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Sample records for waste landfill sandia

  1. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  2. EXPEDITING THE PATH TO CLOSURE THE CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL, SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES, NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.G.; Schofield, D.P.; Davis, M.J.; Methvin, R.; Mitchell, M.

    2003-02-27

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is undergoing closure subject to the requirements of Subtitle C of RCRA. This paper identifies regulatory mechanisms that have and continue to expedite and simplify the closure of the CWL. These include (1) the Environmental Restoration (ER) Programmatic effort to achieve progress quickly with respect to the standard regulatory processes, which resulted in the performance of voluntary corrective measures at the CWL years in advance of the standard process schedule, (2) the management and disposal of CWL remediation wastes and materials according to the risks posed, and (3) the combination of multiple regulatory requirements into a single submittal.

  3. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peace, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  4. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  5. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  7. Probabilistic performance-assessment modeling of the mixed waste landfill at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L. (.); Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc.); Miller, Mark Laverne; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic performance assessment has been conducted to evaluate the fate and transport of radionuclides (americium-241, cesium-137, cobalt-60, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, radium-226, radon-222, strontium-90, thorium-232, tritium, uranium-238), heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL). Probabilistic analyses were performed to quantify uncertainties inherent in the system and models for a 1,000-year period, and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify parameters and processes that were most important to the simulated performance metrics. Comparisons between simulated results and measured values at the MWL were made to gain confidence in the models and perform calibrations when data were available. In addition, long-term monitoring requirements and triggers were recommended based on the results of the quantified uncertainty and sensitivity analyses.

  8. Deployment of an alternative cover and final closure of the Mixed Waste Landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); McVey, Michael David (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Borns, David James

    2003-06-01

    An alternative cover design consisting of a monolithic layer of native soil is proposed as the closure path for the Mixed Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The proposed design would rely upon soil thickness and evapotranspiration to provide long-term performance and stability, and would be inexpensive to build and maintain. The proposed design is a 3-ft-thick, vegetated soil cover. The alternative cover meets the intent of RCRA Subtitle C regulations in that: (a) water migration through the cover is minimized; (b) maintenance is minimized by using a monolithic soil layer; (c) cover erosion is minimized by using erosion control measures; (d) subsidence is accommodated by using a ''soft'' design; and (e) the permeability of the cover is less than or equal to that of natural subsurface soil present. Performance of the proposed cover is integrated with natural site conditions, producing a ''system performance'' that will ensure that the cover is protective of human health and the environment. Natural site conditions that will produce a system performance include: (a) extremely low precipitation and high potential evapotranspiration; (b) negligible recharge to groundwater; (c) an extensive vadose zone; (d) groundwater approximately 500 ft below the surface; and (e) a versatile, native flora that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance.

  9. Landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, T.H.; Cossu, R.; Stegmann, R. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    In view of the great demand for information regarding landfills, a series of international reference books on landfilling of waste has been established. This book, the second volume, deals with lining and leachate collection. It consists of edited, selected contributions to the International Symposia on Sanitary Landfills held in Sardinia every second year. Topics of discussion include: lining systems; design and construction; properties and quality control of clay materials; properties and quality control of synthetic materials; geotextiles and geogrids, and leachate drainage and collection.

  10. TRANSURANIC WASTE MANAGEMENT AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Betty; Bland, Jesse John

    2018-01-01

    This paper documents the history of the TRU program at Sandia, previous and current activities associated with TRU material and waste, interfaces with other TRU waste generator sites and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP), and paths forward for TRU material and waste. This document is a snapshot in time of the TRU program and should be updated as necessary, or when significant changes have occurred in the Sandia TRU program or in the TRU regulatory environment. This paper should serve as a roadmap to capture past TRU work so that efforts are not repeated and ground is not lost due to future inactivity and personnel changes.

  11. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  12. Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on landfills, including laws/regulations, and technical guidance on municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, industrial, PCBs, and construction and debris landfills. To provide resources for owners and operators of landfills.

  13. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  14. Large-Scale Field Study of Landfill Covers at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-09-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side with four alternative cover test plots designed for dry environments. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing demonstration.

  15. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2010-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  17. Physical disruption of landfilled waste. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, L.; Ohlsson, Tommy; Lagerkvist, A. [Luleaa Univ. of Techn. (Sweden). Div. of Waste Sience and Technology

    2001-11-01

    The study undertaken has focal points in: Characterisation of landfilled MSW; Development of a disruption technique; Testing of physical disruption in practice; Investigation of the impact of vibrations on LFG formation. The results from the waste characterisation indicate that a great variation with regard to the extent of degradation may occur over a ten-year period. In some cases the degradation of organic material is quite complete after ten years whereas a substantial remaining potential for gas formation can be found in other cases. The degradation can be slowed by microbiological process conditions. These processes may be influenced through the fluid phases if the design of the landfill permits it. It could also be possible to influence flow conditions after the construction phase of the landfill through physical measures. Different methods to influence landfill flow conditions have been studied and, as a prime choice, dynamite blasting has been identified. Following a series of blasting tests for method development purposes, in situ blasting at test cells were performed twice. An initial gas development could be noted, but because of high groundwater level in the landfill, only the short-term impact could be observed. Gas collection data from landfills thought to be influenced by vibrations from on site traffic or nearby blasting activities were investigated using multivariate statistical methods, but no strong correlations could be found. In conclusion it has been shown that there is a remaining degradation potential at some landfills or parts of landfills that could possibly be realized faster with the aid of physical disruption. Feasible disruption techniques exists and their merits now need assessment in large scale experiments.

  18. Engineered Municipal Waste Landfills: Climate Significance, Benefits, and some Landfill "Geophysics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenstein, D.; Yazdani, R.

    2002-12-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills have unique features: Wastes worldwide emit biogenic methane to the atmosphere of magnitude comparable to the total atmospheric buildup between 1980 and 1990. Carbon sequestered in landfills is large in geologic terms Management of decomposition in landfilled waste is desirable: (a) Control of waste decomposition and methane promises over tenfold cheaper greenhouse gas abatement compared to most other greenhouse gas abatement strategies. This is due in part to carbon sequestration and landfill gas energy offset of fossil fuel consumption (b) Landfill gas energy potential worldwide, is up to 1% of world energy. Use of landfill gas conserves a resource otherwise wasted (c) Monetary benefits of landfill life extension from decomposition and rapid volume reduction can be quite attractive This is a benefit for the US, where landfills are increasingly difficult and expensive to site. (d) Landfills containing mixed waste can be significant sources of atmospheric and groundwater pollutants needing control. Control is possible from advancing landfill management approaches (e) The stabilization of waste lessens pollutant risk and needs for costly long-term landfill aftercare. Greater control of landfill decomposition has been advocated in the form of "controlled" or "bioreactor" landfills. (SWANA, 1999; Reinhart and Townsend, 1996). Field trials are encouraging by several environmental/monetary criteria. Control of moisture and temperature have given fivefold or more acceleration of methane generation (Augenstein et al, 1998, 2000). There has been rapid volume loss of the landfilled waste as well, with conversion of waste organics to gas. Many trials over years have shown potential for abatement of pollutants in landfill leachate. Demonstration work by the solid waste management community attests to the benefits potential. Increasing field demonstrations, have been accompanied by observation and/or solution of several issues. As noted

  19. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of landfill permits by Section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act, 1989, resulted in the development of the Minimum Requirements series of documents to guide waste disposal to landfill. The promulgation of the National...

  20. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  1. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS ON WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    Earthquake hazards may arise as a result of: (a) transient ground deformation, which is induced due to seismic wave propagation, and (b) permanent ground deformation, which is caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Since the adequate performance of waste landfills after an earthquake is of outmost...... importance, the current study examines the impact of both types of earthquake hazards by performing efficient finite-element analyses. These took also into account the potential slip displacement development along the geosynthetic interfaces of the composite base liner. At first, the development of permanent...

  3. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  4. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... is significantly reduced in the presence of landfill top-cover, landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units. Generally, the sensitivity analysis shows good agreement between the relative proportions of various types of emissions (based on properties of the waste and properties of landfills) and good......This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...

  5. Domestic Solid Waste Landfills: Experimental Analysis of Leachate Stripping Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistyakov, N. E.; Strelkov, A. K.; Teplykh, S. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The domestic solid waste (DSW) landfills activity is based on the natural processes of organic substances decomposition through their processing into other substances by micro-organisms. Such micro-organisms can only live in water or, in other words, they exist only in the aquatic environment, both in natural environment and under artificial conditions, e.g. in DSW landfill sites. This paper investigates the problem of DSW landfills leachate preparation for the reuse as irrigation water. Leachate is formed as an inescapable side-product of DSW landfills operation. Leachate is a result of precipitations and artificial irrigation contaminated by substances of microbiological decomposition and destruction of organic substances coming to landfill sites as domestic solid waste. The use of leachate as irrigation water will significantly change the DSW decomposition technology and the safety of landfill sites operations.

  6. FIELD TEST MEASUREMENTS AT FIVE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS WITH LANDFILL GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--FINAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted to evaluate landfill gas emissions at five municipal solid waste landfills which have modern control technology for landfill gas emissions. Comprehensive testing was conducted on the raw landfill gas and the combustion outlet exhaust. The project had two ...

  7. International perspectives on municipal solid wastes and sanitary landfilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carra, J.S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (US)); Cossu, R. (Universita di Cagliari (IT))

    1990-01-01

    This book provides a perspective on how different countries cope with the municipal solid waste problem politically, administratively, and technically with a particular focus on sanitary landfilling. Fifteen countries report on the quantities of such waste generated, its composition, and on various management methods used. In addition, they report on sanitary landfilling, the impacts of past practices, current practices for leachate control, and landfill gas management. Finally the role of government, new handling strategies, and likely future directions in waste management are also discussed.

  8. THE EMISSION POTENTIAL FROM MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aljaradin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study was conducted to monitor the emission potential from solid waste landfilled in Jordan over a period of 292 days using an anaerobic lysimeter. A 30 kg waste sample reflecting the typical municipal solid waste (MSW streams generated in Jordan was used to simulate the influence of climate on the emission potential of landfills located in semi-arid areas. The experimental results demonstrated that a significant amount of leachate and landfill gas was produced. The methane content was found to be more than 45% and the leachate produced reached 15.7 l after 200 days. However, after 260 days the gas and leachate production rate became negligible. A significant amount of heavy metal traces was found in the leachate due to mixed waste disposal. Changes in biogas and leachate quality parameters in the lysimeter revealed typical landfill behaviour trends, the only difference being that they developed much more quickly. In view of current landfill practices in Jordan and the effect of climate change, the results suggest that landfill design and operational modes need to be adjusted in order to achieve sustainability. For this reason, optimized design parameters and operational scenarios for sustainable landfill based on the country’s climatic conditions and financial as well as technical potential are recommended as a primary reference for future landfills in Jordan as well as in similar regions and climates.

  9. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Exner, Stephan; Jørgensen, Anne-Mette

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents and verifies the computer tool LCA-LAND for estimation of emissions from specific waste products disposed in municipal solid waste landfills in European countries for use in the inventory analysis of LCA. Examples of input data (e.g. distribution of the waste product...... in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components) and output data (e.g. estimated emissions to atmosphere and water) are given for a fictive waste product made of representative types of components (toluene, cellulose, polyvinylchloride...... from true landfills. Hence, the computer tool is verified in terms of mass balances and sensitivity analyses. The mass balances agree exactly and the sensitivity analyses show that different types of waste product components behave differently in different types of landfills. Emission of e.g. toluene...

  10. Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lidia.lombardi@pin.unifi.it; Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Waste management systems are a non-negligible source of greenhouse gases. In particular, methane and carbon dioxide emissions occur in landfills due to the breakdown of biodegradable carbon compounds operated on by anaerobic bacteria. The conventional possibilities of reducing the greenhouse effect (GHE) from waste landfilling consists in landfill gas (LFG) flaring or combustion with energy recovery in reciprocating engines. These conventional treatments are compared with three innovative possibilities: the direct LFG feeding to a fuel cell (FC); the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a stationary FC; the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a vehicle FC. The comparison is carried out from an environmental point of view, calculating the specific production of GHE per unit mass of waste disposed in landfill equipped with the different considered technologies.

  11. THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Janas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the environmental impact of a shut down industrial waste landfill. A detailed analysis of the quality of groundwater around the landfill in the years 1995-2016 was conducted. Assessment of the status of groundwater in the landfill area was made based on the results of monitoring tests. It includes the measurement of pH, specific electrical conductivity (SEC and the content of chlorides, sulfates, phosphates, heavy metals: copper (Cu, lead (Pb, chromium (Cr and a number of other pollution indicators. The analysis confirms that the landfill during the operation did not constitute a threat because of a number of employed security measures and sealing layers. Only in recent years, the industrial waste landfill which is already out of operation has become an extremely serious environmental threat. The results of water analyses from the piezometers clearly indicate that there is a problem of groundwater contamination. There was a significant increase in the value of some of the analyzed indicators (such as chlorides and sulfates, mainly in the piezometers located on the flow line of groundwater in the landfill area. The observed situation is probably a result of damage to the sealing layers and leaching of pollutants from waste deposited in the landfill by rain water.

  12. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...

  13. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16 Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. (a) Existing MSWLF units that cannot make the...

  14. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (c)(3) of this section. (b) Technical requirements. Requirements for chemical waste landfills used..., the soil shall have a high clay and silt content with the following parameters: (i) In-place soil... unit liner. This design is recommended for use when semi-solid or leachable solid wastes are placed in...

  15. Location analysis of the landfill of waste in Loznica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper regards the landfill of municipal and industrial waste in Loznica, actually its location and environmental hazards. The research was carried out in order to show the consequences of careless and incomplete evaluation of the conditions for a locating of a landfill in the example of Loznica. Besides the fact that it is located at the floodplain of the Drina River, the landfill is normally located to the direction of predominant wind, which has a significant influence on environmental dispersion processes. The landscape where the landfill is located has been impacted by flooded and groundwater and predominant wind, but on the other side, the environment has also been impacted by pollutants which come from the new system landscape-landfill. The results of the laboratory analysis help to target a gradual process of the soil contamination by heavy metals from the landfill, and to detect the general direction of contaminant migration, from southwest to northeast. Therefore, it is necessary to start working on recultivation and rehabilitation of the landfill and to begin with regional waste disposal. .

  16. 40 CFR 60.33c - Emission guidelines for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste deposition; (2) The landfill has a design capacity greater than or equal to 2.5 million megagrams... waste landfill emissions. 60.33c Section 60.33c Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.33c Emission guidelines for...

  17. 76 FR 9772 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to allow the State to issue research, development, and.... Background On March 22, 2004, EPA issued a final rule amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at...

  18. 77 FR 65875 - Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY Adequacy of Arizona Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... determination to approve a modification to Arizona's municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) permit program to... amending the municipal solid waste landfill criteria at 40 CFR 258.4 to allow for Research, Development...

  19. 76 FR 270 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program... modification to Alaska's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit program. The approved... Waste Landfill (MSWLF) criteria in 40 CFR part 258 to allow for Research, Development and Demonstration...

  20. 78 FR 20073 - Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Adequacy of Oregon's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program AGENCY... modification to the State of Oregon's approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Program. On March 22, 2004, EPA... certain municipal solid waste landfills by approved states. On June 14, 2012, Oregon submitted an...

  1. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...... into five groups of components: general organic matter (e.g. paper), specific organic compounds (e.g. organic solvents), inert components (e.g. PVC), metals (e.g. cadmium), and inorganic non-metals (e.g. chlorine,) which are considered individually. The assumptions and approximations used in the model...

  2. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  3. Effect of solid waste landfill on underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the municipal solid waste landfill a Ring Road Ibadan on the quality of the underground water in the surrounding area and adjacent surface water was investigated. Samples of water from these sources were analyzed for the following physico-chemical parameters: Ph , conductivity, total solid, dissolved solid, ...

  4. Phytostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Barton; Donald Marx; Domy Adriano; Bon Jun Koo; Lee Newman; Stephen Czapka; John Blake

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three...

  5. Photostabilization of a landfill containing coal combustion waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Barton; Donald Marx; Domy Adriano; Bon Jun Koo; Lee Newman; Stephen Czapka; John Blake

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of a vegetative cover to enhance evapotranspiration and control runoff and drainage was examined as a method for stabilizing a landfill containing coal combustion waste. Suitable plant species and pretreatment techniques in the form of amendments, tilling, and chemical stabilization were evaluated. A randomized plot design consisting of three...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14353 - Standards for municipal solid waste landfill emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... landfill emissions. 62.14353 Section 62.14353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to... municipal solid waste landfill emissions. (a) The owner or operator of a designated facility having a design...

  7. A comparison of landfill leachates based on waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Chris M; Townsend, Timothy G

    2017-05-01

    Samples of leachate were collected from fourteen landfills in the state of Florida, United States that contained primarily putrescible waste (municipal solid waste, MSW, and yard waste), MSW incinerator (MSWI) ash, or a combination of both. Assessment of leachates included trace metals, anions, and nutrients in order to create a mass balance of total dissolved solids (TDS). As expected from previously literature, MSW leached a complex matrix of contaminants while MSWI ash leachate TDS was more than 98% metallic salts. The pH of the MSWI ash leachate samples was slightly acidic or neutral in character, which is contradictory to the results commonly reported in the literature. The cause of this is hypothesized to be a short-circuiting of rainfall in the landfill due to low hydraulic conductivities reported in ash landfills. The difference in pH likely contributed to the findings with respect to MSWI ash-characteristic trace metals in leachates such as aluminum. The authors have concluded that the research findings in this study are an indication of the differences between laboratory leachate quality studies and the conditions encountered in the field. In addition, a characterization of organic matter using qualitative and quantitative analyses determined that COD is not an accurate indicator of organic matter in leachates from landfills with a significant fraction of MSWI ash. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward zero waste to landfill: an effective method for recycling zeolite waste from refinery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchuen, K.; Anuwattana, R.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    One-third of landfill waste of refinery plant in Thailand was spent chloride zeolite, which wastes a huge of land, cost and time for handling. Toward zero waste to landfill, this study was aimed at determining an effective method for recycling zeolite waste by comparing the chemical process with the electrochemical process. To investigate the optimum conditions of both processes, concentration of chemical solution and reaction time were carried out for the former, while the latter varied in term of current density, initial pH of water, and reaction time. The results stated that regenerating zeolite waste from refinery industry in Thailand should be done through the chemical process with alkaline solution because it provided the best chloride adsorption efficiency with cost the least. A successful recycling will be beneficial not only in reducing the amount of landfill waste but also in reducing material and disposal costs and consumption of natural resources as well.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report April 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories, California Waste Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System rogram Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories California Waste Management Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2008-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Waste Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This annual program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Waste Management (WM) Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  12. Waste disposal mapping with electrical resistivity tomography case: Leuwigajah landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, Erisha; Ardi, Ahmad Puji; Almunziri, Muaz; Xanggam, Zael Yahd; Eleazar, Adino; Widodo

    2017-07-01

    Leuwigajah landfill as administrative is located between district of Bandung and Cimahi citythat has an environmental and social problem that caused aquifer contamination due to the big amount of waste from Bandung city, Cimahi and Bandung regency. It is occupied in abandoned andesite mine site with an area of about 25 hectare. The aim of this research is to map the geology structure and to study the leachate towards aquifer layer below Leuwigajah landfill. Here, we present the study of Leuwigajah landfill subsurface using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). ERT is one of the most promising prospecting techniques mainly concerning its effective contribution to resolve several environmental problems, was applied for the geophysical modeling. ERT is a robust imaging method the theory and implementation of which are well documented in geophysical research literature. The geological setting comprises clayed weathered layer, fractured andesitic dike. Due to the above-mentioned geological singularity and in the light of the requirement for an environmentally safe construction of the landfill, an ERT survey was carried out with dipole-dipole array, 78 m of acquisition line and 6 m of electrode spacing. The model consists of 4 layers below the Leuwigajah landfill and andesitic fracture until depth of 18.7 m below the surface.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  14. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such...

  15. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Composition and Value of waste in landfills in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Oelofse1_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3221 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Oelofse1_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Composition and Value of waste... in landfills in SA German Chamber of Business From Mining to Urban Mining 16 September 2015 IFAT Environmental Technology Forum Africa 2015 by Prof Suzan Oelofse Research Group Leader: Waste for Development Competency Area: Solutions for a Green...

  17. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  18. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recove...

  19. The impact of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava County on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of air quality deterioration through emissions of toxic gas resulted from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste. The paper discusses in detail the qualitative and quantitative effects of municipal waste landfills of the main urban settlements in Suceava County (Suceava City municipal landfill and Gura Humorului, Rădăuţi, Siret, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban waste landfills on air quality. The dispersion of methane emitted from the largest MSW landfill in the county, the Suceava municipal landfill respectively, is also presented, taking into account seasonal, daytime and nighttime meteorological parameters

  20. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial...... years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce...... waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has...

  1. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  2. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Lindberg; CJ Chou

    2000-12-14

    The Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) is regulated by the Washington State Department of Ecology under WAC 173-304. Between 1973 and 1976, the landfill received primarily paper waste and construction debris, but it also received asbestos, sewage, and catch tank liquid waste. Groundwater monitoring results indicate the SWL has contaminated groundwater with volatile organic compounds and possibly metals at levels that exceed regulatory limits. DynCorp, Tri-Cities, Inc. operates the facility under an interim closure plan (final closure plan will be released shortly). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) monitors groundwater at the site. This monitoring plan includes well and constituent lists, and summarizes sampling, analytical, and quality control requirements. Changes from the previous monitoring plan include elimination of two radionuclides from the analyte list and some minor changes in the statistical analysis. Existing wells in the current monitoring network only monitor the uppermost portion of the upper-most aquifer. Therefore, two new downgradient wells and one existing upgradient well are proposed to determine whether groundwater waste constituents have reached the lower portion of the uppermost aquifer. The proposed well network includes three upgradient wells and ten downgradient wells. The wells will be sampled quarterly for 14 analytes required by WAC 173-304-490 plus volatile organic compounds and filtered arsenic as site-specific analytes.

  3. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2017-05-01

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m(3), while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10(-4) and 6.7×10(-3)cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste allows landfill impact reduction saving waste energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of full scale MBT process (28 d) in removing inhibition condition for successive biogas (ABP) production in landfill and in reducing total waste impact. For this purpose the organic fraction of MSW was treated in a full-scale MBT plant and successively incubated vs. untreated waste, in simulated landfills for one year. Results showed that untreated landfilled-waste gave a total ABP reduction that was null. On the contrary MBT process reduced ABP of 44%, but successive incubation for one year in landfill gave a total ABP reduction of 86%. This ABP reduction corresponded to a MBT process of 22 weeks length, according to the predictive regression developed for ABP reduction vs. MBT-time. Therefore short MBT allowed reducing landfill impact, preserving energy content (ABP) to be produced successively by bioreactor technology since pre-treatment avoided process inhibition because of partial waste biostabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the disposal of wastes containing NORM in nonhazardous waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Williams, G. P.; Arnish, J. J.; Pfingston, M. R.; Herbert, J.

    1999-11-22

    In the past few years, many states have established specific regulations for the management of petroleum industry wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) above specified thresholds. These regulations have limited the number of disposal options available for NORM-containing wastes, thereby increasing the related waste management costs. In view of the increasing economic burden associated with NORM management, industry and regulators are interested in identifying cost-effective disposal alternatives that still provide adequate protection of human health and the environment. One such alternative being considered is the disposal of NORM-containing wastes in landfills permitted to accept only nonhazardous wastes. The disposal of petroleum industry wastes containing radium-226 and lead-210 above regulated levels in nonhazardous landfills was modeled to evaluate the potential radiological doses and associated health risks to workers and the general public. A variety of scenarios were considered to evaluate the effects associated with the operational phase (i.e., during landfill operations) and future use of the landfill property. Doses were calculated for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. This paper presents the results of that study and some conclusions and recommendations drawn from it.

  6. Wet landfill decomposition rate determination using methane yield results for excavated waste samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwidong; Townsend, Timothy G

    2012-07-01

    An increasing number of landfills are operated to accelerate waste decomposition through liquids addition (e.g., leachate recirculation) as a wet landfill. Landfill design and regulation often depend on utilizing landfill gas production models that require an estimate of a first-order gas generation rate constant, k. Consequently, several studies have estimated k using collected gas volumes from operating wet landfills. Research was conducted to examine an alternative approach in which k is estimated not from collected landfill gas but from solid waste samples collected over time and analyzed for remaining gas yield. To achieve this goal, waste samples were collected from 1990 through 2007 at two full-scale landfills in Florida that practiced liquids addition. Methane yields were measured from waste samples collected over time, including periods before and after leachate recirculation, and the results were applied to a first-order decay model to estimate rate constants for each of the sites. An initial, intensive processing step was conducted to exclude non-biodegradable components from the methane yield testing procedure. The resulting rate constants for the two landfills examined were 0.47 yr(-1) and 0.21 yr(-1). These results expectedly exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's rate constants for dry and conventional landfills (0.02-0.05 yr(-1)), but they are comparable to wet landfill rate constants derived using landfill gas data (0.1-0.3 yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 m......A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...

  8. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  9. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily...... stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55 C...

  10. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  11. 76 FR 303 - Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 239 and 258 Alaska: Adequacy of Alaska's Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit... proposes to approve Alaska's modification of its approved Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF) permit...

  12. SEISMIC DISTRESS AND PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2011-01-01

    Seismic distress of solid waste landfills may result from any of the two consequences of a seismic event: (a) the transient ground deformation related to seismic wave propagation, (b) the permanent ground deformation caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Design provisions for solid waste landfills...

  13. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  14. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C., E-mail: jc.mora@ciemat.es [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain); Baeza, Antonio [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Cáceres (Spain); Robles, Beatriz [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  15. Risk-Based Prioritization Method for the Classification of Groundwater Pollution from Hazardous Waste Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Lian, Xin-Ying; Xi, Bei-Dou; Ma, Zhi-Fei; Xu, Xiang-Jian; An, Da

    2016-12-01

    Hazardous waste landfill sites are a significant source of groundwater pollution. To ensure that these landfills with a significantly high risk of groundwater contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater contamination is needed. In this research, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pollution from hazardous waste landfills was established. The method encompasses five phases, including risk pre-screening, indicator selection, characterization, classification and, lastly, validation. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 14 indicators involving hazardous waste landfills and migration in the vadose zone as well as aquifer were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined by K-means cluster analysis and the weight of each indicator was calculated by principal component analysis. These methods were applied to 37 hazardous waste landfills in China. The result showed that the risk for groundwater contamination from hazardous waste landfills could be ranked into three classes from low to high risk. In all, 62.2 % of the hazardous waste landfill sites were classified in the low and medium risk classes. The process simulation method and standardized anomalies were used to validate the result of risk ranking; the results were consistent with the simulated results related to the characteristics of contamination. The risk ranking method was feasible, valid and can provide reference data related to risk management for groundwater contamination at hazardous waste landfill sites.

  16. Simulation of municipal solid waste degradation in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Bhagwan Shamrao; C, Agnes Anto; Singh, Devendra Narain

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation is huge in growing cities of developing nations such as India, owing to the rapid industrial and population growth. In addition to various methods for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (landfills, composting, bio-methanation, incineration and pyrolysis), aerobic/anaerobic bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity for economical and effective disposal of municipal solid waste. However, efficiency of municipal solid waste bioreactor landfills primarily depends on the municipal solid waste decomposition rate, which can be accelerated through monitoring moisture content and temperature by using the frequency domain reflectometry probe and thermocouples, respectively. The present study demonstrates that these landfill physical properties of the heterogeneous municipal solid waste mass can be monitored using these instruments, which facilitates proper scheduling of the leachate recirculation for accelerating the decomposition rate of municipal solid waste.

  17. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  19. LANDFILLS FOR NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE AND INERT WASTE AND THEIR OPERATION CYCLE IN NEW SYSTEM OF THE WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kunc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Until 2012, the chief method of disposing of municipal waste in Poland was by storing it on non-hazardous and inert waste landfills. The introduction of a new waste management system as well as new formal and legal requirements have forced changes in key documents related to landfill installations such as processing permits, landfill operation instructions and management instructions. The operation cycle has been disturbed, reducing considerably their operation time and leading to a premature discontinuation of waste receipt, closure, and rehabilitation. These processes result in many irregularities in land rehabilitation which are likely to have a significant impact on the environment. The article identifies the fundamental changes which can interrupt the landfill operation cycle, and discusses the threats to the process of rehabilitation, highlighting both administrative and technical problems discovered based on processes that have been already completed. The description has been drawn up based on the study of literature, analyses and the reports of public administration bodies as well as on own research into the number of landfills faced with this problem.

  20. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  1. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The landfill gas (LFG) generation from four Danish landfills was estimated using three first-order-decay (FOD) models; the LandGEM model (developed by the US EPA), the IPCC (developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Afvalzorg model (developed by a Dutch company). The last...... two models are multi-phase models, which defines waste fractions into traditional MSW and low-organic waste categories, respectively. Both the LandGEM and the IPCC model estimated significantly larger methane (CH4) generation in comparison to the Afvalzorg model. The Afvalzorg model could better show...

  2. Airborne emissions of mercury from municipal solid waste. II: potential losses of airborne mercury before landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, George R; Lindberg, Steve E; Bogle, Mary Anna; Zhang, Hong; Kuiken, Todd; Price, Jack; Reinhart, Debra; Sfeir, Hala

    2005-07-01

    Waste distribution and compaction at the working face of municipal waste landfills releases mercury vapor (Hg(o)) to the atmosphere, as does the flaring of landfill gas. Waste storage and processing before its addition to the landfill also has the potential to release Hg(o) to the air if it is initially present or formed by chemical reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(o) within collected waste. We measured the release of Hg vapor to the atmosphere during dumpster and transfer station activities and waste storage before landfilling at a municipal landfill operation in central Florida. We also quantified the potential contribution of specific Hg-bearing wastes, including mercury (Hg) thermometers and fluorescent bulbs, and searched for primary Hg sources in sorted wastes at three different landfills. Surprisingly large fluxes were estimated for Hg losses at transfer facilities (approximately 100 mg/hr) and from dumpsters in the field (approximately 30 mg/hr for 1000 dumpsters), suggesting that Hg emissions occurring before landfilling may constitute a significant fraction of the total emission from the disposal/landfill cycle and a need for more measurements on these sources. Reducing conditions of landfill burial were obviously not needed to generate strong Hg(o) signals, indicating that much of the Hg was already present in a metallic (Hg(o)) form. Attempts to identify specific Hg sources in excavated and sorted waste indicated few readily identifiable sources; because of effective mixing and diffusion of Hg(o), the entire waste mass acts as a source. Broken fluorescent bulbs and thermometers in dumpsters emitted Hg(o) at 10 to >100 microg/hr and continued to act as near constant sources for several days.

  3. Environmental assessment for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico offsite transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) within the boundaries of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) is generated by some of the activities performed at SNL/NM in support of the DOE. This report describes potential environmental effects of the shipments of low-level radioactive wastes to other sites.

  4. ER Operations Installation of Three FLUTe Soil-Vapor Monitoring Wells (MWL-SV03 MWL-SV04 and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This installation report describes the May through July 2014 drilling activities performed for the installation of three multi-port soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), which is located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration. The MWL is designated as Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 76 and is located in Technical Area (TA) III (Figure 1-1). The locations of the three soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) are shown in Figure 1-2

  5. Evaluation and modeling of biochemical methane potential (BMP) of landfilled solid waste: a pilot scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgili, M Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Varank, Gamze

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to present a comparison of landfill performance with respect to solids decomposition. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) test was used to determine the initial and the remaining CH(4) potentials of solid wastes during 27 months of landfilling operation in two pilot...

  6. RCRA SUBTITLE D (258): SEISMIC DESIGN GUIDANCE FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    On October 9, 1993, the new RCRA Subtitle D regulations (40 CFR Part 258) went into effect. These regulations are applicable to landfills receiving municipal solid waste (MSW) and establish minimum Federal criteria for the siting, design, operation, and closure of MSW landfills....

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), Emission Guidelines (EG) and Compliance Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    learn about the NSPS for municipal solid waste landfills by reading the rule summary, rule history, code of federal regulations text, fact sheets, background information documents, related rules and compliance information.

  8. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Environmental assessment for the Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility: Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0466) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 for the proposed completion of construction and subsequent operation of a central Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management Facility (RMWMF), in the southeastern portion of Technical Area III at Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque (SNLA). The RMWMF is designed to receive, store, characterize, conduct limited bench-scale treatment of, repackage, and certify low-level waste (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) (as necessary) for shipment to an offsite disposal or treatment facility. The RMWMF was partially constructed in 1989. Due to changing regulatory requirements, planned facility upgrades would be undertaken as part of the proposed action. These upgrades would include paving of road surfaces and work areas, installation of pumping equipment and lines for surface impoundment, and design and construction of air locks and truck decontamination and water treatment systems. The proposed action also includes an adjacent corrosive and reactive metals storage area, and associated roads and paving. LLW and MW generated at SNLA would be transported from the technical areas to the RMWMF in containers approved by the Department of Transportation. The RMWMF would not handle nonradioactive hazardous waste. Based on the analysis in the EA, the proposed completion of construction and operation of the RMWMF does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement for the proposed action is not required.

  10. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  11. Methodological approach to the determination of landfill location for municipal solid waste: Case study: Regional landfill in Kolubara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimović Boško

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach in determining location for regional landfill municipal solid waste. The initial phase of this approach is based on defining the criteria and determining the elimination criteria of elimination (unacceptable to locate a landfill area using GIS tools. Then define the criteria used in multicriteria evaluating potentially suitable locations and perform their grouping in weight classes that have certain specific values - wei ghts. By multiplying the weights with the assessment of individual criteria are obtained quantitative values (rates criteria, whose simple sum received final grades of potential sites. If two or more sites rated approximately the same grade, it is possible to further evaluate the different scenarios that decision-making entities may point out advantages and disadvantages of each of these application scenarios. The research results were applied in selecting the location of a regional landfill for the eleven municipalities of Kolubara regions which received the research applicability.

  12. [Nitrous oxide emissions from municipal solid waste landfills and its measuring methodology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Shao-Hua

    2014-06-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of three major greenhouse gases and the dominant ozone-depleting substance. Landfilling is the major approach for the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), while MSW landfills can be an important anthropogenic source for N2O emissions. Measurements at lab-scale and full-scale landfills have demonstrated that N2O can be emitted in substantial amounts in MSW landfills; however, a large variation in reported emission values exists. Currently, the mechanisms of N2O production and emission in landfills and its contribution to global warming are still lack of sufficient studies. Meanwhile, obtaining reliable N2O fluxes data in landfills remains a question with existing in-situ measurement techniques. This paper summarized relevant literature data on this issue and analyzed the potential production and emission mechanisms of N2O in traditional anaerobic sanitary landfill by dividing it into the MSW buried and the cover soil. The corresponding mechanisms in nitrogen removal bioreactor landfills were analyzed. Finally, the applicability of existing in-situ approaches measuring N2O fluxes in landfills, such as chamber and micrometeorological methods, was discussed and areas in which further research concerning N2O emissions in landfills was urgently required were proposed as well.

  13. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  14. Evaluating the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2014-11-01

    The biochemical methane potential (BMP) is an essential parameter when using first order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate methane (CH4) generation from landfills. Different categories of waste (mixed, shredder and sludge waste) with a low-organic content and temporarily stored combustible waste were sampled from four Danish landfills. The waste was characterized in terms of physical characteristics (TS, VS, TC and TOC) and the BMP was analyzed in batch tests. The experiment was set up in triplicate, including blank and control tests. Waste samples were incubated at 55°C for more than 60 days, with continuous monitoring of the cumulative CH4 generation. Results showed that samples of mixed waste and shredder waste had similar BMP results, which was in the range of 5.4-9.1 kg CH4/ton waste (wet weight) on average. As a calculated consequence, their degradable organic carbon content (DOCC) was in the range of 0.44-0.70% of total weight (wet waste). Numeric values of both parameters were much lower than values of traditional municipal solid waste (MSW), as well as default numeric values in current FOD models. The sludge waste and temporarily stored combustible waste showed BMP values of 51.8-69.6 and 106.6-117.3 kg CH4/ton waste on average, respectively, and DOCC values of 3.84-5.12% and 7.96-8.74% of total weight. The same category of waste from different Danish landfills did not show significant variation. This research studied the BMP of Danish low-organic waste for the first time, which is important and valuable for using current FOD LFG generation models to estimate realistic CH4 emissions from modern landfills receiving low-organic waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Cao, Aixin; Zhao, Guozhu; Zhou, Chuanbin; Xu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are the most prevalent waste disposal method and constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic methane emissions in the world. Microbial activities in disposed waste play a crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions; however, only a few studies have examined metagenomic microbial profiles in landfills. Here, the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing method was applied for the first time to examine microbial diversity of the cover soil and stored waste located at different depths (0-150cm) in a typical MSW landfill in Yangzhou City, East China. The abundance of microorganisms in the cover soil (0-30cm) was the lowest among all samples, whereas that in stored waste decreased from the top to the middle layer (30-90cm) and then increased from the middle to the bottom layer (90-150cm). In total, 14 phyla and 18 genera were found in the landfill. A microbial diversity analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera. Methylohalobius (methanotrophs) was more abundant in the cover layers of soil than in stored waste, whereas Syntrophomonas and Fastidiosipila, which affect methane production, were more abundant in the middle to bottom layers (90-150cm) in stored waste. A canonical correlation analysis showed that microbial diversity in the landfill was most strongly correlated with the conductivity, organic matter, and moisture content of the stored waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  17. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH 4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers leaching from electronic waste in simulated landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (China)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: • Simulated landfill columns provided realistic results than lab based column study. • Column leachates showed significant seasonal effect on toxic substances. • Toxic substances in the landfill leachates pose environmental and health hazards. • A better management of e-waste is urgently needed. -- Abstract: Landfills established prior to the recognition of potential impacts from the leaching of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds often lack appropriate barriers and pose significant risks of contamination of groundwater. In this study, bioavailable metal(oids) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from landfill columns that contained intact or broken e-waste were studied under conditions that simulate landfills in terms of waste components and methods of disposal of e-wastes, and with realistic rainfall. Fourteen elements and PBDEs were analysed in leachates over a period of 21 months. The results demonstrate that the average concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and V in leachates from the column that contained broken e-waste items were significantly higher than the column without e-waste. BDE-153 was the highest average PBDEs congener in all columns but the average of ∑PBDEs levels in columns that contained intact e-waste were (3.7 ng/l) and were not significantly higher than that in the leachates from the control column.

  19. A review of groundwater contamination near municipal solid waste landfill sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Ma, Haining; Shi, Guozhong; He, Li; Wei, Luoyu; Shi, Qingqing

    2016-11-01

    Landfills are the most widely used method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal method in China. However, these facilities have caused serious groundwater contamination due to the leakage of leachate. This study, analyzed 32 scientific papers, a field survey and an environmental assessment report related to groundwater contamination caused by landfills in China. The groundwater quality in the vicinity of landfills was assessed as "very bad" by a comprehensive score (FI) of 7.85 by the Grading Method in China. Variety of pollutants consisting of 96 groundwater pollutants, 3 organic matter indicators, 2 visual pollutants and 6 aggregative pollutants had been detected in the various studies. Twenty-two kinds of pollutants were considered to be dominant. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and the median test, groundwater contamination differed significantly between regions in China, but there were no significant differences between dry season and wet season measurements, except for some pollutants in a few landfill sites. Generally, the groundwater contamination appeared in the initial landfill stage after five years and peaked some years afterward. In this stage, the Nemerow Index (PI) of groundwater increased exponentially as landfill age increased at some sites, but afterwards decreased exponentially with increasing age at others. After 25years, the groundwater contamination was very low at selected landfills. The PI values of landfills decreased exponentially as the pollutant migration distance increased. Therefore, the groundwater contamination mainly appeared within 1000m of a landfill and most of serious groundwater contamination occurred within 200m. The results not only indicate that the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills should be a concern, but also are valuable to remediate the groundwater contamination near MSW landfills and to prevent the MSW landfill from secondary pollutions, especially for developing countries considering the similar

  20. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Bernhard; Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion; Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2013-10-01

    Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of δ(13)C, δ(2)H and δ(18)O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the δ(13)C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ(13)C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of δ(13)C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a δ(13)C-DIC of -20‰ to -25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in δ(13)C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW. During aeration of a landfill the aerobic degradation of the remaining organic matter caused a decrease to a δ(13)C-DIC of about -20‰. Therefore carbon isotope analysis in leachates and groundwater can be used for tracing the oxidation-reduction status of MSW landfills. Our results indicate that monitoring of stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates over a longer time period (e.g. during in situ aeration) is a powerful and cost-effective tool for characterising the biodegradability and

  1. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  3. Exergy analysis of biogas production from a municipal solid waste landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Nanaki, E.; Koroneos, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the energy area, intensive efforts are being made over the last years to bridge the supply area with renewable energy sources and the demand side with energy conservation. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste landfills can play a contributing role in the solution of problems of both waste...

  4. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora’aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  5. EU landfill waste acceptance criteria and EU Hazardous Waste Directive compliance testing of incinerated sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatello, S; Tyrer, M; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-01-01

    A hazardous waste assessment has been completed on ash samples obtained from seven sewage sludge incinerators operating in the UK, using the methods recommended in the EU Hazardous Waste Directive. Using these methods, the assumed speciation of zinc (Zn) ultimately determines if the samples are hazardous due to ecotoxicity hazard. Leaching test results showed that two of the seven sewage sludge ash samples would require disposal in a hazardous waste landfill because they exceed EU landfill waste acceptance criteria for stabilised non-reactive hazardous waste cells for soluble selenium (Se). Because Zn cannot be proven to exist predominantly as a phosphate or oxide in the ashes, it is recommended they be considered as non-hazardous waste. However leaching test results demonstrate that these ashes cannot be considered as inert waste, and this has significant implications for the management, disposal and re-use of sewage sludge ash.

  6. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-10-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  7. The degradability of biodegradable plastics in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfill model reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonori; Sugano, Wataru; Nakanishi, Akane; Tateda, Masafumi; Ike, Michihiko; Fujita, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Degradabilities of four kinds of commercial biodegradable plastics (BPs), polyhydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) plastic, polycaprolactone plastic (PCL), blend of starch and polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) plastic and cellulose acetate (CA) plastic were investigated in waste landfill model reactors that were operated as anaerobically and aerobically. The application of forced aeration to the landfill reactor for supplying aerobic condition could potentially stimulate polymer-degrading microorganisms. However, the individual degradation behavior of BPs under the aerobic condition was completely different. PCL, a chemically synthesized BP, showed film breakage under the both conditions, which may have contributed to a reduction in the waste volume regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Effective degradation of PHBV plastic was observed in the aerobic condition, though insufficient degradation was observed in the anaerobic condition. But the aeration did not contribute much to accelerate the volume reduction of SPVA plastic and CA plastic. It could be said that the recalcitrant portions of the plastics such as polyvinyl alcohol in SPVA plastic and the highly substituted CA in CA plastic prevented the BP from degradation. These results indicated existence of the great variations in the degradability of BPs in aerobic and anaerobic waste landfills, and suggest that suitable technologies for managing the waste landfill must be combined with utilization of BPs in order to enhance the reduction of waste volume in landfill sites.

  8. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  9. Data Summary of Municipal Solid Waste Management Alternatives. Volume VIII: Appendix F - Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community's solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a transition'' document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  10. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 8, Appendix F, Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    While the preceding appendices have focused on the thermochemical approaches to managing municipal solid waste (MSW), this appendix and those that follow on composting and anaerobic digestion address more of the bioconversion process technologies. Landfilling is the historical baseline MSW management option central to every community`s solid waste management plan. It generally encompasses shredfills, balefills, landfill gas recovery, and landfill mining. While landfilling is virtually universal in use, it continues to undergo intense scrutiny by the public and regulators alike. Most recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its final rule on criteria for designing, operating, monitoring, and closing municipal solid waste landfills. While the Federal government has established nationwide standards and will assist the States in planning and developing their own practices, the States and local governments will carry out the actual planning and direct implementation. The States will also be authorized to devise programs to deal with their specific conditions and needs. While the main body of this appendix and corresponding research was originally prepared in July of 1991, references to the new RCRA Subtitle D, Part 258 EPA regulations have been included in this resubmission (908). By virtue of timing, this appendix is, necessarily, a ``transition`` document, combining basic landfill design and operation information as well as reference to new regulatory requirements. Given the speed with which landfill practices are and will be changing, the reader is encouraged to refer to Part 258 for additional details. As States set additional requirements and schedules and owners and operators of MSW landfills seek to comply, additional guidance and technical information, including case studies, will likely become available in the literature.

  11. Seasonal dynamics in leachate hydrochemistry and natural attentuation in surface run-off waste from a tropical landfill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, J.C.; van Breukelen, B.M.; Krave, A.S.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Open waste dump systems are still widely used in Indonesia. The Jatibarang landfill receives 650-700 tons of municipal waste per day from the city of Semarang, Central Java. Some of the leachate from the landfill flows via several natural and collection ponds to a nearby river. The objectives of the

  12. Identification of Cellulose Breaking Bacteria in Landfill Samples for Organic Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, P. M.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    According to the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department, the citizens of Hong Kong disposes 13,500 tonnes of waste to the landfill everyday. Out of the 13,500 tonnes, 3600 tonnes consist of organic waste. Furthermore, due to the limited supply of land for landfills in Hong Kong, it is estimated that landfills will be full by about 2020. Currently, organic wastes at landfills undergo anaerobic respiration, where methane gas, one of the most harmful green house gases, will be released. The management of such waste is a pressing issue, as possible solutions must be presented in this crucial period of time. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy introduced their very own method to manage the waste produced by the students. With an approximate of 1500 students on campus, the school produces 27 metric tonnes of food waste each academic year. The installation of the rocket food composter provides an alternate method of disposable of organic waste the school produces, for the aerobic environment allows for different by-products to be produced, namely compost that can be used for organic farming by the primary school students and subsequently carbon dioxide, a less harmful greenhouse gas. This research is an extension on the current work, as another natural factor is considered. It evaluates the microorganism community present in leachate samples collected from the North East New Territories Landfill, for the bacteria in the area exhibits special characteristics in the process of decomposition. Through the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the bacteria, the identification of the bacteria might lead to a break through on the current issue. Some bacteria demonstrate the ability to degrade lignin cellulose, or assist in the production of methane gas in aerobic respirations. These characteristics can hopefully be utilized in the future in waste managements across the globe.

  13. INPP Landfill[Disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jan; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2004-06-15

    The objective of this report is to propose the basic design for final disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) produced at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and at other small waste producers in Lithuania. Considering the safety for the environment, as well as the construction costs, it has been decided that the repository will be of a landfill type based on the same design principles as similar authorised facilities in other countries. It has also been decided that the location of the landfill shall be in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP)

  14. Stable isotope signatures for characterising the biological stability of landfilled municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.wimmer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria); Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Watzinger, Andrea; Wyhlidal, Stefan; Reichenauer, Thomas G. [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Health and Environment Department, Environmental Resources and Technologies, Konrad-Lorenz-Strasse 24, 3430 Tulln (Austria)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The isotopic signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates is linked to the reactivity of MSW. ► Isotopic signatures of leachates depend on aerobic/anaerobic conditions in landfills. ► In situ aeration of landfills can be monitored by isotope analysis in leachate. ► The isotopic analysis of leachates can be used for assessing the stability of MSW. ► δ{sup 13}C-DIC of leachates helps to define the duration of landfill aftercare. - Abstract: Stable isotopic signatures of landfill leachates are influenced by processes within municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills mainly depending on the aerobic/anaerobic phase of the landfill. We investigated the isotopic signatures of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 2}H and δ{sup 18}O of different leachates from lab-scale experiments, lysimeter experiments and a landfill under in situ aeration. In the laboratory, columns filled with MSW of different age and reactivity were percolated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In landfill simulation reactors, waste of a 25 year old landfill was kept under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lysimeter facility was filled with mechanically shredded fresh waste. After starting of the methane production the waste in the lysimeter containments was aerated in situ. Leachate and gas composition were monitored continuously. In addition the seepage water of an old landfill was collected and analysed periodically before and during an in situ aeration. We found significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C-value of the dissolved inorganic carbon (δ{sup 13}C-DIC) of the leachate between aerobic and anaerobic waste material. During aerobic degradation, the signature of δ{sup 13}C-DIC was mainly dependent on the isotopic composition of the organic matter in the waste, resulting in a δ{sup 13}C-DIC of −20‰ to −25‰. The production of methane under anaerobic conditions caused an increase in δ{sup 13}C-DIC up to values of +10‰ and higher depending on the actual reactivity of the MSW

  15. Environmental impact assessment of Gonabad municipal waste landfill site using Leopold Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Aliakbari, Zohreh; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed; Rasouli, Seyedeh Samira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction An environmental impact assessment (EIA) before embarking on any project is a useful tool to reduce the potential effects of each project, including landfill, if possible. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the current municipal solid waste disposal site of Gonabad by using the Iranian Leopold matrix method. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of a landfill site in Gonabad in 2015 by an Iranian matrix (modified Leopold matrix). This study was conducted based on field visits of the landfill, and collected information from various sources and analyzing and comparing between five available options, including the continuation of the current disposal practices, construction of new sanitary landfills, recycling plans, composting, and incineration plants was examined. The best option was proposed to replace the existing landfill. Results The current approach has a score of 2.35, the construction of new sanitary landfill has a score of 1.59, a score of 1.57 for the compost plant, and recycling and incineration plant, respectively, have scores of 1.68 and 2.3. Conclusion Results showed that continuation of the current method of disposal, due to severe environmental damage and health problems, is rejected. A compost plant with the lowest negative score is the best option for the waste disposal site of Gonabad City and has priority over the other four options. PMID:28465797

  16. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content...... waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China...

  17. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  19. Leaching, geochemical modelling and field verification of a municipal solid waste and a predominantly non-degradable waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sloot, H A; Kosson, D S; van Zomeren, A

    2017-05-01

    In spite of the known heterogeneity, wastes destined for landfilling can be characterised for their leaching behaviour by the same protocols as soil, contaminated soil, sediments, sludge, compost, wood, waste and construction products. Characterisation leaching tests used in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling results in much more detailed insights into release controlling processes and factors than single step batch leaching tests like TCLP (USEPA) and EN12457 (EU Landfill Directive). Characterisation testing also can provide the potential for mechanistic impact assessments by making use of a chemical speciation fingerprint (CSF) derived from pH dependence leaching test results. This CSF then forms the basis for subsequent chemical equilibrium and reactive transport modelling to assess environmental impact in a landfill scenario under relevant exposure conditions, including conditions not readily evaluated through direct laboratory testing. This approach has been applied to municipal solid waste (MSW) and predominantly non-degradable waste (PNW) that is representative of a significant part of waste currently being landfilled. This work has shown that a multi-element modelling approach provides a useful description of the release from each of these matrices because relevant release controlling properties and parameters (mineral dissolution/precipitation, sorption on Fe and Al oxides, clay interaction, interaction with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and incorporation in solid solutions) are taken into consideration. Inclusion of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model is important to properly describe release of the low concentration trace constituents observed in the leachate. The CSF allows the prediction of release under different redox and degradation conditions in the landfill by modifying the redox status and level of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the model runs. The CSF for MSW provides a useful starting point

  20. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  1. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    -aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... for 100 years”. The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate......, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence of the active operations (i.e., leachate recirculation, waste flushing and air injection) on the environmental performance, the time horizon...

  2. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduce Food Waste and Feed People, Not Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    DALLAS - (Nov. 10, 2015) Imagine 37 million tons of food. Think of how many people that amount could feed, the money it cost to buy, and the resources needed to produce it. Then imagine almost every pound of that sitting in a landfill or incinerator

  4. Anaerobic degradation of phthalic acid esters during digestion of municipal solid waste under landfilling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, J; Meyerson, U; Svensson, B H

    1996-08-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms in municipal solid waste samples from laboratory-scale landfill reactors and a pilot-plant biogas digestor were investigated with the aim of assessing their ability to transform four commercially used phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and phthalic acid (PA). The PAEs studied were diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). No biological transformation of DEHP could be detected in any of the experiments. Together with waste samples from the simulated landfilling conditions, the PAEs (except DEHP) were hydrolytically transformed to their corresponding monoesters. These accumulated as end products, and in most cases they were not further degraded. During incubation with waste from the biogas digestor, the PAEs (except DEHP) were completely degraded to methane and carbon dioxide. The influence of the landfill development phase on the transformations was investigated utilizing PA and DEP as model substances. We found that during both the intense and stable methanogenic (but not the acidogenic) phases, the microorganisms in the samples had the potential to transform PA. A shorter lag phase was observed for the PA transformation in the samples from the stable methanogenic phase as compared with earlier phases. This indicates an increased capacity to degrade PA during the aging phases of the municipal solid waste in landfills. No enhancement of the DEP transformation could be observed as conditions in the methanogenic landfill model changed over a year's time. The results indicate that microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment have a substantially lower potential to degrade compared with those developing in a biogas reactor.

  5. Co-occurrence of mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistance genes in municipal solid waste landfill leachates: A preliminary insight into the role of landfill age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhuofeng; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2016-12-01

    Since municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill harbours miscellaneous wastes, pollutants and microorganisms, it gradually becomes a huge potential reservoir for breeding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of ARGs associated with various mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in MSW landfill leachates. The relationship of ARGs with leachate characteristics was also studied to explore the influence of landfill age. Seven sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine and sulfaquinoxaline), three encoded ARGs (sul-I, sul-II and sul-III) and four types of MGEs (plasmids, transposons, integrons and insertion sequences) were quantified in leachates with landfill ages ranging from 3 months-6 years. ARGs increased to an absolute concentration of 10(6) copies/μL and were positively correlated (p landfilling might contribute to the enrichment of ARGs in the long-term. Non-target full scans revealed the role of persistent unknown compounds in stimulating the ARGs dissemination. Overall, this study demonstrates the exacerbation of ARGs pollution in landfill environment and a detailed delineation of the complex inter-relationships between ARGs and the substances harbouring in landfills is badly required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Bo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Citation: Cai, B.-F., Liu, J.-G., Gao, Q.-X., et al., 2014. Estimation of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills in China based on point emission sources. Adv. Clim. Change Res. 5(2, doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1248.2014.081.

  7. Adsorption of Lead Content in Leachate of Sukawinatan Landfill Using Solid Waste of Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on the adsorption of lead content in the leachate from the landfill by using solid waste of tofu. This study assed the effects of weight of the solid waste of tofu and the contact time on the efficiency of the Pb adsorption. The sample used in this study was artificial sample of a solution of Pb metal ion and the sample of the leachate of the landfill waste. The study was carried out with a batch system, with the variables of weight of waste of tofu of 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 g. While the variables of the contact time were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. To determine the optimum conditions, the waste of tofu was dissolved in 50 mL of Pb metal ion solution with a concentration of 20.27 mg/L and stirred with a shaker for 30 minutes at a speed of 180 rpm. The same thing was done by varying the contact time. When the optimum condition was obtained, it was applied with varying concentrations of Pb metal ion solution and garbage landfill leachate. The initial and the final levels of the Pb metal ion solution were analyzed by using the Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy (AAS. The initial and the final results of the heavy metals were analyzed for disclosing the adsorption efficiency. To reveal the effects of the weight of the waste of tofu and the contact time, the data were analyzed with graphs. The waste of tofu with a weight of 1.5 g and a contact time of 90 minutes, had an adsorption efficiency of 97.68% at a concentration of 20.27 mg / L for Pb ion solution and 28.57% for the leachate from the landfill waste in 100 mL of leachate.

  8. Leaching of lead from computer printed wire boards and cathode ray tubes by municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yong-Chul; Townsend, Timothy G

    2003-10-15

    The proper management of discarded electronic devices (E-waste) is an important issue for solid waste professionals because of the magnitude of the waste stream and because these devices often contain a variety of toxic metals (e.g., lead). While recycling of E-waste is developing, much of this waste stream is disposed in landfills. Leaching tests are frequently used to characterize the potential of a solid waste to leach when disposed in a landfill. In the United States, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is used to determine whether a solid waste is a hazardous waste by the toxicity characteristic. The TCLP is designed to simulate worse-case leaching in a landfill environment where the waste is co-disposed with municipal solid waste (MSW). While the TCLP is a required analysis from a regulatory perspective, the leachate concentrations measured may not accurately reflect the concentrations observed under typical landfill conditions. Another method that can be performed to assess the degree a pollutant might leach from a waste in a landfill is to use actual landfill leachate as the leaching solution. In this study, two lead-containing components found in electronic devices (printed wire boards from computers and cathode ray tubes from computers and televisions) were leached using the TCLP and leachates from 11 Florida landfills. California's Waste Extraction Test (WET) and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure were also performed. The results indicated that the extractions using MSW landfill leachates resulted in lower lead concentrations than those by the TCLP. The pH of the leaching solution and the ability of the organic acids in the TCLP and WET to complex with the lead are factors that regulate the amount of lead leached.

  9. Operating limit study for the proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.; Wang, J.C.; Kocher, D.C.

    1995-06-01

    A proposed solid waste landfill at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) would accept wastes generated during normal operations that are identified as non-radioactive. These wastes may include small amounts of radioactive material from incidental contamination during plant operations. A site-specific analysis of the new solid waste landfill is presented to determine a proposed operating limit that will allow for waste disposal operations to occur such that protection of public health and the environment from the presence of incidentally contaminated waste materials can be assured. Performance objectives for disposal were defined from existing regulatory guidance to establish reasonable dose limits for protection of public health and the environment. Waste concentration limits were determined consistent with these performance objectives for the protection of off-site individuals and inadvertent intruders who might be directly exposed to disposed wastes. Exposures of off-site individuals were estimated using a conservative, site-specific model of the groundwater transport of contamination from the wastes. Direct intrusion was analyzed using an agricultural homesteader scenario. The most limiting concentrations from direct intrusion or groundwater transport were used to establish the concentration limits for radionuclides likely to be present in PGDP wastes.

  10. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  11. Performance evaluation of the bioreactor landfill in treatment and stabilisation of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-03-01

    The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India. Leachate collected from the same landfill site was recirculated at the rate of 2-5 times a month on a regular basis for 370 days. The total quantity of gas generated was around 416 L in the large-scale reactor and 21 L in the small-scale reactor, respectively. Differential settlements ranging from 20%-26% were observed at two different locations in the large reactor, whereas 30% of settlement was observed in the small reactor. The biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio indicated that the waste in the large reactor was stabilised at the end of 1 year. The performance of the bioreactor with respect to the reactor size, temperature, landfill gas and leachate quality was analysed and it was found that the bioreactor landfill is efficient in the treatment and stabilising of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

  12. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  13. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  14. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  16. Wood waste decomposition in landfills: An assessment of current knowledge and implications for emissions reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Jean; Walshe, Dylan; Byrne, Kenneth A

    2017-12-11

    Large quantities of wood products have historically been disposed of in landfills. The fate of this vast pool of carbon plays an important role in national carbon balances and accurate emission reporting. The Republic of Ireland, like many EU countries, utilises the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for greenhouse gas reporting in the waste sector, which provides default factors for emissions estimation. For wood products, the release of carbon is directly proportional to the decomposition of the degradable organic carbon fraction of the product, for which the IPCC provides a value of 0.5 (50%). However, in situ analytic results of the decomposition rates of carbon in landfilled wood do not corroborate this figure; suggesting that carbon emissions are likely overestimated. To assess the impact of this overestimation on emission reporting, carbon decomposition values obtained from literature and the IPCC default factor were applied to the Irish wood fraction of landfilled waste for the years 1957-2016 and compared. Univariate analysis found a statistically significant difference between carbon (methane) emissions calculated using the IPCC default factor and decomposition factors from direct measurements for softwoods (F = 45.362, p = <.001), hardwoods (F = 20.691, p = <.001) and engineered wood products (U = 4.726, p = <.001). However, there was no significant difference between emissions calculated using only the in situ analytic decomposition factors, regardless of time in landfill, location or subsequently, climate. This suggests that methane emissions from the wood fraction of landfilled waste in Ireland could be drastically overestimated; potentially by a factor of 56. The results of this study highlight the implications of emission reporting at a lower tierand prompts further research into the decomposition of wood products in landfills at a national level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Research of the indicators the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kotovicová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The orientation of the research work for the exploitation of the preventive tools for the decrease of bio- degradable waste comes out from the requirements, which are reposed on Czech Republic as a valid member of European Union. The Czech Republic have to follow the legislative requirements, which are defined for the waste treatment, in this case it deals with the EC Landfill Directive (1999/31/ES. The directive undertakes for the EU members to limit the volume of the biodegradable waste on the landfills. The main sense of this restriction is to reduce the volume of the emitted gas, mainly methane, into atmosphere. Therefore, it was assigned the Waste Management Plan of the Czech republic, which states in the interest of the strategic goals (the decrease of the specific waste production independently on the level of the economic growth, the maximal waste exploitation as a reserve of the primary natural resources and the minimalization of negative impacts on human health and environment by the waste treatment the goal achievement in its binding part, whatęs the decrease of maximal volume of the biodegradable municipal waste deposited in landfills, thus the rate of this element will be the most 75% weighted in 2010, the most 50 % weighted in 2013 and the most 35 % weighted from the total volume rised in 1995. One of the ways, how to achieve the required reduction of the waste volume deposited in the landfills, is consistent exercitation of the preventive methods and the sound agricultural and sound operating practice methods. The main goal of the work consists in creation of methodics for the make prognosis of the region development charging by the biodegradable waste in the preventive tool exploitation. I identified the typical sources of biodegradable waste and the key areas of their uprise after the evaluation of environmental gains of the selected preventive projects by the creation of methodics. After this manner of data acquirement, I

  18. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental assessment of low-organic waste landfill scenarios by means of life-cycle assessment modelling (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.

    2010-01-01

    assessments show that the low-organic waste scenarios achieved better environmental performance than the household waste scenarios with regard to both ordinary and toxicity-related environmental impact categories. This indicates that the reduction of organic matter accepted at landfills (as prescribed...... (Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; WHO, Geneva, 2006) guideline for drinking water quality was assumed as reference. The results show that low-organic waste landfills pose a smaller risk of groundwater contamination, but the impact potentials estimated still remain a lot higher than estimated in other......The environmental performance of two low-organic waste landfill scenarios ('low-organic-energy' and 'low-organic-flare') was developed and compared with two household waste landfill scenarios ('household-energy' and 'household-flare') by means of LCA-modelling. The LCA-modelling was made for 1...

  20. Innovative landfill bioreactor systems for municipal solid waste treatment in East Africa aimed at optimal energy recovery and minimal greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salukele, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Landfilling is currently the dominant disposal method for municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries. Approximately 50% of the MSW generated in East Africa is disposed in landfills. Low costs and availability of land have made landfilling the most common waste management option in East

  1. ORGANIC WASTE'S POTENTIAL AS RENEWABLE ENERGY AT SUPIT URANG LANDFILL IN MALANG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Saadiah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research are to know the correlation of the number of population with the amount of waste in Malang city and biogas potential at Supit Urang landfill. Then also counting the percentage of biogas which has been used as gas fuel by citizens around the landfill and as electrical energy potency. The average amount of waste in Malang city is 410,45 ton per day. Organic waste composition at Supit Urang landfill is 64,9% or in the average it’s about 137.989,57 kg per day. From that amount, the average of biogas which is produced is 19.146,57 m 3 per day or about 574.397,05 m 3 per month. Biogas utilization is for fuel gas by 408 houses near the location of that landfill, that’s about 18.385,19 m 3 per month or about 3,2%. Therefore that’s still has 96,8% biogas potential or about 556.011,86 m 3 per month which has not been utilized yet. That potency can produce electrical energy 2.613.255,75 kWh per month or 3,63 MW. If the average efficiency level of conversion from biogas to electricity is 35%, the electric potential become 914.639,51 kWh per month or as big as power station with energy 1,27 MW.

  2. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  3. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  4. Parametric Analysis of Leachate and Water Resources around Municipal Solid Waste Landfill area in Solan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is defined as the liquid that drains from the landfill. The paper presents the physico-chemical, bacteriological and heavy metal testing results carried out for leachate, surface and sub-surface water samples collected from municipal solid waste landfill and different water sources in Solan to find out the effect of leachate percolation on groundwater quality. Physico-chemical parameters analysed were, pH, Total Dissolve Solid (TDS, sulphate, turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC while biological parameters tested were Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Most Probable Number (MPN test and ammonical nitrogen. Testing for heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Fe were carried out and have been reported. The results reveal that the leachate from the unlined landfill may have a significant impact on the groundwater resource (often used as drinking source particularly because of the toxic nature of the leachate coupled with the soil characteristics which is permeable in nature.

  5. Recovery Act: Johnston Rhode Island Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2013-06-30

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill in Johnston, Rhode Island. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives. 1) Meet environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas. 2) Utilize proven and reliable technology and equipment. 3) Maximize electrical efficiency. 4) Maximize electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Central Landfill. 5) Maximize equipment uptime. 6) Minimize water consumption. 7) Minimize post-combustion emissions. To achieve the Project Objective the project consisted of several components. 1) The landfill gas collection system was modified and upgraded. 2) A State-of-the Art gas clean up and compression facility was constructed. 3) A high pressure pipeline was constructed to convey cleaned landfill gas from the clean-up and compression facility to the power plant. 4) A combined cycle electric generating facility was constructed consisting of combustion turbine generator sets, heat recovery steam generators and a steam turbine. 5) The voltage of the electricity produced was increased at a newly constructed transformer/substation and the electricity was delivered to the local transmission system. The Project produced a myriad of beneficial impacts. 1) The Project created 453 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 25 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. 2) By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control

  6. Choice of noxious facilities: case of a solid waste incinerator versus a sanitary landfill in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Khee, Pek Chuen

    2014-05-01

    A choice experiment analysis was conducted to estimate the preference for specific waste disposal technologies in Malaysia. The study found that there were no significant differences between the choice of a sanitary landfill or an incinerator. What matters is whether any disposal technology would lead to obvious social benefits. A waste disposal plan which is well linked or integrated with the community will ensure its acceptance. Local authorities will be challenged to identify solid waste disposal sites that are technically appropriate and also socially desirable.

  7. Seismic characterization and dynamic site response of a municipal solid waste landfill in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, P; SivakumarBabu, G L; Lakshmikanthan, P; VivekAnand, K S

    2016-03-01

    Seismic design of landfills requires an understanding of the dynamic properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) and the dynamic site response of landfill waste during seismic events. The dynamic response of the Mavallipura landfill situated in Bangalore, India, is investigated using field measurements, laboratory studies and recorded ground motions from the intraplate region. The dynamic shear modulus values for the MSW were established on the basis of field measurements of shear wave velocities. Cyclic triaxial testing was performed on reconstituted MSW samples and the shear modulus reduction and damping characteristics of MSW were studied. Ten ground motions were selected based on regional seismicity and site response parameters have been obtained considering one-dimensional non-linear analysis in the DEEPSOIL program. The surface spectral response varied from 0.6 to 2 g and persisted only for a period of 1 s for most of the ground motions. The maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained was 0.5 g and the minimum and maximum amplifications are 1.35 and 4.05. Amplification of the base acceleration was observed at the top surface of the landfill underlined by a composite soil layer and bedrock for all ground motions. Dynamic seismic properties with amplification and site response parameters for MSW landfill in Bangalore, India, are presented in this paper. This study shows that MSW has less shear stiffness and more amplification due to loose filling and damping, which need to be accounted for seismic design of MSW landfills in India. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Assessment of impacts of combined treatment of solid urban waste landfill leachate and sewage on aquatic biota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camille Ferreira Mannarino; Josino Costa Moreira; João Alberto Ferreira; Ana Rosa Linde Arias

    2013-01-01

      The impact on tilapia fish of combined treatment of landfill leachate and domestic sewage was monitored in a waste treatment plant that operated on a pilot scale using the activated sludge process...

  9. Characterizing the biotransformation of sulfur-containing wastes in simulated landfill reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Sun, Mei; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-07-01

    Landfills that accept municipal solid waste (MSW) in the U.S. may also accept a number of sulfur-containing wastes including residues from coal or MSW combustion, and construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Under anaerobic conditions that dominate landfills, microbially mediated processes can convert sulfate to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The presence of H2S in landfill gas is problematic for several reasons including its low odor threshold, human toxicity, and corrosive nature. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a laboratory-scale reactor method to measure the H2S production potential of a range of sulfur-containing wastes. The H2S production potential was measured in 8-L reactors that were filled with a mixture of the target waste, newsprint as a source of organic carbon required for microbial sulfate reduction, and leachate from decomposed residential MSW as an inoculum. Reactors were operated with and without N2 sparging through the reactors, which was designed to reduce H2S accumulation and toxicity. Both H2S and CH4 yields were consistently higher in reactors that were sparged with N2 although the magnitude of the effect varied. The laboratory-measured first order decay rate constants for H2S and CH4 production were used to estimate constants that were applicable in landfills. The estimated constants ranged from 0.11yr(-1) for C&D fines to 0.38yr(-1) for a mixed fly ash and bottom ash from MSW combustion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. GIS-based approach for optimized siting of municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, V R; Natesan, Usha; Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2008-11-01

    The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries in the past few decades and the resulting accelerated urbanization phenomenon has brought to the fore the necessity to develop environmentally sustainable and efficient waste management systems. Sanitary landfill constitutes one of the primary methods of municipal solid waste disposal. Optimized siting decisions have gained considerable importance in order to ensure minimum damage to the various environmental sub-components as well as reduce the stigma associated with the residents living in its vicinity, thereby enhancing the overall sustainability associated with the life cycle of a landfill. This paper addresses the siting of a new landfill using a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and overlay analysis using a geographic information system (GIS). The proposed system can accommodate new information on the landfill site selection by updating its knowledge base. Several factors are considered in the siting process including geology, water supply resources, land use, sensitive sites, air quality and groundwater quality. Weightings were assigned to each criterion depending upon their relative importance and ratings in accordance with the relative magnitude of impact. The results from testing the system using different sites show the effectiveness of the system in the selection process.

  11. The current state of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava county and their impact on water and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of chemical pollution and biological contamination of soil, groundwater and surface waters due to the high content of heavy metals and organic substances with low biodegradation rate.The paper discusses in detail the issues of the landfill sites territorial distribution in Suceava County (the Mirăuţi landfill, located in the adjacent area of Suceava city and the Gura Humorului, Radauti, Siret, Campulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban landfills, together with a review of the technical data of the landfills, as well as an evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative effects they produce on the landscape, soil and groundwater quality.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions during MSW landfilling in China: influence of waste characteristics and LFG treatment measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing

    2013-11-15

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment can be highly cost-effective in terms of GHG mitigation. This study investigated GHG emissions during MSW landfilling in China under four existing scenarios and in terms of seven different categories: waste collection and transportation, landfill management, leachate treatment, fugitive CH4 (FM) emissions, substitution of electricity production, carbon sequestration and N2O and CO emissions. GHG emissions from simple sanitary landfilling technology where no landfill gas (LFG) extraction took place (Scenario 1) were higher (641-998 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww) than those from open dump (Scenario 0, 480-734 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww). This was due to the strictly anaerobic conditions in Scenario 1. LFG collection and treatment reduced GHG emissions to 448-684 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 2 (with LFG flare) and 214-277 kg CO2-eq·t(-1)ww in Scenario 3 (using LFG for electricity production). Amongst the seven categories, FM was the predominant contributor to GHG emissions. Global sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the parameters associated with waste characteristics (i.e. CH4 potential and carbon sequestered faction) and LFG management (i.e. LFG collection efficiency and CH4 oxidation efficiency) were of great importance. A further learning on the MSW in China indicated that water content and dry matter content of food waste were the basic factors affecting GHG emissions. Source separation of food waste, as well as increasing the incineration ratio of mixed collected MSW, could effectively mitigate the overall GHG emissions from landfilling in a specific city. To increase the LFG collection and CH4 oxidation efficiencies could considerably reduce GHG emissions on the landfill site level. While, the improvement in the LFG utilization measures had an insignificant impact as long as the LFG is recovered for energy generation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calaf-Forn, Maria, E-mail: mcalaf@ent.cat [Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain); Roca, Jordi [Departament de Teoria Econòmica, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal, 696, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi [ENT Environment and Management, Carrer Sant Joan 39, First Floor, E-08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  14. Gravimetric water distribution assessment from geoelectrical methods (ERT and EMI) in municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Dzaomuho-Lenieregue, Phidias; Hiligsmann, Serge; Delvigne, Frank; Thonart, Philippe; Robert, Tanguy; Nguyen, Frédéric; Hermans, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The gravimetric water content of the waste material is a key parameter in waste biodegradation. Previous studies suggest a correlation between changes in water content and modification of electrical resistivity. This study, based on field work in Mont-Saint-Guibert landfill (Belgium), aimed, on one hand, at characterizing the relationship between gravimetric water content and electrical resistivity and on the other hand, at assessing geoelectrical methods as tools to characterize the gravimetric water distribution in a landfill. Using excavated waste samples obtained after drilling, we investigated the influences of the temperature, the liquid phase conductivity, the compaction and the water content on the electrical resistivity. Our results demonstrate that Archie's law and Campbell's law accurately describe these relationships in municipal solid waste (MSW). Next, we conducted a geophysical survey in situ using two techniques: borehole electromagnetics (EM) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). First, in order to validate the use of EM, EM values obtained in situ were compared to electrical resistivity of excavated waste samples from corresponding depths. The petrophysical laws were used to account for the change of environmental parameters (temperature and compaction). A rather good correlation was obtained between direct measurement on waste samples and borehole electromagnetic data. Second, ERT and EM were used to acquire a spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity. Then, using the petrophysical laws, this information was used to estimate the water content distribution. In summary, our results demonstrate that geoelectrical methods represent a pertinent approach to characterize spatial distribution of water content in municipal landfills when properly interpreted using ground truth data. These methods might therefore prove to be valuable tools in waste biodegradation optimization projects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental impacts and costs of solid waste: a comparison of landfill and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V; Zoughaib, Assaad

    2008-04-01

    The methodology for evaluating the impacts and damage costs ('external costs') due to pollution from waste treatment is described and the results are presented, based on the ExternE project series of the European Commission. The damage costs of landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste are compared, with due account for energy and materials recovery, as well as possible differences in transport distance. We have not been able to quantify the total damage costs of leachates because of the complexity of the environmental pathways and of the long time horizon of some persistent pollutants, but we consider an extreme scenario to show that they are not worth worrying about in the sense that reducing the pollutants in leachates beyond current regulations would bring negligible benefit in comparison with the abatement of other sources of the same pollutants. The damage costs due to the construction of the waste treatment facility are negligible. The damage costs of waste transport, which are illustrated by an arbitrary choice of a 100 km round trip by a 16 tonne truck, are also negligible. The benefits of materials recovery make a small contribution to the total damage cost. The only significant contributions come from direct emissions (of the landfill or incinerator) and from avoided emissions due to energy recovery (from an incinerator). Damage costs for incineration range from about 4 to 21 EUR tonne waste(-1), and they are extremely dependent on the assumed scenario for energy recovery. For landfill the cost ranges from about 10 to 13 EUR tonne waste(-1); it is dominated by greenhouse gas emissions because only a fraction of the CH4 can be captured (here assumed to be 70%). Amenity costs (odour, visual impact, noise) are highly site-specific and we only cite results from a literature survey which indicates that such costs could make a significant contribution, very roughly on the order of 1 EUR tonne waste(-1).

  16. A PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT ON DENITRIFICATION OF WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Nariaki; Nakamichi, Tamihiro; Yagi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kugimiya, Akikazu; Michioku, Kohji

    A laboratory experiment on denitrification was carried out in order to reduce nitrogen load from municipal landfill leachate. Nitrogen was efficiently removed by feeding sludge of the leachate pond into the tanks, which could activate denitrification bacteria. Although inorganic reducing agent such as iron powder was not able to make the whole water mass anoxic, denitrification took place by supplying organic matters such as methanol, hydrogen feeding agent, etc.. It is considered that small amount of anoxic water film produced on surfaces of container and carriers might contribute to denitrification, although the bulk water is kept aerobic. It is found that organic matters contained in the leachate is so insufficient that nitrification liquid circulation does not work well for denitrification.

  17. A case-study of landfill minimization and material recovery via waste co-gasification in a new waste management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigaki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Osada, Morihiro

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates municipal solid waste co-gasification technology and a new solid waste management scheme, which can minimize final landfill amounts and maximize material recycled from waste. This new scheme is considered for a region where bottom ash and incombustibles are landfilled or not allowed to be recycled due to their toxic heavy metal concentration. Waste is processed with incombustible residues and an incineration bottom ash discharged from existent conventional incinerators, using a gasification and melting technology (the Direct Melting System). The inert materials, contained in municipal solid waste, incombustibles and bottom ash, are recycled as slag and metal in this process as well as energy recovery. Based on this new waste management scheme with a co-gasification system, a case study of municipal solid waste co-gasification was evaluated and compared with other technical solutions, such as conventional incineration, incineration with an ash melting facility under certain boundary conditions. From a technical point of view, co-gasification produced high quality slag with few harmful heavy metals, which was recycled completely without requiring any further post-treatment such as aging. As a consequence, the co-gasification system had an economical advantage over other systems because of its material recovery and minimization of the final landfill amount. Sensitivity analyses of landfill cost, power price and inert materials in waste were also conducted. The higher the landfill costs, the greater the advantage of the co-gasification system has. The co-gasification was beneficial for landfill cost in the range of 80 Euro per ton or more. Higher power prices led to lower operation cost in each case. The inert contents in processed waste had a significant influence on the operating cost. These results indicate that co-gasification of bottom ash and incombustibles with municipal solid waste contributes to minimizing the final landfill amount and has

  18. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in northern Spain municipal solid waste landfill leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, I; Gómez-Lavín, S; Elizalde, M P; Urtiaga, A

    2017-02-01

    Landfill leachates have been recognized as significant secondary sources of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study presents data on the occurrence and concentration of 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and 5 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) in leachates from 4 municipal solid waste landfill sites located across northern Spain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of PFASs in Spanish landfill leachates. Two of the landfill sites applied on-site treatment using membrane bioreactors (MBR), and its effect on PFASs occurrence is also reported. Total PFASs (∑PFASs) in raw leachates reached 1378.9 ng/L, while in treated samples ∑PFASs was approximately two-fold (3162.3 ng/L). PFCAs accounted for the majority of the detected PFASs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant compound in raw leachates (42.6%), followed by shorter chain PFHxA (30.1%), PFPeA and PFBA. The age of the sites might explain the PFASs pattern found in raw leachates as all of them were stabilized leachates. However, PFASs profile was different in treated samples where the most abundant compound was PFHxA (26.5%), followed by linear perfluorobutane sulfonate (L-PFBS) (18.7%) and PFOA (17.7%). The overall increase of the PFASs content as well as the change in the PFASs profile after the MBR treatment, could be explained by the possible degradation of PFASs precursors such as fluorotelomer alcohols or fluorotelomer sulfonates. Using the volume of leachates generated in the landfill sites, that served 1.8 million people, the discharge of 16 ∑PFASs contained in the landfill leachates was estimated as 1209 g/year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  20. Enhanced Fuzzy-OWA model for municipal solid waste landfill site selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Siti Zubaidah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.

    2017-10-01

    In Malaysia, the municipal solid waste landfill site is an essential facility that needs to be evaluated as its demand is infrequently getting higher. The increment of waste generation forces the government to cater the appropriate site for waste disposal. However, the selection process for new landfill sites is a difficult task with regard to land scarcity and time consumption. In addition, the complication will proliferate when there are various criteria to be considered. Therefore, this paper intends to show the significance of the fuzzy logic-ordered weighted average (Fuzzy-OWA) model for the landfill site suitability analysis. The model was developed to generalize the multi-criteria combination that was extended to the GIS applications as part of the decision support module. OWA has the capability to implement different combination operators through the selection of appropriate order weight that is possible in changing the form of aggregation such as minimum, intermediate and maximum types of combination. OWA give six forms of aggregation results that have their specific significance that indirectly evaluates the environmental, physical and socio-economic (EPSE) criteria respectively. Nevertheless, one of the aggregated results has shown similarity with the weighted linear combination (WLC) method.

  1. Comparison between landfill gas and waste incineration for power generation in Astana, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglezakis, Vassilis J; Rojas-Solórzano, Luis; Kim, Jong; Aitbekova, Aisulu; Ismailova, Aizada

    2015-05-01

    The city of Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan, which has a population of 804,474, and has been experiencing rapid growth over the last 15 years, generates approximately 1.39 kg capita(-1) day(-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW). Nearly 700 tonnes of MSW are collected daily, of which 97% is disposed of at landfills. The newest landfill was built using modern technologies, including a landfill gas (LFG) collection system.The rapid growth of Astana demands more energy on its path to development, and the viability analysis of MSW to generate electricity is imperative. This paper presents a technical-economic pre-feasibility study comparing landfill including LFG utilization and waste incineration (WI) to produce electricity. The performance of LFG with a reciprocating engine and WI with steam turbine power technologies were compared through corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction, cost of energy production (CEP), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) from the analyses. Results demonstrate that in the city of Astana, WI has the potential to reduce more than 200,000 tonnes of GHG per year, while LFG could reduce slightly less than 40,000 tonnes. LFG offers a CEP 5.7% larger than WI, while the latter presents a BCR two times higher than LFG. WI technology analysis depicts a NPV exceeding 280% of the equity, while for LFG, the NPV is less than the equity, which indicates an expected remarkable financial return for the WI technology and a marginal and risky scenario for the LFG technology. Only existing landfill facilities with a LFG collection system in place may turn LFG into a viable project. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, G A [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  3. Spatial readjustment of a landfill of waste on the real case Vranoviči

    OpenAIRE

    Šeruga, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Thesis deals with methods to prepare spatial arrangements for placement of a certain activity or business into an area. The spatial arrangement is shown on the real example of a landfill Vranoviči and its readjustment and spreading with the purpose of disposing inert waste and building a subsidiary for managing municipal solid waste (PCRO). A special study of legislation and procedures has been made in the process of preparing a spatial arrangement, in our case it is the county location plan ...

  4. Detection of waste's layers with geoelectric methods: case of Rio Azul sanitary landfill, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Jorge; Zúñiga, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    The Río Azul Landfill received waste for 34 years from various parts of the Greater Metropolitan Area, and for three decades was operated with a poorly planned waste disposal. The purpose was to identify areas of greatest potential leachate storage, making 25 VES (Vertical Electrical Soundings), whose effective exploration depth was around 65 meters. The proposed geophysical model consists of four layers: the first corresponds to a coverage of com- pacted material (20 Ωm - 54 Ωm), the second ...

  5. Solid waste landfills under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document provides guidance for meeting: (1) Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste (40 CFR 241); (2) Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257); and (3) Criteria for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWLFs) (40 CFR Part 258). Revisions to 40 CFR 257 and a new Part 258 were published in the Federal Register (56 FR 50978, 10/9/91). The Guidelines for the Land Disposal of Solid Waste set requirements and recommended procedures to ensure that the design, construction, and operation of land disposal sites is done in a manner that will protect human health and the environment. These regulations are applicable to MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs (e.g., landfills used only for the disposal of demolition debris, commercial waste, and/or industrial waste). These guidelines are not applicable to the, land disposal of hazardous, agricultural, and/or mining wastes. These criteria are to be used under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in determining which solid waste disposal facilities pose a reasonable possibility of adversely affecting human health or the environment. Facilities failing to satisfy these criteria will be considered to be open dumps which are prohibited under Section 4005 of RCRA. The Criteria for MSWLFs are applicable only to MSWLFs, including those MSWLFs in which sewage sludge is co-disposed with household waste. Based on specific criteria, certain MSWLFs are exempt from some, or all, of the regulations of 40 CFR 258. MSWLFs that fail to satisfy the criteria specified in 40 CFR 258 are also considered open dumps for the purposes of Section 4005 of RCRA. Through the use of a series of interrelated flow diagrams, this guidance document directs the reader to each design, operation, maintenance, and closure activity that must be performed for MSWLFs and non-MSWLFs.

  6. Functional and environmental assessment of the urboecosystems designed in the biologically reclamated landfill with industrial wastes (in Ryazan city)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyakin, Alexey; Vasenev, Ivan; Karyakina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Regional environmental bodies' ability to understand, model and predict their soil cover environmental functions are especially important in case of landfill reclamation. The special attention has to be done to landfills with industrial wastes created earlier in frame of big city - comparatively closed to their residential areas. Dominated in Ryazan region sandy loam gray forest soils with not so high soil organic matter content and soil exchange capacity determine additional problems with landfill biological reclamation and continuous sustainable vegetation cover development. The modern environmental monitoring system has been developed in the big landfill with tanning industrial wastes from the biggest in Europe tannery to develop recommendation on the environmentally friendly reclamation technologies adapted to concrete landscape conditions and functional features of 2 m fresh soil-ground coating the landfill surface. More detailed monitoring system has to be developed to assess the regulatory environmental functions of the regenerated soil cover to minimize the reclamated landfill' negative impacts on the urban ecosystem air, surface and ground water quality. Obtained result will be useful for similar landfills with tanning industrial wastes environmental impact assessment and smart design.

  7. Characterization of municipal solid waste from the main landfills of Havana city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Lloréns, Ma Del C; Torres, Matilde López; Alvarez, Haydee; Arrechea, Alexis Pellón; García, Jorge Alejandro; Aguirre, Susana Díaz; Fernández, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The city of Havana, the political, administrative and cultural centre of Cuba, is also the centre of many of the economic activities of the nation: industries, services, scientific research and tourism. All of these activities contribute to the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), which also impact other Cuban cities. Inadequate handling of waste and the lack of appropriate and efficient solutions for its final disposal and treatment increase the risk and possibility of contamination. The main difficulty in the development of a system of management of MSW lies in the lack of knowledge of the chemical composition of the waste that is generated in the country as a whole, and especially in Havana, where solid waste management decisions are made. The present study characterizes MSW in Havana city during 2004. The Calle 100, Guanabacoa and Ocho Vías landfills were selected for physical-chemical characterization of MSW, as they are the three biggest landfills in the city. A total of 16 indicators were measured, and weather conditions were recorded. As a result, the necessary information regarding the physical-chemical composition of the MSW became available for the first time in Cuba. The information is essential for making decisions regarding the management of waste and constitutes a valuable contribution to the Study on Integrated Management Plan of MSW in Havana.

  8. Soil Pollution Caused by Landfilling of Nonhazardous Waste from Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šorša, A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the soil at an old metallurgical landfill site of CMC Sisak Ltd. which has been exposed to the direct influence of metallurgical nonhazardous waste for many years. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg Ni, Pb, and Zn after extraction in aqua regia were determined. Heavy metal concentrations, except Hg, were determined by inductively coupled opticalemission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-OES, ICP-MS. Concentration of Hg was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Our objective was to assess the pollution level according to the potentially unacceptable risk limit levels for industrially used soil prescribed by the Croatian Soil Monitoring Program, and levels permitted by some EU member countries.The results of heavy metal concentrations in composite samples of landfill soil were also compared with the results obtained from the reference sample taken in the nearby park, outside the battery limits. The obtained results qualify the analysed landfill soil as contaminated with Cu according to the legislation of all observed EU countries, with Cd according to the legislation of Italy, Poland, and Belgium (Wallonia, and with Cr according to the legislation of Finland and Poland. To allow future use of the landfill certain measures of soil treatment will be necessary.

  9. The removal of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate using a series of shallow waste stabilization ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, V D; Pearson, H W; de Sousa, J T; Lopes, W S; de Luna, M L D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of a shallow (0.5 m deep) waste stabilization pond series to remove high concentrations of ammonia from sanitary landfill leachate. The pond system was located at EXTRABES, Campina Grande, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. The pond series was fed with sanitary landfill leachate transported by road tanker to the experimental site from the sanitary landfill of the City of Joao Pessoa, Paraiba. The ammoniacal-N surface loading on the first pond of the series was equivalent to 364 kg ha(-1) d(-1) and the COD surface loading equivalent to 3,690 kg ha(-1) d(-1). The maximum mean ammonia removal efficiency was 99.5% achieved by the third pond in the series which had an effluent concentration of 5.3 mg L(-1) ammoniacal-N for an accumulative HRT of 39.5 days. The removal process was mainly attributed to ammonia volatilization (stripping) from the pond surfaces as a result of high surface pH values and water temperatures of 22-26°C. Shallow pond systems would appear to be a promising technology for stripping ammonia from landfill leachate under tropical conditions.

  10. SPH-based numerical simulations of flow slides in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Dai, Zili; Zhang, Weijie; Huang, Maosong

    2013-03-01

    Most municipal solid waste (MSW) is disposed of in landfills. Over the past few decades, catastrophic flow slides have occurred in MSW landfills around the world, causing substantial economic damage and occasionally resulting in human victims. It is therefore important to predict the run-out, velocity and depth of such slides in order to provide adequate mitigation and protection measures. To overcome the limitations of traditional numerical methods for modelling flow slides, a mesh-free particle method entitled smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is introduced in this paper. The Navier-Stokes equations were adopted as the governing equations and a Bingham model was adopted to analyse the relationship between material stress rates and particle motion velocity. The accuracy of the model is assessed using a series of verifications, and then flow slides that occurred in landfills located in Sarajevo and Bandung were simulated to extend its applications. The simulated results match the field data well and highlight the capability of the proposed SPH modelling method to simulate such complex phenomena as flow slides in MSW landfills.

  11. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verge, Ashley; Rowe, R Kerry

    2013-12-01

    A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

  13. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnell, Gaynor [Landfill Gas Association (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Following the UK Government's initiative for stimulating renewable energy through the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the UK landfill gas industry has more than trebled in size in just 4 years. As a result, UK companies are now in a strong position to offer their skills and services overseas. Ireland, Greece and Spain also resort heavily to disposal to landfill. Particularly rapid growth of the landfill gas market is expected in the OECD-Pacific and NAFTA areas. The article explains that landfill gas is a methane-rich mixture produced by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes in landfills: under optimum conditions, up to 500 cubic meters of gas can be obtained from 1 tonne of biodegradable waste. Data on the number and capacity of sites in the UK are given. The Landfill Gas Association runs courses to counteract the skills shortage in the UK, and tailored courses for overseas visitors are planned.

  14. Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valencia Vázquez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard

  15. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  16. Hydrogen sulfide generation in simulated construction and demolition debris landfills: impact of waste composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kenton; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2006-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills has been associated with the biodegradation of gypsum drywall. Laboratory research was conducted to observe H2S generation when drywall was codisposed with different C&D debris constituents. Two experiments were conducted using simulated landfill columns. Experiment 1 consisted of various combinations of drywall, wood, and concrete to determine the impact of different waste constituents and combinations on H2S generation. Experiment 2 was designed to examine the effect of concrete on H2S generation and migration. The results indicate that decaying drywall, even alone, leached enough sulfate ions and organic matter for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to generate large H2S concentrations as high as 63,000 ppmv. The codisposed wastes show some effect on H2S generation. At the end of experiment 1, the wood/drywall and drywall alone columns possessed H2S concentrations > 40,000 ppmv. Conversely, H2S concentrations were < 1 ppmv in those columns containing concrete. Concrete plays a role in decreasing H2S by increasing pH out of the range for SRB growth and by reacting with H2S. This study also showed that wood lowered H2S concentrations initially by decreasing leachate pH values. Based on the results, two possible control mechanisms to mitigate H2S generation in C&D debris landfills are suggested.

  17. [The analysis of adverse health effects of occupational hazards factors in one solid waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ting-Ming; Weng, Shao-Fan; Liu, Yue-Wei; Tao, Hua; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yan-Fei; Wang, He-Ping; Wang, Hai-Jiao; Wang, Ke-Hong; Yu, Dan; Chen, Wei-Hong

    2011-07-01

    To determine occupational hazards in work sites of a large solid waste landfill and analyze their adverse health effects. The national standardized detection methods were used to determine dust concentration, harmful gas and physical factors in worksites. Routine physical examination, pulmonary function, hearing tests and nervous system test were performed in workers for 2 consecutive years. Urine lead, cadmium and mercury contents were detected. The comet assay was use to measure DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among workers. The main occupational hazard factors in this solid landfill are dust, harmful gas, high temperature and noise. The oxides, carbon monoxide, and noise and high temperatures in summer at some work sites exceeded the national occupational exposure limits. The prevalence of respiratory inflammation and rate of pulmonary function decrease among front-line workers and on-site technical managers are 21.2% and 11.5%, which are significantly higher than those among administrative staff (7.1% and 0) (P occupational hazards were observed among workers in this solid waste landfill.

  18. Phytoremediation and rehabilitation of municipal solid waste landfills and dumpsites: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, R; Selvam, A; Joseph, Kurian; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2006-01-01

    Environmental problems posed by municipal solid waste (MSW) are well documented. Scientifically designed landfills and/or open dumpsites are used to dispose MSW in many developed and developing countries. Non-availability of land and need to reuse the dumpsite space, especially in urban areas, call for rehabilitation of these facilities. A variety of options have been tried to achieve the goals of rehabilitation. In the last couple of decades, phytoremediation, collectively referring to all plant-based technologies using green plants to remediate and rehabilitate municipal solid waste landfills and dumpsites, has emerged as a potential candidate. Research and development activities relating to different aspects of phytoremediation are keeping the interest of scientists and engineers alive and enriching the literature. Being a subject of multi-disciplinary interest, findings of phytoremediation research has resulted in generation of enormous data and their publication in a variety of journals and books. Collating data from such diverse sources would help understand the dynamics and dimensions of landfill and dumpsite rehabilitation. This review is an attempt in this direction.

  19. Methodology of environmental diagnosis for construction and demolition waste landfills: a tool for planning and making decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, E; Calvo, F; Ramos, A F; Zamorano, M

    2005-11-01

    Current legislation in the European Union regarding landfills provides measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce, insofar as possible, negative effects on the environment. This means that Member States must take measures so that landfills cannot operate unless the operator first presents a plan for the site, which includes the implementation of improvements considered necessary by the engineer for compliance with regulations. Researchers at the University of Granada have developed a method to ascertain the degree of environmental impact that a construction and demolition waste landfill may produce on its immediate surroundings. This methodology is based on environmental indexes; its objective is to give crucial information concerning possible environmental problems produced by a landfill. The data thus obtained will permit the elaboration of guidelines for improvements in the location, design, and operation of landfills, or in extreme cases, their dosing, sealing, and rehabilitation.

  20. Hydrogeology and water quality near a solid- and hazardous-waste landfill, Northwood, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roche, J.T.; Breen, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogeology and water quality of ground water and selected streams were evaluated near a landfill in northwestern Ohio. The landfill is used for codisposal of solid and hazardous waste. Water-level and geologic data were collected from 36 wells and 3 surface-water sites during the period November 1983 to November 1985. Water-quality samples were collected from 18 wells and 3 surface-water sites this during this same period. The primary aquifers in the area are the Greenfield Dolomite and underlying Lockport Dolomite of Silurian age. These bedrock carbonates are overlain by two clay tills of Wisconsin age. The tills are capped by a glacial lake clay. The tills generally are saturated, but do not yield sufficient water to be considered an aquifer. Two wells in the study area yield water, in part, from discontinuous deposits of outwash sand and gravel at the lower till-bedrock interface. Regional ground-water flow is from southwest to northeast; local flow is influenced by a ground-water mound centered under the northernmost cells of the landfill. Water levels in wells penetrating refuse within the landfill and the presence of leachate seeps indicate that the refuse is saturated. Head relations among the landfill, till, and dolomite aquifer indicate a vertical component of flow downward from the landfill to the dolomite aquifer. Water levels near the landfill fluctuate as much as 14 feet per year, in contrast to fluctuations of less than 3 feet per year in wells upgradient landfill. Ground waters from wells completed in the dolomite aquifer and glacial till were found to have major-iron concentrations controlled, in large part, by reaction with calcite, dolomite, and other minerals in the aquifer. Only minor departures from equilibrium mineral saturation were noted for ground water, except in wells affected by cement/grout contamination. Molal ratios of calcuim:magnesium in ground water suggest a similar chemical evolution of waters throughout the dolomite aquifer in

  1. Effects of aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jae Hac; Ma, Zeyu; Jin, Xiao; Xu, Qiyong

    2016-12-01

    Research has been conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement in simulated hybrid landfill bioreactors. Four laboratory-scale reactors were constructed and operated for about 10 months to simulate different bioreactor operations, including one anaerobic bioreactor and three hybrid bioreactors with different aeration frequencies (one, two, and four times per day). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) reduced more than 96% of the initial concentrations in all aerated bioreactors. The differences of COD and BOD5 reductions among tested aeration frequencies were relatively small. For ammonia nitrogen, the higher aeration frequency (two or four times per day) resulted in the quicker reduction. Overall, the concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn) decreased over time except Cd and Pb. The reduction of redox-sensitive metal concentrations (Mn, Co, Ni, and Cu) was greater in aerated bioreactors than in anaerobic bioreactor. Settlement of municipal solid waste (MSW) was enhanced with higher frequency of aeration events (four times per day). In recent years, hybird bioreactor landfill technology has gained a lot of attention. Appropriate aeration rate is crucial for hybrid bioreactor operation, but few studies have been done and different results were obtained. Research was conducted to investigate the effects of daily aeration frequency on leachate quality and waste settlement. Results indicated that aeration can effectively accelerate waste stabilization and remove organic carbon concentration and total nitrogen in the leachate.

  2. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Exposure to Soil and Paddy Plant around the Closed Municipal Solid Waste Landfill: Case Study at Gunung Tugel Landfill, Banyumas-Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasam; Rahmawati, Suphia; Mulya Iresha, Fajri; Wacano, Dhandhun; Farida Fauziah, Ida; Afif Amrullah, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This work was focused on assessing the exposure of heavy metal from closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill on soil and paddy plants. This study aimed to determine heavy metal content whether at the soil in the around Gunung Tugel landfill included and accumulated in the paddy plant tissues. The investigated metals include chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The samples were acid-digested before the desired elements were measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The results are presented as distribution map of the landfill area based on the total heavy metals content distribution in the soil and paddy plants. The samples shown that the concentrations of heavy metals around Gunung Tugel landfill are 6.27-34.71 mg/kg, 0.17-0.42 mg/kg, 28.29-48.69 mg/kg, 18,997.26-32,572.29 mg/kg, 342.74-834.49 mg/kg, 136.10-290.14 mg/kg at the top soil and 0.00-1.70 mg/kg, 0.00-0.26 mg/kg, 0.79-10.46 mg/kg, 13.88-61.46 mg/kg, 18.79-50.56 mg/kg, 87.27-273.22 mg/kg at the paddy for Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn respectively. According to the results, The Gunung Tugel landfill is not a direct source of heavy metal pollution at paddy plant in the landfill area, but through surface water and soil media. Rainfall around landfill is quite high ie more 2000 mm/year of rainfall and soil permeability is 1.0 cm/sec.

  3. Chemical Waste Landfill Annual Post-Closure Care Report Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The CWL is a 1.9-acre remediated interim status landfill located in the southeastern corner of SNL/NM Technical Area III (Figures 2-1 and 2-2) undergoing post-closure care in accordance with the PCCP (NMED October 2009 and subsequent revisions). From 1962 until 1981, the CWL was used for the disposal of chemical and solid waste generated by SNL/NM research activities. Additionally, a small amount of radioactive waste was disposed of during the operational years. Disposal of liquid waste in unlined pits and trenches ended in 1981, and after 1982 all liquid waste disposal was terminated. From 1982 through 1985, only solid waste was disposed of at the CWL, and after 1985 all waste disposal ended. The CWL was also used as a hazardous waste drum-storage facility from 1981 to 1989. A summary of the CWL disposal history is presented in the Closure Plan (SNL/NM December 1992) along with a waste inventory based upon available disposal records and information.

  4. Heavy element accumulation in Evernia prunastri lichen transplants around a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannoni, Francesco; Santolini, Riccardo; Protano, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a biomonitoring study to evaluate the environmental impact of airborne emissions from a municipal solid waste landfill in central Italy. Concentrations of 11 heavy elements, as well as photosynthetic efficiency and cell membrane integrity were measured in Evernia prunastri lichens transplanted for 4months in 17 monitoring sites around the waste landfill. Heavy element contents were also determined in surface soils. Analytical data indicated that emissions from the landfill affected Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn concentrations in lichens transplanted within the landfill and along the fallout direction. In these sites moderate to severe accumulation of these heavy elements in lichens was coupled with an increase in cell membrane damage and decrease in photosynthetic efficiency. Nevertheless, results indicated that landfill emissions had no relevant impact on lichens, as heavy element accumulation and weak stress symptoms were detected only in lichen transplants from sites close to solid waste. The appropriate management of this landfill poses a low risk of environmental contamination by heavy elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban construction and demolition waste and landfill failure in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xia, Junqiang; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-05-01

    On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world's municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-Loop Automatic of Control System the Landfill of Household Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, T. G.; Kostarev, S. N.

    2017-05-01

    The analysis of models of governance ground municipal solid waste (MSW). Considered a distributed circuit (spatio-temporal) ground control model. Developed a dynamic model of multicontour control landfill. Adjustable parameters are defined (the ratio of CH4 CO2 emission/fluxes, concentrations of heavy metals ions) and control (purging array, irrigation, adding reagents). Based on laboratory studies carried out with the analysis of equity flows and procedures developed by the transferring matrix that takes into account the relationship control loops. A system of differential equations in the frequency and time domains. Given the numerical approaches solving systems of differential equations in finite differential form.

  7. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW, on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities, using the example of an actual landfill situated in the territory of Moscow. A scheme of reconstruction is recommended for the drainage water treatment plant at this landfill, which will lead to improvement of the environmental situation and contribute to the development of territories in the adjacent districts, and to reduction of pollution load on the river and atmosphere.

  8. Sandia Technology engineering and science accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research being conducted at Sandia Laboratories: Advanced Manufacturing -- Sandia technology helps keep US industry in the lead; Microelectronics-Sandia`s unique facilities transform research advances into manufacturable products; Energy -- Sandia`s energy programs focus on strengthening industrial growth and political decisionmaking; Environment -- Sandia is a leader in environmentally conscious manufacturing and hazardous waste reduction; Health Care -- New biomedical technologies help reduce cost and improve quality of health care; Information & Computation -- Sandia aims to help make the information age a reality; Transportation -- This new initiative at the Labs will help improve transportation, safety,l efficiency, and economy; Nonproliferation -- Dismantlement and arms control are major areas of emphasis at Sandia; and Awards and Patents -- Talented, dedicated employees are the backbone of Sandia`s success.

  9. Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, J.; Nyambe, I. A.; Di Gregorio, A.; Di Gregorio, F.; Simasiku, S.; Follesa, R.; Nkemba, S.

    2004-06-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection and monitoring. A joint project between the Geology Departments of the University of Cagliari and the School of Mines of the University of Zambia, to investigate the "Anthropogenic and natural processes in the Lusaka area leading to environmental degradation and their possible mitigation" was carried out in July 2001. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the present environmental degradation, assessing the vulnerability of the carbonatic aquifer and the degree of pollution of the groundwater and to make proposals to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Analyses of water samples collected during project indicate some areas of concern, particularly with respect to the levels of ammonia, nitrates and some heavy metals. As groundwater quality and quantity are prerogatives for a healthy and sustainable society, the study offers guidelines for consideration by the local and national authorities. Uptake of these guidelines should result in a number of initiatives being taken, including: (a) closure or reclamation of existing waste dumps; (b) upgrading of existing waste dumps to controlled landfills; (c) establishing new urban waste landfills and plants in geo-environmentally suitable sites; (d) local waste management projects in all compounds (residential areas) to prevent and reduce haphazard waste dumping; (e) enlarging sewerage drainage systems to all compounds; (f) enforcing control on groundwater abstraction and pollution, and demarcation of zones of control at existing drill holes; (g) providing the city with new water supplies from outside the

  10. Approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna (Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibinger, Jakub

    2017-05-01

    The research was focused on approximation of clogging in a leachate collection system in municipal solid waste landfill in Osecna, situated near the location Osecna, region Liberec, Northern Bohemia, Czech Republic, by analysis of numerical experiment results. To approximate the clogging of the leachate collection system after fifteen years of landfill operation (1995-2009) were successfully tested modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga transient drainage theory. This procedure allows application of the reduction factors to express clogging of the leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. The results proved that the modified De Zeeuw-Hellinga method with reduction factors can serve as a good tool for clogging approximation in a leachate collection system in Osecna landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  12. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  13. Study on seepage water circulation in landfill waste disposal site. Haikibutsu umetate shobunchi shinshutsusui no kankyo ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosomi, M.; Nakasugi, O. (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-10-29

    The report presents a study on the treatment of seepage water discharged from the waste layer in a landfill waste disposal site and on seepage water circulation as a method for accelerating the stabilization of waste in a landfill site. Seepage water circulation is intended to feed seepage water back onto or into the waste layer so that water is distibuted uniformly over the waste layer. Study results show that seepage water circulation can effectively remove those organic substances which are associated with BOD and COD. In Japan, seepage water circulation is mainly performed by spreading water over the landfill site with the aim of reducing the amount of seepage water through evaporation. Circulation also serves to accelerate the generation of gas such as methane and carbon dioxide. Circulation causes a depression, which acts as a total index reflecting not only biological and chemical reactions but also physical processes. It is also found that the acidic fermentation which occurs during the landfill stabilization process can be promoted by properly controlling the pH value. 2 tabs.

  14. Adopted technologies and basis for selection at municipal solid waste landfill facilities constructed in recent years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Inoue, Yuzo

    2010-08-01

    In Japan, as the construction of new landfill facilities has become extremely difficult and the number of sites procured for landfill construction has decreased due to the 'not in my back yard' (NIMBY) syndrome, it has been assumed that the adoption of new technologies has increased. As the performance of new technologies exceeds that of conventional technologies, it is also assumed that residents would prefer the use of these new technologies and therefore any construction plans should be devised to ensure their use to ensure residents' satisfaction. In the present study, the technologies adopted for municipal solid waste landfill facilities constructed in recent years (2000 to 2004) in Japan and the bases for their adoption were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey. One of the main bases for the adoption of new technologies was the request by residents for new technology for roofing, rather than the other for new technologies for barrier systems, leachate treatment, and monitoring. In addition, it is possible that the municipalities did not recognize the difference between conventional and new technologies as defined in this study. The roof-type landfill that isolates waste from the surrounding environment was one of the requirements for the construction of new landfill facilities identified in the present investigation, and in this regard waste isolation should be required in all circumstances.

  15. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Tetra Tech, 800-555 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, Canada V6B 1M1 (Canada); Mahecha-Botero, Andrés, E-mail: andresm@chbe.ubc.ca [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael [Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, 9860 West Saanich Road, Sidney, B.C., Canada V8L 4B2 (Canada)

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. - Graphical abstract: Schematic of the various mass transfer (MT) and input/output steps for sub-systems in the landfill model. NeWS is defined as non-electronic waste solids, including sand and soil added as cover materials. Highlights: • A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). • Landfill samples and laboratory results are used to estimate the model

  16. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-10-01

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  17. Comparative lysimeters studies for landfill leachate characterization and settlement variation in partly sorted municipal solid waste and fully sorted organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A S; Narulkar, S M

    2010-04-01

    About three-quarters of the countries and territories around the world use crude 'open dumping' method of disposal for municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the easiest and cheapest method of removing waste from the immediate environment but it creates serious environmental problems like groundwater contamination and air pollution. Land-filling is considered to be the most cost-effective method for solid waste disposal in developing countries if adequate sites are available. Bioreactor landfill is a promising biotechnological option for faster stabilization of municipal solid waste. The bioreactor landfill provides control and process optimization, primarily through the addition ofleachate or other liquid amendments. In the present study, Lysimeter experiments were carried out for the comparison of leachate characterization and settlement variation of "MSW except recyclable and domestic hazardous wastes" and "organic waste" to know the bioreactor feasibility in Indian context, because in India organic content of the solid waste is more due to consumption of unprocessed food items. Three Lysimeters under different operational conditions have been experimented for leachate characterization and settlement variation of the wastes. The results indicate the faster decay of pollutants in bioreactor in comparison to open dumps. The trend indicating the decay of pollutants elements in the produced leachate is encouraging.

  18. Chemical pollution and toxicity of water samples from stream receiving leachate from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Kuklińska, K; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-11-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the impact of municipal waste landfill on the pollution level of surface waters, and to investigate whether the choice and number of physical and chemical parameters monitored are sufficient for determining the actual risk related to bioavailability and mobility of contaminants. In 2007-2012, water samples were collected from the stream flowing through the site at two sampling locations, i.e. before the stream׳s entry to the landfill, and at the stream outlet from the landfill. The impact of leachate on the quality of stream water was observed in all samples. In 2007-2010, high values of TOC and conductivity in samples collected down the stream from the landfill were observed; the toxicity of these samples was much greater than that of samples collected up the stream from the landfill. In 2010-2012, a significant decrease of conductivity and TOC was observed, which may be related to the modernization of the landfill. Three tests were used to evaluate the toxicity of sampled water. As a novelty the application of Phytotoxkit F™ for determining water toxicity should be considered. Microtox(®) showed the lowest sensitivity of evaluating the toxicity of water samples, while Phytotoxkit F™ showed the highest. High mortality rates of Thamnocephalus platyurus in Thamnotoxkit F™ test can be caused by high conductivity, high concentration of TOC or the presence of compounds which are not accounted for in the water quality monitoring program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Simulation on contamination forecast and control of groundwater in a certain hazardous waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Fei; An, Da; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Ding-Long; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and data collection of a certain hazardous waste landfill, the groundwater flow and solute transport coupled models were established by applying Visual Modflow software, which was used to conduct a numerical simulation that forecast the transport process of Cr6+ in groundwater and the effects of three control measures (ground-harden, leakage-proof barriers and drainage ditches) of contaminants transport after leachate leakage happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. The results show that the contamination plume of Cr6+ transports with groundwater flow direction, the contamination rang would reach the pool's boundary in 10 years, and the distance of contamination transport is 1 450 m. But the diffusion range of contamination plume would not be obviously expanded between 10 and 20 years. While the ground is hardened, the contamination plume would not reach the pool's boundary in 20 years. When the leakage-proof barrier is set in the bottom of water table aquifer, the concentration of Cr6+ is higher than that the leakage-proof barrier is unset, but the result is just opposite when setting the leakage-proof barrier in the bottom of underlying aquifer. The range of contamination plume is effectively controlled by setting drainage ditches that water discharge is 2 642 m3 x d(-1), which makes the monitoring wells would not be contaminated in 20 years. Moreover, combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches can get the best effect in controlling contaminants diffusion, and meanwhile, the drainage ditches' daily discharge is reduced to 1 878 m3 x d(-1). Therefore, it is suggested that the control measure combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches should apply to prevent contamination diffusion in groundwater when leachate leakage have happened in impermeable layer of the landfill.

  20. Phytoremediation of Polychlorobiphenyls PCBs in Landfill E-Waste Leachate with Water Hyacinth E.Crassipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A Omondi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of e-waste in a landfill can release persistent organic pollutants POPs including polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs into the environment. PCBs are a family of more than 200 chemical compounds congeners each of which consists of two benzene rings and one to ten chlorine atoms. This study investigated use of water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes for phytoremediation of landfill leachate waste containing PCB. Landfill leachate was simulated in the laboratory by spiking water samples with PCB to obtain concentrations of 5 10 and 15 amp956gL which were in one to two orders of magnitude above the US Environmental Protection Agency EPA limit of 0.5 amp956gL or 0.5 ppb. Water hyacinth plants were grown in 2 L samples of the PCB spiked water for 15 days and evaluated for tolerance and bioaccumulation of PCB. Phytoremediation of PCB spiked water by the plants was evaluated by measuring the change in concentration of PCB. The plants tolerated PCB concentrations in the range of 5 to 15 amp956gL without depicting any serious adverse effect except for change in root color and an initial wilting of peripheral leaves. Water hyacinth reduced the concentration of PCBs in the leachate over 15 days from 15 to 0.42 amp956gL for the 15 amp956gL initial concentration sample and to below the GCMS detection limit of 0.142 amp956gL for the 10 and 5 ugL initial concentration samples. Bioaccumulation of PCB in the plant tissue was evaluated through solid phase extraction and testing of samples for PCB with GCMS. Bioaccumulation of PCBs at a concentration of 0.179 amp956gg was observed in the water hyacinth roots for the 15 amp956gL sample but none was detected for the lower initial PCB concentration and shoots. The study demonstrated potential of water hyacinth plants in phytoremediation of PCBs in e-waste leachate.

  1. Estimating Potential Methane Emission from Municipal Solid Waste and a Site Suitability Analysis of Existing Landfills in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Kumar Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The management of rapidly growing municipal solid waste (MSW is one of the major challenges in developing countries. The current study also estimates the suitability of a site through a geographical information system using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA for landfill sites in National Capital Territory (NCT. The results of the suitability index indicate that only 58.7 km2 of the land is suitable for the construction of landfill sites, while 194.27 km2 of the total area is moderately suitable. The existing three landfill sites that are currently functional and used by government organizations as landfills are found to be moderately suitable. A large fraction of MSW is disposed in landfills, which emit one third of the total anthropogenic methane (CH4 and are considered an important contributor of Green House Gases (GHGs to the atmosphere. Thus, there is a need for the proper estimation of GHG emission from landfills, specifically CH4, which contributes 20% of the GHGs that contribute to global warming. The current study aims to estimate the CH4 emission from landfills in the NCT, Delhi, India using GHG inventory guidelines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. The CH4 emission from landfills has doubled from 31.06 Gg/yr to 65.16 Gg/yr from 1999 and 2000 to 2015. The generation of CH4 from MSW is strongly correlated (R2 = 0.58 with the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP, which is an indicator of wellbeing.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of xenobiotics by organisms from municipal solid waste under landfilling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, J; Johansson, E; Karlsson, A; Meyerson, U; Svensson, B H

    1996-01-01

    The potential for biological transformation of 23 xenobiotic compounds by microorganisms in municipal solid waste (MSW) samples from a laboratory scale landfill reactor was studied. In addition the influence of these xenobiotic compounds on methanogenesis was investigated. All R11, 1,1 dichloroethylene, 2,4,6 trichlorophenol, dimethyl phthalate, phenol, benzoate and phthalic acid added were completely transformed during the period of incubation ( > 100 days). Parts of the initially added perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, R12, R114, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate and benzylbutyl phthalate were transformed. Methanogenesis from acetate was completely inhibited in the presence of 2,5 dichlorophenol, whereas 2,4,6 trichlorophenol and R11 showed an initial inhibition, whenafter methane formation recovered. No transformation or effect on the anaerobic microflora occurred for R13, R22, R114, 3 chlorobenzoate, 2,4,6 trichlorobenzoate, bis(2 ethyl)hexyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and dinonyl phthalate. The results indicate a limited potential for degradation, of the compounds tested, by microorganisms developing in a methanogenic landfill environment as compared with other anaerobic habitats such as sewage digestor sludge and sediments.

  3. Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Yahya; Kaczala, Fabio; Marchand, Charlotte; Hogland, Marika; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, William; Kihl, Anders

    2016-12-01

    The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23.5% and 16.6%, respectively. The analysed calorific value (1.7 MJ kg(-1)), the potential of CH4 (4.74 m(3) t(-1) dry matter) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (5.6%) were low and offer low potential of energy. Sieving the fine fraction further showed that 80% was smaller than 2 mm. The fine represents a major fraction at any landfill (40%-70%), therefore, characterising the properties of this fraction is essential to find the potential of reusing/recycling or safely redisposing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Batlle, F

    2011-12-01

    Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The "equivalent" three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also

  5. Carbon pools and flows during lab-scale degradation of old landfilled waste under different oxygen and water regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstätter, Christian, E-mail: bran.chri@gmail.com; Laner, David, E-mail: david.laner@tuwien.ac.at; Fellner, Johann, E-mail: johann.fellner@tuwien.ac.at

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • 40 year old waste from an old MSW landfill was incubated in LSR experiments. • Carbon balances for anaerobic and aerobic waste degradation were established. • The transformation of carbon pools during waste degradation was investigated. • Waste aeration resulted in the formation of a new, stable organic carbon pool. • Water addition did not have a significant effect on aerobic waste degradation. - Abstract: Landfill aeration has been proven to accelerate the degradation of organic matter in landfills in comparison to anaerobic decomposition. The present study aims to evaluate pools of organic matter decomposing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using landfill simulation reactors (LSR) filled with 40 year old waste from a former MSW landfill. The LSR were operated for 27 months, whereby the waste in one pair was kept under anaerobic conditions and the four other LSRs were aerated. Two of the aerated LSR were run with leachate recirculation and water addition and two without. The organic carbon in the solid waste was characterized at the beginning and at the end of the experiments and major carbon flows (e.g. TOC in leachate, gaseous CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) were monitored during operation. After the termination of the experiments, the waste from the anaerobic LSRs exhibited a long-term gas production potential of more than 20 NL kg{sup −1} dry waste, which corresponded to the mineralization of around 12% of the initial TOC (67 g kg{sup −1} dry waste). Compared to that, aeration led to threefold decrease in TOC (32–36% of the initial TOC were mineralized), without apparent differences in carbon discharge between the aerobic set ups with and without water addition. Based on the investigation of the carbon pools it could be demonstrated that a bit more than 10% of the initially present organic carbon was transformed into more recalcitrant forms, presumably due to the formation of humic substances

  6. Mass balance evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in landfill leachate and potential for transfer from e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon-Schaffer, Monica N; Mahecha-Botero, Andrés; Grace, John R; Ikonomou, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has largely focussed on their concentrations in the environment and their adverse effects on human health. This paper explores their transfer from waste streams to water and soil. A comprehensive mass balance model is developed to track polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), originating from e-waste and non-e-waste solids leaching from a landfill. Stepwise debromination is assumed to occur in three sub-systems (e-waste, aqueous leachate phase, and non-e-waste solids). Analysis of landfill samples and laboratory results from a solid-liquid contacting chamber are used to estimate model parameters to simulate an urban landfill system, for past and future scenarios. Sensitivity tests to key model parameters were conducted. Lower BDEs require more time to disappear than high-molecular weight PBDEs, since debromination takes place in a stepwise manner, according to the simplified reaction scheme. Interphase mass transfer causes the decay pattern to be similar in all three sub-systems. The aqueous phase is predicted to be the first sub-system to eliminate PBDEs if their input to the landfill were to be stopped. The non-e-waste solids would be next, followed by the e-waste sub-system. The model shows that mass transfer is not rate-limiting, but the evolution over time depends on the kinetic degradation parameters. Experimental scatter makes model testing difficult. Nevertheless, the model provides qualitative understanding of the influence of key variables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of specimen size and mix ratio on the nickel migration behavior of landfill waste mixed mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Aminul

    2017-04-01

    Landfill solid waste management system poses the potential source of silent wide-spread heavy metals like nickel poisoning in the entire ecosystem of nearby environment. Nickel containing demolish solid wastes are disposed at landfill zones to a great extent from where nickel migrate into the food chain through the surface water body as well as groundwater. Consequently, nickel exposure may cause different environmental problems. From this sense, it may be an attractive proposal to recycle the waste as a sustainable product. Herein is presented a long-term feasibility study on potential leaching behavioral pattern of nickel from different sizes and mixes based solidified landfill waste mixed mortar block. The calculated results revealed the larger sizes block entrapped more nickel content than the smaller in relation to the available for leaching. Moreover, the specimen bearing the higher amount of waste resulted the significant nickel immobilization within the crystalline structure. The study observed the fixation results 97.72%-99.35%, 97.08%-99.11%, 96.19%-98.58% and 95.86%-91.6% under the stabilizing agent to fine aggregate mixing combination 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2 and 1:2.5 respectively where 30% of the total volume of fine aggregate was replaced by landfill waste. Although, mechanical strength test of all surrogate waste forms was also conducted that showed acceptable performance for land disposal, the current research pointing out that constructed green products were non-hazardous except the specimens having mixture ratio 1:2.5 because nickel ion release mechanism was observed under this ratio by surface decay or physical erosion of the monolithic matrices. Furthermore, semi-empirical based dominant leaching mechanism models were justified against the goodness of fit statistical parameters for interpreting the experimental observations of nickel transport profile where the adopted models possessed strong potential for predicting Ni content with high accuracy

  8. Adsorption and transport of methane in landfill cover soil amended with waste-wood biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R

    2015-08-01

    The natural presence of methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in landfill soils can stimulate the bio-chemical oxidation of CH4 to CO2 and H2O under suitable environmental conditions. This mechanism can be enhanced by amending the landfill cover soil with organic materials such as biochars that are recalcitrant to biological degradation and are capable of adsorbing CH4 while facilitating the growth and activity of MOB within their porous structure. Several series of batch and small-scale column tests were conducted to quantify the CH4 sorption and transport properties of landfill cover soil amended with four types of waste hardwood biochars under different levels of amendment percentages (2, 5 and 10% by weight), exposed CH4 concentrations (0-1 kPa), moisture content (dry, 25% and 75% water holding capacity), and temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C). The linear forms of the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were used to determine the kinetics and the maximum CH4 adsorption capacity of cover materials. The maximum CH4 sorption capacity of dry biochar-amended soils ranged from 1.03 × 10(-2) to 7.97 × 10(-2) mol kg(-1) and exhibited a ten-fold increase compared to that of soil with 1.9 × 10(-3) mol kg(-1). The isosteric heat of adsorption for soil was negative and ranged from -30 to -118 kJ/mol, while that of the biochar-amended soils was positive and ranged from 24 to 440 kJ/mol. The CH4 dispersion coefficients for biochar-amended soils obtained through predictive transport modeling indicated that amending the soil with biochar enhanced the methane transport rates by two orders of magnitude, thereby increasing their potential for enhanced exchange of gases within the cover system. Overall, the use of hardwood biochars as a cover soil amendment to reduce methane emissions from landfills appears to be a promising alternative to conventional soil covers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  10. Reaction mechanisms and rate constants of waste degradation in landfill bioreactor systems with enzymatic-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, P A; Hettiaratchi, J P A; Mehrotra, A K; Kumar, S

    2014-06-01

    Augmenting leachate before recirculation with peroxidase enzymes is a novel method to increase the available carbon, and therefore the food supply to microorganisms at the declining phase of the anaerobic landfill bioreactor operation. In order to optimize the enzyme-catalyzed leachate recirculation process, it is necessary to identify the reaction mechanisms and determine rate constants. This paper presents a kinetic model developed to ascertain the reaction mechanisms and determine the rate constants for enzyme catalyzed anaerobic waste degradation. The maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) for MnP enzyme-catalyzed reactors was 0.076 g(TOC)/g(DS).day. The catalytic turnover number (k(cat)) of the MnP enzyme-catalyzed was 506.7 per day while the rate constant (k) of the un-catalyzed reaction was 0.012 per day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulation of waste decomposition in an old landfill by air injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli

    2016-12-01

    Three pilot-scale lysimeters were operated for 4.5years to quantify the change in the carbon and nitrogen pool in an old landfill under various air injection conditions. The results indicate that air injection at the bottom layer facilitated homogeneous distribution of oxygen in the waste matrix. Substantial total organic carbon (TOC) decomposition and methane generation reduction were achieved. Considerable amount of nitrogen was removed, suggesting that in situ nitrogen removal via the effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification mechanism is viable. Moreover, material mass change measurements revealed a slight mass reduction of aged MSW (by approximately 4.0%) after 4.5years of aeration. Additionally, experiments revealed that intensive aeration during the final stage of the experiment did not further stimulate the degradation of the aged MSW. Therefore, elimination of the labile fraction of aged MSW should be considered the objective of in situ aeration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  13. Management of Conventional Wastes (Non Radioactive) in Spanish Landfills; Gestion de Residuos Convencionales (No Radiactivos) en Vertederos de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, N.; Pena, J. M.; Ramos, J. L.; Millan, R.

    2011-07-15

    This report is the result of a collaboration agreement between CIEMAT and ENRESA. The goal of the report is to analyze the existing legislation on solid conventional waste, according to the European Community, the Spanish State and its Autonomous Communities, focusing on the latest regulation applicable to the final management in controlled landfills. In addition, information about the legal frame, production, composition and characteristics of conventional waste (i.e. urban, inert, dangerous industrial and non dangerous industrial) is given. Also, the final management that is carried out nowadays in Spain for each of the waste is analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the fulfilment of the in force regulation by the different types of Spanish controlled landfills is evaluated. (Author) 52 refs.

  14. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  15. 40 CFR 264.555 - Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in permitted hazardous waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of CAMU-eligible wastes in... TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Special Provisions for Cleanup § 264.555 Disposal of CAMU... oversight at the location where the cleanup is taking place may approve placement of CAMU-eligible wastes in...

  16. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  17. Carbon pools and flows during lab-scale degradation of old landfilled waste under different oxygen and water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstätter, Christian; Laner, David; Fellner, Johann

    2015-06-01

    Landfill aeration has been proven to accelerate the degradation of organic matter in landfills in comparison to anaerobic decomposition. The present study aims to evaluate pools of organic matter decomposing under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using landfill simulation reactors (LSR) filled with 40 year old waste from a former MSW landfill. The LSR were operated for 27 months, whereby the waste in one pair was kept under anaerobic conditions and the four other LSRs were aerated. Two of the aerated LSR were run with leachate recirculation and water addition and two without. The organic carbon in the solid waste was characterized at the beginning and at the end of the experiments and major carbon flows (e.g. TOC in leachate, gaseous CO2 and CH4) were monitored during operation. After the termination of the experiments, the waste from the anaerobic LSRs exhibited a long-term gas production potential of more than 20 NL kg(-1) dry waste, which corresponded to the mineralization of around 12% of the initial TOC (67 g kg(-1) dry waste). Compared to that, aeration led to threefold decrease in TOC (32-36% of the initial TOC were mineralized), without apparent differences in carbon discharge between the aerobic set ups with and without water addition. Based on the investigation of the carbon pools it could be demonstrated that a bit more than 10% of the initially present organic carbon was transformed into more recalcitrant forms, presumably due to the formation of humic substances. The source of anaerobic degradation could be identified mainly as cellulose which played a minor role during aerobic degradation in the experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water near Elkhart, Indiana, 2000-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Yeskis, D.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Four wells downgradient from a landfill near Elkhart, Indiana were sampled during 2000-2002 to evaluate the presence of waste-indicator and pharmaceutical compounds in landfill-leachate-affected ground water. Compounds detected in leachate-affected ground water included detergent metabolites (p-nonylphenol, nonylphenol monoethoxylate, nonylphenol diethoxylate, and octylphenol monoethoxylate), plasticizers (ethanol-2-butoxy-phosphate and diethylphthalate), a plastic monomer (bisphenol A), disinfectants (1,4-dichlorobenzene and triclosan), an antioxidant (5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three fire-retardant compounds (tributylphosphate and tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, and tri(dichlorisopropyl)phosphate), and several pharmaceuticals and metabolites (acetaminophen, caffeine, cotinine, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, fluoxetine, and ibuprofen). Acetaminophen, caffeine, and cotinine detections confirm prior indications of pharmaceutical and nicotinate disposal in the landfill. ?? 2009 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

  20. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model.

  1. Investigation of Biogas Production Process by the Mixture of Landfill Leachate and Animal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein alidadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: Energy consumption is on a rapidly growing trend in the world. Accordingly, the non-renewable energy sources are expected to be run out in the future. This issue has resulted in the establishment of efforts targeted toward the development of new energy-generating methods around the world. Biogas energy is one of the new and clean energies that is produced from the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Anaerobic digestion is a cost-effective and environment-friendly method, which facilitates fertilizer and biogas production as well as landfill leachate treatment. Given the high environmental hazards of leachate and its mixture with animal wastes, the present study aimed to estimate the possibility of producing biogas in various mixture ratios. Methods: In this pilot-scale experimental study, the landfill leachate of Mashhad, Iran, were mixed with caw fresh dung in different ratios, but same conditions, under anaerobic digestion. This was conducted to consider the ability to produce methane gas in different proportions and landfill leachate. At the beginning and end of the project, the parameters of EC, pH, VS, TS, COD, TOC, P, K, N, and Na were measured. Additionally, the composition of the gases produced under different operating conditions was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Gas production began three weeks after uploading and continued for five weeks. The analysis of gas production in three ratios was indicative of the CH4 production in all three proportions. In this regard, 1/1 ratio produced the highest percentage of CH4. No gas production was observed in the two months of study. Other physical and chemical parameters, such as COD, TS, TKN, and TOC were reduced in the given mixtures during the biogas production procedure. For instance, the case with 1/1 ratio, which showed the best results, had almost 80% decrease in the given parameters. However, no gas

  2. SITE SELECTION TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL OF GILANEGHARB TOWNSHIP IN KERMANSHAH PROVINCE, WESTERN IRAN BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSLEM HADIDI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Each of them has different effects on site selection of hazardous waste landfill. Some factors cause limits to site selection such as; climatic, topographic, land use, edaphic, quakeable, regions under conservation of environment organization and so on. these factors may be cause unsustainable and move hazardous waste to surface and under ground water and also air pollution according to wind aspect, consequently different contaminations. This study was conducted in Gilanegharb town in Kermanshah province west of Iran in 2012 to find best area of landfill of hazardous wastes. Each of the factors valued and weighted based on experts opinions and then evaluated each of the preperated layers in RS and GIS softwares. In the first evaluation of 19 sites, 6 sites were investigated. The results show that asphalt factory site is the best region and then Shahrdary, Tan Kooshk sites are better to landfill of hazardous waste respectively. The reasons for selecting of this regions were far form surface and ground water resources and as a result avoiding to be defiled of ground water. On the other hand, there is no air pollution and malodorous of Ghilangharb town because of wind blow aspect in the region.

  3. Test methods to aid in the evaluation of the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Tyrrel, S F; Godley, A R; Smith, R

    2009-03-01

    A wide range of waste characterization methods are available, each developed for a specific purpose such as determining compost stability, or for landfill acceptance criteria. Here test methods have been evaluated for the purpose of assessing waste treatment process performance and monitoring the diversion of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill. The suitability factors include the timescale of the method, applicability to a wide range of materials and ability to indicate the long-term biodegradability of organic waste samples. The anaerobic test methods, whilst producing reliable results, take at least several weeks to complete, therefore, not allowing for regular routine analysis often required for diversion assessments. Short-term tests are required which can correlate with, and, therefore, estimate, values obtained from long-term anaerobic methods. Aerobic test methods were found to offer a significantly improved timescale compared with anaerobic test methods; however, they have limitations due to not measuring the full extent of sample biodegradability. No single test method was found to be completely sufficient for routine biodegradability analysis suitable for monitoring the BMW diversion from landfill. Potential areas for further research include spectrographic FT-IR or enzyme-based approaches such as the ECD or EHT methods.

  4. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiddee, Peeranart [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide 5095 (Australia); Wong, Ming H. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Hearn, Laurence; Muller, Jochen F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, The University of Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • E-waste comprises approximately 6% of the waste mass going to landfill in South Australia. • Significant amounts of metal(loids)s and PBDEs are released from e-waste mixed with municipal solid in landfill leachates. • Significantly elevated concentrations of lead and PBDEs are detected in groundwater wells downgradient of landfills. • Significant temporal variation exists in electrical conductivity and in the concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in leachates. - Abstract: The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of South Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13–59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41–6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to attribute

  5. Assessment of methane production from shredder waste in landfills: The influence of temperature, moisture and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi Aghdam, Ehsan; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this study, methane (CH4) production rates from shredder waste (SW) were determined by incubation of waste samples over a period of 230days under different operating conditions, and first-order decay kinetic constants (k-values) were calculated. SW and sterilized SW were incubated under differ...... in landfilled SW are thus most likely due to the consumption of existing CO2 in the produced biogas and the produced H2 by biocorrosion of aluminum and zinc by methanogens....... different temperatures (20-25°C, 37°C, and 55°C), moisture contents (35% and 75% w/w) and amounts of inoculum (5% and 30% of the samples wet weight). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) from different types of SW (fresh, old and sieved) was determined and compared. The ability of metals (iron, aluminum.......235-0.488yr(-1) at 55°C, indicating that higher temperatures resulted in higher k-values. It was observed that H2 can be produced by biocorrosion of iron, aluminum, and zinc and it was shown that produced H2 can be utilized by hydrogenotrophic methanogens to convert CO2 to CH4. Addition of iron and copper...

  6. Geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste at Orchard Hills Landfill, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Parakalla, Naveen S; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from the working phase of Orchard Hills Landfill located in Davis Junction (Illinois, USA). Laboratory testing was conducted on shredded MSW to determine the compaction, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and shear strength properties at in-situ gravimetric moisture content of 44%. In addition, the effect of increased moisture content during leachate recirculation on compressibility and shear strength of MSW was also investigated by testing samples with variable gravimetric moisture contents ranging from 44% to 100%. Based on Standard Proctor tests, a maximum dry density of 420 kg/m(3) was observed at 70% optimum moisture content. The hydraulic conductivity varied in a wide range of 10(-8)-10(-4)m/s and decreased with increase in dry density. Compression ratio values varied in a close range of 0.24-0.33 with no specific trend with the increase in moisture content. Based on direct shear tests, drained cohesion varied from 31 to 64 kPa and the drained friction angle ranged from 26 to 30 degrees. Neither cohesion nor friction angle demonstrated any correlation with the moisture content, within the range of moisture contents tested. The consolidated undrained triaxial shear tests on saturated MSW showed the total strength parameters (c and phi) to be 32 kPa and 12 degrees, and the effective strength parameters (c' and phi') to be 38 kPa and 16 degrees. The angle of friction (phi) decreased and cohesion (c) value increased with the increase in strain. The effective cohesion (c') increased with increase in strain; however, the effective angle of friction (phi') decreased first and then increased with the increase in strain. Such strain-dependent shear strength properties should be properly accounted in the stability analysis of bioreactor landfills.

  7. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  8. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data

  9. Characterization of temporal variations in landfill gas components inside an open solid waste dump site in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamori, Masanao; Mowjood, M I M; Watanabe, Youichi; Isobe, Yugo; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Kawamoto, Ken

    2016-12-01

    A long-term monitoring of composition of landfill gases in the region with high rainfall was conducted using an argon assay in order to discuss air intrusion into the dump site. Gas samples were taken from vertical gas monitoring pipes installed along transects at two sections (called new and old) of an abandoned waste dump site in Sri Lanka. N2O concentrations varied especially widely, by more than three orders of magnitude (0.046-140 ppmv). The nitrogen/argon ratio of landfill gas was normally higher than that of fresh air, implying that denitrification occurred in the dump site. Argon assays indicate that both N2 and N2O production occurred inside waste and more significantly in the old section. The Ar assay would help for evaluations of N2O emission in developing countries. A long-term monitoring of composition of landfill gases in the region with high rainfall was conducted using an argon assay in order to discuss air intrusion into the dump site. Argon assays indicate that both N2 and N2O production occurred inside waste and more significantly in the old section.

  10. The dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 2--waste deposits and remediation of Georgswerder landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Rainer; Sokollek, Volker; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, they need to be globally addressed including the wastes remaining from historic use and production. While at most lindane production sites the unintentionally produced 85% HCH waste isomers have been deposited, at a former pesticide factory in Hamburg-Moorfleet HCH waste isomers have been recycled from 1953 to 1984 by thermal decomposition to chlorobenzenes and resulted in high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF)-contaminated residues. The management of the PCDD/PCDF-contaminated waste from the former pesticide factory in Hamburg has been assessed and quantified. Based on past accredited PCDD/PCDF measurements, the registered 3,700 tonnes of disposed thermal HCH decomposition residue contained 333 to 854 kg of PCDD/PCDF toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) in 53-102 tonnes total sum of PCDD/PCDF. The wastes have been deposited together with other wastes in landfills in Hamburg and other parts of Germany. For the Georgswerder landfill (Hamburg), where approximately 50% of the PCDD/PCDF is disposed, current and previous situation and remediation activities are described. While PCDD/PCDF leaching from the landfill is controlled and incinerated, more water soluble organochlorines (vinyl chloride, cis-1,2-dichlorethene, chlorobenzenes) and benzene remain as a challenge for groundwater management. A comprehensive aftercare program has been established and will need to be operated by future generations including renewal of containment systems. Former lindane/HCH productions need-in addition to HCH deposits-to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF-containing deposits. This could systematically be addressed within the Stockholm Convention implementation.

  11. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  13. GIS-based multicriteria municipal solid waste landfill suitability analysis: a review of the methodologies performed and criteria implemented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demesouka, O E; Vavatsikos, A P; Anagnostopoulos, K P

    2014-04-01

    Multicriteria spatial decision support systems (MC-SDSS) have emerged as an integration of the geographical information systems (GIS) and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods. GIS-based MCDA allows the incorporation of conflicting objectives and decision maker (DM) preferences into spatial decision models. During recent decades, a variety of research articles have been published regarding the implementation of methods and/or tools in a variety of real-world case studies. The article discusses, in detail, the criteria and methods that are implemented in GIS-based landfill siting suitability analysis and especially the exclusionary and non-exclusionary criteria that can be considered when selecting sites for municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. This paper reviews 36 seminal articles in which the evaluation of candidate landfill sites is conducted using MCDA methods. After a brief description of the main components of a MC-SDSS and the applied decision rules, the review focuses on the criteria incorporated into the decision models. The review provides a comprehensive guide to the landfill siting analysis criteria, providing details regarding the utilization methods, their decision or exclusionary nature and their monotonicity.

  14. Migration of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia through the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in the simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Chen, Luxi; Zhu, Huayue; Shen, Dongsheng; Qiu, Zhanhong

    2017-04-01

    Simulated landfill was operated for 508 days to investigate the effect of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash layer on the migration of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia when it was used as the intermediate layer in the landfill. The result suggested that the MSWI bottom ash layer could capture the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the leachate. The adsorption of the nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia on the MSWI bottom ash layer was saturated at the days 396, 34, and 97, respectively. Afterwards, the nitrogen species were desorbed from the MSWI bottom ash layer. Finally, the adsorption and desorption could reach the equilibrium. The amounts of adsorbed nitrate and nitrite on the MSWI bottom ash layer were 1685.09 and 7.48 mg, respectively, and the amount of the adsorbed and transformed ammonia was 13,773.19 mg, which was much higher than the desorbed. The water leaching test and synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) results showed that the leachable nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia in the MSWI bottom ash were greatly increased after the landfill operation, suggesting that the adsorbed nitrogen could be finally leached out. Besides, the results also showed that MSWI bottom ash layer could affect the release of nitrate and ammonia at the initial stage of the landfill. However, it had little effect on the release of nitrite.

  15. Affinity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles for sodium montmorillonite clay: Implications for disposal in municipal solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harns, Carrie

    Manufactured nanomaterials are used in a diverse array of commercially available products. Like other consumer goods, a portion of manufactured nano-products will enter municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Currently there is little information on the behavior and fate of engineered nanomaterials in MSW landfills and thus we do not know if current landfill designs are suitable for engineered nanomaterials. Of great consequence is understanding how nanomaterials will interact with clays, as they are integral components of composite liner systems. The overall objectives were to determine the affinity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials for montmorillonite as a function of solution chemistry and evaluate the mobility of TiO2 nanomaterials across clay barriers. It was observed that under favorable electrostatic conditions, TiO2 will heteroaggregate with montmorillonite, and TiO2-montmorillonite suspensions will remain stable under unfavorable electrostatic conditions. Additionally, it was observed that under simplified landfill leachate conditions, the clay barrier retained TiO2.

  16. Cultural Resources Review for Closure of the nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and Solid Waste Landfill in the 600 Area, Hanford Site, Benton County, Washington, HCRC# 2010-600-018R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Jennifer L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Sharpe, James J.; DeMaris, Ranae; Venno, M.; Christensen, James R.

    2011-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is proposing to close the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL) and Solid Waste Landfill (SWL) located in the 600 Area of the Hanford Site. The closure of the NRDWL/SWL entails the construction of an evapotranspiration cover over the landfill. This cover would consist of a 3-foot (1-meter) engineered layer of fine-grained soil, modified with 15 percent by weight pea gravel to form an erosion-resistant topsoil that will sustain native vegetation. The area targeted for silt-loam borrow soil sits in Area C, located in the northern central portion of the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve Unit. The pea gravel used for the mixture will be obtained from both off-site commercial sources and an active gravel pit (Pit #6) located just west of the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Materials for the cover will be transported along Army Loop Road, which runs from Beloit Avenue (near the Rattlesnake Barricade) east-northeast to the NRDWL/SWL, ending at State Route 4. Upgrades to Army Loop Road are necessary to facilitate safe bidirectional hauling traffic. This report documents a cultural resources review of the proposed activity, conducted according to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  17. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N. D.; Rees-White, T. C.; Beaven, R. P.; Stringfellow, A. M.; Barker, J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5 m and 20 m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as 0.02 ( 4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting.

  18. Doublet tracer tests to determine the contaminant flushing properties of a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, N D; Rees-White, T C; Beaven, R P; Stringfellow, A M; Barker, J A

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes a programme of research investigating horizontal fluid flow and solute transport through saturated municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. The purpose is to inform engineering strategies for future contaminant flushing. Solute transport between injection/abstraction well pairs (doublets) is investigated using three tracers over five separate tests at well separations between 5m and 20m. Two inorganic tracers (lithium and bromide) were used, plus the fluorescent dye tracer, rhodamine-WT. There was no evidence for persistent preferential horizons or pathways at the inter-well scale. The time for tracer movement to the abstraction wells varied with well spacing as predicted for a homogeneous isotropic continuum. The time for tracer movement to remote observation wells was also as expected. Mobile porosity was estimated as ~0.02 (~4% of total porosity). Good fits to the tracer breakthrough data were achieved using a dual-porosity model, with immobile regions characterised by block diffusion timescales in the range of about one to ten years. This implies that diffusional exchanges are likely to be very significant for engineering of whole-site contaminant flushing and possibly rate-limiting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhen, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dean, T.A. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  20. Performance evaluation of an anaerobic/aerobic landfill-based digester using yard waste for energy and compost production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ramin; Barlaz, Morton A; Augenstein, Don; Kayhanian, Masoud; Tchobanoglous, George

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new alternative for yard waste management by constructing, operating and monitoring a landfill-based two-stage batch digester (anaerobic/aerobic) with the recovery of energy and compost. The system was initially operated under anaerobic conditions for 366 days, after which the yard waste was aerated for an additional 191 days. Off gas generated from the aerobic stage was treated by biofilters. Net energy recovery was 84.3MWh, or 46kWh per million metric tons of wet waste (as received), and the biochemical methane potential of the treated waste decreased by 83% during the two-stage operation. The average removal efficiencies of volatile organic compounds and non-methane organic compounds in the biofilters were 96-99% and 68-99%, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of Proposals for Solid Municipal Waste Landfill Placing by Example of Regions of the Far North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oznobihina, L. A.; Pelymskaya, O.

    2017-11-01

    The sustainable development of each region, the quality of its environment depends to a great extent on the provision of environmental safety, especially in the field of waste management. The growth of industrial production in the Tyumen region and the improvement of the population social base contributes to a significant increase in production and consumption waste. The article is devoted to the problem of the emergence, recycling and utilization of an increasing amount of solid municipal waste every year. The author considers the unresolved issues of the location, processing and disposal of waste in the Nefteyugansk District, the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - Yugra, leading to increase in their volumes, the size of the territory they occupy, increase in the number of unauthorized landfills, intensive pollution of soils, surface and groundwaters and atmospheric air. Proposals for the placement of a comprehensive inter-municipal TKO testing ground have been developed. The most favorable territory for the location of the TKO enterprise was determined.

  2. Field proteomics of Populus alba grown in a heavily modified environment - An example of a tannery waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuba, Agnieszka; Lorenc-Plucińska, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Tannery waste is highly toxic and dangerous to living organisms because of the high heavy metal content, especially chromium [Cr(III)]. This study analysed the proteomic response of the Populus alba L. clone 'Villafranca' grown for 4years on a tannery waste landfill. In this extremely hostile environment, the plants struggled with continuous stress, which inhibited growth by 54%, with a 67% decrease in tree height and diameter at breast height compared to those of the forest reference plot, respectively. The leaves and roots of the tannery landfill-grown plants produced strong proteomic stress signals for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and repair to ROS-damaged proteins and DNA as well as signals for protection of the photosynthetic apparatus. The content of HSP80 was also high. However, primary metabolic pathways were generally unaffected, and signals of increased protein protection, but not turnover, were found, indicating mechanisms of adaptation to long-term stress conditions present at the landfill. A proteomic tool, two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, was successfully applied in this environmental in situ study of distant plots (280km apart). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 2014 Zero Waste Strategic Plan Executive Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrons, Ralph J.

    2016-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico is located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, primarily on Department of Energy (DOE) permitted land on approximately 2,800 acres of Kirtland Air Force Base. There are approximately 5.5 million square feet of buildings, with a workforce of approximately 9200 personnel. Sandia National Laboratories Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) program adopted in 2008 an internal team goal for New Mexico site operations for Zero Waste to Landfill by 2025. Sandia solicited a consultant to assist in the development of a Zero Waste Strategic Plan. The Zero Waste Consultant Team selected is a partnership of SBM Management Services and Gary Liss & Associates. The scope of this Plan is non-hazardous solid waste and covers the life cycle of material purchases to the use and final disposal of the items at the end of their life cycle.

  4. EFFECT OF SEALED MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Halina Grygorczuk-Petersons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the landfill on the groundwater environment. The assessment of water status in the region of landfill sealed with a layer of clay with a thickness of 0.5 m, was based on the own research and monitoring received from the municipal office, and conducted in 2007–2010. Waters flowing out of the landfill revealed an increase in pollution indicators such as: total organic carbon (TOC, concentrations of PAHs and heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, and chromium. It was demonstrated that the landfill sealed with a clay layer does not reduce the outflow of leachate to groundwater, but also that the purity of these waters is influenced by increased agricultural activity in the areas adjacent to the landfill.

  5. Effect of increasing salinity on biogas production in waste landfills with leachate recirculation: A lab-scale model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Ogata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on anaerobic waste degradation and microbial communities were investigated, in order to propose an appropriate leachate recirculation process in a waste landfill in a tropical region. A salt concentration of 21 mS cm−1 of electrical conductivity (EC did not affect waste degradation, but a salt concentration of 35 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited CH4 generation. A higher salt concentration of 80 mS cm−1 of EC inhibited not only CH4 and CO2 generation, but also degradation of organic compounds. The bacterial and archaeal community compositions were affected by high salinity. High salinity can exert selective pressure on bacterial communities, resulting in a change in bacterial community structure. Ammonium caused strong, dominant inhibition of biogas production in the salt concentration range of this study. Quality control, especially of ammonium levels, will be essential for the promotion of waste biodegradation in landfills with leachate recirculation.

  6. Environmental impact assessment of leachate recirculation in landfill of municipal solid waste by comparing with evaporation and discharge (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing; Zhao, Yan

    2013-01-01

    of contaminants derived from waste can be stored in the landfill for long periods, with 11.69 person equivalent (PE) for stored ecotoxicity in water and 29.62 PE for stored ecotoxicity in soil, considered as potential risks of releasing to the environment someday. Meanwhile, impacts to ecotoxicity and human...... toxicity in surface water, and those to groundwater, present relatively low levels. In Scenario B, leachate evaporation in a collecting pool has minimal impacts on surface water. However, this strategy significantly impacts groundwater (1055.16 PE) because of the potential infiltration of leachate...... in leachate and the depositional ammonia from biogas. Moreover, the direct discharge of leachate may also result in ecotoxicity and human toxicity via water contaminated by heavy metals in leachate, with 3.96 PE and 11.64 PE respectively. The results also show that landfill gas is the main contributor...

  7. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Sandia National Laboratory Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis B. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    This special analysis evaluates whether the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream (ASLA000001007, Revision 4) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream consists of debris from classified nuclear weapons components (SNL 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream had no significant effect on the maximum mean and 95th percentile results for the resident air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream increases the mean air pathway and all-pathways annual TED from approximately 100 to 200 years after closure. Addition of the SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream inventory shifts the maximum TED to approximately 100 years after closure and increases the TED for several alternative exposure scenarios. The maximum mean and the 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  8. Influence of dynamic coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes on response of municipal solid waste and liner system in bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Kumar, Girish; Giri, Rajiv K

    2017-05-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model is presented to predict the response of municipal solid waste (MSW) of conventional as well as bioreactor landfills undergoing coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes. The newly developed and validated 2-D coupled mathematical modeling framework combines and simultaneously solves a two-phase flow model based on the unsaturated Richard's equation, a plain-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb mechanical model and first-order decay kinetics biodegradation model. The performance of both conventional and bioreactor landfill was investigated holistically, by evaluating the mechanical settlement, extent of waste degradation with subsequent changes in geotechnical properties, landfill slope stability, and in-plane shear behavior (shear stress-displacement) of composite liner system and final cover system. It is concluded that for the given specific conditions considered, bioreactor landfill attained an overall stabilization after a continuous leachate injection of 16years, whereas the stabilization was observed after around 50years of post-closure in conventional landfills, with a total vertical strain of 36% and 37% for bioreactor and conventional landfills, respectively. The significant changes in landfill settlement, the extent of MSW degradation, MSW geotechnical properties, along with their influence on the in-plane shear response of composite liner and final cover system, between the conventional and bioreactor landfills, observed using the mathematical model proposed in this study, corroborates the importance of considering coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes while designing and predicting the performance of engineered bioreactor landfills. The study underscores the importance of considering the effect of coupled processes while examining the stability and integrity of the liner and cover systems, which form the integral components of a landfill. Moreover, the spatial and temporal variations in the landfill settlement, the

  9. Critical evaluation of factors required to terminate the postclosure monitoring period at solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlaz, M.A.; Rooker, A.P.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    for an investigation of whether postclosure monitoring can be terminated at a landfill. Parameters evaluated include leachate composition and leachate and gas production. Estimates of leachate production from closed landfills are used to assess the potential environmental impacts of a hypothetical release to surface...... and impact analysis should provide an effective strategy to manage closed landfills....... water or groundwater. The acceptability of gaseous releases should be evaluated against criteria for odors, the potential for subsurface migration, and greenhouse gas and ozone precursor emissions. The approach presented here must be tested on a site-specific basis to identify additional data...

  10. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Performance and completion assessment of an in-situ aerated municipal solid waste landfill - Final scientific documentation of an Austrian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrad, Marlies; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2017-05-01

    By converting anaerobic landfills into a biologically stabilized state through accelerating aerobic organic matter degradation, the effort and duration necessary for post-closure procedures can be shortened. In Austria, the first full-scale application of in-situ landfill aeration by means of low pressure air injection with simultaneous off-gas collection and treatment was implemented on an old MSW-landfill and operated between 2007 and 2013. Besides complementary laboratory investigations, which included waste sampling from the landfill site prior to aeration start, a comprehensive field monitoring program was conducted to assess the influence of the aeration measure on the emission behavior of the landfilled waste during the aeration period as well as after aeration completion. Although the initial waste material was described as rather stable, the lab-scale aeration tests indicated a significant improvement of the leachate quality and even the biological solid waste stability. However, the aeration success was less pronounced for the application at the landfill site, mainly due to technical limitations in the full-scale operation. In this paper main performance data of the field investigation are compared to four other scientifically documented case studies along with stability indicators for solid waste and leachate characteristics in order to evaluate the success of aeration as well as the progress of a landfill towards completion and end of post-closure care. A number of quantitative benchmarks and relevant context information for the performance assessment of the five hitherto conducted international aeration projects are proposed aiming to support the systematization and harmonization of available results from diverse field studies and full-scale applications in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — For more than 60 years, Sandia has delivered essential science and technology to resolve the nation's most challenging security issues.Sandia National Laboratories...

  13. Boron accumulation and tolerance of hybrid poplars grown on a B-laden mixed paper mill waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Rainer; Robinson, Brett H; Rog, Christopher J; Papritz, Andreas; Schulin, Rainer

    2013-03-01

    Paper mill wastes are a mixture of by-products from pulp production and on-site energy production, consisting of paper mill sludge, ash and cinders. Landfilling of these highly boron (B) and heavy metal laden waste products carries environmental risks. Poplars have been successfully employed in the phytomanagement and hydraulic control of B contaminated sites. Here, we assess the performance of hybrid poplars on a paper-mill waste landfill, investigate the accumulation of B by the trees and explore the relationship between local-scale root growth and substrate properties. Leaf and root tissue samples were collected on three plots and analyzed for their chemical properties and root traits. Additionally, we sampled four soil cores in the vicinity of each of the trees and determined chemical and physical properties. Using a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, we identified three substrate types. This method delineated the soil effects on tree survival and growth, although correlations with individual soil element concentrations were weak. Despite signs of B toxicity in some leaves, B was not the key limiting factor for poplar growth. Instead, Ca deficiency caused by a Mg:Ca imbalance was the primary reason for the poor performance of some trees. Root growth was not limited by toxicity effects of soil contaminants. Our results show that hybrid poplars perform well under the harsh growing conditions on a multi-contaminated, B-laden substrate in a hemiboreal climate. Exploiting the differences in the performance of the four clones in relation to the soil types, could increase the success of revegetation on this and other landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aspects of contamination produced by domestic waste landfills of receiving waters in Madrid province

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Urcelay, A.; Adarve, M. J.; Hernández, Ana Jesús; Sánchez, Agustín

    1993-01-01

    This study describes some aspects of the anión contení in surface waters and ground waters as well as in the soils affected by three landfills in the Province of Madrid. The anions concerned are chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrales. The pH and conductivity were also determined. These parameters may constitute abiotic indicators lo observe the alterations produced in the water and soil by the leachates from the landfills. The results show that the concentrations ...

  15. Leachate and Pollution Levels of Heavy Metals in the Groundwater near Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borhan Mansouri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad. Methods: In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad. Results: Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the studied wells was below the national standards of drinking water of Iran, WHO, and the United States. Pearson correlation coefficients also indicated that there was a significant correlation among the studied metals in the wells. Conclusion: Cd and Cu concentrations in all of the wells (except Pb in winter and Ni in summer did not pose any significant water quality problems since these concentrations were below the standards acceptable levels of drinking water.

  16. Physical and Biological Release of Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) from Municipal Solid Waste in Anaerobic Model Landfill Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, B McKay; Lang, Johnsie R; Barlaz, Morton A; Field, Jennifer A

    2015-07-07

    A wide variety of consumer products that are treated with poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and related formulations are disposed of in landfills. Landfill leachate has significant concentrations of PFASs and acts as secondary point sources to surface water. This study models how PFASs enter leachate using four laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors filled with municipal solid waste (MSW) and operated over 273 days. Duplicate reactors were monitored under live and abiotic conditions to evaluate influences attributable to biological activity. The biologically active reactors simulated the methanogenic conditions that develop in all landfills, producing ∼140 mL CH4/dry g refuse. The average total PFAS leaching measured in live reactors (16.7 nmol/kg dry refuse) was greater than the average for abiotic reactors (2.83 nmol/kg dry refuse), indicating biological processes were primarily responsible for leaching. The low-level leaching in the abiotic reactors was primarily due to PFCAs ≤C8 (2.48 nmol/kg dry refuse). Concentrations of known biodegradation intermediates, including methylperfluorobutane sulfonamide acetic acid and the n:2 and n:3 fluorotelomer carboxylates, increased steadily after the onset of methanogenesis, with the 5:3 fluorotelomer carboxylate becoming the single most concentrated PFAS observed in live reactors (9.53 nmol/kg dry refuse).

  17. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  18. The microbial ecology of anaerobic cellulose degradation in municipal waste landfill sites: evidence of a role for fibrobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Houghton, James N I; Rooks, David J; Allison, Heather E; McCarthy, Alan J

    2012-04-01

    Cellulose is reputedly the most abundant organic polymer in the biosphere, yet despite the fundamental role of cellulolytic microorganisms in global carbon cycling and as potential sources of novel enzymes for biotechnology, their identity and ecology is not well established. Cellulose is a major component of landfill waste and its degradation is therefore a key feature of the anaerobic microbial decomposition process. Here, we targeted a number of taxa containing known cellulolytic anaerobes (members of the bacterial genus Fibrobacter, lineages of Clostridium clusters I, III, IV and XIV, and anaerobic fungi of the Neocallimastigales) in landfill leachate and colonized cellulose 'baits' via PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium clusters III, IV and XIV were detected in almost all leachate samples and cluster III and XIV clostridia were the most abundant (1-6% and 1-17% of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies respectively). Two landfill leachate microcosms were constructed to specifically assess those microbial communities that colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of colonized cotton revealed extensive cellulose degradation in one microcosm, and Fibrobacter spp. and Clostridium cluster III represented 29% and 17%, respectively, of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in the biofilm. Visible cellulose degradation was not observed in the second microcosm, and this correlated with negligible relative abundances of Clostridium cluster III and Fibrobacter spp. (≤ 0.1%), providing the first evidence that the novel fibrobacters recently detected in landfill sites and other non-gut environments colonize and degrade cellulose substrates in situ. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Management: Recycling, Resource Recovery, and Landfills. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Teresa, Comp.

    Municipal solid waste refers to waste materials generated by residential, commercial, and institutional sources, and consists predominantly of paper, glass, metals, plastics, and food and yard waste. Within the definition of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, municipal solid waste does not include sewage sludge or hazardous waste. The three main…

  20. Field investigation of the quality of fresh and aged leachates from selected landfills receiving e-waste in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddee, Peeranart; Naidu, Ravi; Wong, Ming H; Hearn, Laurence; Muller, Jochen F

    2014-11-01

    The management of electronic waste (e-waste) is a serious problem worldwide and much of it is landfilled. A survey of four selected landfills in an arid region of South Australia was conducted to determine the proportion of e-waste in municipal waste and the properties of each landfill site. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected upgradient and downgradient of the landfills for analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 14 metals and metalloids, including Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. Our data demonstrate that the selected landfills in South Australia continue to receive municipal waste containing in excess of 6%, or 25,000 tonnes per year, of e-waste. The leachates and groundwater collected from the landfills contained significantly elevated concentrations of Pb with the highest concentration in groundwater of 38 μg/l, almost four times higher than the Australian drinking water guideline of 10 μg/l. The presence of PBDEs was detected in both leachate and groundwater samples. Total PBDEs values of 2.13-59.75 ng/l in leachate samples were 10 times higher than in groundwater samples, which recorded a range of 0.41-6.53 ng/l at all sites. Moreover, the concentrations of metals and metalloids in sampled groundwater contained elevated levels of Al, As, Fe, Ni and Pb that exceeded Australian drinking water guideline values. For these reasons potential leaching of these contaminants is of concern and while difficult to attribute elevated contaminant levels to e-waste, we do not recommend continued disposal of e-waste in old landfills that were not originally designed to contain leachates. The survey also revealed temporal variation in the electrical conductivity and concentrations of As, Cd and Pb present in leachates of landfills in arid Mediterranean climates. These results are consistent with the marked variations in rainfall patterns observed for such climates. The solute concentration (EC and other ions including As

  1. Emission model for landfills with mechanically-biologically pretreated waste, with the emphasis on modelling the gas balance; Emissionsprognosemodell fuer Deponien mit mechanisch-biologisch vorbehandelten Abfaellen - Schwerpunkt: Modellierung des Gashaushaltes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine influence factors on processes going on in landfills with mechanically-biologically pretreated waste (MBP-landfills) in order to predict emissions. For this purpose a computer based model has been developed. The model allows to simulate the gas, water and heat balance as well as settlement processes and was called DESIM2005 (version MB). It is based on theoretical modeling approaches as well as data from lab and reactor experiments. The main focus of model application was to determine factors influencing the gas phase and the emissions of landfill gas and methane during operation and aftercare of MBP-landfills. By performing simulations the effects of changing parameters for the processes gas transport and biological degradation as well as the effects of different qualities in waste pretreatment and of varying landfill operation techniques were investigated. Possibilities for increasing the environmental sustainability of landfills containing mechanically-biologically pretreated waste were shown. (orig.)

  2. Characterization, minimization and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes during cleanup and rransition of the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-12-01

    This document provides an outline of waste handling practices used during the Sandia National Laboratory/California (SNL/CA), Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Cleanup and Transition project. Here we provide background information concerning the history of the TRL and the types of operations that generated the waste. Listed are applicable SNL/CA site-wide and TRL local waste handling related procedures. We describe personnel training practices and outline methods of handling and disposal of compactible and non-compactible low level waste, solidified waste water, hazardous wastes and mixed wastes. Waste minimization, reapplication and recycling practices are discussed. Finally, we provide a description of the process followed to remove the highly contaminated decontamination systems. This document is intended as both a historical record and as a reference to other facilities who may be involved in similar work.

  3. Subsurface imaging of an abandoned solid waste landfill site in Norman, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zume, J.T.; Tarhule, A.; Christenson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leachate plume emanating from an old unlined municipal landfill site near the city of Norman, Oklahoma, is discharging into the underlying alluvial aquifer. Subsurface imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and electrical conductivity (EC) logging, were used on the site to detect and map the position of the leachate plume. Anomalous EC zones, delineated with the two methods, correlated with the occurrence of the plume detected by water chemistry analyses from multilevel monitoring wells. Specific conductance, a potential indicator of leachate contamination, ranged from 1861 to 7710 ??S/cm in contaminated zones and from 465 to 2180 ??S/cm in uncontaminated ground water. Results are in agreement with those from earlier studies that the leachate plume emerges from the landfill along preferential pathways. Additionally, there are indications that the leading edge of the plume has migrated, at least, 200 m away from the landfill in the direction of ground water flow. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  5. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavate...

  7. Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare Babatunde Femi

    2011-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This p...

  8. Estrogenic effects of leachates from industrial waste landfills measured by a recombinant yeast assay and transcriptional analysis in Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Nakajima, Daisuke; Kageyama, Shiho

    2011-01-25

    In Japan, the leachates from 'stable type' landfills for industrial wastes are not controlled, and this has given rise to concerns about the possible pollution of surrounding environmental waters, especially by endocrine disrupting chemicals leaching from plastic and rubber wastes. To accurately assess the estrogenic potential of the landfill leachates by both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we confirmed gene-transcriptional responses in recombinant yeast cells and in Japanese medaka fish to estrogenic compounds, and applied these transcription assays to leachate samples. The yeast carrying the estrogen receptor (ER) of medaka and an ER-mediated response pathway responded to both the natural estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), and an industrial compound, bisphenol A (BPA), and the effective concentration of BPA was about 2.0×10(3) times that of E2. Transcripts of all genes coding for precursors of yolk protein, vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg2), and precursors of egg envelope subunit proteins, choriogenins (chgh and chgl), increased in a concentration dependent manner in the livers of male medaka exposed to BPA or E2, and, except for chgh, reached peaks at exposure times of 48h. Although many fish in control groups did not have vtg transcripts, the incidence of vtg transcriptions also increased in a concentration dependent manner with exposure. The minimum effective concentrations of BPA at 48h were 0.5mg/L for chgh and vtg2, 2mg/L for vtg1 and 4mg/L for chgl, while those of E2 were 10ng/L for chgh and chgl and 30ng/L for vtg1 and vtg2. All leachates sampled at 3 landfill sites exerted in vitro estrogenic action. The E2 equivalent of the most potent leachate was 375ng/L for the yeast ER assay. This leachate sample significantly increased the transcripts of chgh, vtg1 and vtg2, but not chgl, in the medaka. In addition, chemical analysis showed that bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol were the main contributors to the estrogenicity of the leachates. This study

  9. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: I. LEACHATE HYDROLOGY AND WASTE SETTLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of state-of-the-practice at five full-scale North American landfills operating as bioreactors is presented in this two-paper set. This paper focuses on effectiveness of liners and leachate collection systems, leachate generation rates, leachate recirculation practi...

  10. Impact of Vladivostok’s solid waste landfill for ecological risks formation of nearby rivers pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solyanik, I. V.; Zinkov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article analyzes the environmental issues arising from the development and operation of the landfill and the theoretical calculation of the timing and expected output sites with contaminated water into the neighboring valley streams, including Brook Desantny, Brook Rybachy, and River Bolshaya Pionerskaya.

  11. Behaviour at landfills of waste having undergone mechanic-biological and thermal conditioning; Deponieverhalten mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch behandelten Restabfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danhamer, H.; Dach, J.; Jager, J. [Institut WAR, Darmstadt (Germany). FG Abfalltechnik

    1998-12-31

    The work studies, in landfill test reactors, water, gas and heat transport as well as gas and leachate formation in waste having undergone mechanical-biological and thermal conditioning. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde der Wasser-, Gas- und Waermetransport, sowie die Gasbildung- und Sickerwasserbelastung mechanisch-biologisch und thermisch vorbehandelter Abfaelle in Deponieversuchsreaktoren untersucht. (orig.)

  12. Quantifying N2O emissions and production pathways from fresh waste during the initial stage of disposal to a landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, Mingsheng; Zhang, Han; Pan, Songqing; Kao, Chih Ming; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-05-01

    Intensive nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions usually occur at the working face of landfills. However, the specific amounts and contributions of the multiple pathways to N2O emissions are poorly understood. N2O emissions and the mutual conversions of N-species in both open and sealed simulated landfill reactors filled with fresh refuse were examined during a 100-h incubation period, and N2O sources were calculated using (15)N isotope labelling. N2O peak fluxes were above 70μgNkg(-1) waste h(-1) for both treatments. The sealed incubation reactors became a N2O sink when N2O in the ambient environment was sufficient. The total amount of N2O emissions under sealed conditions was 2.15±0.56mgNkg(-1) waste, which was higher than that under open conditions (1.91±0.34mgNkg(-1) waste). The NO2(-) peak appeared prior to the peak in N2O flux. The degree and duration of total nitrogen reduction in open incubations were larger and longer than those of sealed incubations and could possibly be due to oxygen supplementation. Denitrification (DF) was a major source of N2O generation during these incubations. The contribution of the DF pathway decreased from 89.2% to 61.3% during the open incubations. The effects of nitrification (NF) and nitrification-coupled denitrification (NCD) increased during the increasing phase and the decreasing phase of N2O flux, contributing 24.1-37.4% and 31.7-34.4% of total N2O emissions, respectively. In sealed treatments, the DF pathway accounted for more than 90% of the total N2O emission during the entire incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Integrated Geophysical and Geological Fault Assessment at a Hazardous-Waste Landfill: Fluorspar Area Fault Complex, Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery, E.; Baldwin, J.; Kelson, K.; Hampson, S.; Givler, R.

    2007-12-01

    Federal and Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations require proposed hazardous waste facilities undergo a surface-fault rupture hazard assessment prior to issuing construction permits. Permanent ground deformation may expose below-ground structures such as landfills and settling ponds, as well as above-ground structures such as tanks and incinerators to rupture and/or topple failure, and thus potential uncontrolled contaminant release. Regulations prohibit placing new hazardous waste facilities within 61 m (200 ft) of a Holocene-active fault. However, identifying and characterizing active faults in areas lacking geomorphic expression is a challenging task, as exemplified in and near the New Madrid seismic zone and Fluorspar Area fault complex (FAFC). In the mid-continent, surface manifestations of active faults are generally impeded by thick sequence of relatively weak, water-saturated Mississippi embayment sediment overlying bedrock. The soft sediment overburden and long recurrence interval between large earthquakes conceal neotectonic structures in bedrock and commonly fail to produce significant or noticeable geomorphic features. A proposed hazardous-waste landfill in western Kentucky is located within the upper Mississippi embayment and above the late Proterozoic-early Cambrian FAFC, an area also coincident with diffuse microseismicity. Integrated geophysical and geological methodologies were essential for a surface-fault rupture assessment. Nearly 1 km of SH-wave seismic reflection data were collected and interpreted for evidence of late Quaternary deformation. Five significant high-angle anomalies were interpreted to extend within approximately 7 m of the ground surface, near the upper limit of the seismic sampling. Eighty-six, densely spaced, continuous cores, each 9.1 m deep, intersected these features. Stratigraphic and chronological analyses were performed on the cores to assess the presence or absence of structure, and to determine the near-surface extent

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification of landfilled plastic wastes with Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpengkrow, Prangtip; Atong, Duangduen; Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon

    2012-12-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification processes were utilized to study the feasibility of producing fuels from landfilled plastic wastes. These wastes were converted in a gasifier at 700-900 degrees C. The equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.4-0.6 with or without addition ofa Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst. The pyrolysis and gasification of plastic wastes without catalyst resulted in relatively low H2, CO and other fuel gas products with methane as the major gaseous species. The highest lower heating value (LHV) was obtained at 800 degrees C and for an ER of 0.4, while the maximum cold gas efficiency occurred at 700 degrees C and for an ER of 0.4. The presence of the Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst significantly enhanced H2 and CO production as well as increasing the gas energy content to 15.76-19.26 MJ/m3, which is suitable for further usage as quality fuel gas. A higher temperature resulted in more H2 and CO and other product gas yields, while char and liquid (tars) decreased. The maximum gas yield, gas calorific value and cold gas efficiency were achieved when the Ni-Mg-La/Al2O3 catalyst was used at 900 degrees C. In general, addition of prepared catalyst resulted in greater H2, CO and other light hydrocarbon yields from superior conversion of wastes to these gases. Thus, thermochemical treatment of these problematic wastes using pyrolysis and gasification processes is a very attractive alternative for sustainable waste management.

  16. Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically-biologically treated waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einola, J-K M; Sormunen, K M; Rintala, J A

    2008-12-15

    The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically-biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (> 96%) of the methane produced (Methane was oxidized mainly at the depths of 35-75 cm, as indicated by the upward decrease both in the methane concentration and in the methane-to-carbon dioxide ratio in the pore gas. Lower methane oxidation (methane produced) was observed only during the coldest time of the year (January 2006), apparently due to the fall in temperature at the depths of 25-70 cm (from 9-25 degrees C during April to October to 2-9 degrees C in January). Unexpectedly, the highest methane oxidation potential (MOP) was observed in samples from the top layer where exposure to methane was low. Overall, the results show that MBT residual is a suitable support medium for methane oxidation in landfill covers in field conditions in a boreal climate.

  17. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  18. Regeneration and reuse of leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Kuei; Lo, Shang-Lien; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Landfill leachate is deep brown in color with extremely complex composition and difficult to treat in order to meet the effluent standards. The leachate of Keelung City Tien Wai Tien landfill has an average flow of 350 CMD. In the present study following serially connected devices: Activated sludge/contact aeration (AS/CA) combined system, reverse osmosis (RO) and an ammonia stripping tower were used to treat the leachate. After treatment, the COD (removal rate of 91%), BOD (removal rate of 83%), SS (removal rate of 86%) and NH(4+)-N level (removal rate of 98%) significantly reduced in the leachate. The treated effluent was further recycled and used as RO back washing water and for sprinkling roads and watering plants in Keelung City. It is further required to evaluate whether the treated effluent can be reutilized for agriculture and extinguishing fire during shortage of water.

  19. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Climate impact analysis of waste treatment scenarios--thermal treatment of commercial and pretreated waste versus landfilling in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragossnig, A M; Wartha, C; Pomberger, R

    2009-11-01

    A major challenge for modern waste management lies in a smart integration of waste-to-energy installations in local energy systems in such a way that the energy efficiency of the waste-to-energy plant is optimized and that the energy contained in the waste is, therefore, optimally utilized. The extent of integration of thermal waste treatment processes into regular energy supply systems plays a major role with regard to climate control. In this research, the specific waste management situation looked at scenarios aiming at maximizing the energy recovery from waste (i.e. actual scenario and waste-to-energy process with 75% energy efficiency [22.5% electricity, 52.5% heat]) yield greenhouse gas emission savings due to the fact that more greenhouse gas emissions are avoided in the energy sector than caused by the various waste treatment processes. Comparing dedicated waste-to-energy-systems based on the combined heat and power (CHP) process with concepts based on sole electricity production, the energy efficiency proves to be crucial with regard to climate control. This underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sites for waste-to-energy-plants. This research was looking at the effect with regard to the climate impact of various waste management scenarios that could be applied alternatively by a private waste management company in Austria. The research is, therefore, based on a specific set of data for the waste streams looked at (waste characteristics, logistics needed, etc.). Furthermore, the investigated scenarios have been defined based on the actual available alternatives with regard to the usage of treatment plants for this specific company. The standard scenarios for identifying climate impact implications due to energy recovery from waste are based on the respective marginal energy data for the power and heat generation facilities/industrial processes in Austria.

  1. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  2. The effects of leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition on methane production and waste decomposition in a simulated tropical landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphoti, N; Towprayoon, S; Chaiprasert, P; Nopharatana, A

    2006-10-01

    In order to increase methane production efficiency, leachate recirculation is applied in landfills to increase moisture content and circulate organic matter back into the landfill cell. In the case of tropical landfills, where high temperature and evaporation occurs, leachate recirculation may not be enough to maintain the moisture content, therefore supplemental water addition into the cell is an option that could help stabilize moisture levels as well as stimulate biological activity. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition on municipal solid waste decomposition and methane production in three anaerobic digestion reactors. Anaerobic digestion with leachate recirculation and supplemental water addition showed the highest performance in terms of cumulative methane production and the stabilization period time required. It produced an accumulated methane production of 54.87 l/kg dry weight of MSW at an average rate of 0.58 l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 180. The leachate recirculation reactor provided 17.04 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.14l/kg dry weight/d and reached the stabilization phase on day 290. The control reactor provided 9.02 l/kg dry weight at a rate of 0.10 l/kg dry weight/d, and reached the stabilization phase on day 270. Increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) after the waste had reached the stabilization phase made it possible to increase the methane content of the gas, the methane production rate, and the COD removal. Comparison of the reactors' efficiencies at maximum OLR (5 kgCOD/m(3)/d) in terms of the methane production rate showed that the reactor using leachate recirculation with supplemental water addition still gave the highest performance (1.56 l/kg dry weight/d), whereas the leachate recirculation reactor and the control reactor provided 0.69 l/kg dry weight/d and 0.43 l/kg dry weight/d, respectively. However, when considering

  3. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  4. Location of a landfill for hazardous waste in the Republic of Macedonia– planning and development

    OpenAIRE

    Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Panov, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    One of the basic problems in Macedonian industry is disposal of the hazardous waste from the mining industrial complexes. Choice of locations for deposition of the dangerous waste is priority for future development of Macedonian economy and it is a subject of many public hearing. Today we are witness daily debates, discussions, opinions of professional and political public, directly related to the location of future sites for the disposal of solid waste. This paper is an attempt to analyze th...

  5. Technical potential of electricity production from municipal solid waste disposed in the biggest cities in Brazil: landfill gas, biogas and thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Samuel Nm; Horttanainen, Mika; Antonelli, Jhonatas; Klaus, Otávia; Lindino, Cleber A; Nogueira, Carlos Ec

    2014-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of possibilities for electrical energy production by using municipal solid waste disposed in the biggest Brazilian cities. Currently, the municipal solid waste in Brazil is collected and disposed of at landfills, but there are also other technologies, which in addition to dealing with the garbage can also provide benefits in terms of energy provision. The following scenarios were studied in this work: electricity production from landfill gas (reference scenario); incineration of all municipal solid waste; anaerobic digestion of organic waste and incineration of refuse-derived fuel fractions after being separated in separation plants. According to this study, the biggest cities in Brazil generate about 18.9 million tonnes of municipal solid waste per year (2011), of which 51.5% is biogenic matter. The overall domestic consumption of electricity is 480,120 GWh y(-1) in Brazil and the municipal solid waste incineration in the 16 largest cities in the country could replace 1.8% of it using incinerators. The city of São Paulo could produce 637 GWh y(-1) with landfill gas, 2368 GWh y(-1) with incineration of municipal solid waste and 1177 GWh y(-1) with incineration of refuse-derived fuel. The latter two scenarios could replace 27% and 13.5% of the residential electrical energy consumption in the city. This shows that thermal treatment might be a viable option of waste-to-energy in Brazil. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Health risk assessment as an approach to manage an old landfill and to propose integrated solid waste treatment: A case study in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, O; Massabò, M

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill. Hazard Index (HI) and Cancer Risk (CR) in case of operating landfill and under the suspected situation of failure of the sealing system, were respectively 1.15 and 1.1∗10-7. Unacceptable HI were found due to groundwater contamination, while HI due to river pollution was slightly under the threshold. Vegetables ingestion was the most important pathway and ammonia the most responsible of toxic adverse effects. Fish ingestion and dermal contact with contaminated water were found to be the most important exposure pathways for carcinogenic risk, due mainly to BTEX. HI and CR in the supposed scenario of total waste gasification were respectively 9.4∗10-1 and 1.1∗10-5 while they were respectively 3.2∗10-1 and 6∗10-6 in case of gasification of the dry fraction. CR in both scenarios was over the threshold mainly due to dioxins, where milk and meat ingestion were found to be the highest risk pathways. Inhalation resulted as the highest not-carcinogenic risk exposure pathway, mainly due to NOx. Decision making was made by weighing up the different scenarios, and results

  7. Tracking quicksilver: estimation of mercury waste from consumer products and subsequent verification by analysis of soil, water, sediment, and plant samples from the Cebu City, Philippines, landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buagas, Dale Jo B; Megraso, Cristi Cesar F; Namata, John Darwin O; Lim, Patrick John Y; Gatus, Karen P; Cañete, Aloysius M L

    2015-03-01

    Source attribution of mercury (Hg) is critical for policy development to minimize the impact of Hg in wastes. Mercury content of consumer products and its subsequent release into the waste stream of Cebu City, Philippines, is estimated through surveys that employed validated, enumerator-administered questionnaires. Initially, a citywide survey (n = 1636) indicates that each household annually generates 1.07 ppm Hg (i.e., mg Hg/kg waste) and that linear and compact fluorescent lamps (17.2 %) and thermometers (52.1 %) are the major sources of Hg. A subsequent survey (n = 372) in the vicinity of the city's municipal solid waste landfill shows that residents in the area annually generate 0.38 ppm Hg per household, which is less than the citywide mean; surprisingly though, less affluent respondents living closer to the landfill site reported more Hg from thermometers and sphygmomanometers. Analysis of collected soil (0.238 ppm), leachate water (6.5 ppb), sediment (0.109 ppm), and three plants (0.393 to 0.695 ppm) shows no significant variation throughout five stations in and around the landfill site, although the period of collection is significant for soil (P = 0.001) and Cenchrus echinatus (P = 0.016). Detected Hg in the landfill is considerably less than the annual estimated release, indicating that there is minimal accumulation of Hg in the soil or in plants. As a result of this project, a policy brief has been provided to the Cebu City council in aid of hazardous waste legislation.

  8. 75 FR 53268 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...: Hsieh[email protected] Fax: (617) 918-0646, to the attention of Juiyu Hsieh Mail: Send written comments to Juiyu Hsieh, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR 07-1), EPA...: Deliver your comments to: Juiyu Hsieh, RCRA Waste Management Section, Office of Site Restoration and...

  9. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type. Such...

  10. Wetlands para tratamento de lixiviados de aterros sanitários: experiências no aterro sanitário de Piraí e no aterro metropolitano de Gramacho (RJ Landfill leachate treatment using wetlands: experiences in Piraí municipality solid waste landfill and Gramacho metropolitan solid waste landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ferreira Mannarino

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O Grupo de Resíduos Sólidos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Ambiental (PEAMB/UERJ vem realizando, há cinco anos, pesquisas utilizando wetlands construídos em tratamento de lixiviados de aterros sanitários. Esses sistemas promovem a absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas e facilitam a degradação de material orgânico por microrganismos do solo e aderidos às raízes. Experiências desenvolvidas no Aterro Sanitário de Piraí mostram remoções, em termos de concentração de poluentes, de 41% de DQO e 51% de nitrogênio amoniacal. Os resultados obtidos no Aterro Metropolitano de Gramacho apresentam redução, em termos de carga de poluição, de 86% de DQO e 89% de nitrogênio amoniacal. Os sistemas implantados mostram-se boas alternativas no tratamento de lixiviados, sobretudo em regiões de clima tropical, onde as elevadas temperaturas potencializam a evapotranspiração.The Group of Solid Waste of Environmental Engineering Program (PEAMB/UERJ has been conducting research using constructed wetlands in landfill leachate treatment in the last five years. These systems promote the absorption of nutrients by the vegetation and facilitate the degradation of organic material by microorganisms in the soil and the ones adhered to the roots. Experiments carried out in Piraí Municipality Landfill show removal of pollutants about 41% of COD and 51% of ammonium nitrogen. The results obtained in Gramacho's landfill, present a reduction of 86% of COD load and 89% of ammonium nitrogen load. Wetlands seens to be a good alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate, especially in regions of tropical climate, where high temperatures improve effects of evapotranspiration.

  11. Ground waters quality assessment near solid municipal wastes and hazardous landfills; Valutazione della qualita' delle acque profonde in prossimita' di impianti di discarica per rifiuti solidi urbani e per rifiuti pericolosi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellino, M.; Falleni, F.; Forte, T.; Musmeci, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses the impact on ground waters quality in relation to municipal and similar waste landfills and hazardous waste landfills, examined in three landfills of first category and one landfill of second category type C. Analytical results from sampling of ground and leaching waters are reported; from these results it can be deduced that environmental impact is minimum or non-existent, where law criteria for construction and management of landfills are respected. [Italian] Il rapporto esamina l'impatto sulla qualita' delle acque profonde dovuto agli impianti di discarica per rifiuti solidi urbani e assimilabili e per rifiuti pericolosi, rispettivamente di tre discariche controllate di prima categoria ed una di seconda di tipo C. Vengono riportate le risultanze analitiche relative ai campionamenti per la costruzione e gestione delle discariche. L'impatto ambientale e' minimo se non assente.

  12. Design and analysis of siloxanes removal by adsorption from landfill gas for waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Anthony C; Elsayed, Nada H; Kuhn, John N; Joseph, Babu

    2018-03-01

    Separation of volatile methyl siloxanes from landfill gas using fixed adsorption beds was modeled with the objective of identifying appropriate technology and the economics associated with this purification step. A general adsorption model assuming plug flow and radial symmetry was developed and used to conduct a parametric sweep of 162 unique cases. The varied parameters were adsorbent type (activated carbon and silica gel), bed height (3.05-9.15 m/10-30 ft), inlet siloxane concentration (5-15 mg/m 3 ), moisture content (0-100% relative humidity at STP or RH), and siloxane tolerance limit (0.094-9.4 mg/m 3 ) that correlated to three distinct energy conversion technologies (electricity production using engines or fuels cells or catalytic conversion to liquid hydrocarbon fuels). Due to the detrimental effect of RH on siloxane absorption, the maximum allowable moisture content of LFG before purification is 50% RH and moisture removal processes are also required. The design calculations using a selected case study show that the adsorption bed height required needed for 6 months minimum breakthrough time for catalytic fuel production is twice that for engine applications. Fuel cell applications require 3 times the bed height compared to engine applications. However, the purification costs amounted to 94%, 16% and 52% of recovered product value for engine, liquefaction, and fuel cell applications, respectively indicating the need for a high value product to justify purification costs. The approaches and conclusions can be extended to specific process conditions for landfill gas purification and to other processes that use biogas produced from waste as a feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Liquid-gas interactions observed from a large-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lan, Ji-Wu; Lin, Wei-An; Xu, Xiao-Bing; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-10-01

    The high food waste content (HFWC) MSW at a landfill has the characteristics of rapid hydrolysis process, large leachate production rate and fast gas generation. The liquid-gas interactions at HFWC-MSW landfills are prominent and complex, and still remain significant challenges. This paper focuses on the liquid-gas interactions of HFWC-MSW observed from a large-scale bioreactor landfill experiment (5m×5m×7.5m). Based on the connected and quantitative analyses on the experimental observations, the following findings were obtained: (1) The high leachate level observed at Chinese landfills was attributed to the combined contribution from the great quantity of self-released leachate, waste compression and gas entrapped underwater. The contribution from gas entrapped underwater was estimated to be 21-28% of the total leachate level. (2) The gas entrapped underwater resulted in a reduction of hydraulic conductivity, decreasing by one order with an increase in gas content from 13% to 21%. (3) The "breakthrough value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 11kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure. The increase of the breakthrough value was associated with the decrease of void porosity induced by surcharge loading. (4) The self-released leachate from HFWC-MSW was estimated to contribute to over 30% of the leachate production at landfills in Southern China. The drainage of leachate with a high organic loading in the rapid hydrolysis stage would lead to a loss of landfill gas (LFG) potential of 13%. Based on the above findings, an improved method considering the quantity of self-released leachate was proposed for the prediction of leachate production at HFWC-MSW landfills. In addition, a three-dimensional drainage system was proposed to drawdown the high leachate level and hence to improve the slope stability of a landfill, reduce the hydraulic head on a bottom liner and increase the collection efficiency for LFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. CCA-TREATED WOOD DISPOSED IN LANDFILLS AND LIFE-CYCLE TRADE-OFFS WITH WASTE-TO-ENERGY AND MSW LANDFILL DISPOSAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. In the U.S. CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills, however some of the wood is combu...

  15. A comparison of CH4, N2O and CO2 emissions from three different cover types in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, Mingsheng; Lin, Xiangyu; Xu, Ying; Ye, Xin; Kao, Chih Ming; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-04-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes are commonly used as a cover component in sanitary landfills, although only limited evaluations of its effect on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been completed. In this study, field GHG emission were investigated at the Dongbu landfill, using three different cover systems: HDPE covering; no covering, on the working face; and a novel material-Oreezyme Waste Cover (OWC) material as a trial material. Results showed that the HDPE membrane achieved a high CH4 retention, 99.8% (CH4 mean flux of 12 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) compared with the air-permeable OWC surface (CH4 mean flux of 5933 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) of the same landfill age. Fresh waste at the working face emitted a large fraction of N2O, with average fluxes of 10 mg N m(-2) h(-2), while N2O emissions were small at both the HDPE and the OWC sections. At the OWC section, CH4 emissions were elevated under high air temperatures but decreased as landfill age increased. N2O emissions from the working face had a significant negative correlation with air temperature, with peak values in winter. A massive presence of CO2 was observed at both the working face and the OWC sections. Most importantly, the annual GHG emissions were 4.9 Gg yr(-1) in CO2 equivalents for the landfill site, of which the OWC-covered section contributed the most CH4 (41.9%), while the working face contributed the most N2O (97.2%). HDPE membrane is therefore, a recommended cover material for GHG control. Monitoring of GHG emissions at three different cover types in a municipal solid waste landfill during a 1-year period showed that the working face was a hotspot of N2O, which should draw attention. High CH4 fluxes occurred on the permeable surface covering a 1- to 2-year-old landfill. In contrast, the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) membrane achieved high CH4 retention, and therefore is a recommended cover material for GHG control.

  16. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-L. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2–3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL, which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1 LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2 RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3 Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  17. Revegetation in abandoned quarries with landfill stabilized waste and gravels: water dynamics and plant growth - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-liang; Feng, Jing-jing; Rong, Li-ming; Zhao, Ting-ning

    2017-11-01

    Large amounts of quarry wastes are produced during quarrying. Though quarry wastes are commonly used in pavement construction and concrete production, in situ utilization during ecological restoration of abandoned quarries has the advantage of simplicity. In this paper, rock fragments 2-3 cm in size were mixed with landfill stabilized waste (LSW) in different proportions (LSW : gravel, RL), which was called LGM. The water content, runoff and plant growth under natural precipitation were monitored for 2 years using a runoff plot experiment. LGM with a low fraction of LSW was compacted to different degrees to achieve an appropriate porosity; water dynamics and plant growth of compacted LGM were studied in a field experiment. The results showed the following: (1) LGM can be used during restoration in abandoned quarries as growing material for plants. (2) RL had a significant effect on the infiltration and water-holding capacity of LGM and thus influenced the retention of precipitation, water condition and plant growth. LGM with RL ranging from 8:1 to 3:7 was suitable for plant growth, and the target species grew best when RL was 5:5. (3) Compaction significantly enhanced water content of LGM with a low RL of 2:8, but leaf water content of plants was lower or unchanged in the more compacted plots. Moderate compaction was beneficial to the survival and growth of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco and Medicago sativa L. were not significantly affected by compaction, and they grew better under a high degree of compaction, which was disadvantageous for the uppermost layer of vegetation.

  18. Bioenergy and bioproducts from municipal organic waste as alternative to landfilling: a comparative life cycle assessment with prospective application to Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla-Alvarado, Carlos; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ponce-Noyola, M Teresa

    2017-11-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a four-stage biorefinery concept, coined H-M-Z-S, that converts 1 t of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) into bioenergy and bioproducts was performed in order to determine whether it could be an alternative to common disposal of OFMSW in landfills in the Mexican reality. The OFMSW is first fermented for hydrogen production, then the fermentates are distributed 40 % to the methane production, 40 % to enzyme production, and 20 % to the saccharification stage. From hydrogen and methane, up to 267 MJ and 204 kWh of gross heat and electricity were produced. The biorefinery proved to be self-sustainable in terms of power (95 kWh net power), but it presented a deficit of energy for heating services (-155 MJ), which was partially alleviated by digesting the wastes from the bioproducts stages (-84 MJ). Compared to landfill, biorefinery showed lower environmental impacts in global warming (down to -128 kg CO 2 -eq), ozone layer depletion (2.96 × 10 -6  kg CFC 11 -eq), and photochemical oxidation potentials (0.011 kg C 2 H 4 -eq). The landfarming of the digestates increased significantly the eutrophication impacts, up to 20 % below the eutrophication from landfilling (1.425 kg PO 4 -eq). These results suggest that H-M-Z-S biorefinery could be an attractive alternative compared to conventional landfilling for the management of municipal solid wastes, although new alternatives and uses of co-products and wastes should be explored and tested. Moreover, the biorefinery system would benefit from the integration into the market chain of the bioproducts, i.e., enzymes and hydrolysates among others.

  19. A comparison of methods for the measurement of methane emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the purpose of evaluating their contribution to the greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Savanne, D.; Cassini, Philippe; Pokryszka, Zbigniew; Tauziède, Christian; Tregoures, A.; Berne, P.; Sabroux, J.C.; Cellier, P.; Laville, P.

    1995-01-01

    International audience; This study was funded and co-ordinated by the French Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (Ademe) in the framework of the French research programme on the evolution of the climate and the atmosphere, with the specific aim of estimating the contribution to the greenhouse effect due to methane emitted by municipal solid waste landfills.

  20. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  1. Health effects associated with the disposal of solid waste in landfills and incinerators in populations living in surrounding areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Bianco, Elvira; Forgione, Nunzia; Flammia, Incoronata; Gallo, Ciro; Pizzuti, Renato; Panico, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    Potential health hazards for the environment and people living nearby landfills and incinerators are claimed to be related to several methods of waste management. Independent systematic review of the scientific literature is a key procedure to support the lay public and policy makers to achieve informed decisions. The study design and potential biases of papers retrieved in this comprehensive literature search were analyzed. The most consistent result is that the risks of congenital anomalies and hospitalization due to respiratory disease are likely to be real nearby special waste landfills. From the very little information on exclusively urban waste depots it is reasonable to say that correct management of landfill does not increase the risk of these health effects. It is confirmed that historically incinerators are an important source of pollution and harm for the health of populations living nearby; however, changes in technology are producing more reassuring results. A moderate level of confidence is possible in limited areas of knowledge, implying the need to overcome the limitations of current studies about exposure assessment and to control confounders at the individual level.

  2. Experimental and life cycle assessment analysis of gas emission from mechanically–biologically pretreated waste in a landfill with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Sordi, Alessio; Micale, Caterina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Bio-methane landfill emissions from different period (0, 4, 8, 16 weeks) MTB waste have been evaluated. • Electrical energy recoverable from landfill gas ranges from 11 to about 90 kW h/tonne. • Correlation between oxygen uptake, energy recovery and anaerobic gas production shows R{sup 2} ranging from 0.78 to 0.98. • LCA demonstrate that global impact related to gaseous emissions achieve minimum for 4 week of MBT. - Abstract: The global gaseous emissions produced by landfilling the Mechanically Sorted Organic Fraction (MSOF) with different weeks of Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) was evaluated for an existing waste management system. One MBT facility and a landfill with internal combustion engines fuelled by the landfill gas for electrical energy production operate in the waste management system considered. An experimental apparatus was used to simulate 0, 4, 8 and 16 weeks of aerobic stabilization and the consequent biogas potential (Nl/kg) of a large sample of MSOF withdrawn from the full-scale MBT. Stabilization achieved by the waste was evaluated by dynamic oxygen uptake and fermentation tests. Good correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}), ranging from 0.7668 to 0.9772, were found between oxygen uptake, fermentation and anaerobic test values. On the basis of the results of several anaerobic tests, the methane production rate k (year{sup −1}) was evaluated. k ranged from 0.436 to 0.308 year{sup −1} and the bio-methane potential from 37 to 12 N m{sup 3}/tonne, respectively, for the MSOF with 0 and 16 weeks of treatment. Energy recovery from landfill gas ranged from about 11 to 90 kW h per tonne of disposed MSOF depending on the different scenario investigated. Life cycle analysis showed that the scenario with 0 weeks of pre-treatment has the highest weighted global impact even if opposite results were obtained with respect to the single impact criteria. MSOF pre-treatment periods longer than 4 weeks showed rather negligible variation

  3. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  4. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use...

  5. Modelling gas generation for landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakma, Sumedha; Mathur, Shashi

    2017-06-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the optimum long-term spatial and temporal generation of landfill gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide on post-closure landfill. The model incorporated the chemical and the biochemical processes responsible for the degradation of the municipal solid waste. The developed model also takes into account the effects of heterogeneity with different layers as observed at the site of landfills' morphology. The important parameters for gas generation due to biodegradation such as temperature, pH, and moisture content were incorporated. The maximum and the minimum generations of methane and hydrogen sulphide were observed. The rate of gas generation was found almost same throughout the depth after 30 years of landfill closure. The proposed model would be very useful for landfill engineering in the mining landfill gas and proper design for landfill gas management systems.

  6. Effect on heavy metals concentration from vermiconversion of agro-waste mixed with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Abu Bakar; Choy, May Yee; Noor, Zalina Mahmood; Noorlidah, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost mixed with livestock excreta, i.e. cow dung or goat manure, was contaminated with landfill leachate and vermiremediated in 75 days. Results showed an extreme decrease of heavy metals, i.e. Cd, Cr and Pb up to 99.81% removal as effect of vermiconversion process employing epigeic earthworms i.e. Lumbricus rubellus. In addition, there were increments of Cu and Zn from 15.01% to 85.63%, which was expected as non-accumulative in L. rubellus and secreted out as contained in vermicompost. This phenomenon is due to dual effects of heavy metal excretion period and mineralisation. Nonetheless, the increments were 50-fold below the limit set by EU and USA compost limits and the Malaysian Recommended Site Screening Levels for Contaminated Land (SSLs). Moreover, the vermicompost C:N ratio range is 20.65-22.93 and it can be an advantageous tool to revitalise insalubrious soil by acting as soil stabiliser or conditioner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeted modification of organic components of municipal solid waste by short-term pre-aeration and its enhancement on anaerobic degradation in simulated landfill bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhe; Liu, Jianguo; Girotto, Francesca; Cossu, Raffaello; Qi, Guangxia

    2016-09-01

    Pre-aeration is effective on regulating subsequent anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) with high organic fractions during landfilling. The strength of pre-aeration should be optimized to intentionally remove some easily biodegradable fractions while conserve bio-methane potential as much as possible. This study investigates the evolution of organic components in MSW during 2-14days pre-aeration process and its impacts on subsequent anaerobic degradation in simulated landfill bioreactors. Results showed that a 6-day pre-aeration enabled to develop a thermophilic stage, which significantly accelerated biodegradation of organics except lignocelluloses, with removal rates of 42.8%, 76.7% and 25.1% for proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, respectively. Particularly, ammonia from accelerated ammonification in the thermophilic stage neutralized VFAs generated from anaerobic landfilling. As a result, the MSW with 6-day pre-aeration obtained the highest methane yield 123.4NL/kg dry matter. Therefore, it is recommended to interrupt pre-aeration before its cooling stage to switch to anaerobic landfilling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design for Deconstruction (DfD): Critical success factors for diverting end-of-life waste from landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinade, Olugbenga O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Ajayi, Saheed O; Bilal, Muhammad; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A; Bello, Sururah A; Jaiyeoba, Babatunde E; Kadiri, Kabir O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify Critical Success Factors (CSF) needed for effective material recovery through Design for Deconstruction (DfD). The research approach employed in this paper is based on a sequential exploratory mixed method strategy. After a thorough review of literature and conducting four Focus Group Discussion (FGDs), 43 DfD factors were identified and put together in a questionnaire survey. Data analyses include Cronbach's alpha reliability analysis, mean testing using significance index, and exploratory factor analysis. The result of the factor analysis reveals that an underlying factor structure of five DfD factors groups that include 'stringent legislation and policy', 'deconstruction design process and competencies', 'design for material recovery', 'design for material reuse', and 'design for building flexibility'. These groups of DfD factor groups show that the requirements for DfD goes beyond technical competencies and that non-technical factors such as stringent legislation and policy and design process and competency for deconstruction are key in designing deconstructable buildings. Paying attention to the factors identified in all of these categories will help to tackle impediments that could hinder the effectiveness of DfD. The results of this study would help design and project managers to understand areas of possible improvement in employing DfD as a strategy for diverting waste from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable Practices for Landfill Design and Operation (Part of book series Waste Management Principles and Practice)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries throughout the world has changed significantly over the past fifty years, with a shift from uncontrolled dumping or burning to complex systems that integrate multiple processes to recover materials or energy and prov...

  10. 78 FR 5288 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ....regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Email: hsieh[email protected] . Fax: (617) 918-0646, to the attention of Juiyu Hsieh. Mail: Juiyu Hsieh, RCRA Waste Management and UST... Square, Suite 100, Boston, MA 02109-3912. Hand Delivery or Courier: Deliver your comments to Juiyu Hsieh...

  11. 78 FR 5350 - Adequacy of Massachusetts Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ...: www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Email: Hsieh[email protected] . Fax: (617) 918-0646, to the attention of Juiyu Hsieh. ] Mail: Send written comments to Juiyu Hsieh, RCRA Waste Management and UST Section, Office of Site Remediation and Restoration (OSRR07-1), EPA...

  12. 75 FR 53220 - Adequacy of New Hampshire Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ....regulations.gov : Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: hsieh[email protected] . Fax: (617) 918-0646, to the attention of Juiyu Hsieh. Mail: Juiyu Hsieh, RCRA Waste Management Section..., Suite 100, Boston, MA 02109-3912. Hand Delivery or Courier: Deliver your comments to Juiyu Hsieh, RCRA...

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills and Wood Pallets - What's Happening in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Robert J. Bush; Vijay S. Reddy

    1997-01-01

    This article on pallet disposal and Municipal Solid Waste sites includes material presented by Dr. Bush at the recent NWPCA Recycling Meeting. This is the first in a two-part series; the second discusses pallet disposal in construction and demolition sites.

  14. 78 FR 20035 - Adequacy of Oregon Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Permit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Administrative practice and procedure, Intergovernmental relations, Waste treatment and disposal. 40 CFR Part 258... comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at... is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic...

  15. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  16. Sandia microelectronics development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, H.T.

    1997-02-01

    An overview of the operations of Sandia`s Microelectronics Development Lab (MDL) is to develop radiation hardened IC, but techniques used for IC processing have been applied to a variety of related technologies such as micromechanics, smart sensors, and packaging.

  17. Waste and resources management. Ordinance on Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from Human Settlements and on Biological Waste Treatment Facilities (Landfill Ordinance - AbfAblV) - one year on; Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. 1 Jahr Abfallablagerungsverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R.; Bidlingmaier, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    As early as the beginning of 2005 there were signs of trouble ahead resulting from the new Landfill Ordinance - it was only the extent of the trouble that was somewhat underestimated. Suddenly and unexpected to everyone, the industrial wastes that were supposed to have been avoided or reutilised were there again. These ''returned wastes'', in most cases arisings that were not taken into account during plant design, are currently causing serious capacity problems both in waste incineration and in mechanical biological waste treatment plants. In not a few cases the originally planned supply rates are being exceeded by up to 35%, with dramatic consequences. Another source of problems is the lack of utilisation capacities for high-caloric waste fractions, especially for those from mechanical biological waste treatment. The underlying causes are manifold, ranging from market misjudgment, insufficient fuel processing capacities to supposed or factual quality problems with the generated secondary fuel. The only remedial option available at present - at least from the legal viewpoint - is interim storage. The changed framework conditions for biowaste and green waste utilisation brought about by the Renewable Energy Law offers new interesting perspectives. Numerous unresolved questions and quite as many solution proposals provide reason enough for making residual waste treatment and biowaste utilisation one of the focal topics of the congress. Many EU countries, but also developing and threshold countries, are on the verge of making decisions on waste utilisation and treatment. The experiences, positive and negative, that have been gained to date in Germany with the full-area implementation of residual waste treatment can serve these countries as a valuable guide. Another focal topic of the congress is climate and resource protection.

  18. Choosing locations of landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Špacapan, Matjaž

    2008-01-01

    In my Graduation thesis we deal with the problem of choosing the most appropriate location of landfills and the criteria used in this process. The problem of waste management is one of the most critical areas of environmental protection in Slovenia. In these matters, the existing legislation and law directives in the Republic of Slovenia are followed. After this we have to pay attention to the composition of the waste and the technologies of waste management. Before we place a new facility fo...

  19. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Leachate Treatment by Fenton, Photo-Fenton and Fenton-Like Processes: Effect of some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bagheri Ardebilian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oxidation processes like Fenton and photo-Fenton have been effectively applied to oxidize the persistent organic compounds in solid waste leachate and convert them to unharmful materials and products. However, there are limited data about application of Fenton-like process in leachate treatment. Therefore, this study was designed with the objective of treating municipal landfill leachate by Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes to determine the effect of different variables, by setting up a pilot system. The used leachate was collected from a municipal unsanitary landfill in Qaem-Shahr in the north of Iran. Fenton and Fenton-like processes were conducted by Jar-test method. Photo-Fenton process was performed in a glass photo-reactor. In all processes, H2O2 was usedas the oxidant. FeSO4.7H2O and FeCl3.6H2O were used as reagents. All parameters were measured based on standard methods. The results showed that the optimum concentration of H2O2 was equal to 5 g/L for the Fenton-like process and 3 g/L for the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The optimum ratio of H2O2: Fe+2/Fe+3 were equal to 8:1 in all processes. At optimum conditions, the amount of COD removal was 69.6%, 65.9% and 83.2% in Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes, respectively. In addition, optimum pH were 3, 5 and 3and the optimum contact time were 150, 90 and 120 minutes, for Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes, respectively. After all processes, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio of the treated leachate was increased compared to that of the raw leachate and the highest increase in BOD5/COD ratio was observed in the photo-Fenton process. The efficiency of the Fenton-like process was overally less than Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, meanwhile the Fenton-like process was at higher pH and did not show problems.

  20. Municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment by fenton, photo-fenton and fenton-like processes: Effect of some variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Eslami, Akbar; Ardebilian, Maryam Bagheri

    2012-08-02

    Advanced oxidation processes like Fenton and photo-Fenton have been effectively applied to oxidize the persistent organic compounds in solid waste leachate and convert them to unharmful materials and products. However, there are limited data about application of Fenton-like process in leachate treatment. Therefore, this study was designed with the objective of treating municipal landfill leachate by Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton processes to determine the effect of different variables, by setting up a pilot system. The used leachate was collected from a municipal unsanitary landfill in Qaem-Shahr in the north of Iran. Fenton and Fenton-like processes were conducted by Jar-test method. Photo-Fenton process was performed in a glass photo-reactor. In all processes, H2O2 was used as the oxidant. FeSO4.7H2O and FeCl3.6H2O were used as reagents. All parameters were measured based on standard methods. The results showed that the optimum concentration of H2O2 was equal to 5 g/L for the Fenton-like process and 3 g/L for the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The optimum ratio of H2O2: Fe+2/Fe+3 were equal to 8:1 in all processes. At optimum conditions, the amount of COD removal was 69.6%, 65.9% and 83.2% in Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. In addition, optimum pH were 3, 5 and 3 and the optimum contact time were 150, 90 and 120 minutes, for Fenton, Fenton-like and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. After all processes, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio) of the treated leachate was increased compared to that of the raw leachate and the highest increase in BOD5/COD ratio was observed in the photo-Fenton process. The efficiency of the Fenton-like process was overally less than Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, meanwhile the Fenton-like process was at higher pH and did not show problems.

  1. Municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment by fenton, photo-fenton and fenton-like processes: Effect of some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zazouli Mohammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced oxidation processes like Fenton and photo-Fenton have been effectively applied to oxidize the persistent organic compounds in solid waste leachate and convert them to unharmful materials and products. However, there are limited data about application of Fenton-like process in leachate treatment. Therefore, this study was designed with the objective of treating municipal landfill leachate by Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes to determine the effect of different variables, by setting up a pilot system. The used leachate was collected from a municipal unsanitary landfill in Qaem-Shahr in the north of Iran. Fenton and Fenton-like processes were conducted by Jar-test method. Photo-Fenton process was performed in a glass photo-reactor. In all processes, H2O2 was used as the oxidant. FeSO4.7H2O and FeCl3.6H2O were used as reagents. All parameters were measured based on standard methods. The results showed that the optimum concentration of H2O2 was equal to 5 g/L for the Fenton-like process and 3 g/L for the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes. The optimum ratio of H2O2: Fe+2/Fe+3 were equal to 8:1 in all processes. At optimum conditions, the amount of COD removal was 69.6%, 65.9% and 83.2% in Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes, respectively. In addition, optimum pH were 3, 5 and 3 and the optimum contact time were 150, 90 and 120 minutes, for Fenton, Fenton-like and photo–Fenton processes, respectively. After all processes, the biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratio of the treated leachate was increased compared to that of the raw leachate and the highest increase in BOD5/COD ratio was observed in the photo-Fenton process. The efficiency of the Fenton-like process was overally less than Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, meanwhile the Fenton-like process was at higher pH and did not show problems.

  2. Removal of ammonia nitrogen from leachate of Muribeca municipal solid waste landfill, Pernambuco, Brazil, using natural zeolite as part of a biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Cecilia Maria M S; Alves, Maria Cristina M; Campos, Juacyara C; Silva, Fabrícia Maria S; Jucá, José Fernando T; Lins, Eduardo Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of leachate is one of the key factors in the environmental impact of urban solid waste landfills in Brazil. Among the compounds present in the leachates from Brazilian landfills, ammonia nitrogen is notable for its high concentrations. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of a permeable reactive barrier filled with a natural zeolite, which is part of a biochemical system for the tertiary treatment of the leachate from Muribeca Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Pernambuco, Brazil, to reduce its ammonia nitrogen concentration. This investigation initially consisted of kinetic studies and batch equilibrium tests on the natural zeolite to construct the sorption isotherms, which showed a high sorption capacity, with an average of 12.4 mg NH4+.L(-1), a value close to the sorption rates found for the aqueous ammonium chloride solution. A permeable reactive barrier consisting of natural zeolite, as simulated by the column test, was efficient in removing the ammonia nitrogen present in the leachate pretreated with calcium hydroxide. Nevertheless, the regenerated zeolite did not satisfactorily maintain the sorption properties of the natural zeolite, and an analysis of their cation-exchange properties showed a reduced capacity of 54 meq per 100 g for the regenerated zeolite compared to 150 meq per 100 g for the natural zeolite.

  3. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  4. Estimation of product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills for the inventory phase in LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an environmental management tool used to examine and evaluate the environmental impactsassociated with the existence of products. The focus of LCA is on the entire life cycle of the product, i.e. from the extraction of theraw materials through the production...... of materials and components and the manufacture, transportation and use of the product to thefinal disposal and possible recycling of the product. Although LCA has developed significantly during recent years, product specific emissions from disposed waste have only got minorattention in the literature leaving...... for the model are e.g. distribution of the wasteproduct in different countries, composition of the product and physical/chemical/biological properties of waste product components.Output data of the model are product specific estimates of 1) emissions to atmosphere 2) emissions to aquatic recipients 3) remainsin...

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Thermal Treatment Technologies. An environmental and financial systems analysis of gasification, incineration and landfilling of waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Technology

    2003-05-01

    A technology which is currently developed by researchers at KTH is catalytic combustion. which is one component of a gasification system. Instead of performing the combustion in the gas turbine by a flame, a catalyst is used. When the development of a new technology (as catalytic combustion) reaches a certain step where it is possible to quantify material-, energy- and capital flows, the prerequisites for performing a systems analysis is at hand. The systems analysis can be used to expand the know-how about the potential advantages of the catalytic combustion technology by highlighting its function as a component of a larger system. In this way it may be possible to point out weak points which have to be investigated more, but also strong points to emphasise the importance of further development. The aim of this project was to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts and economic costs of thermal treatment technologies in general and catalytic combustion in particular. By using a holistic assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of catalytic combustion of waste it was possible to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the technology under different conditions. Following different treatment scenarios have been studied: (1) Gasification with catalytic combustion, (2) Gasification with flame combustion, (3) Incineration with energy recovery and (4) Landfilling with gas collection. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion. of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios is supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced. from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied were classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment into the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical

  6. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  7. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  8. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...

  9. Sandia QIS Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad set of capabilities in quantum information science (QIS), including elements of quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. The Sandia QIS program is built atop unique DOE investments at the laboratories, including the MESA microelectronics fabrication facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) facilities (joint with LANL), the Ion Beam Laboratory, and ASC High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Sandia has invested $75 M of LDRD funding over 12 years to develop unique, differentiating capabilities that leverage these DOE infrastructure investments.

  10. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  11. Perspectives on technology for landfill leachate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Peng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Landfills are designed to dispose high quantities of waste at economical costs with potentially less environmental effects; however, improper landfill management may pose serious environmental threats through discharge of high strength polluted wastewater also known as leachate. This paper focused on achievements on landfill leachate treatment by different technology, which contains biological treatment and membrane technology. Finally, development and prospect of landfill leachate treatment were predicted.

  12. Landfill Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill methane (CH4) accounts for approximately 1.3% (0.6 Gt) of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions relative to total emissions from all sectors of about 49 Gt CO2-eq yr-1. For countries with a history of controlled landfilling, landfills can be one of the larger national sources of ant...

  13. Asbestos Utilization Costs on the Example of Functioning Landfill of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Daria

    2017-12-01

    Asbestos is a trademark of mineral fibres, which are the natural minerals found in nature. Products containing asbestos fibres, in accordance with the national and EU legislation, are covered by the production prohibition and forced to be removed. In Poland, the asbestos removal process started with the adaptation of the EU law by the Council of Ministers Treatment Program of the National Asbestos for the years 2009-2032. The purpose of the dissertation was to analyse the costs associated with the disposal of the costs of collection, transport and disposal of waste. Methodology consisted in obtaining information on the raw materials needed to produce asbestos sheets. The analysis allowed us to determine the asbestos removal cost and include state subsidies in the calculations.

  14. Ecological modeling of pollutants in accidental fire at the landfill waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanov Sonja B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents tyre as flammable material and some examples of tyre fires in the world. Uncontrolled tyre fires produce a lot of smoke and air pollutants, including benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Great heat leads to the generation of pyrolytic oil which, when mixed with the fire extinguishing agent, contaminates the surrounding soil, surface water and underground water. Paper analyzes and presents in particular the emission factors of incomplete burning of waste car tyres. Metal dust emissions have been presented, volatile organic compund (VOC emissions, slightly volatile organic compound (SVOC emissions and emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Evaluation of the effect on the air quality has been graphically presented by modelling of uncotrolled tyre burning by using EPA "SCREEN 3 MODEL".

  15. Hydraulic conductivity study of compacted clay soils used as landfill liners for an acidic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Noureddine; Srasra, Ezzeddine

    2013-01-01

    Three natural clayey soils from Tunisia were studied to assess their suitability for use as a liner for an acid waste disposal site. An investigation of the effect of the mineral composition and mechanical compaction on the hydraulic conductivity and fluoride and phosphate removal of three different soils is presented. The hydraulic conductivity of these three natural soils are 8.5 × 10(-10), 2.08 × 10(-9) and 6.8 × 10(-10)m/s for soil-1, soil-2 and soil-3, respectively. Soil specimens were compacted under various compaction strains in order to obtain three wet densities (1850, 1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)). In this condition, the hydraulic conductivity (k) was reduced with increasing density of sample for all soils. The test results of hydraulic conductivity at long-term (>200 days) using acidic waste solution (pH=2.7, charged with fluoride and phosphate ions) shows a decrease in k with time only for natural soil-1 and soil-2. However, the specimens of soil-2 compressed to the two highest densities (1950 and 2050 kg/m(3)) are cracked after 60 and 20 days, respectively, of hydraulic conductivity testing. This damage is the result of a continued increase in the internal stress due to the swelling and to the effect of aggressive wastewater. The analysis of anions shows that the retention of fluoride is higher compared to phosphate and soil-1 has the highest sorption capacity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sandia energy titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.L. (ed.)

    1978-08-01

    The bibliography of energy-related publications produced by Sandia authors is arranged in broad subject category order. Subjects included are conservation, drilling technology, energy (general), environment and safety, fossil energy, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, and solar energy.

  17. Validation of an in situ solidification/stabilization technique for hazardous barium and cyanide waste for safe disposal into a secured landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rucha; Kodam, Kisan; Ghole, Vikram; Surya Mohan Rao, K

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to devise and validate an appropriate treatment process for disposal of hazardous barium and cyanide waste into a landfill at a Common Hazardous Waste Treatment Storage Disposal Facility (CHWTSDF). The waste was generated during the process of hardening of steel components and contains cyanide (reactive) and barium (toxic) as major contaminants. In the present study chemical fixation of the contaminants was carried out. The cyanide was treated by alkali chlorination with calcium hypochlorite and barium by precipitation with sodium sulfate as barium sulfate. The pretreated mixture was then solidified and stabilized by binding with a combination of slag cement, ordinary Portland cement and fly ash, molded into blocks (5 x 5 x 5 cm) and cured for a period of 3, 7 and 28 days. The final experiments were conducted with 18 recipe mixtures of waste + additive:binder (W:B) ratios. The W:B ratios were taken as 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50. The optimum proportions of additives and binders were finalized on the basis of the criteria of unconfined compressive strength and leachability. The leachability studies were conducted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. The blocks were analyzed for various physical and leachable chemical parameters at the end of each curing period. Based on the results of the analysis, two recipe mixtures, with compositions - 50% of [waste + (120 g Ca(OCl)(2) + 290 g Na(2)SO(4)) kg(-1) of waste] + 50% of binders, were validated for in situ stabilization into a secured landfill of CHWTSDF. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of an alternative fuel by the co-pyrolysis of landfill recovered plastic wastes and used lubrication oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Sacha; Mekhitarian, Loucine; Rimez, Bart; Haut, B

    2017-02-01

    This work is a preliminary study for the development of a co-pyrolysis process of plastic wastes excavated from a landfill and used lubrication oils, with the aim to produce an alternative liquid fuel for industrial use. First, thermogravimetric experiments were carried out with pure plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP and PS) and oils (a motor oil and a mixture of used lubrication oils) in order to highlight the interactions occurring between a plastic and an oil during their co-pyrolysis. It appears that the main decomposition event of each component takes place at higher temperatures when the components are mixed than when they are alone, possibly because the two components stabilize each other during their co-pyrolysis. These interactions depend on the nature of the plastic and the oil. In addition, co-pyrolysis experiments were led in a lab-scale reactor using a mixture of excavated plastic wastes and used lubrication oils. On the one hand, the influence of some key operating parameters on the outcome of the process was analyzed. It was possible to produce an alternative fuel for industrial use whose viscosity is lower than 1Pas at 90°C, from a plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction between 40% and 60%, by proceeding at a maximum temperature included in the range 350-400°C. On the other hand, the amount of energy required to successfully co-pyrolyze, in lab conditions, 1kg of plastic/oil mixture with an initial plastic mass fraction of 60% was estimated at about 8MJ. That amount of energy is largely used for the thermal cracking of the molecules. It is also shown that, per kg of mixture introduced in the lab reactor, 29MJ can be recovered from the combustion of the liquid resulting from the co-pyrolysis. Hence, this co-pyrolysis process could be economically viable, provided heat losses are addressed carefully when designing an industrial reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sandia Strategic Plan 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Sandia embarked on its first exercise in corporate strategic planning during the winter of 1989. The results of that effort were disseminated with the publication of Strategic Plan 1990. Four years later Sandia conducted their second major planning effort and published Strategic Plan 1994. Sandia`s 1994 planning effort linked very clearly to the Department of Energy`s first strategic plan, Fueling a Competitive Economy. It benefited as well from the leadership of Lockheed Martin Corporation, the management and operating contractor. Lockheed Martin`s corporate success is founded on visionary strategic planning and annual operational planning driven by customer requirements and technology opportunities. In 1996 Sandia conducted another major planning effort that resulted in the development of eight long-term Strategic Objectives. Strategic Plan 1997 differs from its predecessors in that the robust elements of previous efforts have been integrated into one comprehensive body. The changes implemented so far have helped establish a living strategic plan with a stronger business focus and with clear deployment throughout Sandia. The concept of a personal line of sight for all employees to this strategic plan and its objectives, goals, and annual milestones is becoming a reality.

  20. Laboratory tests of bentonite stabilization of bottom sediments from a dam reservoir in relation to their usage in municipal solid waste landfill liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Koś

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical parameters of bottom sediments from a dam reservoir (Rzeszowski Reservoir, Poland with bentonite addition are presented in the paper. Tests were carried out in the aspect of the possible usage of sediments as a material for soil liners in Municipal Solid Waste Landfill. Mentioned sediments did not fulfilled the permeability and plasticity criteria defined for soils that can be used in liners. The bentonite addition caused, among other things, a decrease in permeability coefficient and increase in plasticity index. Based on the carried out tests it was stated that sediments with 6% addition of bentonite fulfil all requirements and can be used for liners in MSWL.

  1. Comparison Of Four Landfill Gas Models Using Data From Four Danish Landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob G.; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Data about type and quantity of waste disposed in four Danish landfills was collected and used on four different landfill gas generation models. This was done to compare the output data in order to evaluate the performance of the four landfill gas models when used on Danish waste types......, and to compare the four Danish landfill sites. The results show that three of the models generally give similar methane generation output. Only the LandGem model seems to give a much higher methane generation for Danish waste data, most likely due to a low organic fraction. Interpretation of the waste data...

  2. Best Practices for Siting Solar Photovoltaics on Municipal Solid Waste Landfills. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Mosey, G.; Jones-Johnson, S.; Dufficy, C.; Bourg, J.; Conroy, A.; Keenan, M.; Michaud, W.; Brown, K.

    2013-04-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed this best practices document to address common technical challenges for siting solar photovoltaics (PV) on municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The purpose of this document is to promote the use of MSW landfills for solar energy systems. Closed landfills and portions of active landfills with closed cells represent thousands of acres of property that may be suitable for siting solar photovoltaics (PV). These closed landfills may be suitable for near-term construction, making these sites strong candidate to take advantage of the 30% Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit. It was prepared in response to the increasing interest in siting renewable energy on landfills from solar developers; landfill owners; and federal, state, and local governments. It contains examples of solar PV projects on landfills and technical considerations and best practices that were gathered from examining the implementation of several of these projects.

  3. Assessment of water quality of Sembilang River receiving effluent from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ibrahim, T. N. B.; Othman, F.; Mahmood, N. Z.

    2017-06-01

    Most of the landfills in Malaysia are situated near to the main river basin that supplies almost 90% of water requirement. This includes landfills in Selangor where a total of 20 landfill sites are situated in 5 main river basins and the highest number of operating landfills (three) are at the Selangor River Basin (Jeram, Bukit Tagar and Kuang Inert landfills). This situation has caused wide concern over the water safety, even the leachate has been treated. The leachate itself still contains contaminants that are difficult to treat. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect on water quality of Sembilang River that receives effluent from the nearby landfill. In this study, we analyzed samples of water from ten sampling stations starting from the upstream to downstream of Sembilang River. The water quality was evaluated by the Water Quality Index (WQI) depending on in-situ and laboratory analysis. 11 water quality variables are selected for the quality assessment; temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate and nitrate. The result indicated that, when the effluent mixed with the river water, the water quality decreased gradually and was found to be lower at a few stations. The water quality of Sembilang River falls under Class III of Water Quality Index with ranges between 68.03 to 43.46 mg/L. It is revealed that the present scenario of water quality of Sembilang River is due to the effect of effluent from the landfill.

  4. Instrumental research method of qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshina, S. I.; Galeeva, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    The article analyzes the practice of waste management in Russia. The system of target indicators of the efficient landfills functioning is formalized. The method of instrumental analysis of concentration and qualitative composition of landfill gas in the surface layer of the Samosyrovo landfill is presented.

  5. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Heijo

    2014-11-01

    Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the continued operation of a 'safety net' in waste management. Regulations have created a financial incentive to pass on the burden of monitoring and controlling the impact of waste to future generations. To prevent this, it is necessary to revise regulations on aftercare and create incentives to actively stabilise landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharff, Heijo, E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  7. Leachate from Municipal Waste Landfill and Its Natural Degradation—A Case Study of Zubří, Zlín Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Václavík

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the natural degradation of leachate from an old reclaimed landfill by means of a biological pond. Hamra is a municipal waste landfill with a limited formation of leachate, which has already been reclaimed. Leachate in this location is disposed of using natural biogeochemical method, and it is subsequently discharged into a surface stream. The main issue dealt with here is the long-term effectiveness of natural degradation of leachate and the limits of its use. The solutions of these fundamental questions took advantage of a database of analytical assessments collected during a long-term monitoring of the landfill site. The primary degradation trends and the long-term development have been revealed and described on the basis of these assessments. The main benefit of the biological pond is the dilution of the dominant contaminants, especially of inorganic character. In the case of ammonium ions, they show nitrification caused by their transition from the reduction into oxidizing environment. From a long term point of view, the disadvantage of natural degradation of leachate can be seen in the gradual reduction in efficiency due to the concentration of the substances or an undesired growth of water plants, which can be successfully eliminated, for example, by means of targeted aeration and by maintaining vegetation in the pond and its surroundings. The biological potential of the locality is very favorable and, despite its anthropogenic load, it creates a location with suitable living conditions for many water animals and plants. That is why it can be concluded that the efficiency of the natural biochemical cleaning elements can be considered as sufficient, taking into account the nature of the deposited waste, the quantity and quality of leachate, as well as the climate character of the locality.

  8. EMISSION ASSESSMENT AT THE ŠTĚPÁNOVICE MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL FOCUSING ON CH4 EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Adamcová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to measure the emission from landfill in the years 2005–2011. The results are used to diagnose the emissions of CH4. The mean value of CH4 in vol. % in the collection wells ranged from 0 to 2.14 vol. % the mean concentration of CH4 in mg/m3 ranged from 0 to 25 251 mg/m3 the average concentration of CH4 in mg/Nm3 at the measuring and control points ranged from 2.2 to 24.1 mg/Nm3. CH4 emissions from the landfill do not exceed the reporting thresholds the landfill does not meet conditions for being included in the Integrated Register of Pollutants.

  9. Understanding leachate flow in municipal solid waste landfills by combining time-lapse ERT and subsurface flow modelling - Part II: Constraint methodology of hydrodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, M; Oxarango, L; Duquennoi, C; Touze-Foltz, N; Forquet, N; Clément, R

    2016-09-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal solid waste landfills as bioreactors. To ensure optimal water content distribution, bioreactor operators need tools to design leachate injection systems. Prediction of leachate flow by subsurface flow modelling could provide useful information for the design of such systems. However, hydrodynamic models require additional data to constrain them and to assess hydrodynamic parameters. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a suitable method to study leachate infiltration at the landfill scale. It can provide spatially distributed information which is useful for constraining hydrodynamic models. However, this geophysical method does not allow ERT users to directly measure water content in waste. The MICS (multiple inversions and clustering strategy) methodology was proposed to delineate the infiltration area precisely during time-lapse ERT survey in order to avoid the use of empirical petrophysical relationships, which are not adapted to a heterogeneous medium such as waste. The infiltration shapes and hydrodynamic information extracted with MICS were used to constrain hydrodynamic models in assessing parameters. The constraint methodology developed in this paper was tested on two hydrodynamic models: an equilibrium model where, flow within the waste medium is estimated using a single continuum approach and a non-equilibrium model where flow is estimated using a dual continuum approach. The latter represents leachate flows into fractures. Finally, this methodology provides insight to identify the advantages and limitations of hydrodynamic models. Furthermore, we suggest an explanation for the large volume detected by MICS when a small volume of leachate is injected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  11. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Annual report FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.; Heiser, J.H.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of the project was to develop, demonstrate and implement advanced grouting materials for the in-situ installation of impermeable, durable subsurface barriers and caps around waste sites and for the in-situ stabilization of contaminated soils. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste (CWL) and Mixed Waste Landfills (MWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). This report documents this project, which was conducted in two subtasks. These were (1) Capping and Barrier Grouts, and (2) In-situ Stabilization of Contaminated Soils. Subtask 1 examined materials and placement methods for in-situ containment of contaminated sites by subsurface barriers and surface caps. In Subtask 2 materials and techniques were evaluated for in-situ chemical stabilization of chromium in soil.

  13. Assessment of DNA Damage by RAPD in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos Exposed to Amniotic Fluid from Residents Living Close to Waste Landfill Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Guida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of environmental chemicals on residents living near landfills. The study was based on samples of amniotic fluid from women living in the intensely polluted areas around the Campania region of Italy compared to a nonexposed control group. We evaluated the genetic effects that this amniotic fluids collected in contaminated sites had on Paracentrotus lividus embryos. DNA damage was detected through changes in RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA profiles. The absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicated deletions in Paracentrotus lividus DNA exposed to the contaminated amniotic fluids when compared to equal exposure to uncontaminated fluids. These results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate DNA sequences representing genetic alterations induced in P. lividus embryos. Using this method, we identified two candidate target regions for DNA alterations in the genome of P. lividus. Our research indicates that RAPD-PCR in P. lividus embryo DNA can provide a molecular approach for studying DNA damage from pollutants that can impact human health. To our knowledge, this is the first time that assessment of DNA damage in P. lividus embryos has been tested using the RAPD strategy after exposure to amniotic fluid from residents near waste landfill sites.

  14. Study of some characteristic Mediterranean vegetation species best suited for renaturalization of terminal-phase municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in Puglia (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mei, Massimiliano; Di Mauro, Mariaida

    2006-07-01

    Natural recovery of worked-out or closed municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills is a current topic, but knowledge about the adaptability of Mediterranean vegetation species to such stressful conditions is still quite poor. Autochthonous plants were selected to withstand the stresses such as hot climate and drought typical of Mediterranean areas; this characteristic potentially allows the plants an easier, efficient adaptation. Our aim was to provide information in order to obtain an adequate quality of environmental renewal of a landfill and a reduced management cost while ensuring rehabilitation to an acceptable naturalistic state. The investigation lasted 3 years; some Mediterranean scrub native plant species were selected and monitored in their morphological (total and relative height, basal diameter, number of inter-nodes) and physiological (photosynthetic rate and water potential) activity. In order to test dependence on CO 2 concentration, different meteorological parameters were also monitored. Ceratonia siliqua, Phillyrea latifolia, Olea europaea and Quercus ilex showed considerable adaptability, reacting positively to every improvement in environmental conditions, particularly those of a meteorological nature. Survival and growth was satisfactory in Hedysarum coronarium, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Myrtus communis and Viburnum tinus. Fraxinus ornus and Acer campestre suffered stress during the summer dry period and recovered quickly when atmospheric conditions improved. A drop irrigation system to ensure a satisfactory soil moisture during summer dry periods was the fundamental element for survival.

  15. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  16. The application of a multi-parameter analysis in choosing the location of a new solid waste landfill in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Igor; Naunovic, Zorana

    2013-10-01

    This article presents a process of evaluation and selection of the most favourable location for a sanitary landfill facility from three alternative locations, by applying a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method. An incorrect choice of location for a landfill facility can have a significant negative economic and environmental impact, such as the pollution of air, ground and surface waters. The aim of this article is to present several improvements in the practical process of landfill site selection using the VIKOR MCDM compromise ranking method integrated with a fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach for determining the evaluation criteria weighing coefficients. The VIKOR method focuses on ranking and selecting from a set of alternatives in the presence of conflicting and non-commensurable (different units) criteria, and on proposing a compromise solution that is closest to the ideal solution. The work shows that valuable site ranking lists can be obtained using the VIKOR method, which is a suitable choice when there is a large number of relevant input parameters.

  17. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  19. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kačinskaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations and vital activity of microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to examine conditions affecting these parameters. The paper presents and analyses the characteristics of experimental data, assesses the factors having the greatest influence on recent development and introduces the measures that should be taken into account so that to the ensure optimal operation of the systems for collecting municipal waste landfill leachate.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  1. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  2. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  3. Proposal Of Landfill Site Model In The Particular Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopka Ondrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, waste logistics is a relevant element within the worldwide logistics system. This paper is focused on the proposal of the appropriate model of landfill site for disposal of municipal waste. This issue refers to waste logistics in urban areas. In this regard, three different alternative models of landfill sites are considered. Landfill site model can significantly influence the waste management productivity and effectiveness of the enterprise. In the paper, one of the decision-making problem methods is utilized. This particular method enables to assess each model of landfill site in relation to each of the specified criterion and order the models according to the achieved results.

  4. This is Sandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    Sandia is a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory operated for the Department of Energy with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California, and a test range near Tonapah, Nevada. It has major research and development responsibilities for nuclear weapons, arms control, energy, the environment, economic competitiveness, and other areas of importance to the needs of the nation. The principal mission is to support national defense policies by ensuring that the nuclear weapon stockpile meets the highest standards of safety, reliability, security, use control, and military performance. This publication gives a brief overview of the multifaceted research programs conducted by the laboratory.

  5. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  6. How the availability of free satellite data can improve the observation of critical infrastructures: a proposed application to landfills for municipal solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Masetti, Giulio; Raco, Brunella; Battaglini, Raffaele

    2017-04-01

    Landfills for Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) produce about 20% of the total anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere. As a consequence, these infrastructures require a systematic and efficient monitoring. Various techniques have been proposed until now for the estimation of biogas production and its release, by using more or less direct measurements, mostly characterised by a low or completely absent invasivity. During the last 13 years, observational data about a MSW disposal site located in Tuscany (Italy) have been collected on a regular basis, consisting in direct measurements of gas flux with the accumulation chamber method, combined with infrared radiometry performed in situ with portable radiometers. The availability of free Landsat imagery and the more recent availability of ASTER data (freely available since April 2016) open new monitoring possibilities, in addition to the in situ measurements described above. In particular, we present the preliminary results of a study about the usability of low resolution thermal infrared scenes to build timeseries describing the overall status of a waste disposal site. This work discusses the possibility to complement in situ measurements with satellite observations, taking benefit from the high revisit time with respect to the timings of in situ campaigns.

  7. Consecutive anaerobic-aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and lignocellulosic materials in laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Pasparakis, Emmanouil; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2016-10-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the use of laboratory-scale landfill-bioreactors, operated consecutively under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, for the combined treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with two different co-substrates of lignocellulosic nature, namely green waste (GW) and dried olive pomace (DOP). According to the results such a system would represent a promising option for eventual larger scale applications. Similar variation patterns among bioreactors indicate a relatively defined sequence of processes. Initially operating the systems under anaerobic conditions would allow energetic exploitation of the substrates, while the implementation of a leachate treatment system ultimately aiming at nutrient recovery, especially during the anaerobic phase, could be a profitable option for the whole system, due to the high organic load that characterizes this effluent. In order to improve the overall effectiveness of such a system, measures towards enhancing methane contents of produced biogas, such as substrate pretreatment, should be investigated. Moreover, the subsequent aerobic phase should have the goal of stabilizing the residual materials and finally obtain an end material eventually suitable for other purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  9. Recyclables Valorisation as the Best Strategy for Achieving Landfill CO2e Emissions Abatement from Domestic Waste: Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Taboada-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Various nations in the world have developed technologies and strategies for appropriate waste disposal, and to abate waste generation and greenhouse gasses. Alternatives like recovering materials can help, but they require reliable information to improve planning and management. This study quantifies the Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions produced by the lack of valorisation of materials in a Mexican city. Two waste characterisations in a lower-class neighbourhood were carried out. For the CO2 emission estimation, two scenarios were considered. DEFRA emission factors for waste treatment processes were used. Waste generation was 0.64 kg/capita/day in the first study, and 0.50 kg/capita/day in the second. The CO2eq emissions of collected waste in the neighbourhood were estimated at 1824 kg for 2013 (0.20 kg/capita/day and 1636 kg for 2015 (0.19 kg/capita/day. The behaviour of solid waste management in the city can be explained by the “prisoner’s dilemma” model, studied in game theory, which is ideally suited to analysing situations affected by multiple agents, but requires an accurate understanding of solid waste actors and social implications.

  10. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  11. Availability and properties of materials for the Fakse Landfill biocover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane produced in landfills can be oxidized in landfill covers made of compost; often called biocovers. Compost materials originating from seven different sources were characterized to determine their methane-oxidizing capacity and suitability for use in a full-scale biocover at Fakse Landfill ......-cost and effective method for comparing compost sources for suitability of use in landfill biocovers.......Methane produced in landfills can be oxidized in landfill covers made of compost; often called biocovers. Compost materials originating from seven different sources were characterized to determine their methane-oxidizing capacity and suitability for use in a full-scale biocover at Fakse Landfill...... average methane oxidation rates: screened garden waste compost, sewage sludge compost, and an unscreened 4-year old garden waste compost (120, 112, and 108 g m2 d1, respectively). On the basis of these results, material availability and cost, the unscreened garden waste compost was determined...

  12. In-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Annual report FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-10-01

    In FY 1993 research continued on development and testing of grout materials for in-situ containment and stabilization of buried waste. Specifically, the work was aimed at remediation of the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico as part of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The work on grouting materials was initiated in FY 1992 and the accomplishments for that year are documented in the previous annual report (Allan, Kukacka and Heiser, 1992). The remediation plan involves stabilization of the chromium plume, placement of impermeable vertical and horizontal barriers to isolate the landfill and installation of a surface cap. The required depth of subsurface barriers is approximately 33 m (100 ft). The work concentrated on optimization of grout formulations for use as grout and soil cement barriers and caps. The durability of such materials was investigated, in addition to shrinkage cracking resistance, compressive and flexural strength and permeability. The potential for using fibers in grouts to control cracking was studied. Small scale field trials were conducted to test the practicality of using the identified formulations and to measure the long term performance. Large scale trials were conducted at Sandia as part of the Subsurface Barrier Emplacement Technology Program. Since it was already determined in FY 1992 that cementitious grouts could effectively stabilize the chromium plume at the CWL after pre-treatment is performed, the majority of the work was devoted to the containment aspect.

  13. Vegetation study in support of the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM inc., Albuquerque, NM); Knight, Paul J. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM); Ashton, Thomas S. (Marron and Associates, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-11-01

    A vegetation study was conducted in Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico in 2003 to assist in the design and optimization of vegetative soil covers for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste landfills at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base. The objective of the study was to obtain site-specific, vegetative input parameters for the one-dimensional code UNSAT-H and to identify suitable, diverse native plant species for use on vegetative soil covers that will persist indefinitely as a climax ecological community with little or no maintenance. The identification and selection of appropriate native plant species is critical to the proper design and long-term performance of vegetative soil covers. Major emphasis was placed on the acquisition of representative, site-specific vegetation data. Vegetative input parameters measured in the field during this study include root depth, root length density, and percent bare area. Site-specific leaf area index was not obtained in the area because there was no suitable platform to measure leaf area during the 2003 growing season due to severe drought that has persisted in New Mexico since 1999. Regional LAI data was obtained from two unique desert biomes in New Mexico, Sevilletta Wildlife Refuge and Jornada Research Station.

  14. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  15. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  16. Municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment by fenton, photo-fenton and fenton-like processes: Effect of some variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Yousefi, Zabihollah; Eslami, Akbar; Ardebilian, Maryam Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes like Fenton and photo-Fenton have been effectively applied to oxidize the persistent organic compounds in solid waste leachate and convert them to unharmful materials and products...

  17. Temporal monitoring of the waste landfill contamination plume in Rio Claro (São Paulo, Brazil) using geophysical resistivity method

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Malagutti Filho; José Ricardo Melges Bortolin

    2012-01-01

    Several factors have contributed to the increase the world production of urban solid waste, resulting in difficulties to the correct management and the final environmentally appropriate disposal, in addition to causing serious socio-economic, environmental, and public health troubles. The soil and groundwater contamination by leachate in waste disposal sites is almost always present, leveraging the emergence and/or adaptation of methodologies for environmental assessment of these areas. The g...

  18. Biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content MSW landfill: Preliminary findings from a large-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Liang-Tong; Xu, Hui; Chen, Yun-Min; Lü, Fan; Lan, Ji-Wu; Shao, Li-Min; Lin, Wei-An; He, Pin-Jing

    2017-05-01

    A large-scale bioreactor experiment lasting for 2years was presented in this paper to investigate the biochemical, hydrological and mechanical behaviors of high food waste content (HFWC) MSW. The experimental cell was 5m in length, 5m in width and 7.5m in depth, filled with unprocessed HFWC-MSWs of 91.3 tons. In the experiment, a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa was applied on waste surface, mature leachate refilling and warm leachate recirculation were performed to improve the degradation process. In this paper, the measurements of leachate quantity, leachate level, leachate biochemistry, gas composition, waste temperature, earth pressure and waste settlement were presented, and the following observations were made: (1) 26.8m3 leachate collected from the 91.3 tons HFWC-MSW within the first two months, being 96% of the total amount collected in one year. (2) The leachate level was 88% of the waste thickness after waste filling in a close system, and reached to over 100% after a surcharge loading of 33.4kPa. (3) The self-weight effective stress of waste was observed to be close to zero under the condition of high leachate mound. Leachate drawdown led to a gain of self-weight effective stress. (4) A rapid development of waste settlement took place within the first two months, with compression strains of 0.38-0.47, being over 95% of the strain recorded in one year. The compression strain tended to increase linearly with an increase of leachate draining rate during that two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  20. 1995 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, L.J.; Duncan, D. [eds.; Sanchez, R.

    1996-09-01

    This 1995 report contains data from routine radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration and various waste management programs at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included.

  1. Did municipal solid waste landfill have obvious influence on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air: A case study in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Wang, Chong; Du, Lei; Lv, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaonan; Hu, Xuepeng; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill was a main way to disposal of MSW and almost 95% of MSW was disposed by landfills in the world. In order to understand the influence of MSW landfill on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in surrounding atmosphere, 42 ambient air samples were collected and analyzed from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site of a MSW landfill in East China. The results of present study were summarized as follows. (1) The total concentrations of PCDD/Fs (∑PCDD/Fs) in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 2.215±1.004, 2.058±0.458, 2.617±1.092 and 1.822±0.566pgNm-3, respectively. (2) The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 0.103±0.017, 0.096±0.015, 0.120±0.024 and 0.108±0.014pg I-TEQNm-3, respectively. (3) The congener profiles, ∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ between background atmosphere and surrounding atmosphere of landfill did not show statistically significant difference. (4) The ∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ in ambient air of downwind site were not higher than that of upwind site, suggesting that studied landfill did not have obvious influence on PCDD/Fs in ambient air from downwind site. (5) The 95th percentile carcinogenic risk (CR) of PCDD/Fs in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 8.03×10-9, 7.57×10-9, 9.69×10-9 and 8.15×10-9, respectively, which were much lower than the threshold value of CR (10-6), suggesting that studied landfill did not influence the CR of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and negligible cancer risk occurred. (6) The non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) analysis indicated that landfill did not have influence on the non-CR of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and no obvious non-carcinogenic effects developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Application of urban waste water sludge in revegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingelmo Sanchez, F.; Garcia Camarero, J.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.

    2000-07-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in the re-vegetation of a closed urban landfill which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with urban anaerobic sewage sludges. In this work we expose the firsts results of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by the company Gestion Integral de Residuos in a collaborative research among the Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion, the Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and the company Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, busch and trees) after incorporation into the degraded soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. (Author) 3 refs.

  4. Methane emissions from MBT landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, K-U; Hupe, K; Stegmann, R

    2013-09-01

    Within the scope of an investigation for the German Federal Environment Agency ("Umweltbundesamt"), the basics for the estimation of the methane emissions from the landfilling of mechanically and biologically treated waste (MBT) were developed. For this purpose, topical research including monitoring results regarding the gas balance at MBT landfills was evaluated. For waste treated to the required German standards, a methane formation potential of approximately 18-24 m(3)CH(4)/t of total dry solids may be expected. Monitoring results from MBT landfills show that a three-phase model with differentiated half-lives describes the degradation kinetics in the best way. This is due to the fact that during the first years of disposal, the anaerobic degradation processes still proceed relatively intensively. In addition in the long term (decades), a residual gas production at a low level is still to be expected. Most of the soils used in recultivation layer systems at German landfills show a relatively high methane oxidation capacity up to 5 l CH(4)/(m(2)h). However, measurements at MBT disposal sites indicate that the majority of the landfill gas (in particular at non-covered areas), leaves the landfill body via preferred gas emission zones (hot spots) without significant methane oxidation. Therefore, rather low methane oxidation factors are recommended for open and temporarily covered MBT landfills. Higher methane oxidation rates can be achieved when the soil/recultivation layer is adequately designed and operated. Based on the elaborated default values, the First Order Decay (FOD) model of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 2006, was used to estimate the methane emissions from MBT landfills. Due to the calculation made by the authors emissions in the range of 60,000-135,000 t CO(2-eq.)/a for all German MBT landfills can be expected. This wide range shows the uncertainties when the here used procedure and the limited available data are applied

  5. Characteristics and biological treatment of leachates from a domestic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waste material from urban areas is a major environmental concern and landfill application is a frequent method for waste disposal. The leachate from landfills can, however, negatively affect the surrounding environment. A bioreactor cascade containing submerged biofilms was used to treat newly forme...

  6. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. 258.41 Section 258.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor...

  7. Development of the Sandia Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Koplow, Jeffrey P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Staats, Wayne Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Curgus, Dita Brigitte [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Leick, Michael Thomas. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Matthew, Ned Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Zimmerman, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Arienti, Marco [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gharagozloo, Patricia E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Spencer, Nathan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Vanness, Justin William. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gorman, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report describes an FY13 effort to develop the latest version of the Sandia Cooler, a breakthrough technology for air-cooled heat exchangers that was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The project was focused on fabrication, assembly and demonstration of ten prototype systems for the cooling of high power density electronics, specifically high performance desktop computers (CPUs). In addition, computational simulation and experimentation was carried out to fully understand the performance characteristics of each of the key design aspects. This work culminated in a parameter and scaling study that now provides a design framework, including a number of design and analysis tools, for Sandia Cooler development for applications beyond CPU cooling.

  8. Microbial methane oxidation processes and technologies for mitigation of landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bogner, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Landfill gas containing methane is produced by anaerobic degradation of organic waste. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas and landfills are one of the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric methane. Landfill methane may be oxidized by methanotrophic microorganisms in soils or waste materials...

  9. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41-81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills...

  10. A novel approach in calculating site-specific aftercare completion criteria for landfills in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Ellen; Nijs, de Ton C.M.; Dijkstra, Joris J.; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a more circular economy, current attention on waste is shifting from landfilling towards the prevention, re-use and recycling of waste materials. Although the need for landfills is decreasing, there are many landfills around the world that are still operational or at the point of

  11. LANDFILLS AS BIOREACTORS: RESEARH AT THE OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY; FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstrationof municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  12. Spatio-temporal variation of landfill gas in pilot-scale semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills over 5years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yue, Bo; Huang, Qifei; Wang, Qi; Lin, Ye; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhuoyi

    2017-04-01

    Variation of CH4, CO2, and O2 concentrations in layers of different depths in semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills was analyzed over a period of 5years. The results showed that most of the municipal solid waste became basically stable after 5years of landfill disposal. In the upper and middle layer, the concentration of CH4 in the semi-aerobic landfill was significantly lower than that in the anaerobic landfill in different landfill periods, while in the lower layer, there was little difference in the CH4 concentration between the semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills. The average concentration of CH4 and CO2 in the anaerobic landfill was always higher than that in the semi-aerobic landfill, while the O2 concentration showed an opposite variation in different landfill periods. This was related to the aerobic reaction of landfill waste around the perforated pipe in the semi-aerobic landfill, which inhibited effective landfill gas generation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste excavated from a municipal landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Orupõld, Kaja; Augustsson, Anna; Burlakovs, Juris; Hogland, Marika; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2017-11-01

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  14. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Study on behavior of organic substances in waste at landfill waste disposal site. Haikibutsuchu yukibutsu no umetate shobunjonai ni okeru kyodo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H.; Inoue, Y. (Osaka City Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Osaka (Japan))

    1990-10-29

    The report proposes a method to analyze the stabilization proces of waste based on measurements of the carbon content in waste sampled at a disposal site and in boring core samples. Waste transported to the disposal site is spread over a 50-ton stockyard and stirred by two power shovel cars, and 30-50 kg samples are collected for composition analysis. The waste sampled is weighed, dried and broken down into different components, namely, paper, fiber, wood/grass, plastics, miscellaneous articles, glass/stone, procelains, steel, non-ferrous metals, followed by composition analysis. Boring core samples are taken at every 80 cm depth, subjected to weighing and drying, and broken down in a similar way. Analysis is performed for total carbon content, organic carbon content and inorganic carbon content. Results show that there are significant differences among the three carbon contents, suggesting that this method can serve for rough estimation of the degree of decomposition of waste. It is also indicated that gas generation rate can be roughly estimated from a measured organic carbon content. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  17. 1993 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.A.; Cheng, C.F.; Cox, W.; Durand, N.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Lauffer, F.; Lincoln, M.; McClellan, Y.; Molley, K. [and others

    1994-11-01

    This 1993 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0016 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile (80 kilometer) radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.027 person-rem during 1993 from the laboratories operations, As in the previous year, the 1993 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  18. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories` operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment.

  19. Modeling Thermal Changes at Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: A Case Study of the Co-Disposal of Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reaction of secondary aluminum processing waste (referred herein to as salt cake) with water has been documented to produce heat and gases such as hydrogen, methane, and ammonia (US EPA 2015). The objective of this project was to assess the impact of salt cake disposal on MS...

  20. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  1. Incineration in the Netherlands or landfill in the UK? Environmental analysis of UK household waste disposal in the Netherlands; Verbranden in Nederland of storten in Groot-Brittannie? Milieukundige analyse van de verwerking van Brits huishoudelijk afval in Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, M.E.; Otten, M.B.J.

    2012-02-15

    An environmental analysis has been executed of two scenarios for the processing of British household waste (or waste of similar quality): (1) disposal in a nearby landfill site in the UK; (2) incineration at Twence's AEC plant in the Netherlands. The environmental impact of disposal of 1 tonne of UK household waste in the respective scenarios was analysed using the ReCiPe Single Score method and the IPCC climate impact methodology, focusing on two phases of the life cycle: transport and final disposal (i.e. incineration or landfill). The conclusion of the study is that incineration of average British residual waste at the Twence facility is environmentally superior to landfill in the UK. The impact of the additional transport by ship and truck from the UK to the Twence plant does not outweigh the environmental benefits of incineration over landfill. This conclusion is valid under the adopted assumptions, particularly concerning the composition of the waste [Dutch] Twence heeft CE Delft gevraagd om een milieuanalyse van twee afvalscenario's voor Brits huishoudelijk afval (of daarmee vergelijkbaar afval) uit te voeren: (1) Het afval wordt gestort op een nabije stortplaats (in Groot-Brittannië); (2) Het afval wordt verbrand bij Twence AEC in Nederland. De twee afvalscenario's zijn op basis van 1 ton huishoudelijk afval, of daarmee vergelijkbaar afval uit het Verenigd Koninkrijk vergeleken. De studie richt zich op de levenscyclusfasen transport en eindverwerking (in ofwel de verbrandingsoven of op de stortplaats). Voor het analyseren van de milieu-impact wordt gebruikgemaakt van de ReCiPe Single Score-methode en van de klimaatimpact methodologie (IPCC). Uit deze studie kan geconcludeerd worden dat het verbranden van gemiddeld Brits restafval bij Twence beter scoort op milieueffecten dan storten in Groot-Brittannië. Het extra transport per schip en vrachtauto van het Verenigd Koninkrijk naar de installatie van Twence maakt het milieuvoordeel van

  2. Effect of dilution and operating parameters on ammonia removal from scheduled waste landfill leachate in a lab-scale ammonia stripping reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanira, N. M. L.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Rashid, M.; Luqman, C. A.; Abdullah, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    A lab-scale ammonia stripping reactor was used to treat raw and diluted (1:1) scheduled waste landfill (SWL) leachate containing ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N). Operating parameters such as air-liquid ratio, hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2] dosage, types of packing materials and packing heights were investigated with central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the parameters affecting NH3-N removal from the leachate. The percentage removal on turbidity, colour and phosphate were also evaluated in this study. It was observed that the optimal conditions obtained from desirable response (NH3-N removal) for raw leachate were predicted at air-liquid ratio of 70, Ca(OH)2 dosage of 5 gL-1, packing height of 60 cm and types of packing material was number 3 (non-woven polyester) while for diluted leachate these were 70, 6 gL-1, 60 cm and Type 3 (non-woven polyester), respectively. Quadratic RSM predicted the maximum NH3-N removal to be 78% for raw leachate and 81% for diluted leachate at these optimal conditions concurred with the experiment which successfully removed 76% and 80% of NH3-N, respectively. However, higher removal efficiencies of turbidity (97%), colour (88%) and phosphate (93%) was observed in the treatment with diluted leachate compared to raw leachate merely up to 55%, 34% and 49%, respectively. The finding showed that the difference in the removal of NH3-N in diluted and raw SWL leachate was insignificant. However, turbidity, colour and phosphate showed a significant reduction in the diluted leachate during the treatment. The study suggests that the dilution of SWL leachate does not present a significant effect on the removal of ammonia in the stripping reactor.

  3. 75 FR 50930 - Final Determination To Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., Montana Landfill AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... cover for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake... the Lake County, Montana landfill. DATES: This final rule is effective on August 18, 2010. The...

  4. Performance of a mixed-waste landfill amid geologic uncertainty—learning from a case study: Altamont Hills, California, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffet, Michael J.; Lamarre, Albert L.; Oberdorfer, June A.

    1991-11-01

    This paper presents a case study that illustrates how geologic factors, which are not always obvious without extensive study, may hamper later landfill performance. The site is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) site 300. Two unlined landfills, opened in 1958, and 1968, contain small amounts of tritium, uranium-238, lead, and beryllium in a vast proportion of inert materials (gravel, wood, and plastic). Groundwater analyses indicate that tritium at activities up to 600,000 picoCuries per liter (pCi/l) is present in two plumes beneath and adjacent to the landfills within a perched water-bearing zone. The affected water-bearing zone averages 2 m in thickness and occurs within the late Miocene Neroly Formation, which is composed of feldspathic sandstones and siltstones and interbedded claystones and conglomerates. Scanning election microscopy (SEM) analysis indicates that diagenetic clays have occluded the porosity of much of the sandstones. However, abundant fractures appear to provide permeability. Depth to the water table fluctuates greatly beneath the site but averages about 10 m. In the past, following heavy rains, groundwater levels rose into the landfill bottoms and mobilized the tritium. Rapid recharge and rise of water levels appear to have been enhanced by the funnelling of surface water by topography, direct infiltration through fractures and permeable landfill materials, and the low permeability of the geologic materials that comprise the water-bearing zone. These and other hydrogeologic conditions contributed to groundwater contact with landfill materials but were not known before landfill construction. Such information is important for siting landfills in the current regulatory environment. Contaminant transport modeling indicates that even if the perched water-bearing zone were continuous to the site 300 boundary, tritium activities would undergo radioactive decay to background levels by the time the tritiated water could reach the site

  5. A model for prioritizing landfills for remediation and closure: A case study in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubavin, Dejan; Agarski, Boris; Maodus, Nikola; Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Budak, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The existence of large numbers of landfills that do not fulfill sanitary prerequisites presents a serious hazard for the environment in lower income countries. One of the main hazards is landfill leachate that contains various pollutants and presents a threat to groundwater. Groundwater pollution from landfills depends on various mutually interconnected factors such as the waste type and amount, the amount of precipitation, the landfill location characteristics, and operational measures, among others. Considering these factors, lower income countries face a selection problem where landfills urgently requiring remediation and closure must be identified from among a large number of sites. The present paper proposes a model for prioritizing landfills for closure and remediation based on multicriteria decision making, in which the hazards of landfill groundwater pollution are evaluated. The parameters for the prioritization of landfills are the amount of waste disposed, the amount of precipitation, the vulnerability index, and the rate of increase of the amount of waste in the landfill. Verification was performed using a case study in Serbia where all municipal landfills were included and 128 landfills were selected for prioritization. The results of the evaluation of Serbian landfills, prioritizing sites for closure and remediation, are presented for the first time. Critical landfills are identified, and prioritization ranks for the selected landfills are provided. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:105-119. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. PCA and Cluster Analysis for Criteria Mapping in Landfill Siting

    OpenAIRE

    Kaoutar BENNIS; Bahi, Lahcen

    2014-01-01

    Landfill siting is of primordial interest in waste management. As the size of modern cities grows along with the shifts in demographics and composition of solid wastes, it has become important to choose the location of a waste disposal area in a way that insures long-term usability, environmental impact minimization and other considerations; these considerations can vary greatly among cases and from it follows that the criteria involved in siting a new landfill location should be subject to a...

  7. Achieving equilibrium status and sustainable landfill - the holy grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, D. H.; Gronow, Jan R.; Smith, Richard; Blakey, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research contract jointly funded by the Environment Agency and ESART examining the residues of likely post-Landfill Directive waste streams that will need to go to landfill and the time taken to achieve sufficient stabilisation such that management controls can be removed. The first part of the project has identified a number of processes that are likely to be adopted by the waste management industry in order to meet the biodegradable waste ...

  8. Calendar Year 2009 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Karen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Mendy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrd, Caroline [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cabble, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coplen, Amy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curran, Kelsey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deola, Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duran, Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fitzgerald, Tanja [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); French, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerard, Morgan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzales, Linda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gorman, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarry, Jeff [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Adrian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lauffer, Franz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayeux, Lucie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oborny, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perini, Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Puissant, Pamela [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skelly, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wrons, Ralph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC), manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Site O ffice (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2009. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2008a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  9. Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Calendar year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Site Office (SSO) administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2007. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2007).

  10. Sanitary Landfill Simulation - Test Parameters and a Simulator Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-01

    ACSM -1~ for Nils ........... By L:R-yo/VAILaiL;1I CODES Library card Civil Engineering Laboratory SANITARY LANDFILL SIMULATION - TEST PARAMETERS AND...these landfills comply only marginally with Navy mandatory guidelines [2]. In a FY-74 report on this project [3], CEL presented the results of a...landfills are presently designed for burying solid waste in compliance with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) operational guidelines . These

  11. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  12. Weak gas treatment and landfill aeration. Possibilities of integration into the emissions trading; Schwachgasbehandlung und Deponiebelueftung. Moeglichkeiten zur Integration in den Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohn, Jan; Stegmann, Rainer; Heyer, K.U.; Hupe, K. [IFAS - Ingenieurbuero fuer Abfallwirtschaft, Prof. R. Stegmann und Partner, Hamburg (Germany); Ritzkowski, M. [TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik; Blank, D.; Schnurr, J. [GFA Envest GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Rosenkranz, G.; Unger, C. [DUH - Deutsche Umwelthilfe e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the next few decades, landfill gas still will be emitted from municipal solid waste landfills. Upon completion of an energetic gas use a long-term residual landfill gas treatment would be required in order to ensure a consistent avoidance of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Landfill operators want to perform a landfill aeration both as a climate protection measure and to improve the landfill behavior.

  13. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  14. An Illustration of the Corrective Action Process, The Corrective Action Management Unit at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, M.; Kwiecinski, D.

    2002-02-26

    Corrective Action Management Units (CAMUs) were established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to streamline the remediation of hazardous waste sites. Streamlining involved providing cost saving measures for the treatment, storage, and safe containment of the wastes. To expedite cleanup and remove disincentives, EPA designed 40 CFR 264 Subpart S to be flexible. At the heart of this flexibility are the provisions for CAMUs and Temporary Units (TUs). CAMUs and TUs were created to remove cleanup disincentives resulting from other Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste provisions--specifically, RCRA land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and minimum technology requirements (MTRs). Although LDR and MTR provisions were not intended for remediation activities, LDRs and MTRs apply to corrective actions because hazardous wastes are generated. However, management of RCRA hazardous remediation wastes in a CAMU or TU is not subject to these stringent requirements. The CAMU at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM) was proposed through an interactive process involving the regulators (EPA and the New Mexico Environment Department), DOE, SNL/NM, and stakeholders. The CAMU at SNL/NM has been accepting waste from the nearby Chemical Waste Landfill remediation since January of 1999. During this time, a number of unique techniques have been implemented to save costs, improve health and safety, and provide the best value and management practices. This presentation will take the audience through the corrective action process implemented at the CAMU facility, from the selection of the CAMU site to permitting and construction, waste management, waste treatment, and final waste placement. The presentation will highlight the key advantages that CAMUs and TUs offer in the corrective action process. These advantages include yielding a practical approach to regulatory compliance, expediting efficient remediation and site closure, and realizing

  15. Modelling of the flow in the interface of a composite liner at the bottom of a municipal waste landfill; Modelisation des ecoulements dans les interfaces des barrieres d'etancheite composites des installations de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaud, F

    2004-11-15

    Composite liner at the bottom of waste landfill is based, in France, on a geo-membrane overlapping a compacted clay liner. Defects exist in geo-membranes and leachates, provided by water percolation through the waste, then flow in the interface between the two components of the lining system. The present work consisted in analysis, quantification and modelling of the leakage process in the interface. The experimental study has been carried out on a one-meter scale device in laboratory and allowed to assess the role of normal stress on the flow rate in interface. The case where a geo-textile is present beneath the geo-membrane has been also studied. The modelling allows to take into account more accurately the geometry of the interface and ensures a better quantification of leachate flow rates than using existing methods. (author)

  16. Preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of gases from biodigestion of solid wastes in the landfill of Londrina,Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.11453

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Audibert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted in controlled landfillsor dumps are still incipient in Brazil. This paper aimed to qualify and quantify the emission of biogas in the landfill of Londrina, Paraná State. Measurements were performed by three types of tests: static closed chamber for the characterization and quantification of gas leakage by the surface layer, inspection tubes for pressure quantification and qualification of the biogas produced below the surface layer and, finally, measurements in vertical drains to quantify and qualify the biogas. Results for the flow rates of methane gas in the vertical drains ranged from 0 to 190.2 N m 3 h-1, depending on the shape of the drain and to the age of solid waste deposition. The tests with static closed chamberhad results between 1.3 and 30.6 NL h-1 m2, influenced by changes in the age of solid waste deposition, different thicknesses of the surface layer, and excessive rainfall during the tests. With the data of methane gas flow obtained by thestatic closed chambertests and by the biogas drains, it was preliminary quantified the total emission of methane in the landfill of Londrina, Paraná State.  

  17. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  18. Municipal landfill leachates induced chromosome aberrations in rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the potential mutagenic effects of raw and simulated leachates from Olushosun municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill using rat bone marrow chromosome aberration assay. Raw leachate obtained directly from the landfill and simulated leachate obtained via the American Society for Testing and Materials ...

  19. Surface emission determination of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a closed industrial waste landfill using a self-designed static flux chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Perales, J F; Roca, F J; Guardino, X

    2014-02-01

    Closed landfills can be a source of VOC and odorous nuisances to their atmospheric surroundings. A self-designed cylindrical air flux chamber was used to measure VOC surface emissions in a closed industrial landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain. The two main objectives of the study were the evaluation of the performance of the chamber setup in typical measurement conditions and the determination of the emission rates of 60 different VOC from that industrial landfill, generating a valuable database that can be useful in future studies related to industrial landfill management. Triplicate samples were taken in five selected sampling points. VOC were sampled dynamically using multi-sorbent bed tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen 569) connected to SKC AirCheck 2000 pumps. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with a capillary gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry detector. The emission rates of sixty VOC were calculated for each sampling point in an effort to characterize surface emissions. To calculate average, minimum and maximum emission values for each VOC, the results were analyzed by three different methods: Global, Kriging and Tributary area. Global and Tributary area methodologies presented similar values, with total VOC emissions of 237 ± 48 and 222 ± 46 g day(-1), respectively; however, Kriging values were lower, 77 ± 17 gd ay(-1). The main contributors to the total emission rate were aldehydes (nonanal and decanal), acetic acid, ketones (acetone), aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. Most aromatic hydrocarbon (except benzene, naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes) and aldehyde emission rates exhibited strong correlations with the rest of VOC of their family, indicating a possible common source of these compounds. B:T ratio obtained from the emission rates of the studied landfill suggested that the factors that regulate aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in the landfill emissions are different from the ones

  20. Hydrochemical Characterization of a Tropical, Coastal Aquifer Affected by Landfill Leachate and Seawater Intrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangimbulude, Jubhar C.; Goeltom, Mangihot T.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Straalen, NM; Roling, WFM

    2016-01-01

    The hydrochemistry of landfill leachate and groundwater is affected by not only waste degradation processes, but also by external factors such as the geography of the landfilling site. Knowledge on the fate of landfill leachate in tropical countries will be beneficial for monitoring and regulatory

  1. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Regional Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... sublease for the proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project (proposed action) on the Campo Indian Reservation... would consist of a landfill waste disposal area, a well field area, an access road and other support...

  2. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  3. THE ROLE OF QUALITY ASSURANCE IN THE EVALUTION OF TWO LANDFILL BIOREACTOR OPERATIONAL TECHNIQUES AT AN EXISTING LANDFILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was prepared to document the primary objectives and data collection and interpretation efforts for two landfill bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, operated by Waste Management, Inc. WMI). The two multi-year stu...

  4. Prediction of landfill leachate amount using HELP model Case study: Semnan landfill

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ghavidel; M.J Zoqi

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives:. Owing to the non-seperated municipal solid wastes the leachate form in land fills contain high amounts of heavy metalls and toxic substances Hence, leachate treatment is a serious problem. In order to design leachate treatment and collection systems, estimation of quality and quantity of leachate is of high necessity. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model was used to estimate leachate generation in the lined landfill cells for a variety of co...

  5. Sanitary landfill liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ole V.; Stentsøe, Steen; Petersen, Søren

    DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners.......DS/INF 466 is the revised Danish recommendation for investigations, design and construction of landfill liners....

  6. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...... in Chapter 10.3 on landfill hydrology. This chapter provides an overview on the components of traditional top covers used at landfills and the alternatives used for meeting other requirements (such as leachate recirculation or passive gas management by microbial oxidation processes)....

  7. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  8. Photometrics at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, J.Y.; Hill, R.A.; Hughes, R.L. (eds.)

    1990-07-01

    This report highlights Sandia National Laboratories' work in the following areas: photometrics and optical development; still and time-lapse photography; real-time motion photography; high-speed photography; image-motion photography; schlieren photography; ultra-high-speed photography; electronic imaging; shuttered video and high-speed video; infrared imaging radiometry; exoatmospheric photography and videography; microdensitometry and image analysis; and optical system design and development.

  9. The aspects of fire safety at landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source, which can aggravate pre-existing pulmonary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

  10. Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-19

    specifications, and a design report to the Sector Project Management Office (SPMO)4. The design report contained design calculation summaries for items...3 One hectare is approximately 2.47 acres. 4 SPMO is the Sector Project Management Office , which preceded the establishment of PCO

  11. The status of wood pallet disposal and recovery at united states landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Corr, Daryl Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The Status of Wood Pallet Recovery at United States Landfills Daryl T. Corr Abstract Each year a large number of wooden pallets are disposed of in US landfills, representing a significant portion of total wood usage. The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the numbers of pallets reaching landfills, specifically Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Construction & Demolition (C&D) landfills. Also, the research was conducted to determine what, if anything, was done w...

  12. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  13. Quantification of methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills using the mobile tracer dispersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mønster, Jacob [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Samuelsson, Jerker, E-mail: jerker.samuelsson@fluxsense.se [Chalmers University of Technology/FluxSense AB, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden); Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte, E-mail: chas@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljøvej – Building 113, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of whole landfill site methane emission at 15 landfills. • Multiple on-site source identification and quantification. • Quantified methane emission from shredder waste and composting. • Large difference between measured and reported methane emissions. - Abstract: Whole-site methane emissions from 15 Danish landfills were assessed using a mobile tracer dispersion method with either Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), using nitrous oxide as a tracer gas, or cavity ring-down spectrometry (CRDS), using acetylene as a tracer gas. The landfills were chosen to represent the different stages of the lifetime of a landfill, including open, active, and closed covered landfills, as well as those with and without gas extraction for utilisation or flaring. Measurements also included landfills with biocover for oxidizing any fugitive methane. Methane emission rates ranged from 2.6 to 60.8 kg h{sup −1}, corresponding to 0.7–13.2 g m{sup −2} d{sup −1}, with the largest emission rates per area coming from landfills with malfunctioning gas extraction systems installed, and the smallest emission rates from landfills closed decades ago and landfills with an engineered biocover installed. Landfills with gas collection and recovery systems had a recovery efficiency of 41–81%. Landfills where shredder waste was deposited showed significant methane emissions, with the largest emission from newly deposited shredder waste. The average methane emission from the landfills was 154 tons y{sup −1}. This average was obtained from a few measurement campaigns conducted at each of the 15 landfills and extrapolating to annual emissions requires more measurements. Assuming that these landfills are representative of the average Danish landfill, the total emission from Danish landfills were calculated at 20,600 tons y{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than the 33,300 tons y{sup −1} estimated for the national greenhouse gas inventory for

  14. Emissions from the Bena Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, C.; Blake, D. R.; Hughes, S.

    2016-12-01

    In 2013, Americans generated 254 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW). The gas generated from the decomposition of MSW is composed of approximately 50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide, and a small proportion of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs). NMOCs constitute less than 1% of landfill emissions, but they can have a disproportionate environmental impact as they are highly reactive ozone precursors. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected at the Bena landfill outside of Bakersfield, CA and throughout Bakersfield and analyzed using gas chromatography in order to quantify NMOC emissions. This area was determined to have elevated concentrations of benzene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which are categorized by the EPA as hazardous to human health. Benzene was found to have a concentration of 145 ± 4 pptv, four times higher than the background levels in Bakersfield (36 ± 1 pptv). Trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene had concentrations of 18 ± 1 pptv and 31 ± 1 pptv which were 18 and 10 times greater than background concentrations, respectively. In addition, hydroxyl radical reactivity (ROH) was calculated to determine the potential for tropospheric ozone formation. The total ROH of the landfill was 7.5 ± 0.2 s-1 compared to total background ROH of 1.0 ± 0.1 s-1 . NMOCs only made up 0.6% of total emissions, but accounted for 67% of total ROH.These results can help to shape future landfill emission policies by highlighting the importance of NMOCs in addition to methane. More research is needed to investigate the ozone forming potential of these compounds at landfills across the country.

  15. Committee to evaluate Sandia`s risk expertise: Final report. Volume 1: Presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, E.C.

    1998-05-01

    On July 1--2, 1997, Sandia National Laboratories hosted the External Committee to Evaluate Sandia`s Risk Expertise. Under the auspices of SIISRS (Sandia`s International Institute for Systematic Risk Studies), Sandia assembled a blue-ribbon panel of experts in the field of risk management to assess their risk programs labs-wide. Panelists were chosen not only for their own expertise, but also for their ability to add balance to the panel as a whole. Presentations were made to the committee on the risk activities at Sandia. In addition, a tour of Sandia`s research and development programs in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was arranged. The panel attended a poster session featuring eight presentations and demonstrations for selected projects. Overviews and viewgraphs from the presentations are included in Volume 1 of this report. Presentations are related to weapons, nuclear power plants, transportation systems, architectural surety, environmental programs, and information systems.

  16. 75 FR 51671 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-0549; SW-FRL-9191-8] Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the petitioned waste, the quantities... Tokusen will be disposed at a RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North...

  17. Criteria for Solid Waste Disposal Facilities: A Guide for Owners/Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's continuing mission to establish the minimum national standards for landfill design, operation, and management that will enhance landfill safety and boost public confidence in landfills as a component of a workable integrated waste management system.

  18. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Empirical Model to Estimate Landfill Gas Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kamalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Landfills are the most important producers of methane as human source. So, prediction of landfill gas generation is by far the most important concern of scientists, decision makers, and landfill owners as well as health authorities. Almost all the currently used models are based on Monod equation first order decay rate which is experimental while the main purpose of this research is to develop a numerical model. Methods: A real scale pilot landfill with 4500 tons of municipal solid waste has been designed, constructed, and operated for two years. Required measurements have been done to provide proper data on greenhouse gases emitted by the landfill and monitor its status such as internal temperature, leachate content, and its settlement during two years. Afterwards, weighted residual method has been used to develop the numerical model. Then, the newly mathematical method has been verified with data from another landfill. Results: Measurements showed that the minimum and maximum percentages of methane among landfill gas were 22.3 and 46.1%, respectively. These values for velocity of landfill gas are 0.3 and 0.48 meters per second, in that order. Conclusion: Since there is just 0.6 percent error in calculation as compared to real measurements from a landfill in California and most of the models used have ten percent error, this simple empirical numerical model is suggested to be utilized by scientists, decision makers, and landfill owners

  20. Solid Waste Biodegradation Enhancements and the Evaluation of Analytical Methods Used to Predict Waste Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional landfills are built to dispose of the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated each year. A relatively new type of landfill, called a bioreactor landfill, is designed to optimize the biodegradation of the contained waste to stabilized products. Landfills with stabilized waste pose little threat to the environment from ozone depleting gases and groundwater contamination. Limited research has been done to determine the importance of biodegradation enhancement tech...

  1. Tiger Team assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. SNL, Albuquerque, is operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The environmental assessment also included DOE tenant facilities at Ross Aviation, Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation, and the Central Training Academy. The assessment was conducted from April 15 to May 24, 1991, under the auspices of DOE's Office of Special Projects under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health (ES H). The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing ES H disciplines, management, self-assessments, and quality assurance; transportation; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal SNL, Albuquerque, requirements were assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of DOE and SNL, Albuquerque management of ES H programs was conducted.

  2. 1994 Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, L.J.; Wiggins, T.; White, B.B. [eds.] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This 1994 report contains data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum off-site dose impact from air emissions was calculated to be 1.5 x 10{sup -4} millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.012 person-rem during 1994 from the laboratories` operations. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  3. Ecotoxicological diagnosis of a sealed municipal landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A J; Bartolomé, C; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Rodríguez, J; Alvarez, J; Pastor, J

    2012-03-01

    Assessing the environmental impact of a soil-topped landfill requires an accurate ecotoxicological diagnosis. This paper describes various diagnostic protocols for this purpose and their application to a real case: the urban solid waste (USW) municipal landfill of Getafe (Madrid, Spain). After their initial sealing with soil from the surroundings about 20 years ago, most USW landfills in the autonomous community of Madrid have continued to receive waste. This has hindered precise assessment of their impact on their environment and affected ecosystems. The procedure proposed here overcomes this problem by assessing the situation in edaphic, aquatic and ecological terms. The present study focused on the most influential soil variables (viz. salinity due largely to the presence of anions, and heavy metals and organic compounds). These variables were also determined in surface waters of the wetland most strongly affected by leachates running down landfill slopes. Determinations included the characterization of plant communities and microbial biodiversity. The study was supplemented with a bioassay under controlled conditions in pots containing soil contaminated with variable concentrations of Zn (as ZnCl(2)) intended to assess ecochemical actions in a population of Bromus rubens, which grows profusely in the landfill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Charter of the Sandia National Laboratories Sandia Postdoctoral Development (SPD) Association.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher; Rodgers, Theron; Dong, Wen; Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Barkholtz, Heather; Alley, William Morgan; Wolk, Benjamin Matthew; Vane, Zachary Phillips; Priye, Aashish; Ball, Cameron Scott; McBride, Amber Alane Fisher

    2017-03-01

    The SNL SPD Association represents all personnel that are classified as Postdoctoral Appointees at Sandia National Laboratories. The purpose of the SNL SPD Association is to address the needs and concerns of Postdoctoral Appointees within Sandia National Laboratories.

  5. Calendar Year 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is a government-owned/contractor-operated facility. Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, manages and operates the laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA, Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the site. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation’s sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs through December 31, 2013. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  6. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2002. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  7. Calendar year 2004 annual site environmental report:Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Wagner, Katrina; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2004. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004a). (DOE 2004a).

  8. Calendar year 2003 annual site environmental report for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and managed by the Sandia Site Office (SSO), Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sandia Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, operates SNL/NM. This annual report summarizes data and the compliance status of Sandia Corporation's environmental protection and monitoring programs through December 31, 2003. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention (P2), environmental restoration (ER), oil and chemical spill prevention, and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, ''Environmental Protection Program'' (DOE 2003a) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg.2, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting'' (DOE 1996).

  9. High performance computing at Sandia National Labs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, R.M.; Noe, J.P.; Vandevender, W.H.

    1995-10-01

    Sandia`s High Performance Computing Environment requires a hierarchy of resources ranging from desktop, to department, to centralized, and finally to very high-end corporate resources capable of teraflop performance linked via high-capacity Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The mission of the Scientific Computing Systems Department is to provide the support infrastructure for an integrated corporate scientific computing environment that will meet Sandia`s needs in high-performance and midrange computing, network storage, operational support tools, and systems management. This paper describes current efforts at SNL/NM to expand and modernize centralized computing resources in support of this mission.

  10. Use of portable in motion weight control technologies at landfill sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fisher, D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Affairs and Tourism as part of the South African waste information system project, highlighted that many medium and large general waste landfill sites in South Africa currently operate without weighbridges, although required to under the Minimum...

  11. Waste Pickers: Why are they there?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste pickers are common on landfills in South Africa, salvaging valuable items in order to earn a living. This presentation provide some insights on the activities of the pickers at landfills....

  12. Wood Pallets and Landfills - Status and Opportunities for Economic Recovery and Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; E. Brad Hager

    1998-01-01

    Wood pallet recovery, repair, and recycling are sound environmental activities that can reduce both forest resource demands and waste in landfills. Our studies found that 6.16 million tons of wood pallets (or 223.6 million pallets) entered municipal solid waste (MSW) and construction and demolition (C&D) landfill facilities in 1995. At the same time, wood pallet...

  13. Integrated modeling and up-scaling of landfill processes and heterogeneity using stochastic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, A.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Baviskar, S.M.; van Turnhout, A.G.; Konstantaki, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills are a very complex and heterogeneous systems. The waste in a landfill body is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide range of materials containing high levels of organic matter, high amounts of salts and a wide range of different organic and inorganic substances, such as

  14. Implementing the Corrective Action Management Unit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOORE,DARLENE R.; SCHRADER,SCOTT A.; KING,GABRIEL G.; CORMIER,JOHN

    2000-01-26

    In September 1997, following significant public and regulator interaction, Sandia Corporation (Sandia) was granted a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Hazardous Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit modification allowing construction and operation of a Correction Action Management Unit (CAMU). The CAMU follows recent regulatory guidance that allows for cost-effective, expedient cleanup of contaminated sites and management of hazardous remediation wastes. The CAMU was designed to store, treat, and provide long-term management for Environmental Restoration (ER) derived wastes. The 154 square meter CAMU site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), includes facilities for storing bulk soils and containerized wastes, for treatment of bulk soils, and has a containment cell for long-term disposition of waste. Proposed treatment operations include soil washing and low temperature thermal desorption. The first waste was accepted into the CAMU for temporary storage in January 1999. Construction at the CAMU was completed in March 1999, and baseline monitoring of the containment cell has commenced. At completion of operations the facility will be closed, the waste containment cell will be covered, and long-term post-closure monitoring will begin. Sandia's CAMU is the only such facility within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Implementing this innovative approach to ER waste management has required successful coordination with community representatives, state and federal regulators, the DOE, Sandia corporate management, and contractors. It is expected that cost savings to taxpayers will be significant. The life-cycle CAMU project cost is currently projected to be approximately $12 million.

  15. Reutilization of industrial sedimentation plants as a domestic landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehweg, M.; Duetsch, M.; Wagner, J. [C and E Consulting und Engineering GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany); Edelmann, F. [Landratsamt Westerzgebirgskreis, Schwarzenburg (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The methods and the investigation results for evaluation of the risk potential emanating from the mixed waste landfill Steinsee in Johanngeorgenstadt are described for the protected commodities of water, soil and air. The peculiarity of this mixed waste landfill is its layered structure (17th to 19th century near-surface mineworkings, granite weathering zone at the base of the landfill, washed-in tailings, and refuse dump). A network of measuring points has been installed in and around the landfill, and selective investigations have been made to ascertain the risk potential from the landfill. Based on the investigation results, it can be estimated that the continued use of the landfill is justifiable from the geological, hydrogeological and hydrological viewpoints, provided that permanent and continuous control is ensured by a monitoring system and that the overall situation can be improved in the short term by suitable technical measures. The waste being deposited now consists of domestic refuse, bulky refuse, sewage sludge, building rubble, excavated earth, broken up road surfacing, waste containing asbestos, industrial waste and power station ash.

  16. Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities. PMID:10417373

  17. Comparison of models for predicting landfill methane recovery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, W.G. [SCS Engineers, Reston, VA (United States); Augenstein, D. [Institute for Environmental Management, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Landfill methane models are tools used to project methane generation over time from a mass of landfilled waste. These models are used for sizing landfill gas (LFG) collection systems, evaluations and projections of LFG energy uses, and regulatory purposes. The objective of this project was to select various landfill methane models and to provide a comparison of model outputs to actual long-term gas recovery data from a number of well managed and suitable landfills. Another objective was to use these data to develop better estimates of confidence limits that can be assigned to model projections. This project assessed trial model forms against field data from available landfills where methane extraction was maximized, waste filling history was well-documented, and other pertinent site information was of superior quality. Data were obtained from 18 US landfills. Four landfill methane models were compared: a zero-order, a simple first order, a modified first order, and a multi-phase first order model. Models were adjusted for best fit to field data to yield parameter combinations based on the minimized residual errors between predicted and experienced methane recovery. The models were optimized in this way using two data treatments: absolute value of the differences (arithmetic error minimization) and absolute value of the natural log of the ratios (logarithmic error minimization).

  18. Analyses of Environmental Impacts of Non Hazardous Regional Landfills in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Donevska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of potential environmental impacts for eight planned non-hazardous regional landfills in Macedonia. Waste quantities for each waste management region and landfill capacities are estimated. Expected leachate quantities are calculated using Water Balance Method. Analyses and comparison of the likely landfill leachate per capita are presented, demonstrating that higher rates of leachate are generated per capita in waste management regions with higher annual sums of rainfall. An assessment of the potential landfill impacts on the water environment taking into consideration local geology and hydrogeology conditions is presented. Some general measures for leachate treatment that are in compliance with the modern EU standards are indicated. The goal of the study is to facilitate a better understanding about the sustainable waste management practices in cases of landfilling of municipal solid waste.

  19. Sandia`s computer support units: The first three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Labs. Computing Dept.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the method by which Sandia National Laboratories has deployed information technology to the line organizations and to the desktop as part of the integrated information services organization under the direction of the Chief Information officer. This deployment has been done by the Computer Support Unit (CSU) Department. The CSU approach is based on the principle of providing local customer service with a corporate perspective. Success required an approach that was both customer compelled at times and market or corporate focused in most cases. Above all, a complete solution was required that included a comprehensive method of technology choices and development, process development, technology implementation, and support. It is the authors hope that this information will be useful in the development of a customer-focused business strategy for information technology deployment and support. Descriptions of current status reflect the status as of May 1997.

  20. Evaluation of Y-12 landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, G.A. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Daugherty, D.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Hutzler, C.W.; Smith, C.M. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA)); Wylie, A.N. (Adams, Craft, Herz, Walker, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-12-12

    The purpose of this project was to provide team members with practical experience in application of Civil Engineering 555, Solid Waste Management principles. Team members chose to evaluate the functional elements of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant's (Y-12's) solid waste management system. The following factors contributed to selection of Y-12'system for evaluation: team members' familiarity with the Y-12 system; knowledge that the Y-12 Centralized Sanitary Landfill II was nearing capacity; and presence of the unique issues posed by special national security and potential radioactive contamination considerations. This report was limited to evaluation of the solid waste management system for conventional solid waste; hazardous radioactive, and radioactive mixed waste were not addressed. The report: (1) describes each functional element including waste generation, storage, collection, transport, processing, recovery, and disposal; (2) identifies and evaluates alternatives for each element and (3) identifies system strengths and recommends opportunities for improvement. 34 figs.

  1. Landfill mining: Case study of a successful metals recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P; Raymond, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is increasing and landfills continue to be the dominant method for managing solid waste. Because of inadequate diversion of reusable and recoverable materials, MSW landfills continue to receive significant quantities of recyclable materials, especially metals. The economic value of landfilled metals is significant, fostering interest worldwide in recovering the landfilled metals through mining. However, economically viable landfill mining for metals has been elusive due to multiple barriers including technological challenges and high costs of processing waste. The objective of this article is to present a case study of an economically successful landfill mining operation specifically to recover metals. The mining operation was at an ashfill, which serves a MSW waste-to-energy facility. Landfill mining operations began in November 2011. Between December 2011 and March 2015, 34,352 Mt of ferrous and non-ferrous metals were recovered and shipped for recycling, which consisted of metals >125 mm (5.2%), 50-125 mm (85.9%), Mining also increased the landfill's airspace by 10,194 m(3) extending the life of the ashfill with an estimated economic value of $267,000. The estimated per-Mt cost for the extraction of metal was $158. This case study demonstrates that ashfills can be profitably mined for metals without financial support from government. Although there are comparatively few ashfills, the results and experience obtained from this case study can help foster further research into the potential recovery of metals from raw, landfilled MSW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A simple model for the distribution and fate of organic chemicals in a landfill: MOCLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2001-01-01

    A simple mathematical model (MOCLA: Model for Organic Chemicals in Landfills) is presented, describing the distribution of organic chemicals between leachate, gas and solid waste. The model also predicts the fate of the chemicals in terms of emissions with leachate and landfill gas and in terms...... of degradation and transformation in the landfill. Local equilibrium is assumed for the distribution of the chemicals in the landfill as expressed by Henry’s Law for the leachate-gas interface, and by the linear partition coefficient based on the waste solid organic carbon content for the waste......-leachate interface. Degradation of the chemicals is expressed as a first order reaction. Annual specific leachate and gas generation data in combination with data on landfill area and volume allow for prediction of main emission routes. Model simulations involving two landfill scenarios for a number of chemicals...

  3. Sandia software guidelines, Volume 4: Configuration management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume is based on the IEEE standard and guide for software configuration management. The basic concepts and detailed guidance on implementation of these concepts are discussed for several software project types. Example planning documents for both projects and organizations are included.

  4. Sandia software guidelines: Software quality planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. In consonance with the IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans, this volume identifies procedures to follow in producing a Software Quality Assurance Plan for an organization or a project, and provides an example project SQA plan. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The Laboratories` strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia`s technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code ``ownership`` and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  6. 75 FR 16037 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 261 Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste... persistence in the environment once released from the waste, plausible and specific types of management of the... RCRA Subtitle D landfill: The Waste Management Industrial Landfill, North Little Rock, Arkansas. D...

  7. Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sandro Lemos; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Nader; Carvalho, Miriam Fatima; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  10. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  11. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  12. Major Sources of Worries and Concerns about Landfills in Lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Department of Physical Development, Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER), Ibadan, Nigeria. felixba2000@yahoo.com. 12. Living with Waste: .... social and behavioural outcomes, as a consequence of actual or perceived .... dumping of wastes into the landfill is very much uncontrolled. This problem ...

  13. Growth and biomass of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; David R. Coyle; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Resource managers are challenged with waste disposal and leachate produced from its degradation. Poplar (Populus spp.) trees offer an opportunity for ecological leachate disposal as an irrigation source for managed tree systems. Our objective was to irrigate Populus trees with municipal solid waste landfill leachate or fertilized well water (control...

  14. Theoretical estimate of landfill gas generation of the future landfill in Ji-Paraná – RO

    OpenAIRE

    Necker, Helder Sumeck; Rosa, Ana Lúcia Denardin da

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2236117010969The final destination of the urban solid waste stills a problem in the bigger part of Brazil, principally, in regions north and northeast. In the city of Ji-Paraná – RO, the current final destination of the solid waste don’t happens in a correct way, and that the project of construction of a landfill for the city already exists and should starts soon. Beyond the most appropriate way of urban solid waste final destination, the landfills can be a way of ob...

  15. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  16. An integrated approach combining chemical analysis and an in vivo bioassay to assess the estrogenic potency of a municipal solid waste landfill leachate in Qingdao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Gong

    Full Text Available Various adverse effects related to landfill leachate have made leachates an important issue in past decades, and it has been demonstrated that landfill leachate is an important source of environmental estrogens. In this study, we employed chemical analysis of some already evaluated estrogenic substances, in combination with a bioassay using several specific biomarkers (e.g., plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids, enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and gonadosomatic index to evaluate the estrogenic activities in outlets from different stages of the leachate treatment process. The results indicated that 5 environmental estrogens (4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol A, di-ethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate were detected by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the concentrations in leachate samples were 6153 ng/L, 3642 ng/L, 2139 ng/L, 5900 ng/L, and 9422 ng/L, respectively. Leachate (1∶200 diluted induced the synthesis of plasma vitellogenin and led to decreased enzyme activity of gonad gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and gonadosomatic index in male goldfish (Carassius auratus after a 28-day exposure, while increased circulating 17β-estradiol level was also observed in males exposed to treated effluent. Although the target EEs were partially removed with removal rates varying from 87.2% to 99.77% by the "membrane bioreactor+reverse osmosis+aeration zeolite biofilter" treatment process, the treated effluent is still estrogenic to fish. The method combined chemical techniques with the responses of test organisms allowing us to identify the group of estrogen-like chemicals so that we were able to evaluate the overall estrogenic effects of a complex mixture, avoiding false negative assessments.

  17. Building business from technology: The Sandia experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traylor, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes New Ventures, a new initiative at Sandia National Laboratories that encourages the creation of new businesses based on laboratory technology as a timely, efficient means of technology transfer. Sandia`s New Ventures program has shown that a dedicated effort can produce significant results. In the three years prior to this program`s launch, just two ventures per year on average were created based on laboratory technology. By comparison, the New Ventures program has enabled 20 new ventures in its first nine months of full operation.

  18. Optimizing landfill site selection by using land classification maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M; Homaee, M; Mahmoodi, S; Pazira, E; Van Genuchten, M Th

    2015-05-01

    Municipal solid waste disposal is a major environmental concern throughout the world. Proper landfill siting involves many environmental, economic, technical, and sociocultural challenges. In this study, a new quantitative method for landfill siting that reduces the number of evaluation criteria, simplifies siting procedures, and enhances the utility of available land evaluation maps was proposed. The method is demonstrated by selecting a suitable landfill site near the city of Marvdasht in Iran. The approach involves two separate stages. First, necessary criteria for preliminary landfill siting using four constraints and eight factors were obtained from a land classification map initially prepared for irrigation purposes. Thereafter, the criteria were standardized using a rating approach and then weighted to obtain a suitability map for landfill siting, with ratings in a 0-1 domain and divided into five suitability classes. Results were almost identical to those obtained with a more traditional environmental landfill siting approach. Because of far fewer evaluation criteria, the proposed weighting method was much easier to implement while producing a more convincing database for landfill siting. The classification map also considered land productivity. In the second stage, the six best alternative sites were evaluated for final landfill siting using four additional criteria. Sensitivity analyses were furthermore conducted to assess the stability of the obtained ranking. Results indicate that the method provides a precise siting procedure that should convince all pertinent stakeholders.

  19. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  20. Municipality of Isabela Agrees to Environmental Improvements at Landfill, Settlement with EPA Sets Timetable for Landfills Closure and Launches Recycling Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Municipality of Isabela, Puerto Rico, have reached a legal agreement that will result in upgrades at the Isabela Municipal Solid Waste Landfill, and a plan to permanently close the landfill

  1. Health effects of living in the vicinity of the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites are the easiest, the cheapest and the most common way of waste management and disposal. In the face of the increasing amount of waste, the dynamics of globalization and urbanization process, waste management is an important issue of ecological policy in highly developed countries. Landfill sites intensify environmental threats for the neighborhood and give rise to toxic substances which impair human health being released from the landfills. These are persistent organic pollutants (POPs, heavy metals and also biological gas, bioaerosols, bacteria and viruses. Scientists have conducted a lot of research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on human health living in their vicinity. They found increased occurrence of congenital anomalies, increased risk of certain cancers and low birth weight of infants. The results of the studies didn’t deliver absolute proof of relation between the impact of landfill sites on the induction of cancer and other diseases. There is a necessity to conduct further research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on people health living in the vicinity

  2. Physic-chemical evaluation of leach and water from the Borba Gato streamlet within the catchment area of the urban waste landfill of Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i1.6771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eliane Echeverria Borges

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The physic-chemical characteristics of leach deposited in the landfill waste pond and of water from the Borba Gato streamlet are evaluated. Twenty-six physic-chemical parameters were analyzed from three collection sites, or rather, two in the streamlet, one upstream (P-01 and one downstream (P-02 of the landfill waste pond, and one in the leach deposit pond (P-03. The streamlet area under analysis was impacted due to being in an agricultural area and for its urban waste deposits. Parameter concentrations of aluminum, iron and mercury were reported above the quality standard of freshwater, according to Conama 357/2005 resolution (class 2. Further, throughout the rainy period, the ammoniac nitrogen content was above the resolution quality standard for fresh water. Moreover, landfill leach was above standards of effluent discharge established by Conama 357/2005. An efficient treatment for the effluent generated in Maringá is required since there is evidence of leach pollution of the Borba Gato streamlet.

  3. NNSA Master Asset Map - Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billie, Gepetta S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report gives information on the following topics related to Sandia National Laboratories: site leadership's vision, condition, footprint management, major gaps and risks, and proposed investment plan.

  4. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: computation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report characterizes the computation systems capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. 9 figures.

  5. Summary of Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-05-01

    The technical capabilities of Sandia Laboratories are detailed in a series of companion reports. In this summary the use of the capabilities in technical programs is outlined and the capabilities are summarized. 25 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...... blown with CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HFC- 134a, and HFC-245fa revealed that most of the blowing agent is not released to the atmosphere during a six-week period following the shredding process. The fraction which is released in the six-week period is highly dependent on how fine the foam is shredded....... The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...

  7. On-site treatment and landfilling of MSWI air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC-residue a......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are difficult to landfill due to substantial leaching of trace metals. An on-site pretreatment prior to landfilling of APC-residues was investigated in terms of bench-scale experiments with a semidry APC......-residue and a fly ash. The treatment involved mixing of the residues with a ferrous sulphate solution and subsequent oxidation of the suspension. Afterwards, the suspension was spread on a dedicated landfill section and allowed to drain by gravity through the drainage system of the landfill. The wastewater from...

  8. Baseline ecological footprint of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coplen, Amy K.; Mizner, Jack Harry,; Ubechel, Norion M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ecological Footprint Model is a mechanism for measuring the environmental effects of operations at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). This analysis quantifies environmental impact associated with energy use, transportation, waste, land use, and water consumption at SNL/NM for fiscal year 2005 (FY05). Since SNL/NMs total ecological footprint (96,434 gha) is greater than the waste absorption capacity of its landholdings (338 gha), it created an ecological deficit of 96,096 gha. This deficit is equal to 886,470lha, or about 3,423 square miles of Pinyon-Juniper woodlands and desert grassland. 89% of the ecological footprint can be attributed to energy use, indicating that in order to mitigate environmental impact, efforts should be focused on energy efficiency, energy reduction, and the incorporation of additional renewable energy alternatives at SNL/NM.

  9. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  10. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  11. Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

  12. Sustainable Impact of Landfill Siting towards Urban Planning in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin Tey, Jia; Goh, Kai Chen; Ern Ang, Peniel Soon

    2017-10-01

    Landfill is one of the most common, widely used waste management technique in Malaysia. The ever increasing of solid waste has made the role of landfill become prominent despite the negative impacts that caused by the landfill is unavoidable. The public and government regulations are getting more aware with the negative impacts that could be brought by the landfill towards the community. It led to the cultural shift to integrate the concept of sustainability into the planning of siting a landfill in an urban area. However, current urban planning tends to emphasize more on the environmental aspect instead of social and economic aspects. This is due to the existing planning guidelines and stakeholder’s understandings are more on the environmental aspect. This led to the needs of incorporating the concept of sustainability into the urban planning. Thus, this paper focuses on the industry stakeholders view on the negative impacts that will cause by the landfill towards the urban planning. The industry stakeholders are those who are related to the decision-making in the selection of a landfill site in the government department. The scope of the study is within the country of Malaysia. This study was conducted through the semi-structured interviews with a total of fifteen industry stakeholders to obtain their perspective on the issues of impacts of siting a landfill in the urban area. The data obtained was analysed using the software, QSR NVivo version 10. Results indicate that landfill bought significant sustainability-related impacts towards landfill siting in urban planning. The negative impacts stated by the respondents are categorized under all three sustainable aspects such as environmental, social and economic. Among the results are such as the pollution, such as the generation of leachate, the objection in siting a landfill site against by the public, and the negotiating and getting money contribution from local authorities. The results produced can be served

  13. Stimulation of methane oxidation potential and effects on vegetation growth by bottom ash addition in a landfill final evapotranspiration cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, G.W.; Ho, A.; Kim, P.J.; Kim, Sang Yun

    2016-01-01

    The landfilling of municipal solid waste is a significant source of atmospheric methane (CH4), contributing up to 20% of total anthropogenic CH4 emissions. The evapotranspiration (ET) cover system, an alternative final cover system in waste landfills, has been considered to be a promising way to

  14. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  15. Bioremediation and degradation of CCA-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Bioprocessing CCA wood waste is an efficient and economical alternative to depositing the waste in landfills, especially if landfill restrictions on CCA waste are imposed nation wide. We have developed bioremediation and degradation technologies for microbial processing of CCA waste. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood decay fungi,...

  16. Assessment of benefits and risks of landfill materials for agriculture in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfai, Mehreteab; Dresher, Silke

    2009-02-01

    In Eritrea, farmers have applied landfill materials as fertiliser to their fields for several decades. A sampling scheme in the landfill site of Asmara and selected farmers' fields was carried out to investigate the benefits and risks of using landfill materials for agriculture. Soil samples were collected from farmers' fields (7 samples) and from the Asmara landfill site (12 samples). The samples were analysed for major plant nutrients, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg and Zn), and some physical properties. Nearly 65% (by weight) of the total landfill material mined from the landfill site constituted waste fractions of various substances. The remaining 35% was composed of soil-like materials, which are apparently used to fertilize agricultural soils. The average organic matter, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus contents of soils with landfill material measured 2.4%, 0.13%, and 45 mg kg(-1), respectively. However, soils without landfill material consisted of 1.1 % organic matter, 0.04% total N, and <40 mg kg(-1) of available P. Except for Hg, all the other heavy metals in the landfill site showed values above the permissible limits. In particular, the average concentrations of Cu (913 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (598 mg kg(-1)) in the landfill site were nine-fold and four-fold greater than the allowable limits, respectively. It is, therefore, suggested that composting fresh organic wastes should be considered and tested as an alternative material for fertilising agricultural soils and to maintain the quality of the environment.

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceutical Organic Compounds in the Groundwater Downgradient of a Landfill (Grindsted, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, John V.; Rügge, Kirsten; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1995-01-01

    in the plume (4). In this paper, we describe the occurrence and distribution of organic compounds originating from waste from the pharmaceutical industry in the groundwater downgradient of the same landfill. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on pharmaceutical compounds in a leachate plume.......Usually landfill leachates contain specific organic compounds as BTEXs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorobenzenes originating from household chemicals and waste from small businesses (I). However, where industrial waste has been landfilled...

  18. Gas Production Potential in the Landfill of Tehran by Landfill Methane Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource. Objectives In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated. Materials and Methods The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015. Results The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2

  19. Scaling of ammonia stripping towers in the treatment of groundwater polluted by municipal solid waste landfill leachate: study of the causes of scaling and its effects on stripping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Viotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the causes of the scaling of stripping towers used for the treatment of groundwater polluted by the leachate from an old municipal solid waste (MSW landfill in northern Italy. The effects of the scaling on the stripping performance are also reported. The whole process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, followed by an ammonia stripping stage, after heating the water to 38°C in order to improve removal efficiency. The stripped ammonia is recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate (reused as a base fertilizer. The effluent air stream is recirculated to the stripping towers (closed loop systems in order to avoid an excessive temperature drop inside the packings, mainly in winter, with consequent loss of efficiency and risk of icing. The progressive scaling of the packing has resulted in a loss of ammonia removal efficiency from an initial value of 98% (clean packing down to 80% after six months of continuous operation, necessitating a chemical cleaning. Optimum conditions for design and operation of the stripping process are also documented.

  20. 2016 Annual Site Environmental Report Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Angela Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at SNL, New Mexico. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs at SNL/NM during calendar year 2