in the near future. For this purpose, the current waste management practices and associated environmental impacts as w...

  4. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe.

  5. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of landfill permits by Section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act, 1989, resulted in the development of the Minimum Requirements series of documents to guide waste disposal to landfill. The promulgation of the National...

  6. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for the open dump, 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1). On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about -70 to 30 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1), obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1). This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.

  7. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  8. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided......For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...

  9. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  10. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...

  11. Removal of high concentrated ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate by landfilled waste layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-dong; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming; LI Guo-jian

    2004-01-01

    The landfill of municipal solid waste(MSW) could be regarded as denitrification reactor and used in ammonia nitrogen biological removal process. In this research, the process was applied to municipal solid waste(MSW) collected in Shanghai, China, which was characterized with high food waste content. The NH4+ removal efficiency in the system of SBR nitrifying reactor followed by fresh and matured landfilled waste layer in series was studied. In the nitrifying reactor, above 90% of NH4+ in leachate was oxidized to NO2- and NO3-. Then high concentrated NO2- and NO3- was removed in the way of denitrification process in fresh landfilled waste layer. At the same time, degradation of fresh landfilled waste was accelerated. Up to the day 120, 136.5 gC/(kg dry waste) and 17.9 gN/(kg dry waste) were produced from waste layer. It accounted for 50.15% and 86.89% of the total carbon and nitrogen content of preliminary fresh waste, which was 4.42 times and 5.17 times higher than that of reference column respectively. After filtering through matured landfilled waste, BOD5 concentration in leachate dropped to below 100 mg/L, which would not affect following nitrification adversely. Because the matured landfilled waste acted as a well methanogenic reactor, 23% of carbon produced accumulatively from fresh landfilled waste degradation was converted into CH4.

  12. Composition and Value of waste in landfills in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Oelofse1_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3221 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Oelofse1_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Composition and Value of waste... in landfills in SA German Chamber of Business From Mining to Urban Mining 16 September 2015 IFAT Environmental Technology Forum Africa 2015 by Prof Suzan Oelofse Research Group Leader: Waste for Development Competency Area: Solutions for a Green...

  13. Indirect measurements of field-scale hydraulic conductivity of waste from two landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, I R

    2011-12-01

    Management and prediction of the movement and distribution of fluids in large landfills is important for various reasons. Bioreactor landfill technology shows promise, but in arid or semi-arid regions, the natural content of landfilled waste may be low, thus requiring addition of significant volumes of water. In more humid locations, landfills can become saturated, flooding gas collection systems and causing sideslope leachate seeps or other undesirable occurrences. This paper compares results from two different approaches to monitoring water in waste. At the Brock West Landfill in eastern Canada, positive pore pressures were measured at various depths in saturated waste. The downward seepage flux through the waste is known, thus the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the waste at this landfill was determined to be 3 × 10(-7)cm/s. By comparison, the Spadina Landfill in western Canada is predominantly unsaturated. The infiltration of moisture into the waste was measured using moisture sensors installed in boreholes which determined arrival time for moisture fronts resulting from major precipitation events as well as longer-term change in moisture content resulting from unsaturated drainage during winter when frozen ground prevented infiltration. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from these data ranged from approximately 10(-6)cm/s for the slow winter drainage in the absence of significant recharge to 10(-2)cm/s or higher for shallow waste subject to high infiltration through apparent preferential pathways. These two very different approaches to field-scale measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity provide insight into the nature of fluid movement in saturated and unsaturated waste masses. It is suggested that the principles of unsaturated seepage apply reasonably well for landfilled waste and that the hydraulic behavior of waste is profoundly influenced by the nature and size of voids and by the degree of saturation prevailing in the

  14. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses...

  15. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  16. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  17. Analysis of a landfill gas to energy system at the municipal solid waste landfill in Gaziantep, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercan, Safak Hengirmen; Cabalar, Ali Firat; Yaman, Gokhan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW), via landfill gas valorization technology, at the landfill of Gaziantep City, Turkey. Rapid increase in population, and industrial developments, throughout the world including Turkey results in larger amount of waste materials generated, increased need for energy, and adverse affects on the environment and human health. Turkey plans to produce 1/3 of its electricity demand using renewable energy sources by the year of 2023. It is recommended to use each year around 25 million tonnes of the MSW generated nationwide for a renewable energy supply. In this study, a concise summary of current status of electricity generation from a MSW landfill gas plant (via biogas harnessing) located in Gaziantep City was analyzed as a case study.

  18. Performance of bioreactor landfill with waste mined from a dumpsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Swati, M; Nagendran, R; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-12-01

    Emissions from landfills via leachate and gas are influenced by state and stability of the organic matter in the solid waste and the environmental conditions within the landfill. This paper describes a modified, ecologically sound waste treatment technique, where municipal solid waste is anaerobically treated in a lysimeter-scale landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation to enhance organic degradation. The results demonstrate a substantial decrease in organic matter (BOD 99%, COD 88% and TOC 81%) and a clear decrease in nutrient concentrations especially ammonia (85%) over a period of 1 year with leachate recirculation.

  19. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  20. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  1. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... from true landfills. Hence, the computer tool is verified in terms of mass balances and sensitivity analyses. The mass balances agree exactly and the sensitivity analyses show that different types of waste product components behave differently in different types of landfills. Emission of e.g. toluene......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...

  2. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  3. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna; Stensøe, Steen; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-07-01

    Landfills receiving a mix of waste, including organics, have developed dramatically over the last 3-4 decades; from open dumps to engineered facilities with extensive controls on leachate and gas. The conventional municipal landfill will in most climates produce a highly contaminated leachate and a significant amount of landfill gas. Leachate controls may include bottom liners and leachate collection systems as well as leachate treatment prior to discharge to surface water. Gas controls may include oxidizing top covers, gas collection systems with flares or gas utilization systems for production of electricity and heat. The importance of leachate and gas control measures in reducing the overall environmental impact from a conventional landfill was assessed by life-cycle-assessment (LCA). The direct cost for the measures were also estimated providing a basis for assessing which measures are the most cost-effective in reducing the impact from a conventional landfill. This was done by modeling landfills ranging from a simple open dump to highly engineered conventional landfills with energy recovery in form of heat or electricity. The modeling was done in the waste LCA model EASEWASTE. The results showed drastic improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to -0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE). For the toxic and spoiled groundwater impact categories the trend is not as clear. The reason for this was that the load to the environment shifted as more technologies were used. For the dump landfill the main impacts were impacts for spoiled groundwater due to lack of leachate collection, 2.3 PE down to 0.4 PE when leachate is collected. However, at the same time, leachate collection causes a slight increase in eco-toxicity and human toxicity via water (0.007 E to 0

  4. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... (PVC), copper and chloride). Since waste products from different processes in the product system may be disposed at different landfills where they are mixed with waste originating outside the product system, the estimated emissions from specific waste products cannot be compared with measured emissions...

  5. Landfills: Engineering Design for Waste Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Anita; Grubbs, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to consider the waste humans produce and options for reducing the impact it has on the environment. Allowing students the opportunities to research potential solutions and present their ideas results in an educated citizenry that considers consequences of technological advances. Throughout the course of a…

  6. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  7. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-09-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses. In this study, 22 leachate samples from 21 different landfills in the United States and Canada were examined for enteric viruses. The sites represented a broad range of conditions for solid waste landfills and the leachate samples ranged from 10.3 to 18 liters in volume. Enteric viruses were found in only one of the 22 leachate samples examined. Two viruses, identified as poliovirus types 1 and 3, were found in an 11.8 liter sample obtained from a site where solid waste landfill practice was deficient. The low levels of enteric viruses detected in field samples of raw leachate and the opportunities for further reductions in the virus concentration of leachates by such processes as thermal inactivation, removal by soil and dilution in ground and surface waters, suggest that leachates from properly operated solid waste landfills do not constitute an environmental or public health hazard due to enteric viruses.

  8. A Decision Making Tool for Hazardous Waste Landfill Site Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pandiyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Continuous global environmental crisis and degradation has been a challenge for the sustainability of living on earth. This threat was posed by industrialization, high products need, urbanization and population growth activities. As a result, the hazardous waste generation has tremendously increased. Approach: Landfill was one of the positive approaches to handle hazardous waste generated in great quantity. The appropriate selection of landfill site played a major role to remediate the hazardous waste materials. Attributes to be considered for decision-making were selected based on literature, observations with weightage assigned to each attribute following the pair wise comparison method and sensitivity index on a scale of 0 to 1 based on attribute measurement. The attributes were then grouped and ranked following Delphi approach. Results: In environmental assessment, field based study of three landfill sites such as Melakottaiyur, Pachaiyankuppam and Gummidipoondi in Tamil Nadu, India were selected and the sites scored a Risk Index (RI of 298.75, 369.05 and 408.25 respectively. In economical assessment, economic viability related attributes were analyzed and the three landfill site such as Pachaiyankuppam, Melakottaiyur and Gummidipoondi scored a RI of 86.1, 94.3 and 131.5 respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: In environmental assessment the landfill sites were shortlisted. In order to achieve economic sustainability of the landfill, economic viability related attributes has to be analyzed with high priority and weightage in economical assessment.

  9. Evaluation of copper, zinc, and chromium concentration in landfill soil and hospital waste ash of Shahrekord municipal solid waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hatami Manesh

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: High concentrations of metals determined in the present study represents the high application of these metals in the structure of municipal and hospital solid wastes and also their inaccurate separation. Thus, awareness about physical and chemical characteristics of municipal and hospital wastes and also the landfill soil is necessary for evaluating their effects on the soil quality and surrounding environments.

  10. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    PE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due......A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...

  11. Waste management without landfills. The goal set for 2020 - utopian or realistic?; Deponiefreie Siedlungsabfallwirtschaft. Zielstellung 2020: Utopie oder realistische Aufgabe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radde, C.-A. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    As early as August 1999, the then FEderal Government stated its goals until 2020: Landfilling of untreated biodegradable was to end on 1 June 2005; Technologically complex mechanical and biological treatment plants can be used for waste treatment parallel to incineration; Environmentally inacceptable landfills were to be closed down gradually; By 2020, full environment-friendly treatment of all domestic waste in Germany was to be ensured. The contribution attempts to find out if this is at all possible. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of thermal properties of municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faitli, József; Magyar, Tamás; Erdélyi, Attila; Murányi, Attila

    2015-02-01

    Municipal waste landfills represent not only a source of landfill gases, but a source of thermal energy as well. The heat in landfills is generated by physical, chemical and microbiological processes. The goal of our study was to characterize the thermal properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples of the given landfill. A new apparatus was designed and constructed to measure heat flow. A systematic test series of 17 discrete measurements was carried out with municipal waste samples of 1.0-1.7 m(3). The thermal conductivity, heat diffusivity and specific heat capacity of the samples were determined. Analysing the results of the sampling and our experiments it was realized that the theoretical fundaments should be clarified. Two theories were developed for the serial and for the parallel heat flow in three phase disperse systems. The serial and parallel models resulted in different theoretical estimations. The measured thermal conductivity and heat diffusivity were better characterized by the parallel heat flow estimations. The results show that heat can flow parallel in solid, liquid and gas phases. Characterization of thermal properties serves to establish the fundament of heat extraction from municipal waste landfills.

  13. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  14. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve New Hampshire's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 28, 2010...

  15. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... approve Massachusetts's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22... be issued to certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On December 7,...

  16. CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT – TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Iżykowska-Kujawa

    2014-10-01

    Waste treatment processes presented in this paper are just a small fraction of the technologies used in Europe or worldwide. Many of the methods of waste treatment will not be introduced in Poland because of high (capital expenditures? expenses associated with their processing technology. In such case low level of costs generated by storing waste in disposal landfills remains unrivaled, posing potential threat to the environment.

  17. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.;

    2009-01-01

    utilizing oxygen that diffuses into the cover layer from the atmosphere. The methane oxidation process, which is governed by several environmental factors, can be exploited in engineered systems developed for methane emission mitigation. Mathematical models that account for methane oxidation can be used...... to predict methane emissions from landfills. Additional research and technology development is needed before methane mitigation technologies utilizing microbial methane oxidation processes can become commercially viable and widely deployed.......Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...

  18. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  19. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  20. Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: contaminants in leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2005-01-20

    Household hazardous waste (HHW) includes waste from a number of household products such as paint, garden pesticides, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, certain detergents, personal care products, fluorescent tubes, waste oil, heavy metal-containing batteries, wood treated with dangerous substances, waste electronic and electrical equipment and discarded CFC-containing equipment. Data on the amounts of HHW discarded are very limited and are hampered by insufficient definitions of what constitutes HHW. Consequently, the risks associated with the disposal of HHW to landfill have not been fully elucidated. This work has focused on the assessment of data concerning the presence of hazardous chemicals in leachates as evidence of the disposal of HHW in municipal landfills. Evidence is sought from a number of sources on the occurrence in landfill leachates of hazardous components (heavy metals and xenobiotic organic compounds [XOC]) from household products and the possible disposal-to-emissions pathways occurring within landfills. This review demonstrates that a broad range of xenobiotic compounds occurring in leachate can be linked to HHW but further work is required to assess whether such compounds pose a risk to the environment and human health as a result of leakage/seepage or through treatment and discharge.

  1. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  2. Methanogenesis acceleration of fresh landfilled waste by micro-aeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Li-ming; HE Pin-jing; ZHANG Hua; YU Xiao-hua; LI Guo-jian

    2005-01-01

    When municipal solid waste(MSW) with high content of food waste is landfilled, the rapid hydrolysis of food waste results in the imbalance of anaerobic metabolism in the landfill layer, indicated by accumulation of volatile fatty acids(VFA) and decrease of pH value.This occurrence could lead to long lag time before the initiation of methanogenesis and to the production of strong leachate. Simulated landfill columns with forced aeration, with natural ventilation, and with no aeration, were monitored regarding their organics degradation rate with leachate recirculation. Hydrolysis reactions produced strong leachate in the column with no aeration. With forced aeration, the produced VFA could be effectively degraded, leading to the reduction in COD of the leachate effluent since the week 3. The CH4 in the frequency of twice/d, could amount to 40% (v/v) after only 20 weeks. This amount had increased up to 50% afterward even with no aeration. Most of COD in the recirculated leachate was removed. Using natural ventilation, CH4 could also be produced and the COD of the leachate effluent be reduced after 10 weeks of operation. However, the persistent existence of oxygen in the landfill layer yielded instability in methanogenesis process.

  3. Toward zero waste to landfill: an effective method for recycling zeolite waste from refinery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchuen, K.; Anuwattana, R.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    One-third of landfill waste of refinery plant in Thailand was spent chloride zeolite, which wastes a huge of land, cost and time for handling. Toward zero waste to landfill, this study was aimed at determining an effective method for recycling zeolite waste by comparing the chemical process with the electrochemical process. To investigate the optimum conditions of both processes, concentration of chemical solution and reaction time were carried out for the former, while the latter varied in term of current density, initial pH of water, and reaction time. The results stated that regenerating zeolite waste from refinery industry in Thailand should be done through the chemical process with alkaline solution because it provided the best chloride adsorption efficiency with cost the least. A successful recycling will be beneficial not only in reducing the amount of landfill waste but also in reducing material and disposal costs and consumption of natural resources as well.

  4. Novel and Conventional Technologies for Landfill Leachates Treatment: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Torretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste final disposal represents an environmental burden worldwide since landfilling, or open dumping, is still the preferred solution for the end of life of solid discarded materials. This study aims to review the technological innovations applied for landfill leachate treatment, taking into consideration the experiences obtained during the past years and the solutions which have been implemented. The review showed that both biological and physiochemical treatments are not able to achieve the requested water quality level, according to the limits established by regulations, whether applied in a single treatment or multiple treatments. In order to respect sustainable release limits to guarantee environmental protection, the construction of depuration systems and combining biological and physiochemical treatment methods is considered of the utmost importance. The review looks at possible joint applications of different treatment techniques reviewed by other studies and considers the state of the art of current research. Combined technical solutions suggested within the 2016 peer-reviewed papers are presented and discussed as a sustainable way to effectively treat landfill leachate, giving particular attention to feasible solutions for developing countries.

  5. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    two models are multi-phase models, which defines waste fractions into traditional MSW and low-organic waste categories, respectively. Both the LandGEM and the IPCC model estimated significantly larger methane (CH4) generation in comparison to the Afvalzorg model. The Afvalzorg model could better show...... the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories, and was found more suitable to estimate LFG generation from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Four major waste categories currently being disposed at Danish landfills (mixed bulky, shredder, dewatered sludge...... results. The LFG generation from four Danish landfills was estimated by the Afvalzorg model using the experimentally based BMP and k values and compared to whole landfill emission rates measured by applying a tracer gas dispersion method. The results showed that the revised modelled LFG generation rates...

  6. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  7. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  8. Design concept for the solid waste landfill site:a case study of Chuzhou City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wentao

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces landfill site of Chuzhou domestic waste, to which the improved anaerobic hygienic burying technology is applied. Chuzhou City, situated between Yangtze River and Huai River, is a window city in the east of Anhui Province. A landfill site with a capacity of 400 ton per day is to be constructed according to the city development plan and the garbage amount. This paper summarizes the landfill location, landform, groundwater; surface water,landfill stratal configuration, dominant wind, and the major machinery equipment. The projects of anti-percolation,seepage collection, seepage disposal, rainwater discharge, biogas diversion are deeply studied. The advanced design principle of the landfills is summarized, which is environment-friendly, science-oriented and economy-based. Environ ment-friendly principle is implemented in the selection of landfill location, construction of all projects, sealing up project and perfecting environment monitoring system; science-oriented principle prescribes that the design, construction, and management should be science-oriented; the selection of landfill location, design, plan optimization, resource-saving measures and comprehensive utilization should be economy-based. Chuzhou domestic waste landfill site is qualified as a golden model in this paper.

  9. Toxicity Assessment of Contaminated Soils of Solid Domestic Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, O. A.; Mochalova, T. N.

    2014-08-01

    The paper delivers the analysis of an 18-year dynamic pattern of land pollutants concentration in the soils of a solid domestic waste landfill. It also presents the composition of the contaminated soils from different areas of the waste landfill during its operating period. The authors calculate the concentrations of the following pollutants: chrome, nickel, tin, vanadium, lead, cuprum, zinc, cobalt, beryllium, barium, yttrium, cadmium, arsenic, germanium, nitrate ions and petrochemicals and determine a consistent pattern of their spatial distribution within the waste landfill area as well as the dynamic pattern of their concentration. Test-objects are used in experiments to make an integral assessment of the polluted soil's impact on living organisms. It was discovered that the soil samples of an animal burial site are characterized by acute toxicity while the area of open waste dumping is the most dangerous in terms of a number of pollutants. This contradiction can be attributed to the synergetic effect of the polluted soil, which accounts for the regularities described by other researchers.

  10. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Qin, Li; Li, Guoxue; Chen, Lijun

    2009-06-01

    Site selection is an important and necessary issue for waste management in fast-growing regions. Because of the complexity of waste management systems, the selection of the appropriate solid waste landfill site requires consideration of multiple alternative solutions and evaluation criteria. Based on actual conditions of the study area, we considered economic factors, calculated criteria weights using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and built a hierarchy model for solving the solid waste landfill site-selection problem in Beijing, China. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to manipulate and present spatial data. All maps are graded from 1 (lowest suitability) to 5 (highest suitability) using spatial information technologies. The candidate sites were determined by aggregation based on the criteria weights. The candidate sites are divided by 'best', 'good' and 'unsuitable' landfill areas. Best landfill areas represent optimal sites; good landfill areas can be used as back-up candidate sites. Our work offers a sitting methodology and provides essential support for decision-makers in the assessment of waste management problems in Beijing and other rapidly developing cities in developing countries.

  11. Comparison between landfill gas and waste incineration for power generation in Astana, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis; Kim, Jong; Aitbekova, Aisulu; Ismailova, Aizada

    2015-05-01

    The city of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, which has a population of 804,474, and has been experiencing rapid growth over the last 15 years, generates approximately 1.39 kg capita(-1) day(-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW). Nearly 700 tonnes of MSW are collected daily, of which 97% is disposed of at landfills. The newest landfill was built using modern technologies, including a landfill gas (LFG) collection system.The rapid growth of Astana demands more energy on its path to development, and the viability analysis of MSW to generate electricity is imperative. This paper presents a technical-economic pre-feasibility study comparing landfill including LFG utilization and waste incineration (WI) to produce electricity. The performance of LFG with a reciprocating engine and WI with steam turbine power technologies were compared through corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction, cost of energy production (CEP), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) from the analyses. Results demonstrate that in the city of Astana, WI has the potential to reduce more than 200,000 tonnes of GHG per year, while LFG could reduce slightly less than 40,000 tonnes. LFG offers a CEP 5.7% larger than WI, while the latter presents a BCR two times higher than LFG. WI technology analysis depicts a NPV exceeding 280% of the equity, while for LFG, the NPV is less than the equity, which indicates an expected remarkable financial return for the WI technology and a marginal and risky scenario for the LFG technology. Only existing landfill facilities with a LFG collection system in place may turn LFG into a viable project.

  12. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  13. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro, E-mail: tanigaki.nobuhiro@eng.nssmc.com [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (EUROPEAN OFFICE), Am Seestern 8, 40547 Dusseldorf (Germany); Ishida, Yoshihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., 46-59, Nakabaru, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8505 (Japan); Osada, Morihiro [NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN ENGINEERING CO., LTD., (Head Office), Osaki Center Building 1-5-1, Osaki, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-8604 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • A new waste management scheme and the effects of co-gasification of MSW were assessed. • A co-gasification system was compared with other conventional systems. • The co-gasification system can produce slag and metal with high-quality. • The co-gasification system showed an economic advantage when bottom ash is landfilled. • The sensitive analyses indicate an economic advantage when the landfill cost is high. - Abstract: This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the

  14. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made......, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including...

  15. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal solid waste... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a...

  18. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit... Domenic Calabro, Office of Air, Waste, and Toxics, U.S. EPA, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite...

  19. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16...

  20. Application of photochemical technologies for treatment of landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeroff, Daniel E., E-mail: dmeeroff@fau.edu [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Bloetscher, Frederick; Reddy, D.V.; Gasnier, Francois; Jain, Swapnil; McBarnette, Andre; Hamaguchi, Hatsuko [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Engineering, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL (United States)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photochemical iron-mediated aeration and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis for leachate treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Removal efficiency tested on COD, BOD{sub 5}, color, ammonia, and lead. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 10-200 h for PIMA Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact times for 90% removal were 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-filtration is not necessary. - Abstract: Because of widely varying practices in solid waste management, an all-inclusive solution to long-term management of landfill leachate is currently not available. There is a major technological need for sustainable, economical options for safe discharge of leachate to the environment. Two potential on-site pretreatment technologies, photochemical iron-mediated aeration (PIMA) and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis were compared for treatment of landfill leachate at laboratory scale. Results of bench scale testing of real landfill leachate with PIMA and TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis showed up to 86% conversion of refractory COD to complete mineralization, up to 91% removal of lead, up to 71% removal of ammonia without pH adjustment, and up to 90% effective color removal with detention times between 4 and 6 h, in field samples. The estimated contact times for 90% removal of COD, ammonia, lead, and color were found to be on the order of 10-200 h for PIMA and 3-37 h for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. Testing with actual leachate samples showed 85% TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst recovery efficiency with no loss in performance after multiple (n > 4 uses). Pre-filtration was not found to be necessary for effective treatment using either process.

  1. The impact of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava County on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of air quality deterioration through emissions of toxic gas resulted from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste. The paper discusses in detail the qualitative and quantitative effects of municipal waste landfills of the main urban settlements in Suceava County (Suceava City municipal landfill and Gura Humorului, Rădăuţi, Siret, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban waste landfills on air quality. The dispersion of methane emitted from the largest MSW landfill in the county, the Suceava municipal landfill respectively, is also presented, taking into account seasonal, daytime and nighttime meteorological parameters

  2. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...... waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has...... years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce...

  3. IJER@2014 Page 57 Disposal Criteria of Bhanpur Solid Waste Landfill Site: Investigation and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Dasgpta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste management and design assist waste management officials in developing and encouraging environmentally sound methods for the disposal of "nonhazardous" solid waste. Promulgated under the authority of municipal act, the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF regulation act establish a framework for planning and implementing municipal solid waste landfill programs at the state and local levels. This framework sets minimum standards for protecting human health and the environment, while allowing states to develop more flexible MSWLF criteria. Intension to mitigate or expeditiously remediate potential adverse environmental impacts resulting from municipal landfills. However, other regulations existed prior to the revised MSWLF standards discussed in this module. The promulgation Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices. The established regulatory standards to satisfy the minimum national performance criteria for sanitary landfills governs only those solid waste disposal facilities and practices that do not meet the definition of a MSWLF. Such facilities include waste piles, industrial nonhazardous waste landfills, surface impoundments, and land application units. Environmental Protect Authority (EPA modified address the fact that these non-municipal non-hazardous wastes landfills may receive Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator (CESQG hazardous waste, further clarify that construction and demolition landfills may receive residential lead-based paint waste as Solid Waste Disposal Facilities without for MSWLFs as long as all conditions are met.

  4. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  5. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  6. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-03-01

    A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste fractions. Impact potentials are estimated for 1 tonne of mixed waste disposed off in a conventional landfill with bottom liner, leachate collection and treatment and gas collection and utilization for electricity generation. All the environmental aspects are accounted for 100 years after disposal and several impact categories have been considered, including standard categories, toxicity-related categories and groundwater contamination. Amongst the standard and toxicity-related categories, the highest potential impact is estimated for human toxicity via soil (HTs; 12 mPE/tonne). This is mostly caused by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 mPE/tonne). These savings are mostly determined by the waste fractions characterized by a high content of biogenic carbon (paper, organics, other combustible waste). These savings are due to emissions from energy generation avoided by landfill gas utilization, and by the storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill due to incomplete waste degradation.

  7. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  8. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  9. Analysis of the contaminants released from municipal solid waste landfill site: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, S R; Prabhakar, R; Khan, D; Kishan, D; Chauhan, M S

    2017-02-15

    Release and transport of leachate from municipal solid waste landfills pose a potential hazard to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. In the present study, soil, groundwater, and surface water samples were collected from the periphery of a municipal solid waste landfill (located at Ranital of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India) for laboratory analysis to understand the release of contaminants. The landfill does not receive any solid wastes for dumping now as the same is under a landfill closure plan. Groundwater and soil samples were collected from the bore holes of 15m deep drilled along the periphery of the landfill and the surface water samples were collected from the existing surface water courses near the landfill. The landfill had neither any bottom liner nor any leachate collection and treatment system. Thus the leachate generated from the landfills finds paths into the groundwater and surrounding surface water courses. Concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters including some toxic metals (in collected groundwater, soil, and surface water samples) and microbiological parameters (in surface water samples) were determined. The analyzed data were integrated into ArcGIS environment and the spatial distribution of the metals and other physic- chemical parameter across the landfill was extrapolated to observe the distribution. The statistical analysis and spatial variations indicated the leaching of metals from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The study will help the readers and the municipal engineers to understand the release of contaminants from landfills for better management of municipal solid wastes.

  10. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    OpenAIRE

    E.A Omondi; P.K Ndiba and P.G Njuru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water sam...

  11. Assessment of the disposal of radioactive petroleum industry waste in nonhazardous landfills using risk-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen P; Arnish, John J; Williams, Gustavious P; Blunt, Deborah L

    2003-05-15

    Certain petroleum production activities cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) to accumulate in concentrations above natural background levels, making safe and cost-effective management of such technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) a key issue for the petroleum industry. As a result, both industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that provide adequate protection of human health and the environment One such alternative, currently allowed in Michigan with restrictions, is the disposal of TENORM wastes in nonhazardous waste landfills. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 (Ra-226) in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and health risks to workers and the public. Multiple scenarios were considered in evaluating the potential risks associated with landfill operations and the future use of the property. The scenarios were defined, in part, to evaluate the Michigan policy; sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of key parameters on potential risks. The results indicate that the disposal of petroleum industry TENORM wastes in nonhazardous landfills in accordance with the Michigan policy and existing landfill regulations presents a negligible risk to most of the potential receptors considered in this study.

  12. Pretreated waste landfilling: relation between leachate characteristics and mechanical behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria Rosaria; Chiavola, Agostina; Sbaffoni, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a part of a wider research effort aiming at studying the long-term behaviour of different pre-treated wastes once landfilled; in particular, this paper deals with the analysis of settlements and their correlation with the main leachate biochemical parameters (BOD, COD and pH). The municipal solid waste organic fraction (MSWOF) and bottom ash (BA) from incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) were considered in the study and used to set up different semi-pilot landfill plants. Particularly, the FT plant contained 90 days aerobically biostabilized MSWOF, the FP plant was filled with 15 days aerobically biostabilized MSWOF and the MX plant with a 30-70% (by weight) mixture of BA and the same MSWOF used in the FP plant. The data obtained showed a faster mechanical and biological stabilization of the FT and MX plants, due to the less biodegradable organic fraction content initially present in the FT plant and to the presence of BA, having a stabilizing effect, in the MX plant. Besides, similar behaviour of FT and MX was observed, and also a strong correlation between the settlement and the biochemical parameters time profiles was identified.

  13. Co-disposal of electronic waste with municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, C; Visvanthan, C; Yin, Nang Htay; Karthikeyan, Obuli P

    2010-12-01

    Three pilot scale lysimeters were adopted to evaluate the stability pattern and leaching potential of heavy metals from MSW landfills under the E-waste co-disposed condition. One lysimeter served as control and solely filled with MSW, whereas the other two lysimeters were provided with 10% and 25% of E-waste scraps (% by weight), respectively. The reactors were monitored over a period of 280 days at ambient settings with continuous leachate recirculation. Stabilization pattern of carbon appears to be more than 50% in all the three lysimeters with irrespective of their operating conditions. Iron and zinc concentrations were high in leachate during bioreactor landfill operation and correlating with the TCLP leachability test results. In contrast, Pb concentration was around waste was found to be amplified with the long term disposal or stabilization within landfills. The results showed that the TCLP test cannot be completely reliable tool for measuring long-term leachability of toxic substances under landfill condition; rather landfill lysimeter studies are necessary to get the real scenario.

  14. EVALUATION OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  15. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development, and... the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket...

  16. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... characters, or any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket: All documents in the...

  17. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved..., and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket visit the...

  18. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) For approval, a State plan shall include control of MSW... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal...

  19. 78 FR 5288 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Massachusetts's approved municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) program. The approved... INFORMATION: A. Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid...

  20. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  1. 高安屯卫生填埋场刚性调节池除臭新工艺的应用%Application of Deodorant Technology in Regulating Pond of Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志茹; 彭旭阳; 任丽梅

    2012-01-01

    介绍了北京市朝阳区高安屯填埋场调节池除臭新工艺,即在原有设备基础上增加调节池密闭性,并抽出调节池内部臭气作为火炬助燃空气对调节池臭气进行除臭,实践证明该工艺可有效解决调节池除臭问题,满足GB14554-1993排放要求;且系统运行安全有效、成本较低.%The deodorant technology of regulating pond in Chaoyang District Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site of Beijing was introduced. That is to say, the deodorant technology improved the leakproofness of regulating pond based on existing deodorant equipment, and extracted the air inside the regulation pond as combustion air for small torch system to deodorant. The project has been proved that it can effectively solve the deodorant problem for regulation ponds, and meet the emission requirements of GB 14554-1993. The system is safe and effective, and has low costs.

  2. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  3. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  4. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  5. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  6. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C., E-mail: jc.mora@ciemat.es [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain); Baeza, Antonio [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Cáceres (Spain); Robles, Beatriz [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  7. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  8. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bo-Feng; LIU Jian-Guo; GAO Qing-Xian; NIE Xiao-Qin; CAO Dong; LIU Lan-Cui; ZHOU Ying; ZHANG Zhan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The methane (CH4) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China in 2007 were estimated based on database of the three-dimensional emission factors matrix and point sources, by an IPCC recommended FOD (first-order decay) model. The location, capacity and age of landfills constitute the three dimensions of the emission factors matrix, which were obtained by laboratory analysis and in situ investigation. Key parameters such as waste composition, degradable organic carbon ratio, CH4 correction factor, oxidation factor and recovery rate, were carefully analyzed in terms of these three dimensions. The point sources database consists of 2,107 MSW landfills in cities and towns of China in 2007. The results show that the CH4 emissions from MSW landfills were 1.186 Mt in 2007. Compared with the CH4 emissions of 2.20 Mt in 2005, the significant discrepancy mainly comes from statistical data of landfills, e.g., number of landfills and amount of waste disposed in landfills. CH4 emissions were lower than 700 t for most of the landfills, whereas there were 279 landfills with emissions larger than 1,000 t, and only 10 landfills with emissions larger than 10,000 t. Jiangsu province ranks the largest emitter with 98,700 t while Tibet is the smallest emitter with 2,100 t. In general, the emissions from eastern provinces, such as Jiangsu, Guangdong and Zhejiang, were larger than those from western provinces, such as Ningxia, Tibet and Qinghai.

  9. Permeability test and slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste in Jiangcungou Landfill, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Xu, Zengguang; Chai, Junrui; Qin, Yuan; Li, Yanlong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid increase of city waste, landfills have become a major method to deals with municipal solid waste. Thus, the safety of landfills has become a valuable research topic. In this paper, Jiangcungou Landfill, located in Shaanxi, China, was investigated and its slope stability was analyzed. Laboratory tests were used to obtain permeability coefficients of municipal solid waste. Based on the results, the distribution of leachate and stability in the landfill was computed and analyzed. These results showed: the range of permeability coefficient was from 1.0 × 10(-7) cm sec(-1) to 6.0 × 10(-3) cm sec(-1) on basis of laboratory test and some parameters of similar landfills. Owing to the existence of intermediate cover layers in the landfill, the perched water level appeared in the landfill with heavy rain. Moreover, the waste was filled with leachate in the top layer, and the range of leachate level was from 2 m to 5 m in depth under the waste surface in other layers. The closer it gets to the surface of landfill, the higher the perched water level of leachate. It is indicated that the minimum safety factors were 1.516 and 0.958 for winter and summer, respectively. Additionally, the slope failure may occur in summer. The research of seepage and stability in landfills may provide a less costly way to reduce accidents. Landslides often occur in the Jiangcungou Landfill because of the high leachate level. Some measures should be implemented to reduce the leachate level. This paper investigated seepage and slope stability of landfills by numerical methods. These results may provide the basis for increasing stability of landfills.

  10. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  11. Effects of aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Ma, Zeyu; Jin, Xiao; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement in simulated hybrid landfill bioreactors. Four laboratory-scale reactors were constructed and operated for about 10 months to simulate different bioreactor operations, including one anaerobic bioreactor and three hybrid bioreactors with different aeration frequencies (one, two, and four times per day). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) reduced more than 96% of the initial concentrations in all aerated bioreactors. The differences of COD and BOD5 reductions among tested aeration frequencies were relatively small. For ammonia nitrogen, the higher aeration frequency (two or four times per day) resulted in the quicker reduction. Overall, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) decreased over time except Cd and Pb. The reduction of redox-sensitive metal concentrations (Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) was greater in aerated bioreactors than in anaerobic bioreactor. Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) was enhanced with higher frequency of aeration events (four times per day). In recent years, hybird bioreactor landfill technology has gained a lot of attention. Appropriate aeration rate is crucial for hybrid bioreactor operation, but few studies have been done and different results were obtained. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement. Results indicated that aeration can effectively accelerate waste stabilization and remove organic carbon concentration and total nitrogen in the leachate.

  12. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  13. Waste survey - landfill disposability of furniture industrial wastes from varnishing processes; Huonekaluteollisuuden maalaamokaappijaetteiden kaatopaikkakelpoisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaajasaari, K.; Kulovaara, M.; Joutti, A.; Schulz, E. [Pirkanmaan Ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to screen the environmental hazard of eight different furniture industrial wastes in context of their landfill disposal. These wastes are resulting from the varnishing process of furniture manufacture. Four of these materials were collected from a dry varnishing processes and the other four residues from a wet varnishing processes. We wanted to classify these industrial wastes according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties to evaluate if these kind of materials could be disposed off to a non-hazardous landfill. Leaching properties of residues were determined with European standard draft prEN 12457-2 method. The toxicity measurement of the leaching tests eluates from furniture industrial residues was carried out with a plant (the onion Allium cepa root elongation test), bacteria (the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri assay) and enzyme inhibition (the reverse electron transport, RET, assay). Chemical concentrations of TOC, formaldehyde and solvents in solid wastes and their leaching test eluates were measured simultaneously. The results showed that dry residues contained high amount of formaldehyde which will leach out from the wastes a long time period if wastes are in contact with water at landfill conditions. Furthermore, the water leachable substances in dry residues resulted very high acute toxicity. Toxicity test results confirmed the conclusions drawn from the chemical data as well in wet residues. Two of the wet residues with the highest solvent concentrations were clearly toxic, while the other two wet residues had the smallest concentrations of the harmful substances and only slight acute toxicity. The biggest problems in context of landfill disposability are connected to a high liquid content of wet residues (over 70 %). (orig.)

  14. Waste Informatics: Establishing Characteristics of Contemporary U.S. Landfill Quantities and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jon T; Pons, José C; Chertow, Marian

    2016-10-06

    Waste generation is expected to increase in most countries for many decades with landfill disposal still the dominant solid waste management method(1-3). Yet, operational characteristics of landfills are often poorly understood with comparative statistics substantially lacking. Here, we call for a more formal waste informatics to organize and standardize waste management knowledge at multiple spatial scales through analysis of recently reported data from 1232 U.S. landfills and other high resolution data sets. We create the first known estimate of available U.S. municipal waste stocks (8.5 billion tonnes) and go on to resolve these stocks at the county level, reflecting prospective urban mining opportunities. Our analysis of disposal rates and landfill capacities reveals that more than half of U.S. states have more than 25 years of life remaining. We also estimate the gross energy potential of landfill gas in the U.S. (338 billion MJ/yr) by examining 922 operational methane collection systems and demonstrate that the greatest energy recovery opportunities lie at landfills with existing collection systems and energy conversion infrastructure. Finally, we found that the number of landfills reaching the federally defined 30-year postclosure care period will more than triple in the coming two decades, with 264 sites expected by the year 2044, highlighting the need to develop and standardize metrics carefully to define and standardize when it is appropriate to end or scale back long-term landfill monitoring.

  15. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily...... stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55 C...... for more than 60 days, with continuous monitoring of the cumulative CH4 generation. Results showed that samples of mixed waste and shredder waste had similar BMP results, which was in the range of 5.4–9.1 kg CH4/ton waste (wet weight) on average. As a calculated consequence, their degradable organic carbon...

  16. SEISMIC DISTRESS AND PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2011-01-01

    Seismic distress of solid waste landfills may result from any of the two consequences of a seismic event: (a) the transient ground deformation related to seismic wave propagation, (b) the permanent ground deformation caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Design provisions for solid waste landfills......-element analyses were performed, taking also into account the potential slip displacement development along the interfaces formulated on each side of the flexible membrane liner (FML). It is shown that base fault dislocation causes significant plastic strains at each one of the components of the waste landfill...

  17. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  18. SEISMIC DISTRESS AND PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2011-01-01

    prohibit the construction of landfills in the vicinity of an active fault aiming to prevent the latter. Nonetheless, the impact of applied permanent deformation on the system components of landfills and on the waste mass has not been fully demonstrated yet. For this purpose, efficient finite...

  19. Urban construction and demolition waste and landfill failure in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xia, Junqiang; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-01-30

    On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world's municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere.

  20. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia

    2006-01-01

    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  1. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  3. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  5. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  6. Stochastic modelling of landfill leachate and biogas production incorporating waste heterogeneity. Model formulation and uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharof, A I; Butler, A P

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model simulating the hydrological and biochemical processes occurring in landfilled waste is presented and demonstrated. The model combines biochemical and hydrological models into an integrated representation of the landfill environment. Waste decomposition is modelled using traditional biochemical waste decomposition pathways combined with a simplified methodology for representing the rate of decomposition. Water flow through the waste is represented using a statistical velocity model capable of representing the effects of waste heterogeneity on leachate flow through the waste. Given the limitations in data capture from landfill sites, significant emphasis is placed on improving parameter identification and reducing parameter requirements. A sensitivity analysis is performed, highlighting the model's response to changes in input variables. A model test run is also presented, demonstrating the model capabilities. A parameter perturbation model sensitivity analysis was also performed. This has been able to show that although the model is sensitive to certain key parameters, its overall intuitive response provides a good basis for making reasonable predictions of the future state of the landfill system. Finally, due to the high uncertainty associated with landfill data, a tool for handling input data uncertainty is incorporated in the model's structure. It is concluded that the model can be used as a reasonable tool for modelling landfill processes and that further work should be undertaken to assess the model's performance.

  7. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium); Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-11-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs.

  8. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Cao, Aixin; Zhao, Guozhu; Zhou, Chuanbin; Xu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are the most prevalent waste disposal method and constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic methane emissions in the world. Microbial activities in disposed waste play a crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions; however, only a few studies have examined metagenomic microbial profiles in landfills. Here, the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing method was applied for the first time to examine microbial diversity of the cover soil and stored waste located at different depths (0-150cm) in a typical MSW landfill in Yangzhou City, East China. The abundance of microorganisms in the cover soil (0-30cm) was the lowest among all samples, whereas that in stored waste decreased from the top to the middle layer (30-90cm) and then increased from the middle to the bottom layer (90-150cm). In total, 14 phyla and 18 genera were found in the landfill. A microbial diversity analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera. Methylohalobius (methanotrophs) was more abundant in the cover layers of soil than in stored waste, whereas Syntrophomonas and Fastidiosipila, which affect methane production, were more abundant in the middle to bottom layers (90-150cm) in stored waste. A canonical correlation analysis showed that microbial diversity in the landfill was most strongly correlated with the conductivity, organic matter, and moisture content of the stored waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Waste-to-energy technologies and project implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogoff, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    This book covers in detail programs and technologies for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects. Modern Waste-to-Energy plants are being built around the world to reduce the levels of solid waste going into landfill sites and contribute to renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. The latest technologies have also reduced the pollution levels seen from early waste incineration plants by over 99 per cent. With case studies from around the world, Rogoff and Screve provide an insight into the different approaches taken to the planning and implementation of WTE. The second edition includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges as well as an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE.

  10. Estimating methane emissions from landfills based on rainfall, ambient temperature, and waste composition: The CLEEN model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanjekar, Richa V; Bhatt, Arpita; Altouqui, Said; Jangikhatoonabad, Neda; Durai, Vennila; Sattler, Melanie L; Hossain, M D Sahadat; Chen, Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Accurately estimating landfill methane emissions is important for quantifying a landfill's greenhouse gas emissions and power generation potential. Current models, including LandGEM and IPCC, often greatly simplify treatment of factors like rainfall and ambient temperature, which can substantially impact gas production. The newly developed Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model aims to improve landfill methane generation estimates, but still require inputs that are fairly easy to obtain: waste composition, annual rainfall, and ambient temperature. To develop the model, methane generation was measured from 27 laboratory scale landfill reactors, with varying waste compositions (ranging from 0% to 100%); average rainfall rates of 2, 6, and 12 mm/day; and temperatures of 20, 30, and 37°C, according to a statistical experimental design. Refuse components considered were the major biodegradable wastes, food, paper, yard/wood, and textile, as well as inert inorganic waste. Based on the data collected, a multiple linear regression equation (R(2)=0.75) was developed to predict first-order methane generation rate constant values k as functions of waste composition, annual rainfall, and temperature. Because, laboratory methane generation rates exceed field rates, a second scale-up regression equation for k was developed using actual gas-recovery data from 11 landfills in high-income countries with conventional operation. The Capturing Landfill Emissions for Energy Needs (CLEEN) model was developed by incorporating both regression equations into the first-order decay based model for estimating methane generation rates from landfills. CLEEN model values were compared to actual field data from 6 US landfills, and to estimates from LandGEM and IPCC. For 4 of the 6 cases, CLEEN model estimates were the closest to actual.

  11. Impact Of Aerobic Biostabilisation And Biodrying Process Of Municipal Solid Waste On Minimisation Of Waste Deposited In Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an innovative system used for aerobic biostabilisation and biological drying of solid municipal waste. A mechanical–biological process (MBT of municipal solid waste (MSW treatment were carried out and monitored in 5 bioreactors. A two-stage biological treatment process has been used in the investigation. In the first step an undersize fraction was subjected to the biological stabilisation for a period of 14 days as a result of which there was a decrease of loss on ignition, but not sufficient to fulfill the requirements of MBT technology. In the second stage of a biological treatment has been applied 7-days intensive bio-drying of MSW using sustained high temperatures in bioreactor. The article presents the results of the chemical composition analysis of the undersize fraction and waste after biological drying, and also the results of temperature changes, pH ratio, loss on ignition, moisture content, combustible and volatile matter content, heat of combustion and calorific value of wastes. The mass balance of the MBT of MSW with using the innovative aeration system showed that only 14.5% of waste need to be landfilled, 61.5% could be used for thermal treatment, and nearly 19% being lost in the process as CO2 and H2O.

  12. Metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers leaching from electronic waste in simulated landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: • Simulated landfill columns provided realistic results than lab based column study. • Column leachates showed significant seasonal effect on toxic substances. • Toxic substances in the landfill leachates pose environmental and health hazards. • A better management of e-waste is urgently needed. -- Abstract: Landfills established prior to the recognition of potential impacts from the leaching of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds often lack appropriate barriers and pose significant risks of contamination of groundwater. In this study, bioavailable metal(oids) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from landfill columns that contained intact or broken e-waste were studied under conditions that simulate landfills in terms of waste components and methods of disposal of e-wastes, and with realistic rainfall. Fourteen elements and PBDEs were analysed in leachates over a period of 21 months. The results demonstrate that the average concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and V in leachates from the column that contained broken e-waste items were significantly higher than the column without e-waste. BDE-153 was the highest average PBDEs congener in all columns but the average of ∑PBDEs levels in columns that contained intact e-waste were (3.7 ng/l) and were not significantly higher than that in the leachates from the control column.

  13. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-08-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills.

  14. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  15. [Effect of operational modes on community structure of type I methanotroph in the cover soil of municipal solid waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; He, Pin-Jing; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming

    2008-10-01

    Type I methanotroph is crucial for methane oxidization and it responses fast to the changes in environment. In this study, 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) gene fingerprint technology was applied to investigate the effect of operational modes, i. e. high-density polyethylene liner (HDPE) isolation or subsurface irrigation of landfill leachate and vegetation, on community structure and diversity of type I methanotroph in soils covering municipal solid waste landfill. 16S rDNA based phylogenetic analysis reveals type I methanotroph in all tested soils belongs to Methylobacter. According to Shannon-Wiener diversity index and principal component analysis, landfill leachate subsurface irrigation and vegetation have more impact on type I methanotroph community structure and diversity than HDPE liner isolation does, and they reduce type I methanotroph diversity. Leachate irrigation is supposed to inhibit the growth of Methylobacter population. Community structure of type I methanotroph in landfill cover soil isolated by HDPE, i.e. invaded by landfill gas, shifts during long-term gas interference. When cover age is 1.5 years old, Shannon-Wiener diversity index of type I methanotroph reaches its maximum.

  16. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  17. MOLECULAR AND CULTURAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ENUMERATING BACTERIA IN LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  18. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2013-10-01

    Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of δ(13)C, δ(2)H and δ(18)O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the δ(13)C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of δ(13)C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a δ(13)C-DIC of -20‰ to -25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in δ(13)C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a δ(13)C-DIC of about -20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation-reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and

  19. Leachability of municipal solid waste ashes in simulated landfill conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Loretta Y; Ohtsubo, Masami; Higashi, Takahiro; Yamaoka, Shinya; Morishita, Tomotaka

    2007-01-01

    In Japan the volume of municipal solid waste is reduced by incineration, with fly ash and bottom ash disposed in controlled landfills. The leachability of anions and heavy metal cations, Zn, Cu and Pb, from MSW fly ash and bottom ash at different pHs was examined using batch- and column-leaching tests. The MSW ashes had a high capacity for neutralizing acids. Behaviour during leaching depended on the pH of the solution. For the volumes applied, the leachabilities of MSW fly ash were very similar at pHs from 3 to 6. Due to its amphoteric nature, Pb is leachable at pHs of approximately 10 or more, with leachate concentrations of about 3 and 3-10mg/L for the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively, much higher than for Zn and Cu. Pb concentrations for most leaching solutions were 1 and 3mg/L for the fly ash and bottom ash, respectively. Zn, and Cu leached at low concentrations for solutions of pH 3-6. Na and K ions leached at high concentrations of approximately 5000 mg/L in the first batch leaching test, decreasing to 10mg/L by the fourth leach. Ca and Mg ions leached more gradually than Na and K. Cl(-) and SO(4)(2+) ions were the major anions in the MSW ash. The high pH and cation leaching are expected to have negative impacts on the performance of clay liners.

  20. BIOLEACH: Coupled modeling of leachate and biogas production on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important factors to address when performing the environmental impact assessment of urban solid waste landfills is to evaluate the leachate production. Leachate management (collection and treatment) is also one of the most relevant economical aspects to take into account during the landfill life. Leachate is formed as a solution of biological and chemical components during operational and post-operational phases on urban solid waste landfills as a combination of different processes that involve water gains and looses inside the solid waste mass. Infiltration of external water coming from precipitation is the most important component on this water balance. However, anaerobic waste decomposition and biogas formation processes play also a role on the balance as water-consuming processes. The production of leachate one biogas is therefore a coupled process. Biogas production models usually consider optimal conditions of water content on the solid waste mass. However, real conditions during the operational phase of the landfill may greatly differ from these optimal conditions. In this work, the first results obtained to predict both the leachate and the biogas production as a single coupled phenomenon on real solid waste landfills are shown. The model is applied on a synthetic case considering typical climatological conditions of Mediterranean catchments.

  1. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  2. Mechanism of H2S removal during landfill stabilization in waste biocover soil, an alterative landfill cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Xia, Fang-Fang; Bai, Yun; Wang, Jing; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2012-05-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is one of the primary contributors to odors at landfills. The mechanism of waste biocover soil (WBS) for H(2)S removal was investigated in simulated landfill systems with the contrast experiment of a landfill cover soil (LCS). The H(2)S removal efficiency was higher than 90% regardless of the WBS or LCS covers. The input of landfill gas (LFG) could stimulate the growth of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycete, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in the WBS cover, while that caused a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the populations of actinomycete and fungi in the bottom layer of the LCS cover. As H(2)S inputted, the sulfide content in the WBS cover increased and reached the maximum on day 30. In the LCS cover, the highest soil sulfide content was exhibited in the bottom layer during the whole experiment. After exposure to LFG, the lower pH value and higher sulfate content were observed in the top layer of the WBS cover, while there was not a significant difference in different layers of the LCS cover. The results indicated a more rapid biotransformation between sulfide and sulfate occurred in the WBS cover compared to the LCS.

  3. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-08-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  4. Methylated mercury species in municipal waste landfill gas sampled in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Wallschläger, D.; Prestbo, E. M.; Bloom, N. S.; Price, J.; Reinhart, D.

    Mercury-bearing material has been placed in municipal landfills from a wide array of sources including fluorescent lights, batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and general waste. Despite its known volatility, persistence, and toxicity in the environment, the fate of mercury in landfills has not been widely studied. The nature of landfills designed to reduce waste through generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests the possibility that these systems might also serve as bioreactors for the production of methylated mercury compounds. The toxicity of such species mandates the need to determine if they are emitted in municipal landfill gas (LFG). In a previous study, we had measured levels of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in LFG in the μg/m 3 range in two Florida landfills, and elevated levels of monomethyl mercury (MMM) were identified in LFG condensate, suggesting the possible existence of gaseous organic Hg compounds in LFG. In the current study, we measured TGM, Hg 0, and methylated mercury compounds directly in LFG from another Florida landfill. Again, TGM was in the μg/m 3 range, MMM was found in condensate, and this time we positively identified dimethyl mercury (DMM) in the LGF in the ng/m 3 range. These results identify landfills as a possible anthropogenic source of DMM emissions to air, and may help explain the reports of MMM in continental rainfall.

  5. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...... and R2 reactors were 0.01571 and 0.01195 1/d, respectively. The correlation between the model and the experimental parameters was more than 95%, showing the good fit of the model....

  6. Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-01-01

    Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases.

  7. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  8. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1...... tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna...... assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed...

  9. Sensitivity analysis of the waste composition and water content parameters on the biogas production models on solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco; Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are commonly used as the final deposit of urban solid waste. Despite the waste is previously processed on a treatment plant, the final amount of organic matter which reaches the landfill is large however. The biodegradation of this organic matter forms a mixture of greenhouse gases (essentially Methane and Carbon-Dioxide as well as Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide). From the environmental point of view, solid waste landfills are therefore considered to be one of the main greenhouse gas sources. Different mathematical models are usually applied to predict the amount of biogas produced on real landfills. The waste chemical composition and the availability of water in the solid waste appear to be the main parameters of these models. Results obtained when performing a sensitivity analysis over the biogas production model parameters under real conditions are shown. The importance of a proper characterizacion of the waste as well as the necessity of improving the understanding of the behaviour and development of the water on the unsaturated mass of waste are emphasized.

  10. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear.

  11. Impact of electronic waste disposal on lead concentrations in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, Erik; Dubey, Brajesh; Townsend, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    Lead is the element most likely to cause discarded electronic devices to be characterized as hazardous waste. To examine the fate of lead from discarded electronics in landfills, five columns were filled with synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW). A mix of electronic devices was added to three columns (6% by weight), while two columns served as controls. A sixth column contained waste excavated from an existing MSW landfill. Leachate quality was monitored for 440 days. In columns with the synthetic waste, leachate pH indicated that the simulated landfill environment was characteristic of the acid phase of waste decomposition; lead leachability should be greater in the acid phase of landfill degradation as compared to the methanogenic phase. Lead concentrations ranged from 7 to 66 microg/L in the columns containing electronic waste and ranged from electronic devices were greater than those in the controls, the difference was not found to be statistically significant when comparing the data sets over the entire monitoring period. Lead results from the excavated waste column suggest that lead concentrations in all columns will decrease as the pH increases toward more neutral methanogenic conditions.

  12. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  13. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  14. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  15. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation.

  16. INPP Landfill[Disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jan; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2004-06-15

    The objective of this report is to propose the basic design for final disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) produced at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and at other small waste producers in Lithuania. Considering the safety for the environment, as well as the construction costs, it has been decided that the repository will be of a landfill type based on the same design principles as similar authorised facilities in other countries. It has also been decided that the location of the landfill shall be in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP)

  17. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.wimmer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The isotopic signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ► Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ► In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ► The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ► δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a δ{sup 13}C-DIC of −20‰ to −25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in δ{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW

  18. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills.

  19. Temperature development in a modern municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash landfill with regard to sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Baumann, T; Kahapka, E; Niessner, R

    2001-05-30

    Municipal solid waste is treated in incineration plants to reduce the volume, the toxicity and the reactivity of the waste. The final product, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, was considered as a material with a low reactivity, which can safely be deposited in a MSWI bottom ash landfill, or which can be used, e.g. in road construction after further treatment. However, temperature measurements in MSWI bottom ash landfills showed temperatures up to 90 degrees C, caused by exothermic reactions within the landfill. Such high temperatures may affect the stability of the flexible polymer membrane liner (FML) and may also lead to an accelerated desiccation of the clay barrier. At the beginning of this study it was uncertain whether those reported results would be applicable to modern landfills, because the treatment techniques in MSWI and landfills have changed, bottom and fly ash are stored separately, and the composition of the incinerated waste has changed significantly since the publication of those results. The aim of this study was to gain detailed knowledge of temperature development under standard disposal conditions in relation to the rate of ash disposal, the variation of layer thickness, and the environmental conditions in a modern landfill. Temperatures were measured at nine levels within the body of a landfill for a period of nearly 3 years. Within 7 months of the start of the disposal, a temperature increase of up to 70 degrees C within the vertical centre of the disposal was observed. In the upper and central part of the landfill this initial temperature increase was succeeded by a decrease in temperature. The maximum temperature at the time of writing (May 2000) is about 55 degrees C in the central part of the landfill. The maximum temperature (45.9 degrees C) at the FML was reached 17 months after the start of the deposition. Since then the temperatures decreased at a rate of 0.6 degrees C per month. Temperature variation within each

  20. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  1. Estimation of Exposure Doses for Several Scenarios of the Landfill Disposal of NORM Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ko, Nak Yul; Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Hoon [Korea Institude of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Act on safety control of radioactive materials around living environment was promulgated to protect citizen's health and environment in 2013. According to this Act, the integrated plan for radiation protection and the necessary safety guides for treatment, reuse, and disposal of NORM wastes have to be made. And NORM wastes have to be disposed in landfill sites by reducing the concentration of radionuclide, and they should not be reutilized. In this study, we estimated exposure doses for several scenarios for NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) waste disposal into a reference landfill site to check the radiological safety. Also, we estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of important radionuclides in wastes to be disposed into a landfill site based on the exposure dose limits to support the establishment of technical bases for safety guide. We estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of wastes containing U series, Th series, and {sup 40}K based on the exposure dose limits. The results of this study can be used as technical bases to support the establishment of a guide for the safe management of NORM waste disposal.

  2. Leaching, geochemical modelling and field verification of a municipal solid waste and a predominantly non-degradable waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sloot, H A; Kosson, D S; van Zomeren, A

    2017-05-01

    In spite of the known heterogeneity, wastes destined for landfilling can be characterised for their leaching behaviour by the same protocols as soil, contaminated soil, sediments, sludge, compost, wood, waste and construction products. Characterisation leaching tests used in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling results in much more detailed insights into release controlling processes and factors than single step batch leaching tests like TCLP (USEPA) and EN12457 (EU Landfill Directive). Characterisation testing also can provide the potential for mechanistic impact assessments by making use of a chemical speciation fingerprint (CSF) derived from pH dependence leaching test results. This CSF then forms the basis for subsequent chemical equilibrium and reactive transport modelling to assess environmental impact in a landfill scenario under relevant exposure conditions, including conditions not readily evaluated through direct laboratory testing. This approach has been applied to municipal solid waste (MSW) and predominantly non-degradable waste (PNW) that is representative of a significant part of waste currently being landfilled. This work has shown that a multi-element modelling approach provides a useful description of the release from each of these matrices because relevant release controlling properties and parameters (mineral dissolution/precipitation, sorption on Fe and Al oxides, clay interaction, interaction with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and incorporation in solid solutions) are taken into consideration. Inclusion of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model is important to properly describe release of the low concentration trace constituents observed in the leachate. The CSF allows the prediction of release under different redox and degradation conditions in the landfill by modifying the redox status and level of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model runs. The CSF for MSW provides a useful starting point

  3. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  4. Health risks in areas close to urban solid waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson; Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto do

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the association between living close to solid waste landfill sites and occurrences of cancer and congenital malformations among populations in their vicinity. Deaths among people living in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2002 were selected and geocoded, according to selected causes. Over the period evaluated, there were 351 deaths due to liver cancer, 160 due to bladder cancer and 224 due to leukemia, among adults, 25 due to childhood leukemia and 299 due to congenital malformation, in areas close to landfill sites. Buffer zones of radius 2 km around the 15 sites delimited the areas exposed. Standardized mortality ratios for each outcome were analyzed in Bayesian spatial models. In a general manner, the highest values for the standardized mortality ratios were found in more central areas of the municipality, while the landfill sites were located in more peripheral areas. The standardized mortality ratios did not indicate any excess risk for people living in areas close to solid waste landfill sites in the municipality of São Paulo. For landfill sites in operation, there was a greater risk of bladder and liver cancer, and death due to congenital malformation, but without statistical significance. No increase in the risk of cancer or congenital malformations was found in areas in the vicinity of urban waste dumps in the municipality of São Paulo. The weak associations and the imprecision of the estimates obtained did not allow any causal relationship to be established.

  5. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  6. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario.

  8. Town of Hague landfill reclamation study: Research ways to increase waste heating value and reduce waste volume. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerni, E. [SSB Environmental Inc., Albany, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Monitored composing was studied as a method for reducing the quantity of waste requiring disposed from a landfill reclamation project. After each of two re-screening steps, composted {open_quotes}soil{close_quotes} from a single long windrow of varying depths and moisture content was subjected to analytical testing to determine its suitability to remain as backfill in a reclaimed landfill site. The remaining uncomposted waste was combusted at a waste-to-energy facility to determine if Btu values were improved. Results indicate that a full-scale composting operation could result in a net decrease of approximately 11 percent in disposal costs. The Btu value of the reclaimed waste was calculated to be 4,500 to 5,000 Btu/lb. The feasibility of composting reclaimed waste at other landfill reclamation projects will depend upon site-specific technical and economic factors, including size and nature of the organic fraction of the waste mass, local processing costs, and the cost of waste disposal alternatives.

  9. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments.

  10. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  11. Reduce Food Waste and Feed People, Not Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Nov. 10, 2015) Imagine 37 million tons of food. Think of how many people that amount could feed, the money it cost to buy, and the resources needed to produce it. Then imagine almost every pound of that sitting in a landfill or incinerator

  12. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES..., 25-year storm. (5) Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate... procedures, monitoring wells, environmental emergency contingency plans, and security measures to protect...

  13. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  14. Performance evaluation of the bioreactor landfill in treatment and stabilisation of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-03-01

    The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India. Leachate collected from the same landfill site was recirculated at the rate of 2-5 times a month on a regular basis for 370 days. The total quantity of gas generated was around 416 L in the large-scale reactor and 21 L in the small-scale reactor, respectively. Differential settlements ranging from 20%-26% were observed at two different locations in the large reactor, whereas 30% of settlement was observed in the small reactor. The biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio indicated that the waste in the large reactor was stabilised at the end of 1 year. The performance of the bioreactor with respect to the reactor size, temperature, landfill gas and leachate quality was analysed and it was found that the bioreactor landfill is efficient in the treatment and stabilising of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

  15. Influence of a Municipal Waste Landfill on the Spatial Distribution of Mercury in the Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gworek

    Full Text Available The study investigations were focused on assessing the influence of a 35-year-old municipal waste landfill on environmental mercury pollution. The total Hg content was determined in the soil profile, groundwater, and the plants (Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp. in the landfill area. Environmental pollution near the landfill was relatively low. The topsoil layer, groundwater and the leaves of Solidago virgaurea and Poaceae sp. contained 19-271 μg kg-1, 0.36-3.01 μg l-1, 19-66 μg kg-1 and 8-29 μg kg-1 of Hg, respectively. The total Hg content in the soil decreased with the depth. The results are presented as pollution maps of the landfill area based on the total Hg content in the soil, groundwater and plants. Statistical analysis revealed the lack of correlation between the total Hg content in the soil and plants, but a relationship between the total concentration of Hg in groundwater and soil was shown. The landfill is not a direct source of pollution in the area. The type of land morphology did not influence the pollution level. Construction of bentonite cut-off wall bypassing MSW landfill reduces the risk of mercury release into ground-water environment.

  16. [Uncertainty analysis for evaluating methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Li, Zheng; Wang, Hai-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Lu

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accurate evaluation of CH4 emissions from municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing, FOD-model and Monte Carlo method were conducted. Based on local data, national data and experts' experience, the uncertainty of FOD-model and parameters' sensitivity analysis were identified. And we quantified effect of various parameters on model output. The results showed that 95% probability distribution range of CH4 emission from landfill was (11.8-19.76) x 10(4) t x a(-1) in Beijing. The mean value was 15.58 x 10(4)t x a(-1) with uncertainty range of -24.26% - 26.83%. Among all the parameters MCF (after 2000) showed the greatest impact on landfill CH4 emission in 2008, and its contribution to the uncertainty of emission result was 41.4%. This research can improve the assessment accuracy and quality on CH4 emission from municipal solid waste landfill in Beijing, as providing scientific basis to improve the landfill greenhouse gas inventory and data collection.

  17. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  18. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  19. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  20. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  1. Acceptance of the Application of Sustainable Concept in Malaysia’s Waste Management Infrastructure - Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sin Tey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable concept has been a topic that is of broad and current interest in applying in many different areas of development. A sustainable concept encompasses three main criteria, namely environmental, social, and economic. This sustainable concept has usually been defined as the ability to develop something to meet the present needs yet it does not compromise the ability of future generation to meet their needs. Whereas waste management plays an important role in managing the municipal solid wastes produced. The landfill has been widely used in the disposal of solid wastes. However, the negative impacts caused by landfill have led to the need for application of sustainable concept. The acceptance of sustainable concept by stakeholders will determine the possibility of moving into sustainable waste management. This study aims at assessing the of acceptance by the stakeholders in the application of the sustainable concept into landfill. The research was conducted by reviewing of the past similar researches and through interview with ten waste management stakeholders. The results obtained show that there are some limitations in terms of understanding on the concept of sustainability and the willingness in accepting on this concept. Further action should taken in and moving towards sustainable waste management.

  2. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H; Scharff, Heijo; Jacobs, Joeri

    2010-02-01

    The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1 tonne of wet waste landfilled and the environmental aspects were evaluated for a 100-year period after disposal. The data utilized in the LCA-calculations to model the first 10-20 years of landfilling of the two low-organic waste scenarios make extensive use of site-specific data from the Nauerna Landfill (The Netherlands), but average data from other comparable, existing landfills were used too. As data from full-scale landfills do not cover more than 30-40 years of landfilling, data from laboratory simulations and accelerated tests of limited scale were also utilized. The life-cycle impact assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed by the European Union Landfill Directive: Council Directive 1999/31/EC, EU, Brussels, 1999) can be a successful approach to decrease the environmental loads in several impact categories in comparison with landfilling of waste with significant organic content. However, when utilization of landfill gas is accounted for in the life-cycle impact assessment calculation, the small gas generation in low-organic waste landfills reduced the actual potential for energy generation and therefore the environmental savings obtained were reduced proportionally. Groundwater pollution from input of leachate was also evaluated and the WHO (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills

  3. Quantification of parameters influencing methane generation due to biodegradation of municipal solid waste in landfills and laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xunchang; Zekkos, Dimitrios; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2016-09-01

    The energy conversion potential of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposed of in landfills remains largely untapped because of the slow and variable rate of biogas generation, delayed and inefficient biogas collection, leakage of biogas, and landfill practices and infrastructure that are not geared toward energy recovery. A database consisting of methane (CH4) generation data, the major constituent of biogas, from 49 laboratory experiments and field monitoring data from 57 landfills was developed. Three CH4 generation parameters, i.e., waste decay rate (k), CH4 generation potential (L0), and time until maximum CH4 generation rate (tmax), were calculated for each dataset using U.S. EPA's Landfill Gas Emission Model (LandGEM). Factors influencing the derived parameters in laboratory experiments and landfills were investigated using multi-linear regression analysis. Total weight of waste (W) was correlated with biodegradation conditions through a ranked classification scheme. k increased with increasing percentage of readily biodegradable waste (Br0 (%)) and waste temperature, and reduced with increasing W, an indicator of less favorable biodegradation conditions. The values of k obtained in the laboratory were commonly significantly higher than those in landfills and those recommended by LandGEM. The mean value of L0 was 98 and 88L CH4/kg waste for laboratory and field studies, respectively, but was significantly affected by waste composition with ranges from 10 to 300L CH4/kg. tmax increased with increasing percentage of biodegradable waste (B0) and W. The values of tmax in landfills were higher than those in laboratory experiments or those based on LandGEM's recommended parameters. Enhancing biodegradation conditions in landfill cells has a greater impact on improving k and tmax than increasing B0. Optimizing the B0 and Br0 values of landfilled waste increases L0 and reduces tmax.

  4. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills.

  5. Research of the Indicators the efficiency of the biodegradable waste on the Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of biodegradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, what´s the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50% weighted in 2013 and the most 35% weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I proposed

  6. Research of the indicators the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of bio- degradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, whatęs the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50 % weighted in 2013 and the most 35 % weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I

  7. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  8. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East Afri

  11. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East

  12. N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 μg N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p landfill site, which was 72% ( p landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

  13. Long-term biological monitoring of environmental quality around a solid waste landfill assessed with lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, L; Corsini, A; Bigagli, V; Vannini, J; Bruscoli, C; Loppi, S

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected trace elements in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata L. (Hale) were used as indicators of pollution around a landfill in central Italy along 14 years of waste management. Lichens revealed an increased deposition for some elements (i.e., Cd, Cr, Fe and Ni) and a decrease of the lichen diversity at sites facing the landfill after an enlargement of the dumping area. However, the results allowed to exclude a significant increase in heavy metal depositions in the surrounding area and suggested that successful waste management may be associated with environmental quality. It is concluded that lichen monitoring might provide essential information to enhance the implementation of ecological impact assessment, supporting industrial regulatory procedures, also when waste management is concerned.

  14. A COMPARISON OF MOLECULAR AND CULTURAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ENUMERATING BACTERIA IN LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  15. Parametric Analysis of Leachate and Water Resources around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill area in Solan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is defined as the liquid that drains from the landfill. The paper presents the physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal testing results carried out for leachate, surface and sub-surface water samples collected from municipal solid waste landfill and different water sources in Solan to find out the effect of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Physico-chemical parameters analysed were, pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS, sulphate, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC while biological parameters tested were Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Most Probable Number (MPN test and ammonical nitrogen. Testing for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe were carried out and have been reported. The results reveal that the leachate from the unlined landfill may have a significant impact on the groundwater resource (often used as drinking source particularly because of the toxic nature of the leachate coupled with the soil characteristics which is permeable in nature.

  16. Cost of organic waste technologies: A case study for New Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Hochman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the benefits of converting food waste and manure to biogas and/or fertilizer, while focusing on four available waste treatment technologies: direct combustion, landfilling, composting, and anaerobic digestion. These four alternative technologies were simulated using municipal-level data on food waste and manure in New Jersey. The criteria used to assess the four technologies include technological productivity, economic benefits, and impact on land scarcity. Anaerobic digestion with gas collection has the highest technological productivity; using anaerobic digesters would supply electricity to nearly ten thousand families in New Jersey. In terms of economic benefits, the landfill to gas method is the least costly method of treating waste. In comparison, direct combustion is by far the most costly method of all four waste-to-energy technologies.

  17. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m−2 h−1 at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m−2 h−1. Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m−3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg and dimethyl mercury (DMHg in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m−3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr−1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  18. Hazardous Waste Landfill Siting using GIS Technique and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozeair Abessi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of large amount of generated hazardous waste in power plants, has always received communities' and authori¬ties attentions. In this paper using site screening method and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP a sophisticated approach for siting hazardous waste landfill in large areas is presented. This approach demonstrates how the evaluation criteria such as physical, socio-economical, technical, environmental and their regulatory sub criteria can be introduced into an over layer technique to screen some limited appropriate zones in the area. Then, in order to find the optimal site amongst the primary screened site utilizing a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM method for hierarchy computations of the process is recommended. Using the introduced method an accurate siting procedure for environmental planning of the landfills in an area would be enabled. In the study this approach was utilized for disposal of hazardous wastes of Shahid Rajaee thermal power plant located in Qazvin province west central part of Iran. As a result of this study 10 suitable zones were screened in the area at first, then using analytical hierarchy process a site near the power plant were chosen as the optimal site for landfilling of the hazardous wastes in Qazvin province.

  19. Characterizing the biotransformation of sulfur-containing wastes in simulated landfill reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Sun, Mei; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Landfills that accept municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. may also accept a number of sulfur-containing wastes including residues from coal or MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, microbially mediated processes can convert sulfate to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The presence of H2S in landfill gas is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, human toxicity, and corrosive nature. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a laboratory-scale reactor method to measure the H2S production potential of a range of sulfur-containing wastes. The H2S production potential was measured in 8-L reactors that were filled with a mixture of the target waste, newsprint as a source of organic carbon required for microbial sulfate reduction, and leachate from decomposed residential MSW as an inoculum. Reactors were operated with and without N2 sparging through the reactors, which was designed to reduce H2S accumulation and toxicity. Both H2S and CH4 yields were consistently higher in reactors that were sparged with N2 although the magnitude of the effect varied. The laboratory-measured first order decay rate constants for H2S and CH4 production were used to estimate constants that were applicable in landfills. The estimated constants ranged from 0.11yr(-1) for C&D fines to 0.38yr(-1) for a mixed fly ash and bottom ash from MSW combustion.

  20. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  1. Comparison of municipal solid waste treatment technologies from a life cycle perspective in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chi, Yong; Zou, Daoan; Fu, Chao; Huang, Qunxing; Ni, Mingjiang

    2014-01-01

    China has endured the increasing generation of municipal solid waste; hence, environmental analysis of current waste management systems is of crucial importance. This article presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment of three waste treatment technologies practiced in Hangzhou, China: landfill with and without energy recovery, and incineration with waste-to-energy. Adopting region-specific data, the study covers various environmental impacts, such as global warming, acidification, nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation, human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The results show that energy recovery poses a positive effect in environmental savings. Environmental impacts decrease significantly in landfill with the utilization of biogas owing to combined effects by emission reduction and electricity generation. Incineration is preferable to landfill, but toxicity-related impacts also need to be improved. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis shows that the benefit of carbon sequestration will noticeably decrease global warming potential of both landfill scenarios. Gas collection efficiency is also a key parameter influencing the performance of landfill. Based on the results, improvement methods are proposed. Energy recovery is recommended both in landfill and incineration. For landfill, gas collection systems should be upgraded effectively; for incineration, great efforts should be made to reduce heavy metals and dioxin emissions.

  2. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calaf-Forn, Maria, E-mail: mcalaf@ent.cat [Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, Jordi [Departament de Teoria Econòmica, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal, 696, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  3. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of the Solid Waste Landfill Existence on the Environmental and Economic Situation of Petrůvky Village (Czechia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronika Lichovníková; Milada Šťastná; Jana Kotovicová; Magdalena Vaverková; Dana Adamcová

    2015-01-01

    The landfill of municipal solid waste is a waste management equipment that can represent the risks to the environment because it serves a waste disposal, and thus there is a risk of potential leakage...

  5. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese...... of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate......The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture...

  6. A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON DENITRIFICATION OF WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Nariaki; Nakamichi, Tamihiro; Yagi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kugimiya, Akikazu; Michioku, Kohji

    A laboratory experiment on denitrification was carried out in order to reduce nitrogen load from municipal landfill leachate. Nitrogen was efficiently removed by feeding sludge of the leachate pond into the tanks, which could activate denitrification bacteria. Although inorganic reducing agent such as iron powder was not able to make the whole water mass anoxic, denitrification took place by supplying organic matters such as methanol, hydrogen feeding agent, etc.. It is considered that small amount of anoxic water film produced on surfaces of container and carriers might contribute to denitrification, although the bulk water is kept aerobic. It is found that organic matters contained in the leachate is so insufficient that nitrification liquid circulation does not work well for denitrification.

  7. Zero Waste and Conversion Efficiencies of Various Technologies for Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wenyang

    2005-01-01

    Zero waste is a philosophy and a design principle of dealing with our waste stream for the 21st century. After reviewing the available information, the goal of zero waste from landfill is considered to be unachievable by using known and proven methods and approaches. The comparison of various technologies shows that the conversion efficiencies depend upon the type of system chosen for processing residual waste, and the best overall diversion rate of waste management system that can be achieved is about 71%. The maximum achievable overall diversion rate can be increased to approximate 92% if current environmental regulations to permit the routine use of the bottom ash or char for advanced thermal technologies.

  8. Sewage sludge as barrier material for heavy metals in waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Huyuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollutants in the leachate of waste landfill are a potential threat to the environment. In this study, the feasibility of using municipal sewage sludge as barrier material for the containment of heavy metal pollutants from solid waste landfills was evaluated by compaction test and hydraulic conductivity test concerning compaction property, impermeability and heavy metal retardation. Results of the compaction test showed that the maximum dry density of 0.79 g·cm−3 was achieved at the optimum water content of about 60%. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted sewage sludge permeated with synthetic heavy metal solutions were in the range of 1.3×10−8 – 6.2×10−9 cm·s−1, less than 1.0 ×10−7cm·s−1 recommended by regulations for barrier materials. Chemical analyses on the effluent from the hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that the two target heavy metals, Zn and Cd in the permeants were all retarded by compacted sewage sludge, which might be attributed to the precipitation and adsorption of heavy metal ions. The results of this study suggest that specially prepared material from sewage sludge could be used as a barrier for waste landfills for its low permeability and strong retardation to heavy metal pollutants.

  9. Morbidity and mortality of people who live close to municipal waste landfills: a multisite cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataloni, Francesca; Badaloni, Chiara; Golini, Martina Nicole; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Forastiere, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Ancona, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure. Methods: A cohort of residents within 5 km of landfills was enrolled (subjects resident on 1 January 1996 and those who subsequently moved into the areas until 2008) and followed for mortality and hospitalizations until 31 December 2012. Assessment of exposure to the landfill (H2S as a tracer) was performed for each subject at enrolment, using a Lagrangian dispersion model. Information on several confounders was available (gender, age, socioeconomic position, outdoor PM10 concentration, and distance from busy roads and industries). Cox regression analysis was performed [Hazard Ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs)]. Results: The cohort included 242 409 individuals. H2S exposure was associated with mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases (e.g. HR for increment of 1 ng/m3 H2S: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19; HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00–1.19, respectively). There were also associations between H2S and hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00–1.03), especially acute respiratory infections among children (0–14 years) (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.11). Conclusions: Exposure to H2S, a tracer of airborne contamination from landfills, was associated with lung cancer mortality as well as with mortality and morbidity for respiratory diseases. The link with respiratory disease is plausible and coherent with previous studies, whereas the association with lung cancer deserves confirmation. PMID:27222499

  10. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  11. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, G A [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  12. Landfills - MO 2006 Solid Waste Management Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains boundaries and contact information for Missouri Solid Waste Management districts and regions. The districts were created by statute to foster...

  13. Adsorption of heavy metal from landfill leachate by wasted biosolids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Key words: Adsorption, biomass waste, heavy metal, synthetic water, leachate. INTRODUCTION ... Gadd, 1993; White et al., 1997). There is also ..... The performance of natural clay as a barrier to the diffusion of municipal ...

  14. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  15. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  16. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm(3) (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2 e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from -145 to 1016 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO2 e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  18. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified.

  19. Soil Pollution Caused by Landfilling of Nonhazardous Waste from Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šorša, A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the soil at an old metallurgical landfill site of CMC Sisak Ltd. which has been exposed to the direct influence of metallurgical nonhazardous waste for many years. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg Ni, Pb, and Zn after extraction in aqua regia were determined. Heavy metal concentrations, except Hg, were determined by inductively coupled opticalemission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-OES, ICP-MS. Concentration of Hg was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Our objective was to assess the pollution level according to the potentially unacceptable risk limit levels for industrially used soil prescribed by the Croatian Soil Monitoring Program, and levels permitted by some EU member countries.The results of heavy metal concentrations in composite samples of landfill soil were also compared with the results obtained from the reference sample taken in the nearby park, outside the battery limits. The obtained results qualify the analysed landfill soil as contaminated with Cu according to the legislation of all observed EU countries, with Cd according to the legislation of Italy, Poland, and Belgium (Wallonia, and with Cr according to the legislation of Finland and Poland. To allow future use of the landfill certain measures of soil treatment will be necessary.

  20. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills.

  2. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  3. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  4. Small-scale simulation of waste degradation in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.J.; Potts, L.G.A.; Reeves, A. [Nottingham Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    Biogas production from a mixture of food and paper, with additions of inoculum, buffer and nutrient, began after 24 weeks and reached 0.8 vol/vol.day from Week 40 to 51, at 55-65% (v/v) methane. Methanogenesis from a simulated solid waste has not previously been reported. (Author)

  5. Technical potential of electricity production from municipal solid waste disposed in the biggest cities in Brazil: landfill gas, biogas and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Samuel Nm; Horttanainen, Mika; Antonelli, Jhonatas; Klaus, Otávia; Lindino, Cleber A; Nogueira, Carlos Ec

    2014-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of possibilities for electrical energy production by using municipal solid waste disposed in the biggest Brazilian cities. Currently, the municipal solid waste in Brazil is collected and disposed of at landfills, but there are also other technologies, which in addition to dealing with the garbage can also provide benefits in terms of energy provision. The following scenarios were studied in this work: electricity production from landfill gas (reference scenario); incineration of all municipal solid waste; anaerobic digestion of organic waste and incineration of refuse-derived fuel fractions after being separated in separation plants. According to this study, the biggest cities in Brazil generate about 18.9 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per year (2011), of which 51.5% is biogenic matter. The overall domestic consumption of electricity is 480,120 GWh y(-1) in Brazil and the municipal solid waste incineration in the 16 largest cities in the country could replace 1.8% of it using incinerators. The city of São Paulo could produce 637 GWh y(-1) with landfill gas, 2368 GWh y(-1) with incineration of municipal solid waste and 1177 GWh y(-1) with incineration of refuse-derived fuel. The latter two scenarios could replace 27% and 13.5% of the residential electrical energy consumption in the city. This shows that thermal treatment might be a viable option of waste-to-energy in Brazil. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Bioreactor landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; XING Kai; Anthony Adzomani

    2004-01-01

    Following the population expansion, there is a growing threat brought by municipal solid waste (MSW) against environment and human health. Sanitary landfill is the most important method of MSW disposal in China. In contrast to the conventional landfill, this paper introduces a new technique named bioreactor landfill (BL). Mechanisms, operation conditions as well as the advantages and disadvantages of BL are also discussed in this paper.

  7. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  8. DOES COMPOSTING OF BIODEGRADABLE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ON THE LANDFILL BODY MAKE SENSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study white mustard (Sinapis alba plants were allowed to grow in earthen pots, treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC to study the effect of MSWC on the plant biomass production. Twenty-one days from the establishment of the experiment sprouts and the number of growing plants occurring in the earthen pots were counted. Plants growing in the earthen pots with the compost samples exhibited an increasing plant biomass while no changes were observed in their appearance; retarded growth or necrotic changes were not recorded. The performed phytotoxicity tests show that the analyzed composts produced in the composting plant situated on the landfill surface achieved high percentages of the germinating capacity of white mustard (Sinapis alba seeds and can be therefore used in the subsequent reclamation of the concerned landfill.

  9. Chemical Waste Landfill Annual Post-Closure Care Report Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The CWL is a 1.9-acre remediated interim status landfill located in the southeastern corner of SNL/NM Technical Area III (Figures 2-1 and 2-2) undergoing post-closure care in accordance with the PCCP (NMED October 2009 and subsequent revisions). From 1962 until 1981, the CWL was used for the disposal of chemical and solid waste generated by SNL/NM research activities. Additionally, a small amount of radioactive waste was disposed of during the operational years. Disposal of liquid waste in unlined pits and trenches ended in 1981, and after 1982 all liquid waste disposal was terminated. From 1982 through 1985, only solid waste was disposed of at the CWL, and after 1985 all waste disposal ended. The CWL was also used as a hazardous waste drum-storage facility from 1981 to 1989. A summary of the CWL disposal history is presented in the Closure Plan (SNL/NM December 1992) along with a waste inventory based upon available disposal records and information.

  10. From organic waste to energy: A feasible option in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste in South Africa is disposed of in landfills, which produces unwanted landfill gas (CH4) and leachate emissions. Biological treatment of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) is an established technology in Europe, applying...

  11. A review on technological options of waste to energy for effective management of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-09-05

    Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The present study reviewed the current global scenario of WTE technological options (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling with gas recovery) for effective energy recovery and the challenges faced by developed and developing countries. This review will provide a framework for evaluating WTE technological options based on case studies of developed and developing countries. Unsanitary landfilling is the most commonly practiced waste disposal option in the developing countries. However, developed countries have realised the potential of WTE technologies for effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM). This review will help the policy makers and the implementing authorities involved in MSWM to understand the current status, challenges and barriers for effective management of municipal solid waste. This review concluded WTE as a potential renewable source of energy, which will partly meet the energy demand and ensure effective MSWM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy element accumulation in Evernia prunastri lichen transplants around a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Santolini, Riccardo; Protano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a biomonitoring study to evaluate the environmental impact of airborne emissions from a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. Concentrations of 11 heavy elements, as well as photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane integrity were measured in Evernia prunastri lichens transplanted for 4months in 17 monitoring sites around the waste landfill. Heavy element contents were also determined in surface soils. Analytical data indicated that emissions from the landfill affected Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in lichens transplanted within the landfill and along the fallout direction. In these sites moderate to severe accumulation of these heavy elements in lichens was coupled with an increase in cell membrane damage and decrease in photosynthetic efficiency. Nevertheless, results indicated that landfill emissions had no relevant impact on lichens, as heavy element accumulation and weak stress symptoms were detected only in lichen transplants from sites close to solid waste. The appropriate management of this landfill poses a low risk of environmental contamination by heavy elements.

  13. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N; Mahecha-Botero, Andrés; Grace, John R; Ikonomou, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables.

  14. Simulating the heat budget for waste as it is placed within a landfill operating in a northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalla, Dina; Van Geel, Paul J; Doyle, James T

    2016-09-01

    A landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) facility in Ste. Sophie, Quebec was instrumented with sensors which measure temperature, oxygen, moisture content, settlement, total earth pressure, electrical conductivity and mounding of leachate. These parameters were monitored during the operating phase of the landfill in order to better understand the biodegradation and waste stabilization processes occurring within a LFGTE facility. Conceptual and numerical models were created to describe the heat transfer processes which occur within five waste lifts placed over a two-year period. A finite element model was created to simulate the temperatures within the waste and estimate the heat budget over a four and a half year period. The calibrated model was able to simulate the temperatures measured to date within the instrumented waste profile at the site. The model was used to evaluate the overall heat budget for the waste profile. The model simulations and heat budget provide a better understanding of the heat transfer processes occurring within the landfill and the relative impact of the various heat source/sink and storage terms. Aerobic biodegradation appears to play an important role in the overall heat budget at this site generating 36% of the total heat generated within the waste profile during the waste placement stages of landfill operations.

  15. DETERMINATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTE FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE (CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dal Molin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental toxicity of hazardous industrial waste from landfill leachate of the one industrial solid waste center from the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the ecotoxicity with Daphnia magna and toxicity and mutagenicity with Allium cepa were determined. The results of the row leachate sample indicated that the physical and chemical characteristics are compatible with the limit values imputed for treated wastewaters. Absence of acute ecotoxicity was also detected, however a significant (P<0.01 larger frequency of micronuclei was verified when compared with the results of the negative control, suggesting a genotóxico effect of this wast, although not significant alterations in the mitotic index and root growth was observed.

  16. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  17. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  18. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  19. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  20. Comparative study of municipal solid waste treatment technologies using life cycle assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, A.U. [KTH (Sweden). Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Infrastructure

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze three different waste treatment technologies by life cycle assessment tool. Sanitary landfill, incineration and gasification-pyrolysis of the waste treatment technologies are studied in SimaPro software based on input-output materials flow. SimaPro software has been applied for analyzing environmental burden by different impact categories. All technologies are favorable to abiotic and ozone layer depletion due to energy recovery from the waste treatment facilities. Sanitary landfill has the significantly lower environmental impact among other thermal treatment while gases are used for fuel with control emission environment. However, sanitary landfill has significant impact on photochemical oxidation, global warming and acidification. Among thermal technology, pyrolysis-gasification is comparatively more favorable to environment than incineration in global warming, acidification, eutrophication and eco-toxicity categories. Landfill with energy recovery facilities is environmentally favorable. However, due to large land requirement, difficult emission control system and long time span, restriction on land filling is applying more in the developed countries. Pyrolysis-gasification is more environmental friendly technology than incineration due to higher energy recovery efficiency. Life cycle assessment is an effective tool to analyze waste treatment technology based on environmental performances.

  1. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill.

  2. Recycling potential of urban solid waste destined for sanitary landfills: the case of Indaiatuba, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Nogueira, Alex Rodrigues; Kagohara, Dennis Akira; Schwartzman, Jonas Age Saide; de Mattos, Tânia

    2007-12-01

    The urban solid waste of the city of Indaiatuba (pop. 175 000), located in the state of São Paulo, was characterized, focusing on the recycling potential. For this purpose, collected waste was subdivided into 27 items, classified by mass and volume. About 90% of this waste was found to be potentially recyclable and only 10% requiring landfilling. The compostable organic matter, in the form of food and garden waste, both with high moisture content (51 and 41%, respectively), represents 54% in mass and 21% in volume. The most common type of plastic in this waste is high density polyethylene, whose estimated disposal is about 5000kgday(-1). A socio-economic analysis of the waste generation indicates that low-income neighbourhoods discard relatively less packaging and more food waste, shoes and construction debris than middle and high income ones, which may be due to low purchasing power and schooling. Our findings indicate that more aluminium and uncoloured polyethylene terephthalate is discarded in the warmest months of the year, probably due to a greater consumption of canned and bottled drinks.

  3. An attempt to perform water balance in a Brazilian municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Mateus, Maria do Socorro Costa; Machado, Sandro Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Cláudia

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an attempt to model the water balance in the metropolitan center landfill (MCL) in Salvador, Brazil. Aspects such as the municipal solid waste (MSW) initial water content, mass loss due to decomposition, MSW liquid expelling due to compression and those related to weather conditions, such as the amount of rainfall and evaporation are considered. Superficial flow and infiltration were modeled considering the waste and the hydraulic characteristics (permeability and soil-water retention curves) of the cover layer and simplified uni-dimensional empirical models. In order to validate the modeling procedure, data from one cell at the landfill were used. Monthly waste entry, volume of collected leachate and leachate level inside the cell were monitored. Water balance equations and the compressibility of the MSW were used to calculate the amount of leachate stored in the cell and the corresponding leachate level. Measured and calculated values of the leachate level inside the cell were similar and the model was able to capture the main trends of the water balance behavior during the cell operational period.

  4. Assessment of two thermally treated drill mud wastes for landfill containment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Marie-Pierre; Lake, Craig B; Menzies, Todd

    2007-10-01

    Offshore oil and gas drilling operations generate significant amounts of drill mud waste, some of which is transported onshore for subsequent thermal treatment (i.e. via thermal remediation). This treatment process results in a mineral waste by-product (referred to as thermally treated drill mud waste; TTDMW). Bentonites are originally present in many of the drill mud products and it is hypothesized that TTDMW can be utilized in landfill containment applications (i.e. cover or base liner). The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility of this application by performing various physical and chemical tests on two TTDMW samples. It is shown that the two TTDMW samples contained relatively small amounts of clay-sized minerals although hydraulic conductivity values are found to be less than 10(-8) m/s. Organic carbon contents of the samples were approximately 2%. Mineralogy characterization of the samples confirmed varying amounts of smectite, however, peak friction angles for a TTDMW sample was greater than 36 degrees. Chemical characterization of the TTDMW samples show potential leaching of barium and small amounts of other heavy metals. Discussion is provided in the paper on suggestions to assist in overcoming regulatory issues associated with utilization of TTDMW in landfill containment applications.

  5. Three-Loop Automatic of Control System the Landfill of Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, T. G.; Kostarev, S. N.

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of models of governance ground municipal solid waste (MSW). Considered a distributed circuit (spatio-temporal) ground control model. Developed a dynamic model of multicontour control landfill. Adjustable parameters are defined (the ratio of CH4 CO2 emission/fluxes, concentrations of heavy metals ions) and control (purging array, irrigation, adding reagents). Based on laboratory studies carried out with the analysis of equity flows and procedures developed by the transferring matrix that takes into account the relationship control loops. A system of differential equations in the frequency and time domains. Given the numerical approaches solving systems of differential equations in finite differential form.

  6. Absorption of phosphorus from wastewater by aged refuse excavated from municipal solid waste landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO You-cai; SHAO Fang

    2005-01-01

    Municipal solid waste(refuse) landfill stabilizes as the refuse degrades. After years of biodegradation, the refuse in the landfill becomes stabilized and aged, which may vary with the local climate, humidity, and composition of refuse placed. In this work, it is found that the refuse with an age of over 8 years at Shanghai Refuse Landfill has been significantly stabilized and sufficiently aged and is thus suitable for excavation. The 8-year old aged refuse is mechanically screened, and the fine fractions of refuse(aged refuse) with a diameter less than 2 cm are then used as a biological absorbent for removal of both inorganic and organic phosphorus in livestock wastewater and prepared aqueous solution. It is proved that the aged refuse is very effective for the quantitative removal of both types of phosphorus. The absorption mechanism is proposed. It is considered that phosphorus is firstly absorbed onto the surface of the aged refuse and then used as a substrate for the growth of microorganisms which ultimately leave the aged refuse as sludge.

  7. Contamination valuation of soil and groundwater source at anaerobic municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Maulood, Yousif Ismael

    2015-12-01

    The present work aimed to determine the risks that formed landfill leachate from anaerobic Erbil Landfill Site (ELS) poses on groundwater source and to observe the effects of disposed municipal solid waste (MSW) on soil properties. The study further aims to fill the gap in studies on the effects of disposed MSW and produced leachate on the groundwater characteristics and soil quality at ELS, Iraq. Soil, leachate, and groundwater samples were collected from ELS for use as samples in this study. Unpolluted groundwater samples were collected from an area outside of the landfill. Field and laboratory experiments for the soil samples were conducted. Chemical analyses for the soil samples such as organic matter, total salts, and SO4 (=) were also performed. Raw leachate and groundwater samples were analyzed using physical and chemical experiments. The yields for sorptivity, steady-state infiltration rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the soil samples were 0.0006 m/√s, 0.00004 m/s, and 2.17 × 10(-5) m/s, respectively. The soil at ELS was found to be light brown clayey gravel with sand and light brown gravely lean clay layers with low permeability. Unprocessed leachate analysis identified the leachate as stabilized. Findings showed that the soil and groundwater at the anaerobic ELS were contaminated.

  8. Telomere shortening in women resident close to waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Bruna; Nappi, Carmine; Zizolfi, Brunella; Guida, Marco; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Guida, Maurizio

    2012-05-25

    Several studies demonstrate links between environmental stress and index of reduced health, including risk factors for cardiovascular disease, reduced immune function and cancer risks. We investigated the hypothesis that pollution, as an environmental stress, impacts health by modulating the rate of cellular aging in healthy pregnant women. Our research looked at the effects that illegal waste sites have on the localized population of pregnant women in Campania, Italy. As is often the case in illegal dumping, the effects on the population are often seen well before knowing what specific agents in the soil and water are responsible. Here we provide evidence that the pollution in this region is significantly associated with higher oxidative stress, shorter telomere length and lower telomerase activity, which are known determinants of cell senescence and aging-related meiotic dysfunction in women, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy pregnant women, subjected to therapeutic abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy. These findings may have implications for understanding how, at the cellular level, environmental stress may promote earlier onset of age-related diseases.

  9. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  10. Application of landfill treatment approaches for stabilization of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R

    2016-09-01

    This research sought to compare the effectiveness of three landfill enhanced treatment approaches aimed at removing releasable carbon and nitrogen after anaerobic landfilling including flushing with clean water (FB 1), leachate recirculation with ex-situ treatment (FB 2), and leachate recirculation with ex-situ treatment and in-situ aeration (FB 3). After extensive treatment of the waste in the FB scenarios, the overall solids and biodegradable fraction were reduced relative to the mature anaerobically treated waste. In terms of the overall degradation, aeration did not provide any advantage over flushing and anaerobic treatment. Flushing was the most effective approach at removing biodegradable components (i.e. cellulose and hemicellulose). Leachate quality improved for all FBs but through different mechanisms. A significant reduction in ammonia-nitrogen occurred in FB 1 and 3 due to flushing and aeration, respectively. The reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in FB 1 was primarily due to flushing. Conversely, the reduction in COD in FBs 2 and 3 was due to oxidation and precipitation during Fenton's Reagent treatment. A mass balance on carbon and nitrogen revealed that a significant fraction still remained in the waste despite the additional treatment provided. Carbon was primarily converted biologically to CH4 and CO2 in the FBs or removed during treatment using Fenton's Reagent. The nitrogen removal occurred through leaching or biological conversion. These results show that under extensive treatment the waste and leachate characteristics did meet published stability values. The minimum stability values achieved were through flushing although FB 2 and 3 were able to improve leachate quality and solid waste characteristics but not to the same extent as FB 1.

  11. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  12. Measuring organic carbon, nutrients and heavy metals in rivers receiving leachate from controlled and uncontrolled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N; Haraguchi, A; Hassan, M A; Othman, M R; Wakisaka, M; Shirai, Y

    2009-10-01

    Since landfilling is the common method of waste disposal in Malaysia, river water is greatly exposed to the risk of contamination from leachate unless proper leachate management is carried out. In this study, leachates from three different types of landfills, namely active uncontrolled, active controlled and closed controlled, were characterized, and their relationships with river water chemistry were examined monthly for a year. The influence of leachate on river water chemistry from each type of landfill depended on many factors, including the presence of a leachate control mechanism, leachate characteristics, precipitation, surface runoff and the applied treatment. The impact of leachate from an active uncontrolled landfill was the highest, as the organic content, NH(4)(+)-N, Cd and Mn levels appeared high in the river. At the same time, influences of leachate were also observed from both types of controlled landfills in the form of inorganic nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N, NO(3)(-)-N and NO(2)(-)-N) and heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn). Improper treatment practice led to high levels of some contaminants in the stream near the closed controlled landfill. Meanwhile, the active controlled landfill, which was located near the coastline, was exposed to the risk of contamination resulting from the pyrite oxidation of the surrounding area.

  13. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emission to the groundwater is considered to be one of the largest long-term impacts related to landfilling. Currently we are starting up a research program, partly subsidized by the Dutch Technology fou...

  14. [Methodological approaches to the development of environmentally benign technology for the use of solid waste in iron metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, K G; Vaĭsman, Ia I

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the life cycle of materials, containing wastes of iron and steel industry, new methodological approaches to the assessment of technologies of the secondary use of wastes are developed A complex criteria for selection of the technology for the use of resource potential of solid waste of iron and steel industry are developed with taking into account environmental, technological and economic indices. The technology of the use of wastes of ferrovanadium industry as bulk solid materials at the solid waste landfill is shown.

  15. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  16. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  17. Bioremediation and degradation of CCA-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Bioprocessing CCA wood waste is an efficient and economical alternative to depositing the waste in landfills, especially if landfill restrictions on CCA waste are imposed nation wide. We have developed bioremediation and degradation technologies for microbial processing of CCA waste. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood decay fungi,...

  18. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  19. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor...... of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human...... scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number...

  20. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Tetra Tech, 800-555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, Canada V6B 1M1 (Canada); Mahecha-Botero, Andrés, E-mail: andresm@chbe.ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael [Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, B.C., Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada)

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the various mass transfer (MT) and input/output steps for sub-systems in the landfill model. NeWS is defined as non-electronic waste solids, including sand and soil added as cover materials. Highlights: • A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). • Landfill samples and laboratory results are used to estimate the model

  1. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  2. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingna Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  3. Effect of increasing salinity on biogas production in waste landfills with leachate recirculation: A lab-scale model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuka; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Nakagawa, Mikako; Yamada, Masato

    2016-06-01

    The effects of salinity on anaerobic waste degradation and microbial communities were investigated, in order to propose an appropriate leachate recirculation process in a waste landfill in a tropical region. A salt concentration of 21 mS cm(-1) of electrical conductivity (EC) did not affect waste degradation, but a salt concentration of 35 mS cm(-1) of EC inhibited CH4 generation. A higher salt concentration of 80 mS cm(-1) of EC inhibited not only CH4 and CO2 generation, but also degradation of organic compounds. The bacterial and archaeal community compositions were affected by high salinity. High salinity can exert selective pressure on bacterial communities, resulting in a change in bacterial community structure. Ammonium caused strong, dominant inhibition of biogas production in the salt concentration range of this study. Quality control, especially of ammonium levels, will be essential for the promotion of waste biodegradation in landfills with leachate recirculation.

  4. Variation of Coenzyme F420 Activity and Methane Yield in Landfill Simulation of Organic Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-huan; SANG Shu-xun; HUANG Hua-zhou; LIU Xiao-juan; OUYANG Jin-bao

    2007-01-01

    A simulated landfill anaerobic bioreactor was used to characterize the anaerobic biodegradation and biogas generation of organic waste which was mainly composed of residuals of vegetables and foods. We investigated the dynamics of the coenzyme F420 activity and determined correlations between biogas yields, methane yields, methane concentration and coenzyme F420 activity. The experiment was carried out under different conditions from control without any treatment, addition of Fe3+, microorganism inoculation to a combination of Fe3+ addition and inoculation at a temperature of 36±2 ℃. The experiment was lasted 120 d and coenzyme F420 activity was analyzed using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Experimental results indicated that activity of the coenzyme F420 treated by Fe3+ and microorganism inoculation increased substantially. The waste treated by inoculation had the greatest increase. When the waste was treated by Fe3+, inoculation and the combination of Fe3+ and inoculation, biogas yields increased by 46.9%, 132.6% and 153.1%, respectively; while the methane yields increased 4, 97 and 98 times. Methane concentration varied between 0 and 6% in the control reactor, from 0 to 14% for waste treated by the addition of Fe3+, from 0 to 59% for waste treated by inoculation and from 0 to 63% for waste treated by Fe3+ addition and inoculation. Correlations between coenzyme F420 activity and biogas production, methane production and methane concentration proved to be positively significant (p<0.05), except for the control. Consequently, coenzyme F420 activity could be used as an index for monitoring the ac-tivity of methanogens during anaerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

  5. Comparative lysimeters studies for landfill leachate characterization and settlement variation in partly sorted municipal solid waste and fully sorted organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A S; Narulkar, S M

    2010-04-01

    About three-quarters of the countries and territories around the world use crude 'open dumping' method of disposal for municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the easiest and cheapest method of removing waste from the immediate environment but it creates serious environmental problems like groundwater contamination and air pollution. Land-filling is considered to be the most cost-effective method for solid waste disposal in developing countries if adequate sites are available. Bioreactor landfill is a promising biotechnological option for faster stabilization of municipal solid waste. The bioreactor landfill provides control and process optimization, primarily through the addition ofleachate or other liquid amendments. In the present study, Lysimeter experiments were carried out for the comparison of leachate characterization and settlement variation of "MSW except recyclable and domestic hazardous wastes" and "organic waste" to know the bioreactor feasibility in Indian context, because in India organic content of the solid waste is more due to consumption of unprocessed food items. Three Lysimeters under different operational conditions have been experimented for leachate characterization and settlement variation of the wastes. The results indicate the faster decay of pollutants in bioreactor in comparison to open dumps. The trend indicating the decay of pollutants elements in the produced leachate is encouraging.

  6. Degradation of municipal solid waste in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Radoslaw; Krzystek, Liliana; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2015-09-01

    In this study the municipal solid waste degradation processes in simulated landfill bioreactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions is investigated. The effect of waste aeration on the dynamics of the aerobic degradation processes in lysimeters as well as during anaerobic processes after completion of aeration is presented. The results are compared with the anaerobic degradation process to determine the stabilization stage of waste in both experimental modes. The experiments in aerobic lysimeters were carried out at small aeration rate (4.41⋅10(-3)lmin(-1)kg(-1)) and for two recirculation rates (24.9 and 1.58lm(-3)d(-1)). The change of leachate and formed gases composition showed that the application of even a small aeration rate favored the degradation of organic matter. The amount of CO2 and CH4 released from anaerobic lysimeter was about 5 times lower than that from the aerobic lysimeters. Better stabilization of the waste was obtained in the aerobic lysimeter with small recirculation, from which the amount of CO2 produced was larger by about 19% in comparison with that from the aerobic lysimeter with large leachate recirculation.

  7. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  8. Effect of enzyme additions on methane production and lignin degradation of landfilled sample of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, P A; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Mehrotra, A K; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-04-01

    Operation of waste cells as landfill bioreactors with leachate recirculation is known to accelerate waste degradation and landfill gas generation. However, waste degradation rates in landfill bioreactors decrease with time, with the accumulation of difficult to degrade materials, such as lignin-rich waste. Although, potential exists to modify the leachate quality to promote further degradation of such waste, very little information is available in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the viability of augmenting leachate with enzymes to increase the rate of degradation of lignin-rich waste materials. Among the enzymes evaluated MnP enzyme showed the best performance in terms of methane yield and substrate (lignin) utilization. Methane production of 200 mL CH(4)/g VS was observed for the MnP amended reactor as compared to 5.7 mL CH(4)/g VS for the control reactor. The lignin reduction in the MnP amended reactor and control reactor was 68.4% and 6.2%, respectively.

  9. Application of Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology for Characterization of Leachate Generation in Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    aharoni, imri; dahan, ofer

    2016-04-01

    Ground water contamination due to landfill leachate percolation is considered the most severe environmental threat related to municipal solid waste landfills. Natural waste degradation processes in landfills normally produce contaminated leachates up to decades after the waste has been buried. Studies have shown that understanding the mechanisms which govern attenuation processes and the fate of pollutants in the waste and in the underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluation of environmental risks and selection of a restoration strategy. This work focuses on a closed landfill in the coastal plain of Israel that was active until 2002 without any lining infrastructure. A vadose zone monitoring system (VMS) that was implemented at the site enables continuous measurements across the waste body (15 m thick) and underlying sandy vadose zone (16 m thick). Data collected by the VMS included continuous measurements of water content as well as chemical composition of the leachates across the entire waste and vadose zone cross section. Results indicated that winter rain percolated through the waste, generating wetting waves which were observed across the waste and unsaturated sediment from land surface until groundwater at 31 m bls. Quick percolation and high fluxes were observed in spite of the clay cover that was implemented at the site as part of the rehabilitation scheme. The results show that the flow pattern is controlled by a preferential mechanism within the waste body. Specific sections showed rapid fluxes in response to rain events, while other sections remained unaffected. In the underlying sandy vadose zone the flow pattern exhibited characteristics of matrix flow. Yet, some sections received higher fluxes due to the uneven discharge of leachates from the overlying waste body. Water samples collected from the waste layer indicate production of highly polluted leachates over 14 years after the landfill was closed. The chemical composition within the waste

  10. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  11. Technology Roadmapping for Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.

    2003-02-26

    Technology roadmapping can be an effective strategic technology planning tool. This paper describes a process for customizing a generic technology roadmapping process. Starting with a generic process reduces the learning curve and speeds up the roadmap development. Similarly, starting with a generic domain model provides leverage across multiple applications or situations within the domain. A process that combines these two approaches facilitates identifying technology gaps and determining common core technologies that can be reused for multiple applications or situations within the domain. This paper describes both of these processes and how they can be integrated. A core team and a number of technology working groups develop the technology roadmap, which includes critical system requirements and targets, technology areas and metrics for each area, and identifies and evaluates possible technology alternatives to recommend the most appropriate ones to pursue. A generalized waste management model, generated by considering multiple situations or applications in terms of a generic waste management model, provides the domain requirements for the technology roadmapping process. Finally, the paper discusses lessons learns from a number of roadmapping projects.

  12. Paper waste - recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, A; Wenzel, H

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover the three paper cycle system areas: raw materials and forestry, paper production, and disposal/recovery. It was found that the outcome of the individual LCA studies largely depended on the choices made in some of these assumptions, most specifically the ones concerning energy use and generation, and forestry.

  13. Heavy metal binding capacity (HMBC) of municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Marnie L; Bitton, Gabriel; Townsend, Timothy

    2005-07-01

    This research describes the use of a toxicity assay for the identification of metal toxicity, bioavailability and heavy metal binding capacity (HMBC) of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachates. MetPLATE, an assay specific for heavy metal toxicity, was used to determine the HMBC of MSW leachates collected from 14 sites in Florida, with a wide range of chemical and physical characteristics. The leachates displayed a low toxicity which was attributed to the site-specific parameters, including, high concentrations of both organic and inorganic ligands. The HMBC test was undertaken to measure the effect of these site-specific parameters on metal toxicity. The potential for MSW leachate to bind and, thus, detoxify heavy metals was investigated with copper, zinc, and mercury. The HMBC values obtained ranged from 3 to 115, 5 to 93 and 4 to 101 for HMBC-Cu+2, HMBC-Zn+2, and HMBC-Hg+2, respectively. Additionally, the high strength leachates displayed the highest binding capacities, although the landfills sampled represented a wide range of characteristics. For comparison, the HMBC values reported with local lake water, Lake Alice and Lake Beverly, and a wastewater treatment plant effluent were all below 3. A partial fractionation of MSW leachate samples from sites 1, 5 and 8, was conducted to further investigate the influence of selected site-specific physico-chemical parameters on metal binding. The fractionation revealed that the HMBC of the leachate samples was heavily influenced by the concentration of solids, organics and hardness.

  14. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Batlle, F

    2011-12-01

    Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The "equivalent" three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also

  15. Carbon pools and flows during lab-scale degradation of old landfilled waste under different oxygen and water regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstätter, Christian, E-mail: bran.chri@gmail.com; Laner, David, E-mail: david.laner@tuwien.ac.at; Fellner, Johann, E-mail: johann.fellner@tuwien.ac.at

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • 40 year old waste from an old MSW landfill was incubated in LSR experiments. • Carbon balances for anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation were established. • The transformation of carbon pools during waste degradation was investigated. • Waste aeration resulted in the formation of a new, stable organic carbon pool. • Water addition did not have a significant effect on aerobic waste degradation. - Abstract: Landfill aeration has been proven to accelerate the degradation of organic matter in landfills in comparison to anaerobic decomposition. The present study aims to evaluate pools of organic matter decomposing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using landfill simulation reactors (LSR) filled with 40 year old waste from a former MSW landfill. The LSR were operated for 27 months, whereby the waste in one pair was kept under anaerobic conditions and the four other LSRs were aerated. Two of the aerated LSR were run with leachate recirculation and water addition and two without. The organic carbon in the solid waste was characterized at the beginning and at the end of the experiments and major carbon flows (e.g. TOC in leachate, gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) were monitored during operation. After the termination of the experiments, the waste from the anaerobic LSRs exhibited a long-term gas production potential of more than 20 NL kg{sup −1} dry waste, which corresponded to the mineralization of around 12% of the initial TOC (67 g kg{sup −1} dry waste). Compared to that, aeration led to threefold decrease in TOC (32–36% of the initial TOC were mineralized), without apparent differences in carbon discharge between the aerobic set ups with and without water addition. Based on the investigation of the carbon pools it could be demonstrated that a bit more than 10% of the initially present organic carbon was transformed into more recalcitrant forms, presumably due to the formation of humic substances

  16. Effects of specimen size and mix ratio on the nickel migration behavior of landfill waste mixed mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Aminul

    2017-04-01

    Landfill solid waste management system poses the potential source of silent wide-spread heavy metals like nickel poisoning in the entire ecosystem of nearby environment. Nickel containing demolish solid wastes are disposed at landfill zones to a great extent from where nickel migrate into the food chain through the surface water body as well as groundwater. Consequently, nickel exposure may cause different environmental problems. From this sense, it may be an attractive proposal to recycle the waste as a sustainable product. Herein is presented a long-term feasibility study on potential leaching behavioral pattern of nickel from different sizes and mixes based solidified landfill waste mixed mortar block. The calculated results revealed the larger sizes block entrapped more nickel content than the smaller in relation to the available for leaching. Moreover, the specimen bearing the higher amount of waste resulted the significant nickel immobilization within the crystalline structure. The study observed the fixation results 97.72%-99.35%, 97.08%-99.11%, 96.19%-98.58% and 95.86%-91.6% under the stabilizing agent to fine aggregate mixing combination 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5 respectively where 30% of the total volume of fine aggregate was replaced by landfill waste. Although, mechanical strength test of all surrogate waste forms was also conducted that showed acceptable performance for land disposal, the current research pointing out that constructed green products were non-hazardous except the specimens having mixture ratio 1:2.5 because nickel ion release mechanism was observed under this ratio by surface decay or physical erosion of the monolithic matrices. Furthermore, semi-empirical based dominant leaching mechanism models were justified against the goodness of fit statistical parameters for interpreting the experimental observations of nickel transport profile where the adopted models possessed strong potential for predicting Ni content with high accuracy.

  17. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers.

  18. Reaction mechanisms and rate constants of waste degradation in landfill bioreactor systems with enzymatic-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, P A; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Mehrotra, A K; Kumar, S

    2014-06-01

    Augmenting leachate before recirculation with peroxidase enzymes is a novel method to increase the available carbon, and therefore the food supply to microorganisms at the declining phase of the anaerobic landfill bioreactor operation. In order to optimize the enzyme-catalyzed leachate recirculation process, it is necessary to identify the reaction mechanisms and determine rate constants. This paper presents a kinetic model developed to ascertain the reaction mechanisms and determine the rate constants for enzyme catalyzed anaerobic waste degradation. The maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) for MnP enzyme-catalyzed reactors was 0.076 g(TOC)/g(DS).day. The catalytic turnover number (k(cat)) of the MnP enzyme-catalyzed was 506.7 per day while the rate constant (k) of the un-catalyzed reaction was 0.012 per day.

  19. Critical evaluation of factors required to terminate the postclosure monitoring period at solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    requirements and regulatory activity that might be required to prepare regulators for the large number of requests to terminate postclosure monitoring expected over the next 20 years. An approach in which the frequency and extent of postclosure monitoring is reduced as warranted by site-specific data......Regulations governing the disposal of solid waste in landfills specify that they must be monitored for 30 years after closure unless this period is extended by the governing regulatory authority. Given the wide range of conditions under which refuse is buried, technical criteria, rather than...... water or groundwater. The acceptability of gaseous releases should be evaluated against criteria for odors, the potential for subsurface migration, and greenhouse gas and ozone precursor emissions. The approach presented here must be tested on a site-specific basis to identify additional data...

  20. Parameter determination of a compression model for landfilled municipal solid waste: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao Bing; Zhan, Tony Liang Tong; Chen, Yun Min; Guo, Qi Gang

    2015-02-01

    The methods to determine the parameters of a one-dimensional compression model for landfilled municipal solid waste were investigated. In order to test the methods for parameter determination, long-term laboratory compression experiments were carried out under different surcharge loads (i.e. 100, 200 and 400 kPa). Based on the measured compression strain and the reported creep index, the modified primary compression indexes, pre-consolidation pressure and ultimate biodegradation-induced secondary compression strain were determined using the proposed methods. It was found that the simulated compression could not capture the measured secondary compression behavior when using a constant value of biodegradation-induced compression rate coefficient. The variation of the rate coefficient with the change of decomposition rate should be considered during modeling. Accordingly, the biodegradation-induced secondary compression strain in the compression model should be expressed in an incremental form in order to consider the variation of the rate coefficient.

  1. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L. (.); Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  2. Use of disposed waste ash from landfills to replace Portland cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    2009-09-01

    In this study, waste ash was utilized as a pozzolanic material in blended Portland cement in order to reduce negative environmental effects and landfill volume required to dispose of waste ash. The influence of waste ash, namely palm oil fuel ash, rice husk ash and fly ash on compressive strength and sulfate resistance in mortar were studied and evaluated by some accelerated short-term techniques in sodium sulfate solutions. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was partially replaced with ground palm oil fuel ash (POA), ground rice husk ash (RHA) and classified fly ash (FA). Single pozzolan and a blend of equal weight portions of POA, RHA and FA were also used. The resistance to sulfate attack of mortar improves substantially with partial replacement of OPC with POA, RHA and FA. The use of a blend of equal weight portions of FA and POA or RHA produced mixes with good strength and resistance to sulfate attack. POA, RHA and FA have a high potential to be used as a pozzolanic material.

  3. Management of Conventional Wastes (Non Radioactive) in Spanish Landfills; Gestion de Residuos Convencionales (No Radiactivos) en Vertederos de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, N.; Pena, J. M.; Ramos, J. L.; Millan, R.

    2011-07-15

    This report is the result of a collaboration agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA. The goal of the report is to analyze the existing legislation on solid conventional waste, according to the European Community, the Spanish State and its Autonomous Communities, focusing on the latest regulation applicable to the final management in controlled landfills. In addition, information about the legal frame, production, composition and characteristics of conventional waste (i.e. urban, inert, dangerous industrial and non dangerous industrial) is given. Also, the final management that is carried out nowadays in Spain for each of the waste is analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the fulfilment of the in force regulation by the different types of Spanish controlled landfills is evaluated. (Author) 52 refs.

  4. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emissi

  5. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  6. Application of continuous normal-lognormal bivariate density functions in a sensitivity analysis of municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor; Hip, Ivan; Fredlund, Murray D

    2016-09-01

    The variability of untreated municipal solid waste (MSW) shear strength parameters, namely cohesion and shear friction angle, with respect to waste stability problems, is of primary concern due to the strong heterogeneity of MSW. A large number of municipal solid waste (MSW) shear strength parameters (friction angle and cohesion) were collected from published literature and analyzed. The basic statistical analysis has shown that the central tendency of both shear strength parameters fits reasonably well within the ranges of recommended values proposed by different authors. In addition, it was established that the correlation between shear friction angle and cohesion is not strong but it still remained significant. Through use of a distribution fitting method it was found that the shear friction angle could be adjusted to a normal probability density function while cohesion follows the log-normal density function. The continuous normal-lognormal bivariate density function was therefore selected as an adequate model to ascertain rational boundary values ("confidence interval") for MSW shear strength parameters. It was concluded that a curve with a 70% confidence level generates a "confidence interval" within the reasonable limits. With respect to the decomposition stage of the waste material, three different ranges of appropriate shear strength parameters were indicated. Defined parameters were then used as input parameters for an Alternative Point Estimated Method (APEM) stability analysis on a real case scenario of the Jakusevec landfill. The Jakusevec landfill is the disposal site of the capital of Croatia - Zagreb. The analysis shows that in the case of a dry landfill the most significant factor influencing the safety factor was the shear friction angle of old, decomposed waste material, while in the case of a landfill with significant leachate level the most significant factor influencing the safety factor was the cohesion of old, decomposed waste material. The

  7. Carbon pools and flows during lab-scale degradation of old landfilled waste under different oxygen and water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Christian; Laner, David; Fellner, Johann

    2015-06-01

    Landfill aeration has been proven to accelerate the degradation of organic matter in landfills in comparison to anaerobic decomposition. The present study aims to evaluate pools of organic matter decomposing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using landfill simulation reactors (LSR) filled with 40 year old waste from a former MSW landfill. The LSR were operated for 27 months, whereby the waste in one pair was kept under anaerobic conditions and the four other LSRs were aerated. Two of the aerated LSR were run with leachate recirculation and water addition and two without. The organic carbon in the solid waste was characterized at the beginning and at the end of the experiments and major carbon flows (e.g. TOC in leachate, gaseous CO2 and CH4) were monitored during operation. After the termination of the experiments, the waste from the anaerobic LSRs exhibited a long-term gas production potential of more than 20 NL kg(-1) dry waste, which corresponded to the mineralization of around 12% of the initial TOC (67 g kg(-1) dry waste). Compared to that, aeration led to threefold decrease in TOC (32-36% of the initial TOC were mineralized), without apparent differences in carbon discharge between the aerobic set ups with and without water addition. Based on the investigation of the carbon pools it could be demonstrated that a bit more than 10% of the initially present organic carbon was transformed into more recalcitrant forms, presumably due to the formation of humic substances. The source of anaerobic degradation could be identified mainly as cellulose which played a minor role during aerobic degradation in the experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. LCA and economic evaluation of landfill leachate and gas technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Manfredi, Simone; Merrild, Hanna Kristina

    2011-01-01

    improvements for most impact categories. Global warming went from an impact of 0.1 person equivalent (PE) for the dump to −0.05 PE for the best design. Similar improvements were found for photochemical ozone formation (0.02 PE to 0.002 PE) and stratospheric ozone formation (0.04 PE to 0.001 PE).For the toxic...... through emissions of treated wastewater to surface waters.The largest environmental improvement with regard to the direct cost of the landfill was the capping and leachate treatment system. The capping, though very cheap to establish, gave a huge benefit in lowered impacts, the leachate collection system...

  9. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. The new technologies in city waste management; Las nuevas tecnologias en la gestion de los residuos de las ciudades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, C.

    2016-07-01

    The new EU objectives included in its Circular Economy Package and the Spanish 2016-2022 Waste Plan define a new scenario of transformation of municipal solid waste management. They also define the hierarchization of waste treatment: reduction, reuse, recycling, energy valorization and, as a last resort, landfill. The use of new technologies is contributing to this transformation, including both separation at source and collection and treatment. Improved traceability of wastes via the use of sensors, technological innovation in management and the emergence of a fifth bin for selective collection of organic wastes are only some of the new elements that are increasingly common in Spanish cities. (Author)

  11. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model.

  12. 简析生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场设计%Closure Design of Domestic Waste Sanitary Landfill Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健萍

    2011-01-01

    Functions of closure of domestic waste sanitary landfill sites were sketched. Main contents about closure design were analyzed, including landfill pile shaping, structure determining of closure cover system, collection and drainage of landfill gas, and collection and discharge of rainwater in landfill pile.%简述了生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场的作用,分析了封场设计中堆体整形、封场覆盖系统结构的确定、填埋气体的收集导排、垃圾堆体雨水的收集排放等主要内容.

  13. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  14. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Hearn, Laurence; Muller, Jochen F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • E-waste comprises approximately 6% of the waste mass going to landfill in South Australia. • Significant amounts of metal(loids)s and PBDEs are released from e-waste mixed with municipal solid in landfill leachates. • Significantly elevated concentrations of lead and PBDEs are detected in groundwater wells downgradient of landfills. • Significant temporal variation exists in electrical conductivity and in the concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in leachates. - Abstract: The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of South Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13–59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41–6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to attribute

  15. Characterization of char derived from various types of solid wastes from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment before landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, I H; Matsuto, T; Tanaka, N; Sasaki, Y; Tanaami, K

    2007-01-01

    Carbonization is a kind of pyrolysis process to produce char from organic materials under an inert atmosphere. In this work, chars derived from various solid wastes were characterized from the standpoint of fuel recovery and pretreatment of waste before landfilling. Sixteen kinds of municipal and industrial solid wastes such as residential combustible wastes, non-combustible wastes, bulky wastes, construction and demolition wastes, auto shredder residue, and sludges were carbonized at 500 degrees C for 1h under nitrogen atmosphere. In order to evaluate the quality of char as fuel, proximate analysis and heating value were examined. The composition of raw waste had a significant influence on the quality of produced char. The higher the ratio of woody biomass in waste, the higher heating value of char produced. Moreover, an equation to estimate heating value of char was developed by using the weight fraction of fixed carbon and volatile matter in char. De-ashing and chlorine removal were performed to improve the quality of char. The pulverization and sieving method seems to be effective for separation of incombustibles such as metal rather than ash. Most char met a 0.5 wt% chlorine criterion for utilization as fuel in a shaft blast furnace after it was subjected to repeated water-washing. Carbonization could remove a considerable amount of organic matter from raw waste. In addition, the leaching of heavy metals such as chrome, cadmium, and lead appears to be significantly suppressed by carbonization regardless of the type of raw waste. From these results, carbonization could be considered as a pretreatment method for waste before landfilling, as well as for fuel recovery.

  16. SITE SELECTION TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL OF GILANEGHARB TOWNSHIP IN KERMANSHAH PROVINCE, WESTERN IRAN BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSLEM HADIDI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Each of them has different effects on site selection of hazardous waste landfill. Some factors cause limits to site selection such as; climatic, topographic, land use, edaphic, quakeable, regions under conservation of environment organization and so on. these factors may be cause unsustainable and move hazardous waste to surface and under ground water and also air pollution according to wind aspect, consequently different contaminations. This study was conducted in Gilanegharb town in Kermanshah province west of Iran in 2012 to find best area of landfill of hazardous wastes. Each of the factors valued and weighted based on experts opinions and then evaluated each of the preperated layers in RS and GIS softwares. In the first evaluation of 19 sites, 6 sites were investigated. The results show that asphalt factory site is the best region and then Shahrdary, Tan Kooshk sites are better to landfill of hazardous waste respectively. The reasons for selecting of this regions were far form surface and ground water resources and as a result avoiding to be defiled of ground water. On the other hand, there is no air pollution and malodorous of Ghilangharb town because of wind blow aspect in the region.

  17. Test methods to aid in the evaluation of the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Tyrrel, S F

    2010-05-01

    This response follows on from a recent discussion by Sánchez (2009) on test methods to aid in the evaluation of the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. Test methods to assess the biodegradability/biodegradable content of organic waste are of great interest across Europe for different purposes, such as landfill acceptance criteria, monitoring treatment facility performance and for monitoring the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. Many studies have recently attempted to correlate short-term test methods with long-term anaerobic test methods. This response discusses recent findings and conclusions made by Sánchez (2009) and describes recent work undertaken at Cranfield University to develop the enzymatic hydrolysis test (EHT) method. The EHT has previously shown potential as a short-term, non-biological, biodegradability assessment tool, however there is a requirement to further develop this test method. We conclude that aerobic and anaerobic biological test methods are not the only suitable methods of assessing waste treatment process performance; and that alternative methods such as EHT are feasible and potentially suitable.

  18. Estimation of cost reduction and increase for the final disposal associated with the categorization of inert waste landfills in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the overall cost savings that have been realized due to disposal of inert wastes in Japan because this material has been deposited in inert waste landfills (IWLs) that are designed exclusively for this purpose, instead of being co-dipsosed with organic wastes in more costly in sanitary landfills (SLs). The total realized cost savings were based on the disposed volume of inert waste and the actual disposal fees for IWLs and SLs for the period 1977-2006. The estimated reduction in expense is 4748 billion JPY for the period. On the other hand, if organic wastes had been deposited in IWLs along with inert wastes, costs would be incurred to clean up the sites because the surrounding environment may be polluted by the decomposition of the non-inert wastes and considerable efforts probably would be required to restore the polluted environment to its normal condition (this is because IWLs typically do not have a barrier system.) The potential cleanup cost was estimated to be 616 to 1226 billion JPY. These estimated costs were compared and it was found that the net reduction in expense was 3522 billion to 4122 billion JPY. Although the expense was reduced substantially, it was noted that a considerable cleanup cost would be generated. In particular, it was found that the increase in cleanup costs becomes most significant after the late 1990s.

  19. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Waste disposed of in a landfill is by its nature different from the material found in the surroundings of the landfill and thereby the landfill may potentially affect the surrounding environment. This may be in terms of attracting or repelling flora and fauna from the area and through the emissio...

  20. From waste disposal service to power supplier. A landfill is turned into a futuristic energy farm; Vom Entsorger zum Versorger. Eine Muellkippe wird zum futuristischen Energiepark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckh, Martin

    2011-11-15

    On a landfill operated by the waste disposal utility of the Rhein-Neckar district, an energy farm is currently under construction. Apart from a PV system and landfill gas production, a biomass-fuelled heating power station was recently commissioned. Further plants will follow, i.e. pellets production, power generation by a Wankel engine, and a futuristic plant for pressureless oil production from waste plastics.

  1. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  2. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  3. Development of methods for detecting viruses in solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, M D; Wallis, C; Melnick, J L

    1974-08-01

    Methods were developed for detecting and concentrating enteric viruses in municipal solid waste landfill leachates. Poliovirus added to a leachate was not readily detectable, possibly because the virus was adsorbed to the leachate particulates. The masking effects associated with suspended solids in the leachate were overcome by adding a final 0.1 M sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate concentration to the leachate. A sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated leachate could be clarified by filtration at pH 8.0 without a loss of virus. The clarified and sodium (tetra)ethylenediaminetetraacetate-treated leachate contained interfering materials of an anionic nature which prevented virus adsorption to epoxy-fiber glass filters. This interfering effect was overcome by treating the leachate with an anion-exchange resin. Viruses in the resin-treated leachate were concentrated by adjusting the leachate to pH 3.5, adding AlCl(3) to a final 0.005 M concentration, adsorbing the viruses to an epoxy-fiber glass virus adsorbent, and eluting the adsorbed viruses in a small volume. When this method was used to concentrate poliovirus 100-fold in a variety of leachates, the average virus recovery efficiency was 37%. With the methods described in this study, it should be possible to efficiently monitor solid waste disposal site leachates for enteric viruses.

  4. Model comparison of flow through a municipal solid waste incinerator ash landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2001-03-01

    The drainage discharge of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash landfill was simulated using various modelling approaches. Two functional models including a neural networks approach and a hydrological linear storage model, and two mechanistic models requiring physical/hydrodynamic properties of the waste material, HYDRUS5 and MACRO (Version 4.0) were used. The models were calibrated using an 8-month data set from 1996 and validated on a 3-month data set from winter 1994/1995. The data sets comprised hourly values of rainfall, evaporation (estimated from the Penman-Monteith relationship), drainage discharge and electrical conductivity. Predicted and measured discharges were compared. The discharge predicted by the functional models more exactly followed the discharge patterns of the measured data but, particularly the linear storage model, could not cope with the non-linearity of the system that was caused by seasonal changes in water content of the MSWI bottom ash. The fit of the neural networks model to the data improved with increasing prior information but was less smooth than the measured data. The mechanistic model that included preferential discharge, MACRO, better modelled the discharge characteristics when inversely applied, indicating that preferential flow does occur in this system. However, even the inverse application of HYDRUS5 could not describe the system discharge as well as the linear storage model. All model approaches would have benefited from a more exact knowledge of initial water content.

  5. Landfill methane emission mitigation – How to construct and document a full‐scale biocover system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Landfills receiving organic wastes produce biogas (landfill gas – LFG) containing methane (CH4). Landfills are significant sources of methane, which contributes to climate change. As an alternative to gas utilization systems or as a follow‐on technology when a gas utilization system gets non...... rate can be obtained in soils, compost and other materials, high enough to significant reduce the methane emission from landfills. The process has been scaled up by DTU Environment to a full‐scale implemented technology at two Danish landfills. Now the Danish government has decided to establish bio...

  6. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xu; Deng, Wenjing; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    In some arid regions where landfill produces minimal amount of leachate, leachate recirculation is suggested as a cost-effective option. However, its long-term impacts to environment remain disputed. For the purpose of revealing the environmental impacts of leachate recirculation in landfill, four scenarios were modeled using EASEWASTE, comparing the strategies of leachate recirculation (with or without gas management), evaporation and discharge. In the current situation (Scenario A), a total of 280 t of waste was generated and then transported to a conventional landfill for disposal. A number of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human toxicity in surface water, and those to groundwater, present relatively low levels. In Scenario B, leachate evaporation in a collecting pool has minimal impacts on surface water. However, this strategy significantly impacts groundwater (1055.16 PE) because of the potential infiltration of leachate, with major contaminants of As, ammonia, and Cd. A number of ions, such as Cl(-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), may also contaminate groundwater. In Scenario C, the direct discharge of leachate to surface water may result in acidification (2.71 PE) and nutrient enrichment (2.88 PE), primarily attributed to soluble ammonia in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor to global warming and photochemical ozone formation due to methane emission. In Scenario D, landfill gas flaring was thus be modeled and proven to be efficient for reducing

  7. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  8. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for E-waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlayel, Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the environmental impacts and benefits of state-of-the-art technologies for proper e-waste handling using Jordan as a case study. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was employed to evaluate five advanced management systems represent state-of-the-art treatment technologies, including sanitary landfilling; proper recycling of metals, materials, and precious metals (PMs); and incineration of plastic and the hazardous portion of printed circuit boards (PCBs). Six e-waste products that contribute the most to the e-waste in Jordan were included in the assessment of each scenario, which resulted in 30 total cases of e-waste management. The findings indicated that landfills for the entire components of the e-waste stream are the worst option and should be avoided. The most promising e-waste management scenario features integrated e-waste processes based on the concept of Integrated Waste Management (IWM), including recycling materials such as non-PMs and PMs, incinerating plastic and the hazardous content of PCBs using the energy recovered from incineration, and using sanitary landfills of residues. For this scenario, the best environmental performance was obtained for the treatment of mobile phones. Incineration of the portion of hazardous waste using energy recovery is an option that deserves attention. Because scenario implementation depends on more than just the environmental benefits (e.g., economic cost and technical aspects), the study proposes a systematic approach founded on the IWM concept for e-waste management scenario selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Landfills, Hazardous Waste - WASTE_INDUSTRIAL_IDEM_IN: Industrial Waste Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_INDUSTRIAL_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains industrial waste site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Environmental...

  11. Technology of Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion Processes with Zero-Valent Iron for Treatment of Solid Waste Landfill Leachate%垃圾渗滤液的零价铁强化厌氧处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 朱南文; 楼紫阳; 袁海平; 王艳

    2013-01-01

    该文采用零价铁强化中转站垃圾渗滤液的厌氧处理方法,考察了进水浓度、初始pH和铁投加量对渗滤渡污染物的去除效果,并探讨了零价铁强化厌氧处理机理.结果表明零价铁的投加可有效强化渗滤液的厌氧处理效果,在进水浓度为22656 mg/L、初始pH为7.0、铁投加量为600 mg/L的最佳条件下,经过50 d厌氧处理,出水COcr降低至7800 mg/L,COD去除率为65.1%.而未投加铁的体系出水CODcr为11560 mg/L,COD去除率为48.2%.%Leachate from waste transfer station was treated by Fe0 enhanced anaerobic treatment in this paper.Effect of influent concentration,initial pH and Fe0 dosage on COD removal efficiency was investigated.The results show that leachate effluent CODcr can attain 7800 mg/L and COD removal rate is 65.1% after 50 days' reaction under the optimum operation conditions,when the influent CODcr is 22 656 mg/L,initial pH is 7.0 and Fe0 dosage is 600 mg/L.While effluent CODcr is around 11 560 mg/L and COD removal rate is 48.2 % without Fe0 dosage.

  12. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  13. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The newest achievements of studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peizhe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    From 1991 to 1996, key studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes have been incorporated into the national plan for environmental protection science and technology. At present, the research achievements have been accomplished, have passed national approval, and have been accepted. The author of this paper, as leader of the national group for this research work, expounds the newest achievements of the studies involving four parts: (1) the reutilization technology of electroplating sludge, including the ion-exchange process for recovering the sludge and waste liquor for producing chromium tanning agent and extracting chromium and colloidal protein from tanning waste residue; on the recovery of heavy metals from the electroplating waste liquor with microbic purification; on the demonstration project of producing modified plastics from the sludge and the waste plastics; and on the demonstration of the recovery of heavy metals from waste electroplating sludge by using the ammonia-leaching process; (2) the demonstrative research of reutilization technology of chromium waste residues, including production of self-melting ore and smelting of chromium-containing pig iron, and of pyrolytic detoxification of the residue with cyclone furnace; (3) the incineration technology of hazardous wastes with successful results of the industrial incinerator system for polychlorinated biphenyls; and (4) the safety landfill technology for disposal of hazardous wastes, with a complete set of technology for pretreatment, selection of the site, development of the antipercolating materials, and design and construction of the landfill. Only a part of the achievements is introduced in this paper, most of which has been built and is being operated for demonstration to further spreading application and accumulate experience. 6 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  16. Experimental simulation and fuzzy modelling of landfill biogas production from low-biodegradable MBT waste under leachate recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Addario, Martina; Ruggeri, Bernardo

    2017-08-10

    In the perspective of a sustainable waste management, biodegradable waste destined to landfilling should be reduced. This work aims to study a combination of waste pretreatments and leachate recirculation. A lab-scale experiment and fuzzy-modelling were chosen to predict cumulative methane production from low-biodegradable waste (LBW) under leachate recirculation. Thanks to moisture increase, the degradation of LBW was reactivated and the cumulative methane production reached 28 NL CH4 kg(-1) after 442 days. The organic fraction was stabilized with a final chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 81 mg L(-1). Fuzzy model was proposed as an alternative to the common deterministic models, affected by high uncertainties. Eleven inputs (pH, Redox potential, COD, volatile fatty acids, ammonium content, age, temperature, moisture content, organic fraction concentration, particle size and recirculation flow rate) were identified as antecedent, and two outputs, or consequents, were chosen: methane production rate and methane fraction in biogas. Antecedents and consequents were linked by 84 IF-THEN rules in a linguistic form. The model was also tested on six literature studies chosen to test different operational conditions and waste qualities. The model outputs fitted the experimental data reasonably well, confirming the potential use of fuzzy macro-approach to model sustainable landfilling.

  17. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  18. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  19. Affinity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles for sodium montmorillonite clay: Implications for disposal in municipal solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harns, Carrie

    Manufactured nanomaterials are used in a diverse array of commercially available products. Like other consumer goods, a portion of manufactured nano-products will enter municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Currently there is little information on the behavior and fate of engineered nanomaterials in MSW landfills and thus we do not know if current landfill designs are suitable for engineered nanomaterials. Of great consequence is understanding how nanomaterials will interact with clays, as they are integral components of composite liner systems. The overall objectives were to determine the affinity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials for montmorillonite as a function of solution chemistry and evaluate the mobility of TiO2 nanomaterials across clay barriers. It was observed that under favorable electrostatic conditions, TiO2 will heteroaggregate with montmorillonite, and TiO2-montmorillonite suspensions will remain stable under unfavorable electrostatic conditions. Additionally, it was observed that under simplified landfill leachate conditions, the clay barrier retained TiO2.

  20. GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: a review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2014-04-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of the geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. GIS-based MCDA allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker (DM) preferences into spatial decision models. During recent decades, a variety of research articles have been published regarding the implementation of methods and/or tools in a variety of real-world case studies. The article discusses, in detail, the criteria and methods that are implemented in GIS-based landfill siting suitability analysis and especially the exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria that can be considered when selecting sites for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. This paper reviews 36 seminal articles in which the evaluation of candidate landfill sites is conducted using MCDA methods. After a brief description of the main components of a MC-SDSS and the applied decision rules, the review focuses on the criteria incorporated into the decision models. The review provides a comprehensive guide to the landfill siting analysis criteria, providing details regarding the utilization methods, their decision or exclusionary nature and their monotonicity.

  1. Migration of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia through the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in the simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Chen, Luxi; Zhu, Huayue; Shen, Dongsheng; Qiu, Zhanhong

    2017-04-01

    Simulated landfill was operated for 508 days to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash layer on the migration of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia when it was used as the intermediate layer in the landfill. The result suggested that the MSWI bottom ash layer could capture the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the leachate. The adsorption of the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia on the MSWI bottom ash layer was saturated at the days 396, 34, and 97, respectively. Afterwards, the nitrogen species were desorbed from the MSWI bottom ash layer. Finally, the adsorption and desorption could reach the equilibrium. The amounts of adsorbed nitrate and nitrite on the MSWI bottom ash layer were 1685.09 and 7.48 mg, respectively, and the amount of the adsorbed and transformed ammonia was 13,773.19 mg, which was much higher than the desorbed. The water leaching test and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) results showed that the leachable nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia in the MSWI bottom ash were greatly increased after the landfill operation, suggesting that the adsorbed nitrogen could be finally leached out. Besides, the results also showed that MSWI bottom ash layer could affect the release of nitrate and ammonia at the initial stage of the landfill. However, it had little effect on the release of nitrite.

  2. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2002-09-01

    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs/PCDFs leached from incineration fly ash and the treated one using large landfill simulation columns (lysimeters) and the leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. As a result, it was found that the coexistence of dissolved coloring constituents (DCCs), which might be composed of constituents like dissolved humic matters having strong affinity for hydrophobic organic pollutants, could enhance the leachability of PCDDs/PCDFs, thus contributing to the vertical movement and leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs in the landfill layers of the incineration residue. Moreover, it is highly probable that DCCs derive from the unburned carbon in the bottom ash mixed and buried with the fly ash containing a high content of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  3. The content of heavy metals in soils and plants around the waste landfill in Siechnice (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowczak Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr in soils and plants around the metallurgical waste landfill of Siechnice, Poland, have been determined. The soil samples were collected from the surface layer of 0-25 cm. The soils and plants were digested in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System (Milestone Start D. The analysis of metals has been carried out through the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS method. The pH and the conductivity of the soil solutions were measured. The pollution index (Wn and the bioaccumulation coefficient (WB have been determined. The permissible content of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr in soils were exceeded compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland. Chromium concentrations have also been exceeded relative to the standard for soils, according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016. The assessment of the bioaccumulation coefficients of metals in plants (Plantagolanceolata L. and Zea mays L. has shown significant bioaccumulation of copper and zinc compared to the permissible concentrations of undesirable substances in feed in agreement with the Polish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Regulation from January 23rd, 2007.

  4. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N. D.; Rees-White, T. C.; Beaven, R. P.; Stringfellow, A. M.; Barker, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5 m and 20 m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as 0.02 ( 4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting.

  5. Size charge fractionation of metals in municipal solid waste landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oygard, Joar Karsten; Gjengedal, Elin; Røyset, Oddvar

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfill leachates from 9 Norwegian sites were size charge fractionated in the field, to obtain three fractions: particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm, free anions/non-labile complexes 0.45microm. Cr, Co and Ni were on the contrary present mostly as non-labile complexes (69-79%) 0.45microm. The particulate and colloidal matter >0.45microm was mainly inorganic; indicating that the metals present in this fraction were bound as inorganic compounds. The fractionation gives important information on the mobility and potential bioavailability of the metals investigated, in contrast to the total metal concentrations usually reported. To study possible changes in respective metal species in leachate in aerated sedimentation tanks, freshly sampled leachate was stored for 48h, and subsequently fractionated. This showed that the free heavy metals are partly immobilized during storage of leachate with oxygen available. The largest effects were found for Cd and Zn. The proportion of As and Cr present as particulate matter or colloids >0.45microm also increased.

  6. Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yahya; Kaczala, Fabio; Marchand, Charlotte; Hogland, Marika; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, William; Kihl, Anders

    2016-12-01

    The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23.5% and 16.6%, respectively. The analysed calorific value (1.7 MJ kg(-1)), the potential of CH4 (4.74 m(3) t(-1) dry matter) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (5.6%) were low and offer low potential of energy. Sieving the fine fraction further showed that 80% was smaller than 2 mm. The fine represents a major fraction at any landfill (40%-70%), therefore, characterising the properties of this fraction is essential to find the potential of reusing/recycling or safely redisposing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from two-stage landfilling of municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yue, Dongbei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-08-01

    Simulations were conducted to investigate greenhouse gas emissions from aerobic pretreatment and subsequent landfilling. The flows in carbon balance, such as gas, leachate, and solid phases, were considered in the simulations. The total amount of CO2 eq. decreased as organic removal efficiency (ORE) increased. At ORE values of 0, 0.30, 0.41, and 0.54, the total amounts of CO2 eq. were 2614, 2326, 2075, and 1572 kg CO2 eq. per one ton dry matter, respectively; gas accounted for the main contribution to the total amount. The reduction in CO2 eq. from leachate was the primary positive contribution, accounting for 356%, 174%, and 100% of total reduction at ORE values of 0.30, 0.41, and 0.54, respectively. The CO2 eq. from energy consumption was the negative contribution to total reduction, but this contribution is considerably lower than that from gas. Aerobic pretreatment shortened the lag time of biogas production by 74.1-97.0%, and facilitated the transfer of organic carbon in solid waste from uncontrolled biogas and highly polluting leachate to aerobically generated CO2.

  8. 封场垃圾填埋场的治理与城市土地可持续利用%Remediation of Closed Waste Landfill Sites and Sustainable Utilization of Urban Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 王颋军; 唐跃刚; 王卓理

    2013-01-01

    The status and existing problems of closed waste landfill sites in China were introduced.The feasibility of its remediation was analyzed from policy support,technological level and economic level.Finally the main land reuse types of closed waste landfill sites and its main influencing factors were summarized.%介绍了我国封场填埋场现状和目前存在主要问题,从政策支持力度、技术水平及经济水平等方面分析了对其治理的可行性,总结填埋场封场治理后的主要土地利用类型及其主要影响因素.

  9. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively.

  10. Mass-balance estimation of heavy metals and selected anions at a landfill receiving MSWI bottom ash and mixed construction wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oygard, Joar Karsten; Gjengedal, Elin; Måge, Amund

    2005-08-31

    An estimation of the heavy metal and anion mass-balance was made for municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash deposited at a construction and industrial waste landfill. The mass-balance was found by comparing the content of metals and anions in the landfill leachate to the metal and anion content in the deposited bottom ash. The discharge of heavy metals ranged from 0.001% for Pb to 0.55% for Cr, which is approximately at the same level as in regular municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Landfilled organic material and silicates from construction waste might have contributed to the retention of metals. Chloride, and to a lesser extent sulphate, appeared to be readily released from the landfill. It was estimated that a mass corresponding to 80% of the Cl- and 18% of the SO(4)2- in the bottom ash was discharged annually. Low retention, especially of chloride, may lead to a rapid decline in the discharge of this ion in the future when the landfilling of bottom ash is discontinued.

  11. Reference source of the radon-222 for modern technology of environmental monitoring in radioactive waste storages

    OpenAIRE

    Солодовнікова, Лідія Миколаївна; Тарасов, Володимир Олексійович

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a reference source of the radon-222 created to solve the problem of probability of environmental monitoring of the radon-222 in storages of radioactive wastes, uranium mines, geodynamic landfills over the study of portents of earthquakes.The main objective of the study is to develop a modern technology of environmental radon monitoring using the built-in reference sources of the radon-222 with the metrological characteristics independent of environmental parameters - tem...

  12. Exergy analysis of biogas production from a municipal solid waste landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Nanaki, E.; Koroneos, C.

    2013-01-01

    management and energy areas. The objective of this work is to analyze exergeticaly the electricity production from a landfill in the area of Volos, Greece and discuss how the extension of the landfill influences electricity production, something not studied so far. The electricity production potential...

  13. MICROBIAL POPULATIONS AND MOISTURE CONTENT IN A CONVENTIONALLY OPERATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfills are not sterile environments. In fact it can be argued that they are the ultimate reactors for biodegradation as they contain nutrients, bacteria, and various redox conditions which, then, change over time. Enhancement of the landfill environment to optimize the rates o...

  14. EFFECT OF SEALED MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Halina Grygorczuk-Petersons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the landfill on the groundwater environment. The assessment of water status in the region of landfill sealed with a layer of clay with a thickness of 0.5 m, was based on the own research and monitoring received from the municipal office, and conducted in 2007–2010. Waters flowing out of the landfill revealed an increase in pollution indicators such as: total organic carbon (TOC, concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, and chromium. It was demonstrated that the landfill sealed with a clay layer does not reduce the outflow of leachate to groundwater, but also that the purity of these waters is influenced by increased agricultural activity in the areas adjacent to the landfill.

  15. Effect of increasing salinity on biogas production in waste landfills with leachate recirculation: A lab-scale model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Ogata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on anaerobic waste degradation and microbial communities were investigated, in order to propose an appropriate leachate recirculation process in a waste landfill in a tropical region. A salt concentration of 21 mS cm−1 of electrical conductivity (EC did not affect waste degradation, but a salt concentration of 35 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited CH4 generation. A higher salt concentration of 80 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited not only CH4 and CO2 generation, but also degradation of organic compounds. The bacterial and archaeal community compositions were affected by high salinity. High salinity can exert selective pressure on bacterial communities, resulting in a change in bacterial community structure. Ammonium caused strong, dominant inhibition of biogas production in the salt concentration range of this study. Quality control, especially of ammonium levels, will be essential for the promotion of waste biodegradation in landfills with leachate recirculation.

  16. The health impact of nonhazardous solid waste disposal in a community: the case of the Mare Chicose landfill in mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorah, Smita Sulackshana Devi; Esmyot, Mary Libera Isabelle; Boojhawon, Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    The disposal of nonhazardous solid waste on the island of Mauritius is centered on the Mare Chicose landfill. Because of health concerns in the community, the authors conducted a health impact survey, took measurements of height and weight, and compared the results with a control locality. After adjusting for confounding factors, the authors observed that numerous complaints were significantly higher in the target population. After elimination of reporting bias, however, nausea and vomiting remained as the only significant self-reported outcomes. The mean body mass index (BMI) of target men was significantly lower when compared with the control. This result was not observed in the populations of women and children, and suggests a gender difference in the health impact of the landfill.

  17. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  18. Batch test assessment of waste-to-energy combustion residues impacts on precipitate formation in landfill leachate collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Antonio J; Levine, Audrey D; Rhea, Lisa R

    2008-01-01

    Disposal practices for bottom ash and fly ash from waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities include emplacement in ash monofills or co-disposal with municipal solid waste (MSW) and residues from water and wastewater treatment facilities. In some cases, WTE residues are used as daily cover in landfills that receive MSW. A recurring problem in many landfills is the development of calcium-based precipitates in leachate collection systems. Although MSW contains varying levels of calcium, WTE residues and treatment plant sludges have the potential to contribute concentrated sources of leachable minerals into landfill leachates. This study was conducted to evaluate the leachability of calcium and other minerals from residues generated by WTE combustion using residues obtained from three WTE facilities in Florida (two mass-burn and one refuse-derived fuel). Leaching potential was quantified as a function of contact time and liquid-to-solid ratios with batch tests and longer-term leaching tests using laboratory lysimeters to simulate an ash monofill containing fly ash and bottom ash. The leachate generated as a result of these tests had total dissolved solid (TDS) levels ranging from 5 to 320 mg TDS/g ash. Calcium was a major contributor to the TDS values, contributing from 20 to 105 g calcium/kg ash. Fly ash was a major contributor of leachable calcium. Precipitate formation in leachates from WTE combustion residues could be induced by adding mineral acids or through gas dissolution (carbon dioxide or air). Stabilization of residual calcium in fly ashes that are landfilled and/or the use of less leachable neutralization reagents during processing of acidic gases from WTE facilities could help to decrease the calcium levels in leachates and help to prevent precipitate formation in leachate collection systems.

  19. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  20. Evaluation of prospective hazardous waste treatment technologies for use in processing low-level mixed wastes at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlochlin, S.C.; Harder, R.V.; Jensen, R.T.; Pettis, S.A.; Roggenthen, D.K.

    1990-09-18

    Several technologies for destroying or decontaminating hazardous wastes were evaluated (during early 1988) as potential processes for treating low-level mixed wastes destined for destruction in the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. The processes that showed promise were retained for further consideration and placed into one (or more) of three categories based on projected availability: short, intermediate, and long-term. Three potential short-term options were identified for managing low-level mixed wastes generated or stored at the Rocky Flats Plant (operated by Rockwell International in 1988). These options are: (1) Continue storing at Rocky Flats, (2) Ship to Nevada Test Site for landfill disposal, or (3) Ship to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for incineration in the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility. The third option is preferable because the wastes will be destroyed. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has received interim status for processing solid and liquid low-level mixed wastes. However, low-level mixed wastes will continue to be stored at Rocky Flats until the Department of Energy approval is received to ship to the Nevada Test Site or Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Potential intermediate and long-term processes were identified; however, these processes should be combined into complete waste treatment systems'' that may serve as alternatives to the Fluidized Bed Incinerator. Waste treatment systems will be the subject of later work. 59 refs., 2 figs.

  1. A logistic model for the prediction of the influence of water on the solid waste methanization in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, S; Chenu, D; Quintard, M; Lefebvre, X

    2007-06-15

    This article deals with the impact of water content of solid waste on biogas production kinetics in landfills. This impact has been proved in the laboratory thanks to anaerobic biodegradation experiments on paper/cardboard waste samples. A strong dependence with the moisture level was observed for both kinetic rates and maximum methane production. In this article, a logistic model is proposed to simulate the biogas production rate. It is chosen as simple as possible in order to allow for a correct identification of the model parameters given the experimental data available. The moisture dependency is introduced through a linear weighing of the biomass specific growth rate and of the amount of accessible organic substrate. It is directly linked to physical properties of the waste: the holding capacity and the minimal moisture level allowing the presence of free water.

  2. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  3. Immobilization of antimony waste slag by applying geopolymerization and stabilization/solidification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2014-11-01

    During the processing of antimony ore by pyrometallurgical methods, a considerable amount of slag is formed. This antimony waste slag is listed by the European Union as absolutely hazardous waste with a European Waste Catalogue code of 10 08 08. Since the levels of antimony and arsenic in the leachate of the antimony waste slag are generally higher than the landfilling limits, it is necessary to treat the slag before landfilling. In this study, stabilization/solidification and geopolymerization technologies were both applied in order to limit the leaching potential of antimony and arsenic. Different combinations ofpastes by using Portland cement, fly ash, clay, gypsum, and blast furnace slag were prepared as stabilization/solidification or geopoljymer matrixes. Sodium silicate-sodium hydroxide solution and sodium hydroxide solution at 8 M were used as activators for geopolymer samples. Efficiencies of the combinations were evaluated in terms of leaching and unconfined compressive strength. None of the geopolymer samples prepared with the activators yielded arsenic and antimony leaching below the regulatory limit at the same time, although they yielded high unconfined compressive strength levels. On the other hand, the stabilization/solidification samples prepared by using water showed low leaching results meeting the landfilling criteria. Use of gypsum as an additive was found to be successful in immobilizing the arsenic and antimony.

  4. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Performance and completion assessment of an in-situ aerated municipal solid waste landfill - Final scientific documentation of an Austrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2016-08-23

    By converting anaerobic landfills into a biologically stabilized state through accelerating aerobic organic matter degradation, the effort and duration necessary for post-closure procedures can be shortened. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in-situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection with simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old MSW-landfill and operated between 2007 and 2013. Besides complementary laboratory investigations, which included waste sampling from the landfill site prior to aeration start, a comprehensive field monitoring program was conducted to assess the influence of the aeration measure on the emission behavior of the landfilled waste during the aeration period as well as after aeration completion. Although the initial waste material was described as rather stable, the lab-scale aeration tests indicated a significant improvement of the leachate quality and even the biological solid waste stability. However, the aeration success was less pronounced for the application at the landfill site, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation. In this paper main performance data of the field investigation are compared to four other scientifically documented case studies along with stability indicators for solid waste and leachate characteristics in order to evaluate the success of aeration as well as the progress of a landfill towards completion and end of post-closure care. A number of quantitative benchmarks and relevant context information for the performance assessment of the five hitherto conducted international aeration projects are proposed aiming to support the systematization and harmonization of available results from diverse field studies and full-scale applications in future.

  6. Review on pollution control technologies of hydrogen sulfide odor in landfill%填埋场中硫化氢恶臭污染防治技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜耀; 方圆; 沈东升; 龙於洋

    2015-01-01

    Landfill is a popular disposal method for municipal solid wastes (MSW) in developing countries such as China. With the rapid increase of urbanization and waste output, some landfills are gradually being surrounded by residential areas. Accordingly, odor pollution arisen from landfill site has become one of the most common public complaints. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the major contributors to offensive odors in landfill, which is not only endangers the health of field workers, but also affect the normal life of the surrounding residents. This paper reviewed the recent research progress of H2S odor pollution control technologies in landfill. It shows that the H2S odor pollution in landfill has a very high concentration and intensity with great seasonal and meteorological changing. H2S in landfill gas ranges from hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter up to thousands of milligrams per cubic meter in different MSW landfill sites. Correspondingly, the sulfate, which could be utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as the electron acceptor to produce H2S, ranges from 70 to 1750 mg/L in leachate. Overall, technologies for H2S odor pollution control in landfill are mainly focusing on the end-up treatment including removing of H2S from landfill gas and using the alterative landfill cover layer to reduce H2S emission into the surrounding atmosphere. Besides, semi-aerobic landfill technology, which can accelerate the stabilization of the refuse, reduce the production of leachate and landfill gas, is another good option for H2S odor pollution control. Moreover, technologies of using easy available and efficient materials to control H2S odor emission has also being developed, especially for resource utilization of wastes with special physical, chemical and biological properties. However, technologies about controlling the source of H2S odor in landfill are still very limited. In order to deeply solve the problem of H2S odor pollution from landfill, it may need to

  7. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  8. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yemen one of the developing country suffering from water pollution. Landfill is one of the source of water pollution. There are several boreholes located close to Ibb landfill used for drinking water. A study of composition of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution was conducted at Ibb landfill, which is located at Al-Sahool area, north of Ibb City, Yemen. Approach: The leachate was sampled at three different locations of the landfill, at the landfill itself and 15 and 20 m downstream of this landfill. Groundwater samples collected from 5 boreholes to study possible impact of leachate percolation into groundwater. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected during dry season only, due to the excessive generation of leachate during this season. Objective of this study was significant to assess degree of groundwater pollution due to Ibb landfill leachate at Al-Sahool area. The leachate and groundwater were physically and chemically characterized by using spectrophotometer HACH, BOD Trak HACH, flame photometer (PFP 7 and Inductively Coupled Plasma of Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES model Vista MPX. Parameters measured were pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Fluoride (F, Chloride (Cl, Sulphate (SO4, Nitrites (NO2, Nitrates (NO3, ammonia-N (NH3-N, heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu, major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe and biological parameters (COD, BOD5 and coliform group bacteria. Results: The results showed that, leachate at landfill most likely in methanogenic phase, based on the alkaline pH value recorded (pH = 8.46. The results also showed that 4 out of 5 boreholes were contaminated, where concentration of physico-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's ministry of water and environment and by word standard. Conclusion: Therefore, landfill is dangerous for environment so

  9. Leachate and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Groundwater near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad. Methods: In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad. Results: Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the studied wells was below the national standards of drinking water of Iran, WHO, and the United States. Pearson correlation coefficients also indicated that there was a significant correlation among the studied metals in the wells. Conclusion: Cd and Cu concentrations in all of the wells (except Pb in winter and Ni in summer did not pose any significant water quality problems since these concentrations were below the standards acceptable levels of drinking water.

  10. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  11. Hydrological and geochemical factors affecting leachate composition in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Part I: The hydrology of Landfill Lostorf, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. Annette; Richner, Gérald A.; Vitvar, Tomas; Schittli, Nina; Eberhard, Mark

    1998-10-01

    The objective of the investigation of the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash landfill, Landfill Lostorf, was to determine the residence time of water in the landfill and the flow paths through the landfill. Over a period of 22 months, measurements of rainfall, landfill discharge and leachate electrical conductivity were recorded and tracer experiments made. Over the yearly period 1995, approximately 50% of the incident rainfall was measured in the discharge. An analysis of single rain events showed that in winter, 90-100% of rainfall was expressed in the landfill discharge, whereas in summer months, the value was between 9 and 40% depending on the intensity of the rain event. The response to rainfall was rapid. Within 30-100 h, approximately 50% of water discharged in response to a rain event had left the landfill. The discharge was less than 4 l/min for approximately 50% of the measurement periods. Qualitative tracer studies with fluorescein, pyranine and iodide clearly showed the existence of preferential flow paths. This was further substantiated by quantitative tracer studies of single rain events using 18O/ 16O ratios and electrical conductivity measurements. The proportion of rainwater passing directly through the landfill was found to be between 20 and 80% in summer months and around 10% in winter months. The difference has been ascribed to the water content in the landfill. The average residence time of the water within the landfill has been estimated to be roughly 3 years and this water is the predominant component in the discharge over a yearly period.

  12. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heat budget for a waste lift placed under freezing conditions at a landfill operated in a northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonany, James E; Van Geel, Paul J; Burak Gunay, H; Burkan Isgor, O

    2013-05-01

    A landfill operated in Ste. Sophie, Québec, Canada was instrumented to better understand the waste stabilization process in northern climates. Instrument bundles were placed within the waste to monitor temperature, settlement, oxygen, moisture content, total load, mounding of leachate and electrical conductivity. A finite element model was developed to simulate the heat budget for the first waste lift placed in the winter months and was calibrated using the first 10.5 months of collected temperature data. The calibrated model was then used to complete a sensitivity analysis for the various parameters that impact the heat budget. The results of the analysis indicated that the heat required for phase change to thaw the liquid fraction within frozen waste had a significant impact on the heat budget causing sections of waste to remain frozen throughout the simulation period. This was supported by the data collected to date at Ste. Sophie and by other researchers indicating that frozen waste placed during the winter months can remain frozen for periods in access of 1.5 years.

  14. The microbial ecology of anaerobic cellulose degradation in municipal waste landfill sites: evidence of a role for fibrobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Houghton, James N I; Rooks, David J; Allison, Heather E; McCarthy, Alan J

    2012-04-01

    Cellulose is reputedly the most abundant organic polymer in the biosphere, yet despite the fundamental role of cellulolytic microorganisms in global carbon cycling and as potential sources of novel enzymes for biotechnology, their identity and ecology is not well established. Cellulose is a major component of landfill waste and its degradation is therefore a key feature of the anaerobic microbial decomposition process. Here, we targeted a number of taxa containing known cellulolytic anaerobes (members of the bacterial genus Fibrobacter, lineages of Clostridium clusters I, III, IV and XIV, and anaerobic fungi of the Neocallimastigales) in landfill leachate and colonized cellulose 'baits' via PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium clusters III, IV and XIV were detected in almost all leachate samples and cluster III and XIV clostridia were the most abundant (1-6% and 1-17% of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies respectively). Two landfill leachate microcosms were constructed to specifically assess those microbial communities that colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of colonized cotton revealed extensive cellulose degradation in one microcosm, and Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium cluster III represented 29% and 17%, respectively, of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in the biofilm. Visible cellulose degradation was not observed in the second microcosm, and this correlated with negligible relative abundances of Clostridium cluster III and Fibrobacter spp. (≤ 0.1%), providing the first evidence that the novel fibrobacters recently detected in landfill sites and other non-gut environments colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H; Hearn, Laurence; Muller, Jochen F

    2014-11-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of South Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13-59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41-6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to attribute elevated contaminant levels to e-waste, we do not recommend continued disposal of e-waste in old landfills that were not originally designed to contain leachates. The survey also revealed temporal variation in the electrical conductivity and concentrations of As, Cd and Pb present in leachates of landfills in arid Mediterranean climates. These results are consistent with the marked variations in rainfall patterns observed for such climates. The solute concentration (EC and other ions including As

  16. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  17. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms.

  18. Municipal solid waste landfill site selection with geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process: a case study in Mahshahr County, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Nadali; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Jaafarzadeh, Nemat; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Landfill siting is a complicated process because it must combine social, environmental and technical factors. In this study, in order to consider all factors and rating criteria, a combination of geographic information systems and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the best sites for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Mahshahr County, Iran. In order to the decision making for landfill siting a structural hierarchy formed and the most important criteria: surface water, sensitive ecosystems, land cover, urban and rural areas, land uses, distance to roads, slope and land type were chosen according to standards and regulations. Each criterion was evaluated by rating methods. In the next step the relative importance of criteria to each other was determined by AHP. Land suitability for landfill was evaluated by simple additive weighting method. According to the landfill suitability map, the study area classified to four categories: high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 18.6%, 20.3%, 1.6 and 0.8% of the study area respectively. The other 58.7% of the study area was determined to be completely unsuitable for landfill. By considering the parameters, such as the required area for landfill, distance to MSW generation points, and political and management issues, and consulting with municipalities managers in the study area, six sites were chosen for site visiting. The result of field study showed that it is a supplementary, and necessary, step in finding the best candidate landfill site from land with high suitability.

  19. Emission model for landfills with mechanically-biologically pretreated waste, with the emphasis on modelling the gas balance; Emissionsprognosemodell fuer Deponien mit mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandelten Abfaellen - Schwerpunkt: Modellierung des Gashaushaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine influence factors on processes going on in landfills with mechanically-biologically pretreated waste (MBP-landfills) in order to predict emissions. For this purpose a computer based model has been developed. The model allows to simulate the gas, water and heat balance as well as settlement processes and was called DESIM2005 (version MB). It is based on theoretical modeling approaches as well as data from lab and reactor experiments. The main focus of model application was to determine factors influencing the gas phase and the emissions of landfill gas and methane during operation and aftercare of MBP-landfills. By performing simulations the effects of changing parameters for the processes gas transport and biological degradation as well as the effects of different qualities in waste pretreatment and of varying landfill operation techniques were investigated. Possibilities for increasing the environmental sustainability of landfills containing mechanically-biologically pretreated waste were shown. (orig.)

  20. Waste Socio-technological Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Campos, Maria José; Zapata, Patrik; Eriksson-Zetterquist, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    able to replace other production or construction materials. It also means that the consumption of the amount of virgin material decreases and saves energy. Despite the growing material recycling rates, the amount of waste per person, and packaging waste among others, continues to increase. High......The transformation of packaging waste from a problem into a resource has had significant consequences for a more sustainable use of natural resources and even the reduction of potential C02 emissions and its contribution to the climate change. Material recycling leads to separated material being...... recycling rates can be pointless if the amount of waste does not decrease. This is an example of how well established waste recovery regimes can stand in the way of more sustainable forms to handle waste (Corvellec et al, 2013) and, ultimately, hinder the development towards the EU objective (2008...

  1. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  2. Waste Sorting Habits by the Community of Kaunas University of Technology, Reasons and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Adomavičiūtė

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the waste management system at Kaunas University of Technology, surveys the waste sorting habits of its community, both students and employees, and analyses the reasons and factors influencing waste sorting and non-sorting. The introduction of a separate paper waste collection system has made it possible to reduce the amount of mixed waste by 25% during the first three months of its functioning. 58% of employees and 45% of students sort some of their waste partly, 23% of employees and 11% of students sort all their waste. 8% of employees and 19% of students sort their waste sometimes. 8% of employees and 24% of students do not sort waste at all. 77% of employees and 66% of students think that the main problem caused by waste generation is pollution of the environment. Therefore willingness to reduce an impact on it is the main reason for sorting, while a lack of conditions to keep separated recyclable refuse and a lack of nearby containers are main factors that are distracting people from source-sorting. Growth of environmental awareness and formation of sorting habits that are transmitted to family members are identified as the strengths. Lack of conditions for sorting (e.g. no place to keep sorted waste at home, insufficiently developed waste collection infrastructure, mistrust in a sorted waste collection system (e.g. belief that sorted waste goes to a landfill, and lack of information are the weaknesses. The opportunities comprise development of a convenient waste collection infrastructure, introduction of economic incentives and rise of further awareness. Identified threats for sorting at the source that discourage source sorting are the following: a developed infrastructure will not satisfy real needs; sorting will not become financially rewarding; improper decisions about a waste management system and waste treatment practices made at the state level, no real use of sorting.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.62.4.2954

  3. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  4. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  5. Influence of temperature on carbon and nitrogen dynamics during in situ aeration of aged waste in simulated landfill bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Huanhuan; Yin, Ke; Giannis, Apostolos; Ge, Liya; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of temperature on carbon and nitrogen compounds during in situ aeration of aged waste was investigated in lab-scale simulated landfill bioreactors at 35, 45 and 55 °C, respectively. The bioreactor operated at 55 °C presented the highest carbon mineralization rate in the initial stage, suggesting accelerated biodegradation rates under thermophilic conditions. The nitrogen speciation study indicated that organic nitrogen was the dominant species of total N in aerobic bioreactors due to ammonia removal. Leachate organic nitrogen was further fractionated to elucidate the fate of individual constituent. Detailed investigation revealed the higher bioconversion rates of N-humic and N-fulvic compounds compared to hydrophilic compounds in thermophilic conditions. At the end, waste material in 55 °C bioreactor was richer in highly matured humic substances (HS) verifying the high bioconversion rates.

  6. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  7. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  8. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  9. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  10. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic data for the municipal solid waste landfill facility, U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss, El Paso County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Frenzel, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Facility on the U.S. Army Air Defense Artillery Center and Fort Bliss in El Paso County, Texas, were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army. The 106.03-acre landfill has been in operation since January 1974. The landfill contains household refuse, Post solid wastes, bulky items, grass and tree trimmings from family housing, refuse from litter cans, construction debris, classified waste (dry), dead animals, asbestos, and empty oil cans. The depth of the filled areas is about 30 feet and the cover, consisting of locally derived material, is 2 to 3 feet thick. Geologic and hydrologic data were collected at or adjacent to the landfill during (1) drilling of 10 30- to 31-foot boreholes that were completed with gas-monitoring probes, (2) drilling of a 59-foot borehole, (3) drilling of a 355-foot borehole that was completed as a ground-water monitoring well, and (4) in situ measurements made on the landfill cover. After completion, the gas- monitoring probes were monitored on a quarterly basis (1 year total) for gases generated by the landfill. Water samples were collected from the ground-water monitoring well for chemical analysis. Data collection is divided into two elements: geologic data and hydrologic data. Geologic data include lithologic descriptions of cores and cuttings, geophysical logs, soil- gas and ambient-air analyses, and chemical analyses of soil. Hydrologic data include physical properties, total organic carbon, and pH of soil and sediment samples; soil-water chloride and soil-moisture analyses; physical properties of the landfill cover; measurements of depth to ground water; and ground-water chemical analyses. Interpretation of data is not included in this report.

  12. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Adsorption of Ammonia on Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Under the Landfill Circumstance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Zhang, Zhen [Taizhou University, Linhai (China); Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng [Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2015-08-15

    The adsorption characteristics of ammonia on MSWI bottom ash were investigated. The effect of the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the adsorption process was discussed. Results showed that the adsorption could be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 156.2 mg/g. The optimum adsorption of ammonia was observed when the pH was 6.0. High level of ion and organic matter could restrict the adsorption to a low level. The above results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of ammonia in the landfill, which is related to the variation of the landfill circumstance.

  14. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...

  15. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  16. A summary of the report on prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and Department of Energy cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. In the past twenty years, advances in the engineering of pyrolysis systems and in sorting and feeding technologies for solid waste industries have ensured consistent feedstocks and system performance. Some vendors now offer complete pyrolysis systems with performance warranties. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates the four most promising pyrolytic systems for their readiness, applicability to regional waste management needs and conformity with DOE environmental restoration and waste management requirements. This summary characterizes the engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications and markets for these pyrolysis systems.

  17. Simulation analysis of wastes gasification technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stępień Leszek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year a significant growth in the amount of wastes generated is observed. Due to this fact technologies enabling utilization of wastes are needed. One of the ways to utilizes wastes is thermal conversion. Most widely used technology for thermal conversion is gasification that enables to produce syngas that can be either combusted or directed to further synthesis to produce methanol or liquid fuels. There are several commercially available technologies that enable to gasify wastes. The first part of this study is subjected to general description of waste gasification process. Furthermore the analysis and comparison of commercially available gasification technologies is presented, including their process arrangement, limits and capabilities. Second part of the study is dedicated to the development of thermodynamic model for waste gasification. The model includes three zones of gasification reactors: drying, gasification and eventually ash melting. Modified Gibbs minimization method is used to simulate gasification process. The model is capable of predicting final gas composition as a function of temperature or equivalence ratio. Calculations are performed for a specified average wastes composition and different equivalence ratios of air to discuss its influence on the performance of gasification (temperature of the process and gas composition. Finally the model enables to calculate total energy balance of the process as well as gasification and final gas temperature.

  18. Emission Control and Utilization of Landfill Gas in Ningbo Waste Landfill Site%宁波市垃圾填埋场填埋气体排放控制及利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

    Taking Ningbo city as an example,the treatment measures of unorganized emission of odor landfill gas from domestic waste sanitary landfill site were discussed,for instance,ordered collection and incineration-power generation.It could treat greenhouse gases such as CH4 effectively to make the pollutions control,and use waste heat to produce electricity.Thus it would achieve energy-saving and emission-reduction.%以宁波市为例,探讨了生活垃圾卫生填埋场产生的无组织排放的异味填埋气体有序收集及焚烧发电的处理措施,既有效处理了CH4等温室气体,使污染排放得到有效控制,又利用余热发电,实现节能减排.

  19. Behaviour at landfills of waste having undergone mechanic-biological and thermal conditioning; Deponieverhalten mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch behandelten Restabfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.; Dach, J.; Jager, J. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany). FG Abfalltechnik

    1998-12-31

    The work studies, in landfill test reactors, water, gas and heat transport as well as gas and leachate formation in waste having undergone mechanical-biological and thermal conditioning. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde der Wasser-, Gas- und Waermetransport, sowie die Gasbildung- und Sickerwasserbelastung mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch vorbehandelter Abfaelle in Deponieversuchsreaktoren untersucht. (orig.)

  20. COMPARISON OF MICROBIAL POPULATIONS IN A CONVENTIONAL AND BIOREACTING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfills are the ultimate reactors for biodegradation as they contain nutrients, bacteria, and various redox conditions which, then, change over time. Enhancement of the landill environment to optimize the rates of biodegradation and to ensure more rapid stabilization of the was...

  1. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  3. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples.

  4. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  5. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  6. Mine Waste Technology Program Electrochemical Tailings Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 40, Electrochemical Tailings Cover, funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). MSE Technology A...

  7. Two-year performance by evapotranspiration covers for municipal solid waste landfills in northwest Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnswell, Kristopher D., E-mail: kristopher.barnswell2@rockets.utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH 43616 (United States); Dwyer, Daryl F., E-mail: daryl.dwyer@utoledo.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Mail Stop 604, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ET covers produced rates of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum allowable rate by the Ohio EPA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dredged sediment provided sufficient water storage and promoted growth by native plant species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Native plant mixtures attained acceptable rates of evapotranspiration throughout the growing season. - Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) covers have gained interest as an alternative to conventional covers for the closure of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills because they are less costly to construct and are expected to have a longer service life. Whereas ET covers have gained acceptance in arid and semi-arid regions (defined by a precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET) ratio less than 0.75) by meeting performance standards (e.g. rate of percolation), it remains unclear whether they are suitable for humid regions (P:PET greater than 0.75). The goal of this project is to extend their application to northwest Ohio (P:PET equals 1.29) by designing covers that produce a rate of percolation less than 32 cm yr{sup -1}, the maximum acceptable rate by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). Test ET covers were constructed in drainage lysimeters (1.52 m diameter, 1.52 m depth) using dredged sediment amended with organic material and consisted of immature (I, plants seeded onto soil) or mature (M, plants transferred from a restored tall-grass prairie) plant mixtures. The water balance for the ET covers was monitored from June 2009 to June 2011, which included measured precipitation and percolation, and estimated soil water storage and evapotranspiration. Precipitation was applied at a rate of 94 cm yr{sup -1} in the first year and at rate of 69 cm yr{sup -1} in the second year. During the first year, covers with the M plant mixture produced noticeably less percolation (4 cm) than covers with the I plant mixture (17 cm). However, during the

  8. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2005-11-01

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. At least one-hundred realizations were simulated for each scenario defined in the performance assessment. Conservative values and assumptions were used to define values and distributions of uncertain input parameters when site data were not available. Results showed that exposure to tritium via the air pathway exceeded the regulatory metric of 10 mrem/year in about 2% of the simulated realizations when the receptor was located at the MWL (continuously exposed to the air directly above the MWL). Simulations showed that peak radon gas fluxes exceeded the design standard of 20 pCi/m{sup 2}/s in about 3% of the realizations if up to 1% of the containers of sealed radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade in the future. If up to 100% of the containers of radium-226 sources were assumed to completely degrade, 30% of the realizations yielded radon surface fluxes that exceeded the design standard. For the groundwater pathway, simulations showed that none of the radionuclides or heavy metals (lead and cadmium) reached the groundwater during

  9. Removal of organic micro-pollutants from solid waste landfill leachate in membrane bioreactor operated without excess sludge discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaroj, V; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was applied to the treatment of landfill leachate from a solid waste disposal site in Thailand. The first stage anoxic reactor was equipped with an inclined tube module for sludge separation. It was followed by an aerobic stage with a hollow fiber membrane module for solid liquid separation. Mixed liquor sludge from the aerobic reactor was re-circulated back to anoxic reactor in order to maintain constant mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in the aerobic reactor. The removal of micro-pollutants from landfill leachate along the treatment period of 300 days was monitored. The results indicated that two-stage MBRs could remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)(+) by 97, 87 and 91% at steady operating condition. Meanwhile organic micro-pollutant removals were 50-76%. The removal efficiencies varied according to the hydrophobic characteristic of compounds but they were improved during long-term MBR operation without sludge discharge.

  10. Expanding worldwide urban solid waste recycling: The Brazilian social technology in waste pickers inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacqueline E; Rutkowski, Emília W

    2015-12-01

    'If an integrated urban waste management system includes the informal recycling sector (IRS), there is a good chance that more solid waste is recycled' is common sense. However, informal integration brings additional social, environmental, and economic benefits, such as reduction of operational costs and environmental impacts of landfilling. Brazil is a global best practice example in terms of waste picker inclusion, and has received international recognition for its recycling levels. In addition to analysing the results of inclusive recycling approaches, this article evaluates a selection of the best Brazilian inclusive recycling practices and summaries and presents the resulting knowledge. The objective is to identify processes that enable the replication of the inclusion of the informal recycling sector model as part of municipal solid waste management. Qualitative and quantitative data have been collected in 25 Brazilian cities that have contracted waste pickers co-operatives for door-to-door selective collection of recyclables. Field data was collected in action research projects that worked with waste pickers co-operatives between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian informal recycling sector integration model improves municipal solid waste recycling indicators: it shows an increase in the net tonness recycled, from 140 to 208 t month(-1), at a much lower cost per tonne than conventional selective collection systems. Inclusive systems show costs of US$35 per tonne of recyclables collected, well below the national average of US$195.26. This inclusive model improves the quality of collected material and the efficiency of municipal selective collection. It also diminishes the negative impacts of informal recycling, by reducing child labour, and by improving the conditions of work, occupational health and safety, and uncontrolled pollution. Although treating the Brazilian experience as a blueprint for transfer of experience in every case is unrealistic, the results

  11. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  12. The effects of leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition on methane production and waste decomposition in a simulated tropical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphoti, N; Towprayoon, S; Chaiprasert, P; Nopharatana, A

    2006-10-01

    In order to increase methane production efficiency, leachate recirculation is applied in landfills to increase moisture content and circulate organic matter back into the landfill cell. In the case of tropical landfills, where high temperature and evaporation occurs, leachate recirculation may not be enough to maintain the moisture content, therefore supplemental water addition into the cell is an option that could help stabilize moisture levels as well as stimulate biological activity. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition on municipal solid waste decomposition and methane production in three anaerobic digestion reactors. Anaerobic digestion with leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition showed the highest performance in terms of cumulative methane production and the stabilization period time required. It produced an accumulated methane production of 54.87 l/kg dry weight of MSW at an average rate of 0.58 l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 180. The leachate recirculation reactor provided 17.04 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.14l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 290. The control reactor provided 9.02 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.10 l/kg dry weight/d, and reached the stabilization phase on day 270. Increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) after the waste had reached the stabilization phase made it possible to increase the methane content of the gas, the methane production rate, and the COD removal. Comparison of the reactors' efficiencies at maximum OLR (5 kgCOD/m(3)/d) in terms of the methane production rate showed that the reactor using leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition still gave the highest performance (1.56 l/kg dry weight/d), whereas the leachate recirculation reactor and the control reactor provided 0.69 l/kg dry weight/d and 0.43 l/kg dry weight/d, respectively. However, when considering

  13. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  14. Landfill area estimation based on integrated waste disposal options and solid waste forecasting using modified ANFIS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Younes, Mohammed Y

    2016-09-01

    Solid waste prediction is crucial for sustainable solid waste management. The collection of accurate waste data records is challenging in developing countries. Solid waste generation is usually correlated with economic, demographic and social factors. However, these factors are not constant due to population and economic growth. The objective of this research is to minimize the land requirements for solid waste disposal for implementation of the Malaysian vision of waste disposal options. This goal has been previously achieved by integrating the solid waste forecasting model, waste composition and the Malaysian vision. The modified adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (MANFIS) was employed to develop a solid waste prediction model and search for the optimum input factors. The performance of the model was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)). The model validation results are as follows: RMSE for training=0.2678, RMSE for testing=3.9860 and R(2)=0.99. Implementation of the Malaysian vision for waste disposal options can minimize the land requirements for waste disposal by up to 43%.

  15. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  16. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  17. Hydraulic permeability of bentonite-polymer composites for application in landfill technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Hanna; Haase, Hanna; Schanz, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Bentonites are often used as barrier materials in landfill technology to prevent infiltration of leachates to the natural environment. Since decades, geoenvironmental engineering aims at improving the hydro-mechanical performance of landfill liners. Various studies on the permeability performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) show effects of non-standard liquids on behaviour of Na+-bentonite regarding its sealing capacity. With increasing concentration of chemical aggressive solutions the sealing capacity decreases (Shackelford et al. 2000). An opportunity to improve the hydraulic permeability of the bentonites is the addition of polymers. The changes in hydraulic permeability performance of polymer treated and untreated bentonites while adding chemical aggressive solutions were studied by several authors. Results obtained by Scalia et al. (2014) illustrate that an increase in permeability can be prevented by adding polymer to Na+-bentonite. On the other hand, Ashmawy et al. (2002) presented results on the incapability of several commercial bentonite-polymer-products. The objective of this study is to characterize the influence of polymer addition on hydraulic performance of Na+-bentonite systematically. Therefore, the influence of 1% polymer addition of cationic and anionic polyacrylamide on the swelling pressure and hydraulic permeability of MX 80 bentonite was investigated. Preparation of bentonite-polymer composites was conducted (1) in dry conditions and (2) using solution-intercalation method. Experiments on hydraulic permeability were carried out using distilled water as well as CaCl2-solution. References Ashmawy, A. K., El-Hajji, D., Sotelo, N. & Muhammad, N. (2002), `Hydraulic Performance of Untreated and Polymer-treated Bentonite in Inorganic Landfill Leachates', Clays and Clay Minerals 50(5), 546-552. Scalia, J., Benson, C., Bohnhoff, G., Edil, T. & Shackelford, C. (2014), 'Long-Term Hydraulic Conductivity of a Bentonite-Polymer Composite Permeated

  18. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; CHEN Wan-zhi; SONG Fu-zhong; LI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The results of laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste(MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature can used to decompose MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the simulators of the leachate-recirculated landfill and conservative sanitary landfill. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown, and heavy metals concentration was observed. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from simulator of conservative sanitary landfill(CSL), to that of leachate-recirculated landfill(LRL) and to that of conditioned bioreactor landfill(CBL) would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio.

  19. Model simulations for describing water transport in a landfill with bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI): model validation and scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Frank; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth

    2004-10-01

    In the present study the water movement in a bottom ash landfill from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) was investigated. The pore regime of such landfills consists of macropores (with diameter > 50 microm), which make up about two-thirds of the total porosity and micropores. The program MACRO, which describes flow through porous media and takes both macro- and micropore flows into account, was applied. The model was calibrated with a time series from the landfill Riet, near Winterthur in Switzerland. In the present study the model was recalibrated at a time series for 1 year. With this scenario the influence of an expected reduction or increase of the porosity on leachate behaviour of such landfills over a long time (> 100 years) was studied ('long-term behaviour'). It has been shown that reliable information about water percolation can only be provided by obtaining more information about the hydraulic structure of such landfills. In particular, the number of macropores and the porosity exert great influence on the water movement.

  20. Yolo County controlled landfill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D. [IEM, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Dahl, K.; Mansoub, A.; Moore, R. [Yolo County Department of Public Works, Davis, CA (United States); Pacey, J. [Emcon, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A new landfill management approach controlled landfilling is being demonstrated by the Yolo County, California Department of Public Works at the Yolo County Central Landfill (YCCL) near Davis. Overall objectives are to obtain earlier and greater methane energy recovery from landfilled waste and to reduce landfill greenhouse gas emissions to near-negligible levels. Methane generation and waste stabilization were accelerated by improving biological conditions within a test cell through carefully controlled additions of water and leachate. A control cell was operated in parallel. Landfill gas capture was maximized, with emissions reduced to minimal levels, by a combination of surface membrane containment, a permeable layer conducting gas to collection points, and operation at slight vacuum. Cells are highly instrumented to determine performance. To date, normalized methane recovery is the highest seen from such a large waste mass, anywhere - about ten times that from conventional landfall practice. The rationale and details of this project, and first three years' results, are summarized. (author)

  1. Health risk assessment as an approach to manage an old landfill and to propose integrated solid waste treatment: A case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, O; Massabò, M

    2017-07-21

    The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill. Hazard Index (HI) and Cancer Risk (CR) in case of operating landfill and under the suspected situation of failure of the sealing system, were respectively 1.15 and 1.1∗10(-7). Unacceptable HI were found due to groundwater contamination, while HI due to river pollution was slightly under the threshold. Vegetables ingestion was the most important pathway and ammonia the most responsible of toxic adverse effects. Fish ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated water were found to be the most important exposure pathways for carcinogenic risk, due mainly to BTEX. HI and CR in the supposed scenario of total waste gasification were respectively 9.4∗10(-1) and 1.1∗10(-5) while they were respectively 3.2∗10(-1) and 6∗10(-6) in case of gasification of the dry fraction. CR in both scenarios was over the threshold mainly due to dioxins, where milk and meat ingestion were found to be the highest risk pathways. Inhalation resulted as the highest not-carcinogenic risk exposure pathway, mainly due to NOx. Decision making was made by weighing up the different scenarios, and

  2. Tracking quicksilver: estimation of mercury waste from consumer products and subsequent verification by analysis of soil, water, sediment, and plant samples from the Cebu City, Philippines, landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buagas, Dale Jo B; Megraso, Cristi Cesar F; Namata, John Darwin O; Lim, Patrick John Y; Gatus, Karen P; Cañete, Aloysius M L

    2015-03-01

    Source attribution of mercury (Hg) is critical for policy development to minimize the impact of Hg in wastes. Mercury content of consumer products and its subsequent release into the waste stream of Cebu City, Philippines, is estimated through surveys that employed validated, enumerator-administered questionnaires. Initially, a citywide survey (n = 1636) indicates that each household annually generates 1.07 ppm Hg (i.e., mg Hg/kg waste) and that linear and compact fluorescent lamps (17.2 %) and thermometers (52.1 %) are the major sources of Hg. A subsequent survey (n = 372) in the vicinity of the city's municipal solid waste landfill shows that residents in the area annually generate 0.38 ppm Hg per household, which is less than the citywide mean; surprisingly though, less affluent respondents living closer to the landfill site reported more Hg from thermometers and sphygmomanometers. Analysis of collected soil (0.238 ppm), leachate water (6.5 ppb), sediment (0.109 ppm), and three plants (0.393 to 0.695 ppm) shows no significant variation throughout five stations in and around the landfill site, although the period of collection is significant for soil (P = 0.001) and Cenchrus echinatus (P = 0.016). Detected Hg in the landfill is considerably less than the annual estimated release, indicating that there is minimal accumulation of Hg in the soil or in plants. As a result of this project, a policy brief has been provided to the Cebu City council in aid of hazardous waste legislation.

  3. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  4. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  5. Utilization of sepiolite materials as a bottom liner material in solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Cetin, Bora; Aydilek, Ahmet H; Tanyu, Burak F; Koparal, Savas

    2014-01-01

    Landfill bottom liners are generally constructed with natural clay soils due to their high strength and low hydraulic conductivity characteristics. However, in recent years it is increasingly difficult to find locally available clay soils that satisfy the required engineering properties. Fine grained soils such as sepiolite and zeolite may be used as alternative materials in the constructions of landfill bottom liners. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using natural clay rich in kaolinite, sepiolite, zeolite, and their mixtures as a bottom liner material. Unconfined compression tests, swell tests, hydraulic conductivity tests, batch and column adsorption tests were performed on each type of soil and sepiolite-zeolite mixtures. The results of the current study indicate that sepiolite is the dominant material that affects both the geomechanical and geoenvironmental properties of these alternative liners. An increase in sepiolite content in the sepiolite-zeolite mixtures increased the strength, swelling potential and metal adsorption capacities of the soil mixtures. Moreover, hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreased significantly with the addition of sepiolite. The utilization of sepiolite-zeolite materials as a bottom liner material allowed for thinner liners with some reduction in construction costs compared to use of a kaolinite-rich clay.

  6. Ground waters quality assessment near solid municipal wastes and hazardous landfills; Valutazione della qualita' delle acque profonde in prossimita' di impianti di discarica per rifiuti solidi urbani e per rifiuti pericolosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellino, M.; Falleni, F.; Forte, T.; Musmeci, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses the impact on ground waters quality in relation to municipal and similar waste landfills and hazardous waste landfills, examined in three landfills of first category and one landfill of second category type C. Analytical results from sampling of ground and leaching waters are reported; from these results it can be deduced that environmental impact is minimum or non-existent, where law criteria for construction and management of landfills are respected. [Italian] Il rapporto esamina l'impatto sulla qualita' delle acque profonde dovuto agli impianti di discarica per rifiuti solidi urbani e assimilabili e per rifiuti pericolosi, rispettivamente di tre discariche controllate di prima categoria ed una di seconda di tipo C. Vengono riportate le risultanze analitiche relative ai campionamenti per la costruzione e gestione delle discariche. L'impatto ambientale e' minimo se non assente.

  7. Energy recovery potential and life cycle impact assessment of municipal solid waste management technologies in Asian countries using ELP model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandyaswargo, Andante Hadi; Onoda, Hiroshi; Nagata, Katsuya [Waseda Univ., Saitama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Energy Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Natural resource scarcity and the effects of environmental destruction have pushed societies to use and reuse resources more efficiently. Waste should no longer be seen as a burden but rather as another source of material such as energy fuel. This study analyzes the potential of three waste management technologies - incineration with energy recovery, composting, and sanitary landfill gas collection - as ways to recover energy and material from municipal solid waste. The study applies the environmental load point (ELP) method and utilizes municipal waste characteristics and composition from India, Indonesia, and China as case studies. The ELP methodology employs integrated weighting in the quantification process to get a one-unit result. This study particularly uses analytic hierarchical process questionnaires to get the weighting value of the nine impact categories: energy depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, resource consumption, ecosystem influence, water pollution, waste disposal, air pollution, and acid rain. The results show that the scenario which includes composting organic waste and sanitary landfill with gas collection for energy recovery has medium environmental impact and the highest practicability. The optimum material and energy potential is from the Chinese case study in which 254 tonnes of compost fertilizer and 60 MWh of electricity is the estimated output for every 1,000 tonnes of waste treated. (orig.)

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management in Indian mega-cities: a case study of Chennai landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Arvind K; Sharma, C; Singh, Nahar; Ramesh, R; Purvaja, R; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2008-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation rate is over-riding the population growth rate in all mega-cities in India. Greenhouse gas emission inventory from landfills of Chennai has been generated by measuring the site specific emission factors in conjunction with relevant activity data as well as using the IPCC methodologies for CH4 inventory preparation. In Chennai, emission flux ranged from 1.0 to 23.5mg CH4m(-2)h(-1), 6 to 460microg N2Om(-2)h(-1) and 39 to 906mg CO2m(2)h(-1) at Kodungaiyur and 0.9 to 433mg CH4m(-2)h(-1), 2.7 to 1200microg N2Om(-2)h(-1) and 12.3 to 964.4mg CO2m(-2)h(-1) at Perungudi. CH4 emission estimates were found to be about 0.12Gg in Chennai from municipal solid waste management for the year 2000 which is lower than the value computed using IPCC, 1996 [IPCC, 1996. Report of the 12th session of the intergovernmental panel of climate change, Mexico City, 1996] methodologies.

  9. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato

    2016-11-01

    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  10. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methane (CH4) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under...

  11. Estimating methane gas generation from Devil's swamp landfill using greenhouse gas emission models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Ayodeji Thompson

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) has been a key issue in the study, design, and management of landfills. Landfill gas (LFG) is considered either as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly) or significant source of pollution and risk (if not mitigated or processed). A municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill emits a significant amount of methane, a potent GHG. Thus, quantification and mitigation of GHG emissions is an important area of study in engineering and other sciences related to landfill technology and management. The present study will focus on estimating methane generation from Devils swamp landfill (DSLF), a closed landfill in Baton Rouge, LA. The landfill operated for 53 years (1940-1993) and contains both industrial and municipal waste products. Since the Clean Air Act of 1963, landfills are now classified as New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) waste (i.e., waste that will decompose to generate LFG). Currently, the DSLF is being used as source of renewable energy through the "Waste to Energy" program. For this study, to estimate the methane potential in the DSLF, it is important to determine the characteristics and classification of the landfill's wastes. The study uses and compares different GHG modeling tools---LandGEM, a multiphase model, and a simple first-order model---to estimate methane gas emission and compare results with the actual emissions from the DSLF. The sensitivity of the methane generation rate was analyzed by the methane generation models to assess the effects of variables such as initial conditions, specific growth rate, and reaction rate constants. The study concludes that methane (L0) and initial organic concentration in waste (k) are the most important parameters when estimating methane generation using the models.

  12. Knowledge and technology transfer to improve the municipal solid waste management system of Durango City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Vázquez, Roberto; Pérez-López, Maria E; Vicencio-de-la-Rosa, María G; Martínez-Prado, María A; Rubio-Hernández, Rubén

    2014-09-01

    As society evolves its welfare level increases, and as a consequence the amount of municipal solid waste increases, imposing great challenges to municipal authorities. In developed countries, municipalities have established integrated management schemes to handle, treat, and dispose of municipal solid waste in an economical and environmentally sound manner. Municipalities of developing and transition countries are not exempted from the challenges involving municipal solid waste handling, but their task is not easy to accomplish since they face budget deficits, lack of knowledge, and deficiencies in infrastructure and equipment. In the northern territory of Mexico, the municipality of Durango is facing the challenge of increased volumes of waste with a lack of adequate facilities and infrastructure. This article analyses the evolution of the municipal solid waste management of Durango city, which includes actions such as proper facilities construction, equipment acquisition, and the implementation of social programmes. The World Bank, offering courses to municipal managers on landfill operation and waste management, promoted the process of knowledge and technology transfer. Thereafter, municipal authorities attended regional and some international workshops on waste management. In addition they followed suggestions of international contractors and equipment dealers with the intention to improve the situation of the waste management of the city. After a 15-year period, transfer of knowledge and technology resulted in a modern municipal solid waste management system in Durango municipality. The actual system did not reach the standard levels of an integrated waste management system, nevertheless, a functional evaluation shows clear indications that municipality actions have put them on the right pathway.

  13. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill.

  14. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  15. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  16. Recyclables Valorisation as the Best Strategy for Achieving Landfill CO2e Emissions Abatement from Domestic Waste: Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taboada-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various nations in the world have developed technologies and strategies for appropriate waste disposal, and to abate waste generation and greenhouse gasses. Alternatives like recovering materials can help, but they require reliable information to improve planning and management. This study quantifies the Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions produced by the lack of valorisation of materials in a Mexican city. Two waste characterisations in a lower-class neighbourhood were carried out. For the CO2 emission estimation, two scenarios were considered. DEFRA emission factors for waste treatment processes were used. Waste generation was 0.64 kg/capita/day in the first study, and 0.50 kg/capita/day in the second. The CO2eq emissions of collected waste in the neighbourhood were estimated at 1824 kg for 2013 (0.20 kg/capita/day and 1636 kg for 2015 (0.19 kg/capita/day. The behaviour of solid waste management in the city can be explained by the “prisoner’s dilemma” model, studied in game theory, which is ideally suited to analysing situations affected by multiple agents, but requires an accurate understanding of solid waste actors and social implications.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping, E-mail: jpzhuhust@163.com; Liao, Li, E-mail: liaoli2003@126.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH{sub 4}–N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production.

  18. Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential for University Technology PETRONAS Academic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In many countries such as Malaysia, it is increasingly more difficult to find suitable locations for landfills, which are accepted by the population. These circumstances are to be found all over the world and make new strategies for waste management necessary. Approach: Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. But for any ISWM system to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. Therefore, the study was conducted to characterize the quality and quantity of generated solid waste at University Technology PETRONAS (UTP academic buildings to suggest a recycling system with emphasis on recycling container size and arrangement. Results: Initially, a survey was conducted to highlight the existing situation of recycling activities and recycle bins condition in the campus. Then, six different sampling points were selected at campus academic complex and solid waste from those points was characterized for both term-time and semester break periods. Procedure of sampling involved unloading and analyzing a quantity of produced daily waste at each building in a controlled area. The integrity of all received waste was maintained regardless of the odor or physical decay. While survey outcomes shows that 80% of students and staff were interested to take part in recycling activities only 53% of them have practiced in it and the main reasons were that 75 and 83% of them could not find suitable and enough number of recycle bin, respectively. In another development it was obtained that up to 80% of produced materials at academic building are recyclable while paper percentage is predominant with 40% and 33% during term-time and semester break, respectively. Food waste was detected in all samples which could lead cross contamination, value drop and development of odor and flies. The solid waste generation was varied between 8

  19. Bioenergy and bioproducts from municipal organic waste as alternative to landfilling: a comparative life cycle assessment with prospective application to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa

    2016-06-03

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a four-stage biorefinery concept, coined H-M-Z-S, that converts 1 t of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into bioenergy and bioproducts was performed in order to determine whether it could be an alternative to common disposal of OFMSW in landfills in the Mexican reality. The OFMSW is first fermented for hydrogen production, then the fermentates are distributed 40 % to the methane production, 40 % to enzyme production, and 20 % to the saccharification stage. From hydrogen and methane, up to 267 MJ and 204 kWh of gross heat and electricity were produced. The biorefinery proved to be self-sustainable in terms of power (95 kWh net power), but it presented a deficit of energy for heating services (-155 MJ), which was partially alleviated by digesting the wastes from the bioproducts stages (-84 MJ). Compared to landfill, biorefinery showed lower environmental impacts in global warming (down to -128 kg CO2-eq), ozone layer depletion (2.96 × 10(-6) kg CFC11-eq), and photochemical oxidation potentials (0.011 kg C2H4-eq). The landfarming of the digestates increased significantly the eutrophication impacts, up to 20 % below the eutrophication from landfilling (1.425 kg PO4-eq). These results suggest that H-M-Z-S biorefinery could be an attractive alternative compared to conventional landfilling for the management of municipal solid wastes, although new alternatives and uses of co-products and wastes should be explored and tested. Moreover, the biorefinery system would benefit from the integration into the market chain of the bioproducts, i.e., enzymes and hydrolysates among others.

  20. An integrated approach to natural and geo synthetic clay barriers performance against the diffusion of a pollution plume from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J.; Sevilla, M. T.; Procopio, J. R.; Ruiz, A. I.; Da silva, P.; Gismera, M. J.; Regadio, M.; Sanchez Jimenez, N.; Soto, I. S. de; Rodriguez, M.; Leguey, S.

    2009-07-01

    Technical requirements for the landfills of municipal wastes in the European Union (EU) are given in the Council Directive 1993/31/EC. A geological barrier of at least 1 m thickness with a hydraulic conductivity (HC) of 1x10{sup -}9 m/s is required. Where the geological barrier does not naturally present the above conditions, a geological barrier of at least 0.5 m thick must be artificially established. (Author)

  1. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  2. Investigation of the available technologies and their feasibility for the conversion of food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-04-01

    Food waste is the largest constituent of municipal solid waste in Hong Kong, but food waste recycling is still in its infancy. With the imminent saturation of all landfill sites by 2020, multiple technologies are needed to boost up the food waste recycling rate in Hong Kong. Conversion of food waste into animal feeds is prevalent in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, treating over 40 % of their recycled food waste. This direction is worth exploring in Hong Kong once concerns over food safety are resolved. Fortunately, while feeding food waste to pigs and chickens poses threats to public health, feeding it to fish is considered low risk. In order to examine the feasibility of converting food waste into fish feed in Hong Kong, this paper investigates the market demand, technical viability, feed quality, regulatory hurdles, and potential contribution. The results show that a significant amount of food waste can be recycled by converting it into fish feed due to the enormous demand from feed factories in mainland China. Two conversion technologies, heat drying and black soldier fly bioconversion, are studied extensively. Black soldier fly bioconversion is preferable because the end-product, insect powder, is anticipated to gain import approval from mainland China. The authors suggest further research efforts to speed up its application for food waste recycling in urban cities.

  3. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  4. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup −1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup −1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation

  5. Waste Management with Earth Observation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Gerard; Tabasco, A.

    2010-05-01

    The range of applications where Earth Observation (EO) can be useful has been notably increased due to the maturity reached in the adopted technology and techniques. In most of the cases, EO provides a manner to remotely monitor particular variables and parameters with a more efficient usage of the available resources. Typical examples are environmental (forest, marine, resources…) monitoring, precision farming, security and surveillance (land, maritime…) and risk / disaster management (subsidence, volcanoes…). In this context, this paper presents a methodology to monitor waste disposal sites with EO. In particular, the explored technology is Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), which applies the interferometric concept to SAR images. SAR is an advanced radar concept able to acquire 2D coherent microwave reflectivity images for large scenes (tens of thousands kilometres) with fine resolution (Digital Elevation Models (DEM) that provide key information about the tri-dimensional configuration of a scene, that is, a height map of the scene. In practice, this represents an alternative way to obtain the same information than in-situ altimetry can provide. In the case of waste management, InSAR has been used to evaluate the potentiality of EO to monitor the disposed volume along a specific range of time. This activity has been developed in collaboration with the Agència de Resídus de Catalunya (ARC) (The Waste Agency of Catalonia), Spain, in the framework of a pilot project. The motivation comes from the new law promoted by the regional Government that taxes the volume of disposed waste. This law put ARC in duty to control that the real volume matches the numbers provided by the waste processing firms so that they can not commit illegal actions. Right now, this task is performed with in-situ altimetry. But despite of the accurate results, this option is completely inefficient and limits the numbers of polls that can be generated and the number of

  6. Analysis on carbon dioxide emission reduction during the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology of sludge and kitchen waste: Taking kitchen waste synergetic digestion project in Zhenjiang as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qia; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-08-30

    With the popularization of municipal sewage treatment facilities, the improvement of sewage treatment efficiency and the deepening degree of sewage treatment, the sludge production of sewage plant has been sharply increased. Carbon emission during the process of municipal sewage treatment and disposal has become one of the important sources of greenhouse gases that cause greenhouse effect. How to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during sewage treatment and disposal process is of great significance for reducing air pollution. Kitchen waste and excess sludge, as two important organic wastes, once uses anaerobic synergetic digestion technology in the treatment process can on the one hand, avoid instability of sludge individual anaerobic digestion, improve sludge degradation rate and marsh gas production rate, and on the other hand, help increase the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to a great extent. The paper uses material balance method, analyzes and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions from kitchen waste and sludge disposed by the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology, compares the anaerobic synergetic digestion technology with traditional sludge sanitary landfill technology and works out the carbon dioxide emission reductions after synergetic digestion. It takes the kitchen waste and sludge synergetic digestion engineering project of Zhenjiang city in Jiangsu province as an example, makes material balance analysis using concrete data and works out the carbon dioxide daily emission reductions. The paper analyzes the actual situation of emission reduction by comparing the data, and found that the synergetic digestion of kitchen waste and sludge can effectively reduce the carbon dioxide emission, and the reduction is obvious especially compared with that of sludge sanitary landfill, which has a certain effect on whether to promote the use of the technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 7, Appendix E -- Material recovery/material recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, ``recycling`` refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  8. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  9. Application of thermal plasma technology for the treatment of solid wastes in China: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Kou; Yan, Shengjun; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-12-01

    With its enormous social and economical development, China is now experiencing a rapid increase in solid wastes generation and growing pressure for solid wastes management. Today solid wastes in China are mainly managed by a combination of landfill, incineration, and composting. Within different possible treatment routes, thermal plasma technology (TPT) offers the advantages of efficiently gasifying the organic contents of solid wastes into syngas that can be used for heat and power generation, and vitrifying the inorganics simultaneously into glassy slag with very low leachabilities. This process makes it feasible for near-zero emission into the environment while making use of all the useful components. Encouraged by the industrial operations of solid wastes treatment plants using TPT in some countries, several plasma demonstration projects have already been undertaken in China. This paper provides a preliminary overview of the current laboratory researches and industrial developments status of TPT for the treatment of solid wastes in China and analyzes the existing challenges. Furthermore, the future prospects for TPT in China are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted modification of organic components of municipal solid waste by short-term pre-aeration and its enhancement on anaerobic degradation in simulated landfill bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhe; Liu, Jianguo; Girotto, Francesca; Cossu, Raffaello; Qi, Guangxia

    2016-09-01

    Pre-aeration is effective on regulating subsequent anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) with high organic fractions during landfilling. The strength of pre-aeration should be optimized to intentionally remove some easily biodegradable fractions while conserve bio-methane potential as much as possible. This study investigates the evolution of organic components in MSW during 2-14days pre-aeration process and its impacts on subsequent anaerobic degradation in simulated landfill bioreactors. Results showed that a 6-day pre-aeration enabled to develop a thermophilic stage, which significantly accelerated biodegradation of organics except lignocelluloses, with removal rates of 42.8%, 76.7% and 25.1% for proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, respectively. Particularly, ammonia from accelerated ammonification in the thermophilic stage neutralized VFAs generated from anaerobic landfilling. As a result, the MSW with 6-day pre-aeration obtained the highest methane yield 123.4NL/kg dry matter. Therefore, it is recommended to interrupt pre-aeration before its cooling stage to switch to anaerobic landfilling.

  11. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    for the model are e.g. distribution of the wasteproduct in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components.Output data of the model are product specific estimates of 1) emissions to atmosphere 2) emissions to aquatic recipients 3) remainsin...... disposed inlandfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND. In the model, waste products are subdivided into fivegroups of components: general organic matter (e.g. paper), specific organic compounds (e.g. organic solvents), inert components(e.g. PVC), metals (e.g. cadmium...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...

  12. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...... the three paper cycle system areas: raw materials and forestry, paper production, and disposal/recovery. It was found that the outcome of the individual LCA studies largely depended on the choices made in some of these assumptions, most specifically the ones concerning energy use and generation......, to discuss whether it is at all valid to use the LCA methodology in its current development state to guide policy decisions on paper waste. A total of nine LCA studies containing altogether 73 scenarios were selected from a thorough, international literature search. The selected studies are LCAs including...

  13. Methane elimination methods on landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Ponikvar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Increase in substance and energy exploitation from waste which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main goals of environmental protection. Slovenian legislation defines that in case captured landfill gas cannot be used for energy acquisition, incineration on the landfill itself or some other equivalent procedure must be used to prevent gas emissions into the air. The graduation thesis is based on existing municipal landfill Volče where suitable gas elimination is yet to be arr...

  14. Waste and resources management. Ordinance on Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from Human Settlements and on Biological Waste Treatment Facilities (Landfill Ordinance - AbfAblV) - one year on; Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. 1 Jahr Abfallablagerungsverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R.; Bidlingmaier, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    As early as the beginning of 2005 there were signs of trouble ahead resulting from the new Landfill Ordinance - it was only the extent of the trouble that was somewhat underestimated. Suddenly and unexpected to everyone, the industrial wastes that were supposed to have been avoided or reutilised were there again. These ''returned wastes'', in most cases arisings that were not taken into account during plant design, are currently causing serious capacity problems both in waste incineration and in mechanical biological waste treatment plants. In not a few cases the originally planned supply rates are being exceeded by up to 35%, with dramatic consequences. Another source of problems is the lack of utilisation capacities for high-caloric waste fractions, especially for those from mechanical biological waste treatment. The underlying causes are manifold, ranging from market misjudgment, insufficient fuel processing capacities to supposed or factual quality problems with the generated secondary fuel. The only remedial option available at present - at least from the legal viewpoint - is interim storage. The changed framework conditions for biowaste and green waste utilisation brought about by the Renewable Energy Law offers new interesting perspectives. Numerous unresolved questions and quite as many solution proposals provide reason enough for making residual waste treatment and biowaste utilisation one of the focal topics of the congress. Many EU countries, but also developing and threshold countries, are on the verge of making decisions on waste utilisation and treatment. The experiences, positive and negative, that have been gained to date in Germany with the full-area implementation of residual waste treatment can serve these countries as a valuable guide. Another focal topic of the congress is climate and resource protection.

  15. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches......A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  16. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  17. [Assessment of impacts of combined treatment of solid urban waste landfill leachate and sewage on aquatic biota].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarino, Camille Ferreira; Moreira, Josino Costa; Ferreira, João Alberto; Arias, Ana Rosa Linde

    2013-11-01

    The impact on tilapia fish of combined treatment of landfill leachate and domestic sewage was monitored in a waste treatment plant that operated on a pilot scale using the activated sludge process. Biomarkers of sub-lethal toxicity were used to indicate the possibility of damage to organisms due to interaction with pollutants. The concentration of metallothioneins did not indicate the increased presence of metals in fish exposed than in control groups. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was inhibited in only one of the exposed groups, indicating the possible presence of organophosphate and/or carbamate pesticides in treated effluent. The PAHs used as biomarkers (naphthalene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene) indicated that exposed fish had a greater absorption of PAHs than control groups of fish, indicating the likely presence of these compounds in at least one of the combined treatment effluents. The frequencies of micronuclei and other erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities also indicate greater genotoxic damage in cells of organisms exposed than in control groups. The use of biomarkers proved to be important to permit an evaluation of sub-lethal damage present in organisms exposed to the pollution source studied.

  18. Design for Deconstruction (DfD): Critical success factors for diverting end-of-life waste from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinade, Olugbenga O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Ajayi, Saheed O; Bilal, Muhammad; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A; Bello, Sururah A; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E; Kadiri, Kabir O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify Critical Success Factors (CSF) needed for effective material recovery through Design for Deconstruction (DfD). The research approach employed in this paper is based on a sequential exploratory mixed method strategy. After a thorough review of literature and conducting four Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), 43 DfD factors were identified and put together in a questionnaire survey. Data analyses include Cronbach's alpha reliability analysis, mean testing using significance index, and exploratory factor analysis. The result of the factor analysis reveals that an underlying factor structure of five DfD factors groups that include 'stringent legislation and policy', 'deconstruction design process and competencies', 'design for material recovery', 'design for material reuse', and 'design for building flexibility'. These groups of DfD factor groups show that the requirements for DfD goes beyond technical competencies and that non-technical factors such as stringent legislation and policy and design process and competency for deconstruction are key in designing deconstructable buildings. Paying attention to the factors identified in all of these categories will help to tackle impediments that could hinder the effectiveness of DfD. The results of this study would help design and project managers to understand areas of possible improvement in employing DfD as a strategy for diverting waste from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of Pb2+ and Cd2+ by adsorption on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; ZOU Yin-sheng; DENG Fei-yue

    2006-01-01

    Pb2+ and Cd2+ in leachate were adsorbed on clay-solidified grouting curtain for waste landfills with equilibrium experiment. The cation exchange capacity was determined with ammonium acetate. And the concentration of heavy metal cations in leachate was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Their equilibrium isotherms were measured, and the experimental isotherm data were analyzed by using Freundlich and Langmuir models. The results show that the adsorption capacities of the heavy metal cations are closely related to the compositions of clay-solidified grouting curtain, and the maximum adsorption appears at the ratio of cement to clay of 2: 4 in the experimental conditions. At their maximum adsorption and pH 5.0, the adsorption capacities of Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 16.19 mg/g and 1.21 mg/g. The competitive adsorption coefficients indicate that the adsorption of clay-solidified grouting curtain for Pb2+ is stronger than that for Cd2+. The adsorption process conforms to Freundlich's model with related coefficient higher than 0. 996.

  20. The Research of Treatment Technology and Technique of Landfill Leachate%垃圾渗滤液处理技术及工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军; 王振; 胡瑜

    2012-01-01

    文章阐述了垃圾渗滤液的污染现状及水质特点,并对目前国内部分垃圾渗滤液处理工艺及技术进行了综述,为我国垃圾渗滤液的处理提供借鉴。%The paper expounded the present status of environmental contamination and the water quality characteristics of landfill leachate,and summarized the landfill leachate treatment technology and technique.The study conclusion provided important information for treatmenting landfill leachate.

  1. Pressing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash Bricks for Landfill Volume Reduction%生活垃圾焚烧飞灰压制砌块与减容填埋技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新才; 赵由才; 周雄; 张骏; 夏发发; 陈善平; 全学军

    2016-01-01

    The construction speed of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI )is currently faster than that of hazardous waste landfill in China,so that the disposal of MSWI fly ash becomes a pressing problem of the day.In comparison with other technologies,the chemical stabilization is applied widely,while still consume plenty of chelating agent and landfill volume.Restriction from total volume and service life of hazardous waste landfill,it is urgent to find a novel,economical and efficient technology for quick disposal of MSWI fly ash.In this study,the fly ash was pressed at high hydraulic load to reduce considerably both the volume and the quantity of chelating agents so that remarkably extend the service life of landfill.It was shown that the volume can be reduced over 60 %and the heavy metals leaching concentration of MSWI bricks was down obviously after pressing,which indicated the usage of chelating agent can be reduced by 30% ~70%.A novel volume reduction landfill process was proposed,the investment and benefit were evaluated.The service life can be prolonged for more than one to two times.The direct cost for the disposal of fly ash could be decreased by 200 RMB/t (not including the investment of equipment).The MSWI fly ash bricks were of regular shape and tight texture,which can avoid the dust in conventional landfill,promote automation, improve management and efficiency.%目前我国生活垃圾焚烧厂的建设速度远远超过危险废物填埋场的建设速度,大量的飞灰亟待安全处置。相对于其他处置技术,化学稳定化填埋被广泛应用,但需耗费大量重金属螯合剂以及填埋场库容,且满足技术规范的危废填埋场的填埋能力和使用年限均受限制。针对以上问题,对生活垃圾焚烧飞灰砌块减容潜力、重金属降低浸出进行研究,分析了飞灰压制砌块-减容填埋的可行性,并进行工艺设计,初步确定了工艺投入和综合效益。结果表明:生活垃

  2. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation (Part of book series Waste Management Principles and Practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries throughout the world has changed significantly over the past fifty years, with a shift from uncontrolled dumping or burning to complex systems that integrate multiple processes to recover materials or energy and prov...

  3. BIODEGRADATIVE ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN LABORATORY-SCALE LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of research to characterize the anaerobic biodegradability of the major biodegradable components of municipal solid waste (MSW). Tests were conducted in quadruplicate in 2-L reactors operated to obtain maximum yields. Measured methane (CH4) yields for gra...

  4. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation (Part of book series Waste Management Principles and Practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries throughout the world has changed significantly over the past fifty years, with a shift from uncontrolled dumping or burning to complex systems that integrate multiple processes to recover materials or energy and prov...

  5. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Chambers Works, Deepwater, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1984-01-01

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess control technology for hazardous wastes disposal operations at du Pont de Nemours and Company (SIC-2800), Deepwater, New Jersey in November 1981. Hazardous wastes generated at the facility were disposed of by incineration, wastewater and thermal treatment, and landfilling. Engineering controls for the incineration process and at the landfill were noted. At the landfill, water from a tank trailer was sprayed periodically to suppress dust generation. Vapor control devices, such as spot scrubbers, were used during transfer of organic wastes from trailers and drums to storage prior to incineration. Wastes were also recirculated to prevent build up of grit in the strainers. The company conducted area monitoring for nitrobenzene (98953) and amines at the landfill and personal monitoring for chloramines at the incinerator. Half mask dust respirators were worn by landfill operators. Operators who unloaded and emptied drums at the incinerator were required to wear face masks, rubber gloves, and boots. The author concludes that disposal of hazardous wastes at the facility is state of the art. An in depth survey is recommended.

  6. Removal of ammonia nitrogen from leachate of Muribeca municipal solid waste landfill, Pernambuco, Brazil, using natural zeolite as part of a biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Cecilia Maria M S; Alves, Maria Cristina M; Campos, Juacyara C; Silva, Fabrícia Maria S; Jucá, José Fernando T; Lins, Eduardo Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4+.L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.

  7. Distribution of Organic Compounds from Municipal Solid Waste in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rügge, Kirsten; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    organic carbon, NVOC) were found. In a distance of 130 m downgradient of the landfill, the NVOC had decreased to background level, which is 1-3 mg of C L-l. More than 15 organic compounds were identified in the groundwater at the downgradient border of the landfill with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene...

  8. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  9. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  10. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  11. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    disposed inlandfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND. In the model, waste products are subdivided into fivegroups of components: general organic matter (e.g. paper), specific organic compounds (e.g. organic solvents), inert components(e.g. PVC), metals (e.g. cadmium......Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an environmental management tool used to examine and evaluate the environmental impactsassociated with the existence of products. The focus of LCA is on the entire life cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of theraw materials through the production...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...

  12. Impact of co-landfill proportion of bottom ash and municipal solid waste composition on the leachate characteristics during the acidogenesis phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pin-Jing; Pu, Hong-Xia; Shao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2017-08-14

    Incineration has become an important municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment strategy, and generates a large amount of bottom ash (BA). Although some BA is reused, much BA and pretreatment residues from BA recycling are disposed in landfill. When BA and MSW are co-landfilled together, acid neutralization capacity and alkaline earth metal dissolution of BA, as well as different components of MSW may change environmental conditions within the landfill, so the degradation of organic matter and the physical and chemical properties of leachate would be affected. In this study, the effect of co-landfilled BA and MSW on the leachate characteristics during the hydrolysis and acidogenesis phase was studied using different BA/MSW ratios and MSW compositions. The results showed that the co-landfill system increased leachate pH, electric conductivity and alkalinity. For MSW with a high content of degradable components, the release and degradation of total organic carbon (TOC) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) from MSW were promoted when the BA ratio by wet weight was less than 50%, and the biodegradability of leachate was improved. When the BA ratio exceeded 50%, the degradation of organic matters was inhibited. For MSW with low content of degradable components, when the proportion of BA was less than 20%, the release and degradation of TOC and VFA from MSW were promoted and alkalinity increased. When the BA ratio exceeded 20%, the degradation of organic matters was inhibited. The 50% BA ratio could improve the bio-treatability of leachate indicated by the leachate pH and C/N ratio. However, BA inhibited the release of nitrogen (TN and NH4(+)-N) at all BA ratios and MSW compositions. At the same time, the addition of BA increased the risk of leachate collection system clogging due to the dissolution and re-precipitation of alkaline earth metals contained in BA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen

    2011-10-06

    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  14. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    , resulting in a separate flowsheet for every contractor. The resulting fractions and materials were described in detail to obtain an inventory of the bulk material. Based on the characteristics from the obtained fractions, all possible valorisation pathways are listed, suggesting a Waste to Material (WtM) or a Waste to Energy (WtE) valorisation pathway. Fractions that needed further treatment were also discussed. The results of the separation tests proved to be very promising and delivered well sorted waste streams. The composition of the waste material, on the other hand, proved to be less beneficial to be economically feasible. Due to the high amount of sand and clay (up to 90wt%) in the Zuienkerke landfill the share of instant recoverable materials proved to be very limited. Due to the limited number of tests concerning the separation and valorisation of landfilled waste, the feasibility of ELFM in the short term is not fully described yet. Based on the first experiences, the main drivers to introduce the ELFM concept on these type of landfills are the necessity of urgent remediation actions and the reclamation of land. The added value of land reuse for the future might close the financial gap in a significant way, making the implementation of ELFM feasible on former landfills. 1 Jones et al.,2010: "the safe conditioning, excavation and integrated valorisation of landfilled waste streams as both materials and energy, using innovative transformation technologies and respecting the most stringent social and ecological criteria".

  15. 9 Waste Rubber Technologies Passed the Review on Advanced Applicable Technologies by MIIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiart Bozhang

    2012-01-01

    To promote the development of integrative utilization technologies of industrial solid wastes and to enhance the level of integrative utilization, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) held Reviewing Meeting of Advanced Applicable Technologies for the Integrative Utilization of Industrial Solid Wastes on April 27. 9 integrative utilization technologies of waste rubber passed this review.

  16. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  17. Composição gravimétrica de resíduos sólidos aterrados Gravimetric composition of solid waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greice Mattei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A composição gravimétrica de um aterro de resíduos sólidos (RS é uma informação básica para o monitoramento e avaliação de projetos ambientais. A obtenção dessa informação é dificultada pela inexistência de procedimentos padrões de amostragem, pela heterogeneidade dos RS e pela forma de disposição desses resíduos ou tipo de aterro, entre outros fatores. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo determinar se há diferença entre a composição gravimétrica de materiais aterrados em um lixão e em um aterro controlado, além de avaliar se essa composição varia com a profundidade de amostragem. Constatou-se pouca diferença na composição gravimétrica dos RS entre os aterros. No aterro controlado predominou a massa pastosa (41,2 %, enquanto que no lixão houve maior teor de plástico filme (35,0 %. A composição dos resíduos aterrados não variou com a profundidade de amostragem.The gravimetric composition of solid waste (SW landfill is basic information for environmental monitoring and projects evaluation. The lack of standard procedures for sampling, the inherent heterogeneity of SW and the different disposal techniques of such wastes or type of landfill, among other factors, have imposed certain limitations to obtain data about landfill gravimetric composition. The objective of this work was to evaluate the difference between the gravimetric composition of SW collected from an open dump and from a controlled landfill and to evaluate if this composition changes with depth of sampling. There was little difference between the SW collected in the two types of landfills. In the controlled landfill pasted mass (41,2 % was the major component, while in the open dump the plastic film (35,0 % was the most common material. The SW composition did not change with the sampling depth.

  18. Landfills, Hazardous Waste - CONSTRUCTION_DEMOLITION_WASTE_IDEM_IN: Construction and Demoliton Waste Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — CONSTRUCTION_DEMOLITION_WASTE_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains construction and demolition waste facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of...

  19. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies...

  20. Direct landfill disposal versus Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhawik Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of a new waste management system, in which recycling is the most dominating process, landfill disposal still appears to be the most popular method of waste management in Poland, in which waste undergoes gradual decomposition and the influence of climate conditions, for example, air and atmospheric fallout, leads to the production of leachate and biogas emissions, which contribute to continual threats to the natural environment and humans. The above-mentioned threats can be limited by applying suitable techniques of waste treatment before its disposal. A technology that is oriented to these aims is a mechanical biological treatment (MBT before disposal.

  1. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste as a treatment prior to landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, P.H.L.; Kuruparan, P.; Visvanathan, C. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Environmental Engineering and Management Program

    2007-02-15

    Anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste was conducted in pilot-scale reactor based on high-solid combined anaerobic digestion process. This study was performed in two runs. In Run1 and Run 2, pre-stage flushing and micro-aeration were conducted to determine their effect in terms of enhancing hydrolysis and acidification in ambient condition. In Run 2, after pre-stage, the methane phase (methanogenesis) was started-up after pH adjustment and inoculum addition in mesophilic condition. Acidified leachate produced in pre-stage was used for percolation during active methane phase. At the end of methane phase, air flushing was conducted before unloading the digesters. Hydrolysis an acidification yield of 140 g C/kg TS and 180 g VFA/kg TS were achieved, respectively in pre-stage. Micro-aeration exhibited an equivocal result in terms of enhancing hydrolysis/acidification; however it showed a positive effect in methane phase performance and this needed further investigation. Leachate percolation during methane phase showed an enhanced methanization when compared to the reactors without leachate percolation. After 60 days, 260 l CH{sub 4}/kg VS was obtained. Based on the waste methane potential, 75% biogas conversion and 61% VS degradation were achieved. (author)

  3. Structural concretes with waste-based lightweight aggregates: from landfill to engineered materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De'Gennaro, Roberto; Graziano, Sossio Fabio; Cappelletti, Piergiulio; Colella, Abner; Dondi, Michele; Langella, Alessio; De'Gennaro, Maurizio

    2009-09-15

    This research provides possible opportunities in the reuse of waste and particularly muds, coming from both ornamental stone (granite sludges from sawing and polishing operations) and ceramic production (porcelain stoneware tile polishing sludge), for the manufacture of lightweight aggregates. Lab simulation of the manufacturing cycle was performed by pelletizing and firing the waste mixes in a rotative furnace up to 1300 degrees C, and determining composition and physicomechanical properties of lightweight aggregates. The best formulation was used to produce and test lightweight structural concretes according to standard procedures. Both granite and porcelain stoneware polishing sludges exhibit a suitable firing behavior due to the occurrence of SiC (an abrasive component) which, by decomposing at high temperature with gas release, acts as a bloating promoter, resulting in aggregates with particle density products with high mechanical features (particle density 1.25 Mg/m3; strength of particle 6.9 MPa). The best formulation (50 wt.% porcelain stoneware polishing sludge +50 wt.% granite sawing sludge) was used to successfully manufacture lightweight structural concretes with suitable properties (compressive strength 28 days > 20 MPa, bulk density 1.4-2.0 Mg/m3).

  4. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs.

  5. Municipal solid waste disposal by using metallurgical technologies and equipments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuju Cai, Wenqiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste can take full advantage of energy and resource and avoid producing hazardous material during this period. In combination with mature metallurgical technologies of coking by coke oven, regenerative flame furnace technology and melting by electric arc furnace, technologies of regenerative fixed bed pyrolysis technology for household waste, co-coking technology for waste plastic and blend coal, and incineration ash melting technology by electric arc technology for medical waste were respectively developed to improve current unsatisfied sorting status of waste. The investigation results of laboratory experiments, semi-industrial experiments and industrial experiments as well as their economic benefits and environmental benefits for related technologies were separately presented.

  6. UV—Catalytic Treatment of Municipal Solid—Waste Landfill Leachate with Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TahirImranQURESHI; Hong-TaeKIM; 等

    2002-01-01

    Theperformance of UV/H2O2,UV/O3,and UV/H2O2/O3 oxidation systems for the treatment of municipal solid-waste landfill leachate was investigated. Main objective of the experiment was to remove total organic carbon(TOC),non-biodegradable organic compounds (NBDOC) and color.In UV/H2O2 oxidation experiment, with the increase of H2O2 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with the ratio of biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent were increased and a better performance was obtained than the system H2O2 alone. In UV/H2O2 oxidation,under the optimum condition H2O2(0.2time),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 78.9% and 95.5%, respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.366.In UV/O3 oxidation,with the increase of O3 dosage,removal efficiencies of TOC and color along with BOD/COD ratio of the effluent were increased and a beter performance was obtained than the system O3 alone.Under the optimum condition UV/O3(50mg·min-1),removal efficiencies of TOC and color were 61.0% and 87.2%,respectively,and BOD/COD ratio was significantly increased from 0.112 to 0.323. In UV/H2O2/O3 system,color removal and BOD/COD ratio were improved further and TOC removal efficiency was found to be 30.4% higher than the system UV/O3 without H2O2.

  7. Organic wastes and the industrial technologies of their coprocessing with coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Buchtele

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of solid waste in the Czech Republic was a round 40 Mt in 2000 – 2002 yearly. The organic compounds in the municipal waste (plastics, polymers, paper, wood, textile and in the agricultural and forest waste (biomass are mainly burned and partially landfilled. New industrial waste processes and their heat conversion in mixtures with coal allow an economical and energetically a more efficient utilization. They also open the way to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals.

  8. From a Literature Review to an Alternative Treatment System for Landfill Gas and Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an alternative treatment system for landfill gas and leachate control in order to reduce the energy consumption and disposal cost, using the recycled landfill gas as the combustion promoter for incineration of the leachate. This study starts by providing a literature review to summarize and analyze different approaches being applied to landfill leachate treatment. Subsequently, a conceptual prototype is proposed, which can be built using existing technology by means of technical possibility analysis, whilst economic benefits could be returned through preliminary comparison. With the proposed introduction of a “waste treatment park”, this alternative treatment system could provide a template for leachate and landfill gas control. This study may provide an insight for landfill operators and engineers to promote the transformation from the conceptual framework to the real achievement. Finally, the limitations of the conceptual model and analysis are discussed, laying a foundation for further work.

  9. Ecological modeling of pollutants in accidental fire at the landfill waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanov Sonja B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents tyre as flammable material and some examples of tyre fires in the world. Uncontrolled tyre fires produce a lot of smoke and air pollutants, including benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Great heat leads to the generation of pyrolytic oil which, when mixed with the fire extinguishing agent, contaminates the surrounding soil, surface water and underground water. Paper analyzes and presents in particular the emission factors of incomplete burning of waste car tyres. Metal dust emissions have been presented, volatile organic compund (VOC emissions, slightly volatile organic compound (SVOC emissions and emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Evaluation of the effect on the air quality has been graphically presented by modelling of uncotrolled tyre burning by using EPA "SCREEN 3 MODEL".

  10. Properties of Simple Waste Landfill in Beijing Area%北京地区简易垃圾填埋场特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志红; 孙保卫; 纪华; 曲波

    2013-01-01

    The internal properties of waste body on typical simple waste landfill were researched in Beijing area.The variable regularity of internal temperature with filled depth of waste body was measured in site.The variable regularities of waste component,rate of water content and organic content with filled depth of waste body were found indoors.Results show that the inner temperature in the waste will decrease with increasing of dumping depth for superficial landfill,yet the inner temperature in the waste will increase with increasing of dumping depth for deep landfill until reaching peak value,then the adverse results can be obtained.The quantity of organic matter will decrease with increasing of dumping depth,and the water content values measured have indicated to increase with increasing mass of organic matter.%为了研究北京地区典型简易垃圾填埋场垃圾体的内部特征,在现场测定了垃圾体内部温度随深度的变化规律,并在室内测定了垃圾体的成分、含水率和有机质含量随深度的变化.结果表明:对于填埋深度较浅的垃圾场,垃圾体内部温度随填埋深度增加而降低,填埋深度较深的垃圾场,垃圾体内部温度则随填埋深度的增加而提高,但达到某一峰值后又呈逐渐下降的趋势;有机质随填埋深度增加而减小;含水量随着有机质质量分数的增加表现出逐渐增大的趋势.

  11. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial Methane Oxidation Processes and Technologies for Mitigation of Landfill Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to review the present knowledge regarding the microbial methane oxidation in natural or engineered landfill environments with focus on process understanding, engineering experiences and modeling. This review includes seven sections. First, the methane oxidation is put in con...

  13. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  14. Stochastic approach to municipal solid waste landfill life based on the contaminant transit time modeling using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieda, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    The paper is concerned with application and benefits of MC simulation proposed for estimating the life of a modern municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The software Crystal Ball® (CB), simulation program that helps analyze the uncertainties associated with Microsoft® Excel models by MC simulation, was proposed to calculate the transit time contaminants in porous media. The transport of contaminants in soil is represented by the one-dimensional (1D) form of the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). The computer program CONTRANS written in MATLAB language is foundation to simulate and estimate the thickness of landfill compacted clay liner. In order to simplify the task of determining the uncertainty of parameters by the MC simulation, the parameters corresponding to the expression Z2 taken from this program were used for the study. The tested parameters are: hydraulic gradient (HG), hydraulic conductivity (HC), porosity (POROS), linear thickness (TH) and diffusion coefficient (EDC). The principal output report provided by CB and presented in the study consists of the frequency chart, percentiles summary and statistics summary. Additional CB options provide a sensitivity analysis with tornado diagrams. The data that was used include available published figures as well as data concerning the Mittal Steel Poland (MSP) S.A. in Kraków, Poland. This paper discusses the results and show that the presented approach is applicable for any MSW landfill compacted clay liner thickness design.