WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste land treatment

  1. Environment Canada research on land treatment of petroleum wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulman, T.L.; Scroggins, R.P. (Wastewater Technolgy Centre, Burlington, Ontario (CA))

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the studies presented in this book is to identify wastes which can be applied to land in an environmentally acceptable manner and to provide information on which to base guidelines for the proper application of such wastes to land. The information which has been collected to date has focused on the persistence and fate of oil and toxic constituents of petroleum wastes when applied to soil, potential environmental impacts and risk to human health associated with application to land, and site managements techniques which enhance treatment of organic constituents of wastes while protecting environmental quality. The potential for contamination of groundwater, the accumulation of hazardous substances in soil and effects on plant growth have undergone the most intensive investigation to date. Impingement on air quality has received limited study.

  2. State-of-the-art of land treatment of corrosive and ignitable waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villacorta, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    This research was conducted to provide state-of-the-art information on land application of ignitable (D001) and corrosive (D002) waste (ICW). Land application is considered a relatively new technology and there is very little experience in industry on land application of ICW. The report provides information on existing current practices relating to land treatment of ignitable and corrosive wastes. Data is presented on current disposal methods, characteristics and quantities of ICW generated by EPA Region, total number of facilities generating ICW, current pretreatment and post-treatment technology. An important section discusses the general considerations, design criteria and site-specific design for land application of ICW. The laboratory study emphasizes the concept of biodegradation in the assimilative capacity of the soil for ICW whereby the effect of solvent recovery waste on bacterial populations in the unsaturated zone was studied. The final section of this report discusses life cycle cost, site specific life cycle cost, and a comparative technique to evaluate alternative treatment technologies and risk assessment which are important parameters of land application.

  3. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  4. Land, Waste, and Cleanup Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    After reducing waste as much as possible through recycling and sustainability, managing waste protects land quality. EPA is also involved in cleaning up and restoring contaminated land, through brownfield and superfund programs.

  5. 76 FR 34200 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Revision of the Treatment Standards for Carbamate Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... carbamate wastes must be treated to meet numeric concentration limits before they can be land disposed... numeric LDR concentration limits have been met. Therefore, we are proposing as an alternative the use of..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-HQ- RCRA-2008-0332, by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations...

  6. 76 FR 30027 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Direct Final rule pertains to the treatment of a hazardous waste generated by the Owens-Brockway Glass... Jesse Miller, Materials Recovery and Waste Management Division, Office of Resource Conservation and... 20460; telephone (703) 308-1180; fax (703) 308-0522; or miller.jesse@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  7. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  8. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  9. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  10. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  11. Treatment of organic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1979-01-01

    An organic waste containing at least one element selected from the group consisting of strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium is treated to achieve a substantial reduction in the volume of the waste and provide for fixation of the selected element in an inert salt. The method of treatment comprises introducing the organic waste and a source of oxygen into a molten salt bath maintained at an elevated temperature to produce solid and gaseous reaction products. The gaseous reaction products comprise carbon dioxide and water vapor, and the solid reaction products comprise the inorganic ash constituents of the organic waste and the selected element which is retained in the molten salt. The molten salt bath comprises one or more alkali metal carbonates, and may optionally include from 1 to about 25 wt.% of an alkali metal sulfate.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  13. Characterisation of winery wastewater from continuous flow settling basins and waste stabilisation ponds over the course of 1 year: implications for biological wastewater treatment and land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, P J; Holtman, G; Haldenwang, R; le Roes-Hill, M

    2016-11-01

    Wineries generate 0.2 to 4 L of wastewater per litre of wine produced. Many cellars make use of irrigation as a means of disposal, either directly or after storage. In order to consider the potential downstream impacts of storage/no storage, this study critically compared the seasonal organic and inorganic composition of fresh winery effluent with effluent that had been stored in waste stabilisation ponds. Ethanol and short chain volatile fatty acids were the main contributors to chemical oxygen demand (COD), with average concentrations of 2,086 and 882 mgCOD/L, respectively. Total phenolics were typically present in concentrations treatment, with COD:N ratios of 0.09 to 1.2. There was an accumulation of propionic and butyric acid during storage. The composition of the pond effluent was more stable in character, and it is possible that bacterial and algal nitrogen fixation in such systems may enhance biological wastewater treatment by natural nitrogen supplementation. It is therefore recommended that if land requirements can be met, winery effluent should be stored in ponds prior to treatment.

  14. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  15. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  16. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R.; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R.; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-01

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025.

  17. Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna R; Geyer, Roland; Wilcox, Chris; Siegler, Theodore R; Perryman, Miriam; Andrady, Anthony; Narayan, Ramani; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-02-13

    Plastic debris in the marine environment is widely documented, but the quantity of plastic entering the ocean from waste generated on land is unknown. By linking worldwide data on solid waste, population density, and economic status, we estimated the mass of land-based plastic waste entering the ocean. We calculate that 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated in 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean. Population size and the quality of waste management systems largely determine which countries contribute the greatest mass of uncaptured waste available to become plastic marine debris. Without waste management infrastructure improvements, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste available to enter the ocean from land is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Colin John

    2012-01-01

    Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land was considered with reference to seven published works on contaminated railway land including the track ballast, crude oil wastes and contaminated refinery soils. A methodology was developed...

  19. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  20. Waste water treatment by flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Badulescu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The flotation is succesfully applied as a cleaning method of waste water refineries, textile fabrics (tissues, food industry, paper plants, oils plants, etc. In the flotation process with the released air, first of all, the water is saturated with air compressed at pressures between 0,3 – 3 bar, followed by the relaxed phenomenon of the air-water solution in a flotation cell with slowly flowing. The supersaturation could be applied in the waste water treatment. In this case the waste water, which is in the atmospheric equilibrum, is introduced in a closed space where the depression is 0,3 – 0,5 bar. Our paper presents the hypobaric flotation cell and the technological flow of cleaning of domestic waste waters

  1. Treatment of textile wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Krsteva, Silvana; Golomeova, Saska

    2013-01-01

    The production of a textile requires several stages of mechanical processing such as spinning, weaving, knitting, and garment production, which seem to be insulated from the wet treatment processes like pretreatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing operations. Тhere is a strong interrelation between treatment processes in the dry state and consecutive wet treatments. Most of the processes and products have a negative impact on the environment. Laws and standards for environmental protection a...

  2. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under this task, electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This technology targets the (1) destruction of nitrates, nitrites and organic compounds; (2) removal of radionuclides; and (3) removal of RCRA metals. The development program consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of test data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from national laboratories, academic institutions, and private industry. Possible benefits of this technology include: (1) improved radionuclide separation as a result of the removal of organic complexants, (2) reduction in the concentrations of hazardous and radioactive species in the waste (e.g., removal of nitrate, mercury, chromium, cadmium, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 106}Ru), (3) reduction in the size of the off-gas handling equipment for the vitrification of low-level waste (LLW) by reducing the source of NO{sub x} emissions, (4) recovery of chemicals of value (e.g. sodium hydroxide), and (5) reduction in the volume of waste requiring disposal.

  3. A Primer on Waste Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC. Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.

    This information pamphlet is for teachers, students, or the general public concerned with the types of waste water treatment systems, the need for further treatment, and advanced methods of treating wastes. Present day pollution control methods utilizing primary and secondary waste treatment plants, lagoons, and septic tanks are described,…

  4. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R

    2006-01-01

    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  5. Land-use and alternative bioenergy pathways for waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J E; Block, E

    2010-11-15

    Rapid escalation in biofuels consumption may lead to a trade regime that favors exports of food-based biofuels from tropical developing countries to developed countries. There is growing interest in mitigating the land-use impacts of these potential biofuels exports by converting biorefinery waste streams into cellulosic ethanol, potentially reducing the amount of land needed to meet production goals. This increased land-use efficiency for ethanol production may lower the land-use greenhouse gas emissions of ethanol but would come at the expense of converting the wastes into bioelectricity which may offset fossil fuel-based electricity and could provide a vital source of domestic electricity in developing countries. Here we compare these alternative uses of wastes with respect to environmental and energy security outcomes considering a range of electricity production efficiencies, ethanol yields, land-use scenarios, and energy offset assumptions. For a given amount of waste biomass, we found that using bioelectricity production to offset natural gas achieves 58% greater greenhouse gas reductions than using cellulosic ethanol to offset gasoline but similar emissions when cellulosic ethanol is used to offset the need for more sugar cane ethanol. If bioelectricity offsets low-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power then the liquid fuels pathway is preferred. Exports of cellulosic ethanol may have a small impact on the energy security of importing nations while bioelectricity production may have relatively large impacts on the energy security in developing countries.

  6. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  7. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    1996-10-01

    Electrochemical treatment processes are being evaluated and developed for the destruction of organic compounds and nitrates/nitrites and the removal of other hazardous species from liquid wastes stored throughout the DOE complex. This activity consists of five major tasks: (1) evaluation of different electrochemical reactors for the destruction and removal of hazardous waste components, (2) development and validation of engineering process models, (3) radioactive laboratory-scale tests, (4) demonstration of the technology in an engineering-scale size reactor, and (5) analysis and evaluation of testing data. The development program team is comprised of individuals from federal, academic, and private industry. Work is being carried out in DOE, academic, and private industrial laboratories.

  9. Thermal waste treatment; Thermische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulstich, M.; Urban, A.I.; Bilitewski, B. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    One effect of the enactment of the new Law on Recycling and Waste Management, in conjunction with the lowering of emission limit values, has been to bring thermal water treatment more and more into the focus of the discussion on optimal water utilisation. The present volume discusses the consequences of changing waste arisings and composition for various process combinations. [Deutsch] Durch das Inkrafttreten des neuen Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes und strengeren Emissionsgrenzwerten rueckt immer mehr die thermische Abfallbehandlung in den Vordergrund der Diskussionen um die optimale Abfallverwertung. Die Folgen der sich veraendernden Abfallmengen und -zusammensetzungen im Hinblick auf Anlagenauslastung, Feuerungstechnik, Rueckstaende und Kosten werden eroertert. Es werden verschiedene Verfahrenskombinationen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Verschiedene Moeglichkeiten der Klaerschlammbehandlung und der Einsatz der Reststoffe Asche und Schlacke in der Bauindustrie werden behandelt. (ABI)

  10. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant land management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    On October 30, 1992, the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act became law. This Act transferred the responsibility for the management of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Area (WILWA) from the Secretary of the Interior to the Secretary of Energy. In accordance with sections 3(a)(1) and (3) of the Act, these lands {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}are withdrawn from all forms of entry, appropriation, and disposal under the public land laws{hor_ellipsis}{close_quotes}and are reserved for the use of the Secretary of Energy {open_quotes}{hor_ellipsis}for the construction, experimentation, operation, repair and maintenance, disposal, shutdown, monitoring, decommissioning, and other activities, associated with the purposes of WIPP as set forth in the Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Act of 1980 and this Act.{close_quotes}. As a complement to this LMP, a MOU has been executed between the DOE and the BLM, as required by section 4(d) of the Act. The state of New Mexico was consulted in the development of the MOU and the associated Statement of Work (SOW).

  12. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    Abstract. The National Water Act, 1998 (Act 36 of 1998) mandates the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to manage all water ... ground rules and management framework that will be applied to the discharge of land-derived wastewater to the marine ..... inventory of waste discharges to the marine environment, both in.

  13. Experiences Spreading Organic Solid Wastes on Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Wilhoit; L.J. Samuelson

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews experiences spreading organic solid wastes on forest land over the past six years. Presented are some of the first-ever reported results on tree growth responses from fertilizing pine trees with poultry litter, spreader distribution pattern results for spreading in a pine plantation stand, and a discussion of equipment-related experiences spreading...

  14. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Water Act, 1998 (Act 36 of 1998) mandates the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to manage all water containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment. These sources include sea outfalls, storm water drains, canals, rivers ...

  15. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  16. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Shi, Wenxiao; Wang, Yutao; Chen, Wei; Li, Xiangzhi

    2015-04-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The radioactive wastes treatment enterprises and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Pol`skij, O.G.; Verbov, V.V.; Verbova, L.F.; Puzanov, Y.V.; Paramonova, T.I. [SIA Radon, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Radioactive waste treatment is not a scientific problem only but also a social-and-economical problem. Dislike the activity of the waste treatment enterprises is a result of the population ignorance about impact level of those enterprises on environment. The results of radioecological inspection of 19 Russian enterprises for treatment of radioactive wastes are presented. Method of the impact estimation is described. No influence on the environment is displayed.

  18. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...... treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies....

  19. From waste water treatment to land management: Conversion of aquatic biomass to biochar for soil amelioration and the fortification of crops with essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Cole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-07-01

    Macroalgae can be grown in industrial waste water to sequester metals and the resulting biomass used for biotechnological applications. We have previously cultivated the freshwater macroalga Oedogonium at a coal-fired power station to treat a metal-contaminated effluent from that facility. We then produced biochar from this biomass and determined the suitability of both the biomass and the biochar for soil amelioration. The dried biomass of Oedogonium cultivated in the waste water contained several elements for which there are terrestrial biosolids criteria (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se and Zn) and leached significant amounts of these elements into solution. Here, we demonstrate that these biomass leachates impair the germination and growth of radishes as a model crop. However, the biochar produced from this same biomass leaches negligible amounts of metal into solution and the leachates support high germination and growth of radishes. Biochar produced at 750 °C leaches the least metal and has the highest recalcitrant C content. When this biochar is added to a low-quality soil it improves the retention of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, K and Mo) from fertilizer in the soil and the growth of radishes by 35-40%. Radishes grown in the soils amended with the biochar have equal or lower metal contents than radishes grown in soil without biochar, but much higher concentrations of essential trace elements (Mo) and macro nutrients (P, K, Ca and Mg). The cultivation of macroalgae is an effective waste water bioremediation technology that also produces biomass that can be used as a feedstock for conversion to biochar for soil amelioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 270.63 - Permits for land treatment demonstrations using field test or laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permits for land treatment demonstrations using field test or laboratory analyses. 270.63 Section 270.63 Protection of Environment... HAZARDOUS WASTE PERMIT PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.63 Permits for land treatment demonstrations...

  1. Effects of waste treatment technique and quality of waste on bioaerosols in Finnish waste treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolvanen, O.

    2004-07-01

    The last fifteen years have seen immense changes in waste treatment in Finland. The number of landfill sites has been reduced and new waste treatment plants have been constructed; source separation of the various waste fractions has been become increasingly effective. At the same time, considerable attention has been paid to environmental factors such as odour problems. Another important factor at waste treatment plants is the working conditions of employees. Earlier, there were numerous problems with occupational hygiene in sewage treatment plants and landfills. The present study was undertaken to determine whether serious problems with bioaerosols still exist now that there are new waste treatment techniques and waste is sorted. The concentrations of dust, microbes and endotoxins were investigated at one windrow composting site in 1993-1994 and at eight waste treatment plants in 1998-2003. The best environment in regard to occupational hygiene was the combined drum and tunnel composting plant in Heinola. The most problematic area in the plant was the storage room (tunnel) for compost, but the concentrations of bioaerosols were low even there. At the composting plant in Hyvinkaeae, where the same kind of technique was in use, there were problems with bioaerosols in all working areas investigated. The same problems were encountered in dirty working areas in a drum composting plant in Oulu; in the control room number of bioaerosols was low. Conditions were worst in the dry waste treatment plant in Tampere, where viable microbes were a particular problem in the processing hall. As well, the concentrations of dust and endotoxin were occasionally increased to a level harmful to human health. The dry waste was most affected with microbes, while the treatment of wood waste caused problems with dust. In the other plants of the study, sorting and crushing of waste caused the highest concentrations of bioaerosols. The two most common air-borne fungi at every plant were

  2. Mixed Waste Encapsulation in Polyester Resins. Treatment for Mixed Wastes Containing Salts. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference #1685

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous solid mixed wastes, such as treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of nitrate, sulfate, and chloride salts makes traditional cement stabilization of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. Salts can effect the setting rate of cements and can react with cement hydration products to form expansive and cement damaging compounds. Many of these salt wastes are in a dry granular form and are the by-product of treating spent acidic and metal solutions used to recover and reformulate nuclear weapons materials over the past 50 years. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) alone, there is approximately 8,000 cubic meters of nitrate salts (potassium and sodium nitrate) stored above ground with an earthen cover. Current estimates indicate that over 200 million kg of contaminated salt wastes exist at various DOE sites. Continued primary treatment of waste water coupled with the use of mixed waste incinerators may generate an additional 5 million kg of salt-containing, mixed waste residues each year. One of the obvious treatment solutions for these salt-containing wastes is to immobilize the hazardous components to meet Environmental Protection Agency/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (EPA/RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), thus rendering the mixed waste to a radioactive waste only classification. One proposed solution is to use thermal treatment via vitrification to immobilize the hazardous component and thereby substantially reduce the volume, as well as provide exceptional durability. However, these melter systems involve expensive capital apparatus with complicated off-gas systems. In addition, the vitrification of high salt waste may cause foaming and usually requires extensive development to specify glass

  3. Life cycle assessment of electronic waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jinglan, E-mail: hongjing@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong University Climate Change and Health Center, Public Health School, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Shi, Wenxiao [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Yutao [School of Life Science, Shandong University, Shanda South Road 27, Jinan 250100 (China); Chen, Wei [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Li, Xiangzhi, E-mail: xiangzhi@sdu.edu.cn [School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Life cycle assessment of electronic waste recycling is quantified. • Key factors for reducing the overall environmental impact are indentified. • End-life disposal processes provide significant environmental benefits. • Efficiently reduce the improper disposal amount of e-waste is highly needed. • E-waste incineration can generate significant environmental burden. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment was conducted to estimate the environmental impact of electronic waste (e-waste) treatment. E-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario is environmentally beneficial because of the low environmental burden generated from human toxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, and marine ecotoxicity categories. Landfill and incineration technologies have a lower and higher environmental burden than the e-waste recycling with an end-life disposal scenario, respectively. The key factors in reducing the overall environmental impact of e-waste recycling are optimizing energy consumption efficiency, reducing wastewater and solid waste effluent, increasing proper e-waste treatment amount, avoiding e-waste disposal to landfill and incineration sites, and clearly defining the duties of all stakeholders (e.g., manufacturers, retailers, recycling companies, and consumers)

  4. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    waste and waste water treatment as in pyrolysis, solar incineration and gasification for solid wastes treatment and solar pathogenic organic destruction, solar photocatalytic degradation, solar distillation and desalination for waste water treatment. These waste treatment methods require light from the sun to photocatalyse ...

  5. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste activated carbon for waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for waste water treatment over the last decades. The low materials originated from various sources such as agricultural sources and byproducts, agricultural residues and wastes, low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced .The farming waste material has to be disposed either safely or must be reused for some valuable purpose. In this consent Ceiba Pentradenta Wood waste, an agricultural waste material which is being converted as Activated carbon in presence of Nitrogen atmosphere at 7000 C is used as an adsorbent for dye removal. The portrayal studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, soluble matter (water, acid, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, ion exchange capacity, percentage content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in treatment of the water and wastewater. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  6. Sequential biological waste water treatment - new approaches to decentralized waste water treatment. [Sequential biological cleaning]. SBR-Technik: Neue Moeglichkeiten in der dezentralen Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupold, C. (DYWIDAG Beton- und Umweltprodukte GmbH, Zeithain (Germany)); Raupp, M. (DYWIDAG Beton- und Umweltprodukte GmbH, Zeithain (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    Optimum new waste water treatment solutions are urgently required to improve pollution abatement in the new Lands of unified Germany. Sequential biological waste water treatment opens up completely new prospects of decentralized waste water treatment on account of short construction periods, minimum space requirements and an excellent purification. This state-of-the-art method is a time-oriented sludge activation method which was developed by TU Muenchen and the DYWIDAG group. Different chemical conditions can be adjusted for carbon degradation, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphate elimination in one reactor without secondary settler and return-sludge treatment. Space requirements and investment costs are minimized in that way. A PC-controlled waste water treatment plant which can be monitored through long-distance data transmission from a supervisory control center together with other waste water treatment plants is introduced. (orig.)

  7. Female wastelanders revisited: gender equality in The Waste Land

    OpenAIRE

    Paniagua Villoria, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Durante muchos años, la crítica literaria ha tachado The Waste Land, de T. S. Eliot, de poema misógino, pero ambos sexos parecen estar condenados bajo el tema principal del poema: la esterilidad de las relaciones humanas. El enfoque de este análisis libera al poema de tal etiqueta, ofreciendo así una visión más conciliadora y ecuánime del poeta, el cual no culpabiliza ni victimiza en su totalidad al género femenino, sino que retrata a ambos sexos tanto como culpables como de víctimas de la au...

  8. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  9. Chemicals and Allied Products Waste Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tse Hung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature published from 2008 to 2010 on topics related to chemicals and allied products is presented. The review considered several sections such as waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic treatment, anaerobic treatment, air emissions, soils and groundwater, and reuse.

  10. Treatment of batik waste using distillation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Sidiq, Nurma Yunita; Hidayah, Nailil

    2017-12-01

    In this study has been the treatment of batik waste using distillation method. This study aims to the treatment of batik waste using distillation method. Batik is a world heritage that has an impact on economic improvement and environmental damage. Batik waste is a hazardous and toxic waste material. Batik waste in this research has been taken from Batik Industry in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Batik waste of 5 L is included in the distillation apparatus, then the distillation run for 4 hours. The distillation product of solids and liquids is collected and analyzed. The solid produced at the distillation boiler was analyzed by FTIR. The distillation liquid was analyzed ammonia and COD concentration using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The result of the analysis showed that based on FTIR spectra obtained by dye with high purity. The analysis results shown are of ammonia, COD and pH were 0.652 mg/L, 238.31 mg/L, and 7.306, respectively. The compounds produced by boiler are the azo dye based on the spectrum at wave numbers 1554.07 cm-1. The conclusion of this research is that the distillation method is very suitable for the treatment of the batik waste at small batik industry. Advantages of distillation techniques that can be obtained two products are water and dye that can be used in batik industry.

  11. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  12. REVIEW ON NATURAL METHODS FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Kumar Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, the most common method of disposal of waste water is by land spreading. This treatment method has numerous problems, namely high labor requirements and the potential for eutrophication of surface an d ground waters. Constructed wetlands are commonl y used for treatment of seconda ry municipal wastewaters and they have been gaining popularity for treatment of agricultural wastewaters in Ethiopia. Intermittent sand filtration may offer an alternative to traditional treatment methods. As well as providing comparable treatment performance, they also have a smaller footprint, due to the substantially higher organic loading rates that may be applied to their surfaces. Th is paper discusses the performance and design criteria of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic and agricultural wastewater, and sand filters for the treatment of domestic wastewater. It also proposes sand filtration as an alt ernative treatment mechanism for agricultural wa stewater and suggests design guide lines.

  13. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  14. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  15. 1994 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al. 1992). The text of this milestone is below. LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the US Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration at other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: waste characterization plan; storage report; treatment report; treatment plan; waste minimization plan; a schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; a process for establishing interim milestones. The original plan was published in October 1990. This is the fourth of a series of annual updates required by Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-26-01. A Tri-Party Agreement change request approved in March 1992 changed the annual due date from October to April and consolidated this report with a similar one prepared under Milestone M-25-00. The reporting period for this report is from April 1, 1993, to March 31, 1994.

  16. Waste Not, Want Not: Role of Waste Generation, Management, and Treatment in Food-Energy-Water Nexus Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    While the food-water-energy (FEW) nexus framework has focused on the interactions between primary production and resource requirements (for example, water used to produce electricity), the waste component of these interactions has been largely overlooked. We use the electric utility industry as a case study to explore the burden posed by waste generation, management, and treatment. Using EPA datasets such as the Toxics Release Inventory, we quantify the current waste budget for the electric utility industry. Some aspects of generated waste from the electric utility industry are well-known (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants). Others, however, such as discharges to water and associated water and energy requirements used for treatment are less understood. Overall, the electric industry accounts for 25% of all US air releases, 21% of surface water discharges, and 28% of all land releases. We conclude with a proposed framework to incorporate waste more systematically into the FEW dialogue.

  17. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  18. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    world has been adopted as a very sustainable source of energy for waste treatment. Its application in both solid waste and waste water treatment as in pyrolysis, solar incineration and gasification for solid wastes treatment and solar pathogenic organic destruction, solar photocatalytic degradation, solar distillation and ...

  19. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household...

  20. Waste water treatment in Bukkerup (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Overgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    In connection to the new waste water plan of Tølløse municipal the technical and environmental board has suggested that Bukkerup get a sewer system which brings the waste water to the treatment plant for Tysinge. All though the residents would like to list alternative suggestions which improve...... the local water environment but is still competitive.In this report the alternatives are listed, e.i. root system plants, sand filters and mini treatment plants.The conclusion is that root system plants and a combination of root system plants and sand filters are better that the sewer system....

  1. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  2. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  3. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  4. Thermoradiation treatment of sewage sludge using reactor waste fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M. C.; Hagengruber, R. L.; Zuppero, A. C.

    1974-06-01

    The hazards to public health associated with the application of municipal sewage sludge to land usage are reviewed to establish the need for disinfection of sludge prior to its distribution as a fertilizer, especially in the production of food and fodder. The use of ionizing radiation in conjunction with mild heating is shown to be an effective disinfection treatment and an economical one when reactor waste fission products are utilized. A program for researching and experimental demonstration of the process on sludges is also outlined.

  5. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  6. Monetising the impacts of waste incinerators sited on brownfield land using the hedonic pricing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Casado, Monica; Serafini, Jan; Glen, John; Angus, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    In England and Wales planning regulations require local governments to treat waste near its source. This policy principle alongside regional self-sufficiency and the logistical advantages of minimising distances for waste treatment mean that energy from waste incinerators have been built close to, or even within urban conurbations. There is a clear policy and research need to balance the benefits of energy production from waste incinerators against the negative externalities experienced by local residents. However, the monetary costs of nuisance emissions from incinerators are not immediately apparent. This study uses the Hedonic Pricing Method to estimate the monetary value of impacts associated with three incinerators in England. Once operational, the impact of the incinerators on local house prices ranged from approximately 0.4% to 1.3% of the mean house price for the respective areas. Each of the incinerators studied had been sited on previously industrialised land to minimise overall impact. To an extent this was achieved and results support the effectiveness of spatial planning strategies to reduce the impact on residents. However, negative impacts occurred in areas further afield from the incinerator, suggesting that more can be done to minimise the impacts of incinerators. The results also suggest that in some case the incinerator increased the value of houses within a specified distance of incinerators under specific circumstances, which requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Comprehensive evaluation of improving effects of different organic wastes on a newly reclaimed cultivated land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-tong; Kong, Zhang-liang; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2016-02-01

    There are many problems such as low soil organic matter, available nutrients and microbial activity, compaction, and poor tillage properties for a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and the establishment of a fast, effective measure for improving soil fertility quality is of importance to enhance the quality and production performance of the newly cultivated land. A field experiment was carried out to observe the effect of organic wastes on soil fertility of a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and compared the differences of different types of urban organic wastes. The field experiment included nine treatments, i.e., pig manure, chicken manure, rice straw, vegetable harvest residue, urban sludge, biogas residue, manure+rice straw compost, garbage compost and control without organic fertilizer at annual application rate of 30 t . hm-2, and ran for three consecutive years. The results showed that the application of each type of the eight organic wastes had obvious effects on improving soil fertility. Among them, pig manure, chicken manure, pig manure+rice straw compost, rice straw and biogas residue were the most effective to enhance the carbon pool management index of soil. The addition of pig manure+rice straw compost and biogas residue had the best effect on increasing the soil water stable aggregates and decreasing soil bulk density. Sewage sludge, pig manure+rice straw compost and garbage compost could enhance soil water holding capacity. Pig manure, chicken manure and pig manure+rice straw compost had most obvious effect on increasing soil available nutrients. All kinds of organic wastes increased the number of soil microorganisms and the activity of enzymes. There were some risk of soil heavy metals pollution.for the long-term application of sludge, garbage compost and manure. However, the impact of short-term application of the wastes on soil environmental quality was not obvious. Overall, effects of organic wastes on soil fertility decreased in the order of pig

  8. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.; Clark, L.L.; Craig, R.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.; McCarthy, D.; Franklin, A.L.; Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases.

  9. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Annual report for FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Brouns, R.A. (comps.); Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    To support DOE's attainment of its goals, Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting. This annual report describes progress during FY 1986 toward meeting these two objectives. 29 refs., 59 figs., 25 tabs.

  10. Analysis of waste treatment requirements for DOE mixed wastes: Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The risks and costs of managing DOE wastes are a direct function of the total quantities of 3wastes that are handled at each step of the management process. As part of the analysis of the management of DOE low-level mixed wastes (LLMW), a reference scheme has been developed for the treatment of these wastes to meet EPA criteria. The treatment analysis in a limited form was also applied to one option for treatment of transuranic wastes. The treatment requirements in all cases analyzed are based on a reference flowsheet which provides high level treatment trains for all LLMW. This report explains the background and basis for that treatment scheme. Reference waste stream chemical compositions and physical properties including densities were established for each stream in the data base. These compositions are used to define the expected behavior for wastes as they pass through the treatment train. Each EPA RCRA waste code was reviewed, the properties, chemical composition, or characteristics which are of importance to waste behavior in treatment were designated. Properties that dictate treatment requirements were then used to develop the treatment trains and identify the unit operations that would be included in these trains. A table was prepared showing a correlation of the waste physical matrix and the waste treatment requirements as a guide to the treatment analysis. The analysis of waste treatment loads is done by assigning wastes to treatment steps which would achieve RCRA compliant treatment. These correlation`s allow one to examine the treatment requirements in a condensed manner and to see that all wastes and contaminant sets are fully considered.

  11. An evaluation of alternative household solid waste treatment practices using life cycle inventory assessment mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Waste disposal is an important part of the life cycle of a product and is associated with environmental burdens like any other life-cycle stages. In this study, an integrated assessment for solid waste treatment practices, especially household solid waste, was undertaken to evaluate the impact contribution of household solid waste treatment alternatives towards the sustainable development by using Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method. A case study has been investigated under various possible scenarios, such as (1) landfill without landfill gas recovery, (2) landfill with landfill gas recovery and flaring, (3) landfill with landfill gas recovery and electric generation, (4) composting, and (5) incineration. The evaluation utilized the Life Cycle Inventory Assessment method for multiple assessments based on various aspects, such as greenhouse gas emission/reduction, energy generation/consumption, economic benefit, investment and operating cost, and land use burden. The results showed that incineration was the most efficient alternative for greenhouse gas emission reduction, economic benefit, energy recovery, and land use reduction, although it was identified as the most expensive for investment and operating cost, while composting scenario was also an efficient alternative with quite economic benefit, low investment and operating cost, and high reduction of land use, although it was identified as existing greenhouse gas emission and no energy generation. Furthermore, the aim of this study was also to establish localized assessment methods that waste management agencies, environmental engineers, and environmental policy decision makers can use to quantify and compare the contribution to the impacts from different waste treatment options.

  12. The management of radioactive waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; An, Sum Jin; Lee, Kang Moo; Lee, Young Hee; Sohn, Jong Sik; Bae, Sang Min; Kang, Kwon Ho; Sohn, Young Jun; Yim, Kil Sung; Kim, Tae Kuk; Jeong, Kyeong Hwan; Wi, Keum San; Park, Young Yoong; Park, Seung Chul; Lee, Chul Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The radioactive wastes generated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in 1994 are about 56 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 323 drums of solid waste. Liquid waste were treated by the evaporation process, the bituminization process, and the solar evaporation process. The solid wastes were treated in 1994 are about 87 m{sup 3} of liquid waste and 81 drums of solid waste, respectively. 2 tabs., 26 figs., 12 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  14. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with some problems concerning reduction of radioactivity of liquid low-level nuclear waste streams (LLLW). The membrane processes as ultrafiltration (UF), seeded ultrafiltration (SUF), reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD) were examined. Ultrafiltration enables the removal of particles with molecular weight above cut-off of UF membranes and can be only used as a pre-treatment stage. The improvement of removal is achieved by SUF, employing macromolecular ligands binding radioactive ions. The reduction of radioactivity in LLLW to very low level were achieved with RO membranes. The results of experiments led the authors to the design and construction of UF+2RO pilot plant. The development of membrane distillation improve the selectivity of membrane process in some cases. The possibility of utilisation of waste heat from cooling system of nuclear reactors as a preferable energy source can significantly reduce the cost of operation.

  15. Gamma radiation treatment of waste waters from textile industries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of gamma irradiation alone, and in combination with chemical treatment on color, odor, chemical oxyg-en demand (COD) and suspended solids in waste waters from textile industries in Ghana were studied to explore the potential of alternative and innovative processes for treatment of industrial waste waters. Waste ...

  16. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Environmental modelling of use of treated organic waste on agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Schmidt, S.

    2006-01-01

    assessment of environmental effects from land application of treated organic MSW: DST (Decision Support Tool, USA), IWM (Integrated Waste Management, UK), THE IFEU PROJECT (Germany), ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch, Sweden) and EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies......, Denmark). DST and IWM are life cycle inventory (LCI) models, thus not performing actual impact assessment. The DST model includes only one water emission (biological oxygen demand) from compost leaching in the results and IWM considers only air emissions from avoided production of commercial fertilizers....... THE IFEU PROJECT, ORWARE and EASEWASTE are life cycle assessment (LCA) models containing more detailed land application modules. A case study estimating the environmental impacts from land application of 1 ton of composted source sorted organic household waste was performed to compare the results from...

  18. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    % of the organic and degradable material. Source sorting is another way of collecting the household waste in its respective fractions. However, this separation technique is hard to enforce and expensive. Future waste management calls for novel and efficient technologies for the separation of unsorted MSW in order......The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather...

  19. Nitrate Waste Treatment Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garcia, Terrence Kerwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-07-05

    This plan is designed to outline the collection and analysis of nitrate salt-bearing waste samples required by the New Mexico Environment Department- Hazardous Waste Bureau in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (Permit).

  20. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  2. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  3. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  4. Life cycle inventory modeling of phosphorus substitution, losses and crop uptake after land application of organic waste products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Hoeve, Marieke; Bruun, Sander; Naroznova, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessments (LCAs) that attempt to provide advice on treatment options for phosphorus (P) containing organic waste products encounter problems related to the quantification of mineral P fertilizer substitution, P loss and crop P uptake after land application. The purpose...... of this study was to develop a relatively easy to use life cycle inventory model, known as PLCI, that could be used to estimate these values. Methods: A life cycle inventory model for P was developed, which estimates the effect of an application of organic waste followed by ordinary fertilizer management...... on an arable farm showed a substitution of 28 to 31%, relatively low P loss and a large spread in crop P uptake for the different P sources, compared with the pig farm. Application on a pig farm showed no mineral P substitution. For substitution, mineral fertilizer outperformed waste product fertilizer...

  5. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  6. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... source of energy. Future effort will be focus on improving the efficiency of energy used in the waste water [3]. Aim. The aim of this project is to bring into existence a Small Scale Waste Water. Treatment Plant that can convert a waste water with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and high Biological ...

  7. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  9. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  10. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion for waste and wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with thermophilic anaerobic waste and wastewater treatment. A literature survey is presented, in which the thermophilic treatment processes are evaluated with respect to the loading rates and treatment efficiencies, and some relevant theoretical considerations concerning

  11. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  12. Citric waste saccharification under different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Second generation ethanol from lignocellulose materials has been used in applications for food processing wastes. Since Brazil has a leading position in orange juice exports, the influence of acid and alkali pretreatments on liquor saccharification, solubilization of solid fraction and mass yield was evaluated. Time and Cacid or Calkaline at different concentrations of solids (low to moderate, 1 to 9% and high catalyst concentrations were analyzed. A hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted under the same conditions of acid and alkaline treatments to investigate the relative selectivity increase in using the catalysts. The chemical analyses of wastes indicated a 70% total carbohydrate level denoting a promising raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatment caused acid saccharifications between 25 and 65% in total reducing sugars (TRS and mass yields (MY between 30 and 40%. In alkaline pretreatment, these rates ranged between 2 and 22.5% and between 30 and 80, respectively. In hydrothermal pretreatment, solubilized TRS varied between 3 and 37%, whereas MY remained between 45 and 60%, respectively. Cbiomass strongly influenced the three variables; in the same way, time affected MY.

  13. Evaluation of alternative treatments for spent fuel rod consolidation wastes and other miscellaneous commercial transuranic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-05-01

    Eight alternative treatments (and four subalternatives) are considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel consolidation. Waste treatment is assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage facility was used as a reference). Disposal in a geologic repository is also assumed. The cost, process characteristics, and waste form characteristics are evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicates that selection of a high-volume-reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS process. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration.

  14. Membrane Lipid Analysis Applications to Monitoring Land Application of Food Processing Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. A.; Fernandez-Torres, I.; Safferman, S. I.; Pfiffner, S. M.

    2008-12-01

    Land application of food processing waste is a common treatment technique relying on the soil assimilation capacity, including biological activity, for effective treatment. This treatment technique poses implications for ground water associated with metal leaching when excess loading occurs resulting in oxygen limitations. Determining prescriptive loadings that are protective of groundwater for food processors who dispose of wastewater by land application can be difficult due to site variability related to environmental conditions, application techniques, and varying wastewater characteristics. In an effort to responsibly practice wastewater land application, the use of soil sensors, soil leachate water quality parameters, and phospholipids measurements were researched to determine if assimilation could be predicted. Laboratory sand soil columns were constructed to mimic the conditions represented by food processing wastewater irrigation systems. Soil sensors for temperature, oxygen, and soil moisture were installed in the column and relayed semi-continuous data for the soil conditions within the soil columns. Results indicate the sensors predicted over loading that would result in metal leaching. Soil samples analyzed for phospholipid fatty acids further supported this data by categorizing the soil microbial community which indicates the treatment processes occurring within three depths (3, 12, and 20 inches) of the soil columns sampled before and after impact from excessive loading. Membrane lipid analyses uses GC/MS and HPLC/ES/MS/MS to provide estimates of biomass, phospholipid community profiles and respiratory quinone profiles. Biomasss estimates showed declining biomass with depth in the column. At the 3" depth the biomass averaged ~68,000 pmole/gdw, while biomass averaged ~500 and ~30 pmol/gdw for 12" and 20" depths, respectively. Specific phospholipids indicated the presence of fungi (18:2's) in the 3" depth and the presence of sulfate- reducing bacteria

  15. Long-Term Emission Factors for Land Application of Treated Organic Municipal Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The agro-ecosystem model Daisy was used to explore the long-term fate of nitrogen (N) after land application of compost and digestate (based on source separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW)). The cumulative crop N yield response and emissions for mineral fertilizer (MF), anaerobically...... digested organic waste (MSW-D), and composted organic waste (MSW-C) were derived by fitting a linear mixed model to the outcomes of the simulations. The non-linearity of crop N yield responses and emission responses to increasing N fertilizer application was addressed by dividing these responses into high...

  16. Climate impact analysis of waste treatment scenarios--thermal treatment of commercial and pretreated waste versus landfilling in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragossnig, A M; Wartha, C; Pomberger, R

    2009-11-01

    A major challenge for modern waste management lies in a smart integration of waste-to-energy installations in local energy systems in such a way that the energy efficiency of the waste-to-energy plant is optimized and that the energy contained in the waste is, therefore, optimally utilized. The extent of integration of thermal waste treatment processes into regular energy supply systems plays a major role with regard to climate control. In this research, the specific waste management situation looked at scenarios aiming at maximizing the energy recovery from waste (i.e. actual scenario and waste-to-energy process with 75% energy efficiency [22.5% electricity, 52.5% heat]) yield greenhouse gas emission savings due to the fact that more greenhouse gas emissions are avoided in the energy sector than caused by the various waste treatment processes. Comparing dedicated waste-to-energy-systems based on the combined heat and power (CHP) process with concepts based on sole electricity production, the energy efficiency proves to be crucial with regard to climate control. This underlines the importance of choosing appropriate sites for waste-to-energy-plants. This research was looking at the effect with regard to the climate impact of various waste management scenarios that could be applied alternatively by a private waste management company in Austria. The research is, therefore, based on a specific set of data for the waste streams looked at (waste characteristics, logistics needed, etc.). Furthermore, the investigated scenarios have been defined based on the actual available alternatives with regard to the usage of treatment plants for this specific company. The standard scenarios for identifying climate impact implications due to energy recovery from waste are based on the respective marginal energy data for the power and heat generation facilities/industrial processes in Austria.

  17. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul, N., E-mail: njua@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Münster, M., E-mail: maem@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ravn, H., E-mail: hans.ravn@aeblevangen.dk [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Söderman, M. Ljunggren, E-mail: maria.ljunggren@chalmers.se [Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  18. ALKALINE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF SECONDARY WASTE FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Mierzwiński

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper regards the possibility of using geopolymer matrix to immobilize heavy metals present in ash and slag from combustion of waste. In the related research one used the fly ash from coal combustion in one Polish CHP plant and the waste from Polish incineration plants. It was studied if the above-named waste materials are useful in the process of alkali-activation. Therefore, three sets of geopolymer mixtures were prepared containing 60, 50 and 30% of ash and slag from the combustion of waste and fly ash combustion of sewage skudge. The remaining content was fly ash from coal combustion. The alkali-activation was conducted by means of 14M solution of NaOH and sodium water glass. The samples, whose dimensions were in accordance with the PN-EN 206-1 norm, were subjected to 75°C for 24h. According to the results, the geopolymer matrix is able to immobilize heavy metals and retain compressive strength resembling that of concrete.

  19. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  20. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most important environmental problems faced by the world today is waste handling and due to variation in waste water with respect to homes. The two main treatment used here are the aerobic and the anaerobic treatment process. The processes are brought to increase the efficiency of the plant. The plant has ...

  1. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve industrial...

  2. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... Abstract. One of the most important environmental problems faced by the world today is waste handling and management, due to variation in waste water with respect to homes. The two main treatment methods used here are the aerobic and the anaerobic treatment process. The processes are brought.

  3. The role of biotechnology on the treatment of wastes | Buyukgungor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological processes improving fast are shown among the future technologies. In these processes which biological materials are used as degraders, raw wastes are processed to remove the contaminants in them. Biotechnological processes are used for wastewater treatment, gas treatment and disposal of solid wastes ...

  4. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN WASTE TREATMENT- A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These waste treatment methods require light from the sun to photocatalyse reactions and also heat as thermal energy for the various endothermic reactions. This review therefore highlighted various methods of waste treatment which does not require the limited conventional energy sources. It also reveals that model ...

  5. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    international Conventions and treaties such as the London Convention, is committed to certain requirements pertaining to the ... ground rules and management framework that will be applied to the discharge of land-derived wastewater to the marine ..... the risks to the environment in the event of malfunctioning, both.

  6. Methods for the Evaluation of Waste Treatment Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Gehrmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers for waste management are confronted with the problem of selecting the most economic, environmental, and socially acceptable waste treatment process. This paper elucidates evaluation methods for waste treatment processes for the comparison of ecological and economic aspects such as material flow analysis, statistical entropy analysis, energetic and exergetic assessment, cumulative energy demand, and life cycle assessment. The work is based on the VDI guideline 3925. A comparison of two thermal waste treatment plants with different process designs and energy recovery systems was performed with the described evaluation methods. The results are mainly influenced by the type of energy recovery, where the waste-to-energy plant providing district heat and process steam emerged to be beneficial in most aspects. Material recovery options from waste incineration were evaluated according to sustainability targets, such as saving of resources and environmental protection.

  7. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  8. Impact of Climate Change on Soil and Groundwater Chemistry Subject to Process Waste Land Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, W. W.

    2013-12-01

    Nonhazardous aqueous process waste streams from food and beverage industry operations are often discharged via managed land application in a manner designed to minimize impacts to underlying groundwater. Process waste streams are typically characterized by elevated concentrations of solutes such as ammonium, organic nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and organic acids. Land application involves the mixing of process waste streams with irrigation water which is subsequently applied to crops. The combination of evapotranspiration and crop salt uptake reduces the downward mass fluxes of percolation water and salts. By carefully managing application schedules in the context of annual climatological cycles, growing seasons, and process requirements, potential adverse environmental impacts to groundwater can be mitigated. However, climate change poses challenges to future process waste land application efforts because the key factors that determine loading rates - temperature, evapotranspiration, seasonal changes in the quality and quantity of applied water, and various crop factors - are all likely to deviate from current averages. To assess the potential impact of future climate change on the practice of land application, coupled process modeling entailing transient unsaturated fluid flow, evapotranspiration, crop salt uptake, and multispecies reactive chemical transport was used to predict changes in salt loading if current practices are maintained in a warmer, drier setting. As a first step, a coupled process model (Hydrus-1D, combined with PHREEQC) was calibrated to existing data sets which summarize land application loading rates, soil water chemistry, and crop salt uptake for land disposal of process wastes from a food industry facility in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Model results quantify, for example, the impacts of evapotranspiration on both fluid flow and soil water chemistry at shallow depths, with secondary effects including carbonate mineral

  9. Ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes spread on land: Towards a proposal of a suitable test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguier, Pierre; Manier, Nicolas; Chabot, Laure; Bauda, Pascale; Pandard, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    The land spreading of organic wastes in agriculture is a common practice in Europe, under the regulation of the Directive 86/278/EEC. One of the objectives of this Directive is to prevent harmful effects of organic wastes on soil, plants and animals. Despite this regulatory framework, there is still a lack of harmonized ecotoxicological test strategy to assess the environmental hazard of such wastes. The aim of this study was to provide a first step towards the a priori ecotoxicological assessment of organic wastes before their land use. For that purpose, nine different organic wastes were assessed using direct (i.e. terrestrial tests) and indirect (i.e. tests on water eluates) approaches, for a total of thirteen endpoints. Then, multivariate analyzes were used to discriminate the most relevant test strategy, among the application rates and bioassays used. From our results, a draft of test strategy was proposed, using terrestrial bioassays (i.e. earthworms and plants) and a concentration range between one and ten times the recommended application rates of organic wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  11. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, N; Münster, M; Ravn, H; Söderman, M Ljunggren

    2013-09-01

    Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant's economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear waste treatment program: Annual report for FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1988-09-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further development of light-water reactors and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1987 towards meeting these two objectives. 24 refs., 59 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  14. Humus application produced by organic waste transformation in growing lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Martinez, M. G.; Morales Osorio, A.; Gutierrez Martinez, R.; Marquez Monsalvo, J. J.; Reyes Reyes, G.

    2009-07-01

    Every year in Mexico are produced more tons of garbage (19 874 259 tons) than tons of corn (18 309 000 tons). Fifty percent of domestic garbage is constituted by organic remainders. In december 2005 began de project Biotransformation of Organic Remainders in Humus for its Application in growing Lands with the purpose to prove the methods of: 1) Natural outdoors transformation, 2) Accelerated fermentation with thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, and 3) Transformation with microorganisms such as californian red worm, Eisenia andrei, to transform efficiently fruits and vegetables remainders. (Author)

  15. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Technologies for waste and wastewater treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pollution and Waste Group of the CSIR specialises in the development of practicable treatment solutions for waste and wastewater arising from numerous industrial sectors. The group’s objective is to resolve potential pollution problems at mines...

  16. Life cycle assessment of advanced waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Peter Augusto

    The EU FP6 NEPTUNE project is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and the main goal is to develop new and optimize existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling methods for municipal waste water. Besides nutrients, a special focus area is micropollutants (e....... In total more that 20 different waste water and sludge treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the preliminary LCA results from running the induced versus avoided impact approach (mainly based on existing LCIA methodology) on one of the advanced treatment technologies, i...

  17. Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. Fluctuations in the

  18. Conceptual Evaluation for the Installation of Treatment Capability for Mixed Low Level Waste at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-11-24

    National Security Technologies, LLC, initiated an evaluation of treatment technologies that they would manage and operate as part of the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal facilities at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive waste from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex since the 1960s, and since 2005 the NNSS Disposal Facility has been receiving radioactive and MLLW for disposal only. In accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), all mixed waste must meet land disposal restrictions (LDRs) prior to disposal. Compliance with LDRs is attained through treatment of the waste to mitigate the characteristics of the listed waste hazard. Presently, most generators utilize commercial capacity for waste treatment prior to shipment to the NNSS Disposal Facility. The objectives of this evaluation are to provide a conceptual study of waste treatment needs (i.e., demand), identify potential waste treatment technologies to meet demand, and analyze implementation considerations for initiating MLLW treatment capacity at the NNSS Disposal Facility. A review of DOE complex waste generation forecast data indicates that current and future Departmental demand for mixed waste treatment capacity will remain steady and strong. Analysis and screening of over 30 treatment technologies narrowed the field of treatment technologies to four: • Macroencapsulation • Stabilization/microencapsulation • Sort and segregation • Bench-scale mercury amalgamation The analysis of treatment technologies also considered existing permits, current the NNSS Disposal Facility infrastructure such as utilities and procedures, and past experiences such as green-light and red-light lessons learned. A schedule duration estimate has been developed for permitting, design, and construction of onsite treatment capability at the NNSS Disposal Facility. Treatment capability can be ready in 20 months.

  19. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi V.E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  20. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  1. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sánchez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities.

  2. Detection, composition and treatment of volatile organic compounds from waste treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities.

  3. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION: TREATMENT OF STONE PROCESSING ENTERPRISES WASTE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobiіchuk V. V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine Stone industry is undergoing dramatic changes. Today is a restructuring of the industry. In a market economy, modernization of existing stone processing enterprises, the use of new technologies in the production of stone products is actually. Analysis of stone processing enterprise activity shows a large variation in quantitative and qualitative indicators, low competitiveness. However, the demand for stone products with traditional characteristics is stored. Waste stone processing enterprises often exported to landfills that are not suited to the storage of waste or unauthorized, and remain there, taking up more and more land area. During the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro independent Ukraine declared its intention to be actively involved in global environmental policy and development strategy of sustainable development, implementing guidelines defining international instruments at the national level. Consequently, there is an urgent need for real action on comprehensive recycling stone processing enterprises to obtain a secondary product. It should be noted that the use of modern methods of stone processing enterprises will waste the protection of nature and natural resources, improve the quality of life, restore lost harmony between man and nature. This publication analyzes the level of recycling waste stone processing enterprises. These volumes of industrial waste stone processing enterprises and highlights stone processing companies hand waste I-IV classes of danger Zhitomir region (Ukraine. These waste composition and properties of stone processing enterprises. Principles of artificial and natural lighting water are noted. Mathematical and economical model of the stone processing enterprises are constructed.

  4. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    power production. The energy-heavy processes for waste water transport and treatment could potentially provide a flexible operation with storage capabilities and be a valuable asset to a Smart Grid. In order to enable Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) as flexible prosumers in the future Smart Grid......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...... of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy...

  5. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/6603148005; Maurer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied

  6. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This section provides a description of the Hanford Site, identifies the proposed method of 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System (WATS) closure, and briefly summarizes the contents of each chapter of this plan.

  7. WASTE MINIMIZATION PRACTICES AT TWO CCA WOOD TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood-treatment plants were assessed for their waste minimization practices. These practices have been reflected in several areas, including facility designs, process controls, and management practices. he objectives were to estimate the amount...

  8. The future of thermal waste treatment; Zukunft der thermischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, K.; Kern, M. (eds.); Tappen, I.; Weber-Wied, R. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    Contents: State of the art of energy-efficient thermal waste treatment processes and practical examples; Regional and economic aspects; Licensing problems of thermal waste treatment plants. [German] Der vorliegende Tagungsband zum 2. Stassfurter Abfall- und Energieforum beschreibt den aktuellen Stand energieeffizienter thermischer Abfallbehandlungsmethoden an praktischen Beispielen und stellt den Bezug dieser Massnahmen zum raeumlich-wirtschaftlichen Umfeld dar. Darueber hinaus werden vergaberechtliche Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der europaweiten Ausschreibungspflicht fuer die Errichtung thermischer Abfallbehandlungsanlagen aufgezeigt und eroertert. (orig.)

  9. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and...

  10. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na{sup +} substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  11. Treatment of nanomaterial-containing waste in thermal waste treatment facilities; Behandlung nanomaterialhaltiger Abfaelle in thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Julia; Weiss, Volker [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau-Rosslau (Germany); Oischinger, Juergen; Meiller, Martin; Daschner, Robert [Fraunhofer Umsicht, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    There is already a multitude of products on the market, which contain synthetic nanomaterials (NM), and for the coming years an increase of such products can be expected. Consequently, it is predictable that more nanomaterial-containing waste will occur in the residual waste that is predominately disposed in thermal waste treatment plants. However, the knowledge about the behaviour and effects of nanomaterials from nanomaterial-containing waste in this disposal route is currently still low. A research project of the German Environment Agency on the ''Investigation of potential environmental impacts when disposing nanomaterial-containing waste in waste treatment plants'' will therefore dedicate itself to a detailed examination of emission pathways in the thermal waste treatment facilities. The tests carried out i.a. on an industrial waste incineration plant and a sludge incineration plant with controlled addition of titanium dioxide at the nanoscale, showed that no increase in the emissions of NM in the exhaust gas was detected. The majority of the NM was found in the combustion residues, particularly the slag.

  12. Basic design of alpha aqueous waste treatment process in NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Hideaki; Matsumura, Tatsuro; Nishizawa, Ichio; Mitsui, Takeshi; Ueki, Hiroyuki; Wada, Atsushi; Sakai, Ichita; Takeshita, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nishimura, Kenji

    1996-11-01

    This paper described the basic design of Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process in NUCEF. Since various experiments using the TRU (transuranium) elements are carried out in NUCEF, wastes containing TRU elements arise. The liquid wastes in NUCEF are categorized into three types. Decontamination and volume reduction of the liquid waste mainly of recovery water from acid recovery process which has lowest radioactive concentration is the most important task, because the arising rate of the waste is large. The major function of the Alpha Aqueous Waste Treatment Process is to decontaminate the radioactive concentration below the level which is allowed to discharge into sea. Prior the process design of this facility, the followings are evaluated:property and arising rate of the liquid waste, room space to install and licensing condition. Considering varieties of liquid wastes and their large volume, the very high decontamination factor was proposed by a process of multiple evaporation supported with filtration and adsorption in the head end part and reverse osmosis in the distillate part. (author)

  13. Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Rodda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilisers. Hatcheries disposing wastewater into lagoons could establish a series of ponds where algae, zooplankton and fish utilise the nutrients using integrated aquaculture which cleans the water making it more suitable for irrigation. The ideal system to establish in a hatchery would be to incorporate separation and handling equipment to separate waste into its various components for further treatment. This would save disposal costs, produce biogas to reduce power costs at plants and produce a range of value added products. However the scale of operations at many hatcheries is too small and development of treatment systems may not be viable.

  14. Life-cycle assessment of a waste refinery process for enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    production and saving fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which in Denmark is typically incinerated. In this paper, a life-cycle assessment and energy balance of a pilot-scale waste refinery......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important in recent years. From this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials (e.g. metals) as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material...... for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the energy utilization of the two outputs were assessed. Co...

  15. Microbiological aspects of aerobic thermophilic treatment of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudet, R; Gagnon, C; Bisaillon, J G; Ishaque, M

    1990-04-01

    A thermophilic strain (D2) identified as a Bacillus sp. was isolated from an aerobic digestor of swine waste after several months of operation at 55 degrees C. Aerobic thermophilic batch treatment of swine waste inoculated with strain D2 was studied in a 4-liter fixed-bed reactor. Stabilization of the waste was achieved in less than 30 h when the original chemical oxygen demand (COD) was between 15 and 20 g/liter or in less than 48 h when the COD was around 35 g/liter. When the COD was higher than 30 g/liter, the pH of the waste reached 9.2 to 9.5 during the treatment, and periodic adjustment of the pH to 8.5 was necessary to maintain the activity of the biofilm. In this reactor, ammoniacal nitrogen was completely eliminated by desorption in less than 72 h of incubation. The different packing materials used resulted in similar rates of degradation of organic matter. The thermophilic treatment was also efficient in the 75-liter digestor, and stabilization was achieved in approximately 50 h. A bank of 22 thermophilic bacterial strains originating from different environments and adapted to the thermophilic treatment of swine waste was established. This thermophilic treatment allows, in one step, rapid stabilization of the waste, elimination of the bad smell, and complete elimination of ammonia nitrogen by stripping.

  16. Treatment of ammonia in liquid hospital waste using activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, Hayati, Lena

    2017-12-01

    In this research study of the treatment of ammonia in liquid hospitals waste using activated carbon. This study aims to the effect of activated carbon weight and precipitation time to the treatment of ammonia in liquid hospitals waste. Hospital liquid waste has been taken from Jogja International Hospital (JIH) Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Hospital liquid waste 100 mL is mixed with activated carbon with the varied weight that is 15, 30 and 60 g. After added with activated carbon then stirred with a magnetic stirrer for 15 minutes and a precipitation time of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 hours. The next step is the filtrate analyzed ammonia concentrations before and after treatment using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The results showed that activated carbon can reduce ammonia concentration in hospital liquid waste. The amount of the active carbon and the time of stirring, the greater the ammonia concentration decreases in hospital liquid waste. The best condition for the decrease of the ammonia concentration was obtained with active carbon and precipitation time is 60 g and 1.0 hours, respectively with ammonia decrease of 95.93%. The conclusion is that activated carbon can reduce ammonia concentration in hospital liquid waste.

  17. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de P.; Marumo, Julio T.; Bellini, Maria H.; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.; Takara, Aline S.; Goes, Marcos M. de; Borba, Tania R. de; Nascimento, Carina M. do; Sakata, Solange K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rpadua@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Waste management plays an important role in reducing the volume of radioactive waste streams, minimizing the cost of the final disposal and the impact on the environment. In this context, new research should focus on the development of simpler and cheaper techniques which may improve the waste processing. The use of biomass in processes concerned with the removal of heavy metals and radionuclides offers significant potential in the treatment of waste-liquid streams. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known for its capacity of heavy metals biosorption and it also has the additional advantages such as easy availability and the possibility of genetic manipulation. The aim of this work is to study the potential of the free cell and immobilized S. cerevisiae in bentonite in the removal Americium-241 from radioactive liquid streams produced by Radioactive Waste Laboratory of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). (author)

  18. Global Warming Potential Of A Waste Refinery Using Enzymatic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    and fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to the residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which is typically incinerated or landfilled. In this paper the energy and Global Warming performance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important during the last years. In this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production...... treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) was presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the utilization of the two outputs were analyzed. Co-combustion in existing power...

  19. Elementary study on evaluation of environmental loads and costs for waste treatment system in Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    INAZUMI, Shinya; OHTSU, Hiroyasu; SHIOTANI, Tomoki; KATSUMI, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    It is very important for waste to be controlled and appropriately treated in a waste treatment system because of its impact on the environment. This study quantitatively evaluates the current waste treatment system and suggests countermeasures based on their impact on reducing the environmental and treatment costs in order to solve waste treatment problems in Bangkok, Thailand. Evaluation models are applied to estimate the treatment and environmental costs in the current waste treatment syste...

  20. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  1. The function of thermal treatment of waste in the Vienna waste management concept; Die Funktion der thermischen Abfallbehandlung im Abfallwirtschaftskonzept von Wien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfallwirtschaft

    2004-07-01

    Thermal waste treatment has a key role in the waste management system of Vienna. As landfills will be prohibited and waste volumes will increase, further capacities will have to be provided. Another incinerator will be constructed in order to reduce the waste volume, to relieve landfills, to reduce the cost of land regeneration after pollution, and to provide additional energy for district heating. (orig.) [German] Die thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen nehmen im Wiener Abfallwirtschaftssystem eine Schluesselrolle ein. Sie sind nach derzeitigem Stand der Technik das nachhaltigste Entsorgungsverfahren fuer nicht schadlos verwertbare Abfaelle. Aufgrund des Deponierungsverbots der Deponieverordnung fuer unzureichend behandelte Abfaelle sowie der prognostizierten Zunahme von Restmuellaufkommens muessen in Wien kuenftig weitere Behandlungskapazitaeten geschaffen werden. Mit dem Bau einer weiteren Muellverbrennungsanlage werden die abzulagernden Abfallmengen und die entstehenden Umweltbelastungen durch ihre Deponierung reduziert, Altlastenbeitraege gespart sowie zusaetzliche Energie fuer die Fernwaermeversorgung bereitgestellt. (orig.)

  2. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  3. Identification of technical problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Epler, J.S.; Rose, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    A review of problems encountered in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes has been made in support of the technical aspects of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being administered by the Low-Level Waste Management Program Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operating histories of burial sites at six major DOE and five commercial facilities in the US have been examined and several major problems identified. The problems experienced st the sites have been grouped into general categories dealing with site development, waste characterization, operation, and performance evaluation. Based on this grouping of the problem, a number of major technical issues have been identified which should be incorporated into program plans for further research and development. For each technical issue a discussion is presented relating the issue to a particular problem, identifying some recent or current related research, and suggesting further work necessary for resolving the issue. Major technical issues which have been identified include the need for improved water management, further understanding of the effect of chemical and physical parameters on radionuclide migration, more comprehensive waste records, improved programs for performance monitoring and evaluation, development of better predictive capabilities, evaluation of space utilization, and improved management control.

  4. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark; Cheeseman, Christopher R; Graham, Nigel J D

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilize soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

  5. Disposal of water treatment wastes containing arsenic - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Colin; Tyrer, Mark [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, Christopher R., E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Graham, Nigel J.D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Solid waste management in developing countries is often unsustainable, relying on uncontrolled disposal in waste dumps. Particular problems arise from the disposal of treatment residues generated by removing arsenic (As) from drinking water because As can be highly mobile and has the potential to leach back to ground and surface waters. This paper reviews the disposal of water treatment wastes containing As, with a particular emphasis on stabilisation/solidification (S/S) technologies which are currently used to treat industrial wastes containing As. These have been assessed for their appropriateness for treating As containing water treatment wastes. Portland cement/lime mixes are expected (at least in part) to be appropriate for wastes from sorptive filters, but may not be appropriate for precipitative sludges, because ferric flocs often used to sorb As can retard cement hydration. Brine resulting from the regeneration of activated alumina filters is likely to accelerate cement hydration. Portland cement can immobilise soluble arsenites and has been successfully used to stabilise As-rich sludges and it may also be suitable for treating sludges generated from precipitative removal units. Oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the formation of calcium-arsenic compounds are important immobilisation mechanisms for As in cements. Geopolymers are alternative binder systems that are effective for treating wastes rich in alumina and metal hydroxides and may have potential for As wastes generated using activated alumina. The long-term stability of cemented, arsenic-bearing wastes is however uncertain, as like many cements, they are susceptible to carbonation effects which may result in the subsequent re-release of As.

  6. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Soil and General Agriculture

    1997-12-22

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA.

  7. Waste Water Management and Infectious Disease. Part II: Impact of Waste Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    The ability of various treatment processes, such as oxidation ponds, chemical coagulation and filtration, and the soil mantle, to remove the agents of infectious disease found in waste water is discussed. The literature concerning the efficiency of removal of these organisms by various treatment processes is reviewed. (BT)

  8. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  9. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  10. Methods for waste waters treatment in textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Srebrenkoska, Vineta; Zezova, Silvana; Spasova, Sanja; Golomeova, Saska

    2014-01-01

    The processes of production of textiles or wet treatments and finishing processes of textile materials are huge consumers of water with high quality. As a result of these various processes, considerable amounts of polluted water are released. This paper puts emphasis on the problem of environmental protection against waste waters generated by textile industry. The methods of pretreatment or purification of waste waters in the textile industry can be: Primary (screening, sedimentation, homo...

  11. Release and Removal of Microorganisms from Land-Deposited Animal Waste and Animal Manures: A Review of Data and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Shelton, Daniel R; Hill, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Microbial pathogens present a leading cause of impairment to rivers, bays, and estuaries in the United States, and agriculture is often viewed as the major contributor to such contamination. Microbial indicators and pathogens are released from land-applied animal manure during precipitation and irrigation events and are carried in overland and subsurface flow that can reach and contaminate surface waters and ground water used for human recreation and food production. Simulating the release and removal of manure-borne pathogens and indicator microorganisms is an essential component of microbial fate and transport modeling regarding food safety and water quality. Although microbial release controls the quantities of available pathogens and indicators that move toward human exposure, a literature review on this topic is lacking. This critical review on microbial release and subsequent removal from manure and animal waste application areas includes sections on microbial release processes and release-affecting factors, such as differences in the release of microbial species or groups; bacterial attachment in turbid suspensions; animal source; animal waste composition; waste aging; manure application method; manure treatment effect; rainfall intensity, duration, and energy; rainfall recurrence; dissolved salts and temperature; vegetation and soil; and spatial and temporal scale. Differences in microbial release from liquid and solid manures are illustrated, and the influential processes are discussed. Models used for simulating release and removal and current knowledge gaps are presented, and avenues for future research are suggested. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has...... a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From 1992, the maximum average concentrations allowed for municipal waste water discharges to receiving...... waters will be; 15 mg/1 for BOD5, 8 mg/1 for total nitrogen, and 1.5 mg/1 for total phosphorus. These general requirements cover all types of receiving waters, but regional authorities have, in a number of cases, fixed lower values for sensitive areas....

  13. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  14. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment-Introduction to Effluent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Techniques of WasteWater Treatment - Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Amol A Kulkarni Mugdha Deshpande A B Pandit. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 56-68 ...

  15. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Robert D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

  16. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  17. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio/video equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of plutonium liquid waste treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Kouji; Nemoto, Takeshi; Todokoro, Akio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1995-06-01

    At plutonium Fuel Facility, radioactive liquid waste is treated with the flocculating precipitation method, which gives by-product such as sludge. To reduce the by-product, fundamental experiments have been carried out on undisolved tannin as an adsorbent with mainly examining plutonium adsorption characteristics and pyrolysis characteristics. The results of these experiments show that the {alpha}-activity of the treated solution is satisfactorily reduced and further, the used tannin is completely gasified by pyrolysis with the adsorbed plutonium to be recovered in a stable oxide form. (author).

  19. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  20. A Prototype of Industrial Waste Water Treatment Using Electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriboonsuksri Phonnipha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a construct of electrocoagulation waste water treatment system. The system consists of reactor tank, skimmer, cyclone tank and sediment tank. Waste water is feed into reactor tank. The electrochemical reaction is made emulsification to waste water. The contaminants are removed from waste water and can be divided to two kinds: light weight suspensions be floating up and another be sediment. The flocculants are skim out and the sediments are pumped out to sludge container. An electrical power which feed to electro-coagulation procedure is controlled by microcontroller. The user can be adjusted for suitable with waste water loaded. The input of waste water and output of sediments are controlled by PLC. The results, when operate with industrial waste water, can be treat by 30 m3/day rates and the controlled parameter value: pH, BOD, Oil & Grease, COD, SS, TDS, and Ni are not exceed than the standard limit. The advantages of this system are consume small area and low power consumption.

  1. The final treatment of FGD-waste water sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugghen, F.W. van der (N.V. KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    FGD installations based on lime/limestone gypsum processes produce waste water. This waste water has to be treated prior to discharge. The sludge formed during this waste water treatment contains gypsum, CaF[sub 2], Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SiO[sub 2], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and MgO as well as minor amounts of heavy metals like As, Cd, Pb, Zn and Hg. There are three methods for the final treatment of the sludges: disposal; mixing with gypsum; coffering in the boiler. An inventory has been made of the amounts and composition of the sludge produced by FGD plants in The Netherlands. The consequences of the three treatment methods for emissions, by-product quality and costs are described and compared. 1 ref., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Proceedings of the 1st workshop on radioactive waste treatment technologies, October 28, 1997 Taejon, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This proceedings describes the volume reduction of radioactive waste, the radioactive waste treatment technology, the decontamination and decommissioning, and the incineration and solidification of radioactive waste. Twenty two papers are submitted.

  3. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... for biogas production for either CHP generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates, that what is the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – here illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article...

  4. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi......-criteria analysis have been developed.A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy...

  5. T. S. Eliot’s Misreading of Some Mythological Sources in The Waste Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Satya Limanta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading always entails an act of interpretation and all interpretation involves misreading. All poets cannot be separated from the previous ones. They must read and misread their precursors. T.S. Eliot misreads the mythological sources that he uses in his poem The Waste Land. This misreading is not a mistake, but it is meant to create new meaning to the available text. By misreading the previous texts, the poet creates a space of creativity for himself. There are six ways of misreading as explicated by Harold Bloom. In this article only three ways of misreading will be explained and applied, namely clinamen, tessera, and kenosis.

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  7. Measurement of water potential in low-level waste management. [Shallow Land Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T. L.; Gee, G. W.; Kirkham, R. R.; Gibson, D. D.

    1982-08-01

    The measurement of soil water is important to the shallow land burial of low-level waste. Soil water flow is the principle mechanism of radionuclide transport, allows the establishment of stabilizing vegetation and also governs the dissolution and release rates of the waste. This report focuses on the measurement of soil water potential and provides an evaluation of several field instruments that are available for use to monitor waste burial sites located in arid region soils. The theoretical concept of water potential is introduced and its relationship to water content and soil water flow is discussed. Next, four major areas of soils research are presented in terms of their dependence on the water potential concept. There are four basic types of sensors used to measure soil water potential. These are: (1) tensiometers; (2) soil psychrometers; (3) electrical resistance blocks; and (4) heat dissipation probes. Tensiometers are designed to measure the soil water potential directly by measuring the soil water pressure. Monitoring efforts at burial sites require measurements of soil water over long time periods. They also require measurements at key locations such as waste-soil interfaces and within any barrier system installed. Electrical resistance blocks are well suited for these types of measurements. The measurement of soil water potential can be a difficult task. There are several sensors commercially available; however, each has its own limitations. It is important to carefully select the appropriate sensor for the job. The accuracy, range, calibration, and stability of the sensor must be carefully considered. This study suggests that for waste management activities, the choice of sensor will be the tensiometer for precise soil characterization studies and the electrical resistance block for long term monitoring programs. (DMC)

  8. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P., E-mail: tpvalsala@gmail.com [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India); Sonavane, M.S.; Kore, S.G.; Sonar, N.L.; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y.; Chattopadyaya, S.; Dani, U.; Kulkarni, Y.; Changrani, R.D. [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low Level radioactive liquid waste is decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of TBP degraded products from the waste by acidification provided very good DF with respect to different radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reductive co-precipitation of {sup 106}Ru and {sup 99}Tc effectively removed these radio nuclides from the waste stream. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of the separated organic mass is of concern due to its organic nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fixation of organic mass in cement matrix can be adopted for its conditioning and shallow land disposal. - Abstract: The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like {sup 106}Ru and {sup 99}Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 {mu}Ci/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m{sup 3} of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived {sup 90}Y isotope

  9. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  10. Mechanical-biological waste treatment with thermal processing of partial fractions; Mechanisch-biologische Restabfallbehandlung unter Einbindung thermischer Verfahren fuer Teilfraktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Technologies for mechanical-biological treatment of waste in the Land of Hessen were compared including thermal processes like combustion and gasification. The new and more rigid limiting values specified in the Technical Guide for Municipal Waste Treatment (Technische Anleitung Siedlungsabfall - TASI) get a special mention. [Deutsch] Verschiedene Technologien der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung im Raum Hessen wurden unter Einbezug thermischer Verfahren (Verbrennung, Vergasung) miteinander verglichen. Dabei wurden besonders auf die verschaerften Grenzwerte der Technischen Anleitung Siedlungsabfall (TASI) eingegangen. (ABI)

  11. Treatment of alumina refinery waste (red mud) through neutralization techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, K L; Agnihotri, A

    2017-06-01

    In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign. Hence, neutralization techniques, such as using mineral acids, acidic waste (pickling liquor waste), coal dust, superphosphate and gypsum as amenders, CO 2 , sintering with silicate material and seawater for treatment of red mud have been studied in detail. This paper is based upon and emphasizes the experimental work carried out for all the neutralization techniques along with a comprehensive review of each of the processes. The scope, applicability, limitations and feasibility of these processes have been compared exhaustively. Merits and demerits have been discussed using flow diagrams. All the techniques described are technically feasible, wherein findings obtained with seawater neutralization can be set as a benchmark for future work. Further studies should be focused on exploring the economical viability of these processes for better waste management and disposal of red mud.

  12. Pilot tests of microbe-soil combined treatment of waste drilling sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbe-soil combined treatment is a newly developed technology in view of the defects of the curing process and waste drilling mud slag properties. In particular, 0.3%–0.5% bioremediation reagents were fully mixed with the waste drilling sludge according to its wet and dry degree, and 1.5 folds to twice weight of more finely ground soil was added in the mix, which was covered by soil of 5–15 cm thick and thereby grasses or greeneries were planted on the soil. The process was successfully applied to some fields of Well Danqian 001-8, Well Lianhua 000-X8, etc. After three months of such treatment, the main indexes of the drilling solid waste such as the degradation of COD and the oil-degrading ratio reached more than 90%, the index of leaching solution met the requirement of the first grade in the national “Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard”; heavy metal ion concentration in soil did not change significantly with the indicators meeting the requirement of the third grade in the national “Soil Environmental Quality Standard” (Dry Land; and no harmful effects of heavy metals have ever been found on the planted grasses and greeneries. In conclusion, with this microbe-soil technology, the soil property will recover its background values without any other chemical additives, realizing the ecological restoration and reuse of land covered by wellsite wastes, so it is in line with the energy-saving and environmentally-friendly treatment way.

  13. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents.

  14. Benchmarking in the Dutch waste-water treatment sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, R.J.; van Helden, G.J.

    The Dutch water boards have recently completed a performance measurement and evaluation project for waste-water treatment. This Project was intended to strengthen the boards' accountability to their stakeholders and to identify starting Points for Performance improvement. The Balanced Scorecard was

  15. Waste water treatment through public-private partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Samuel; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the experience of the regional government of Aragon (Spain) that has extensively used public-private partnerships for the construction and operation of waste water treatment plants. The paper argues that although overall the implementation of this PPP program might be considered...

  16. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment

  17. tannery wastes water treatment using moringa stenopetala seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    processes are available for the adsorption of heavy metals ... temperatures are limiting factor for the cultivation of the species (Orwa et al., 2009).The water soluble Moringa seed proteins possess coagulating properties. .... TANNERY WASTES WATER TREATMENT USING MORINGA STENOPETALA SEED EXTRACT 31 ...

  18. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    on transport are one example but models focusing on energy production have also been developed as well as models which take into account the plants economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for selection of waste treatment methods...

  19. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Operator Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The occupational analysis contains a brief job description for the waste water treatment occupations of operator and maintenance mechanic and 13 detailed task statements which specify job duties (tools, equipment, materials, objects acted upon, performance knowledge, safety considerations/hazards, decisions, cues, and errors) and learning skills…

  20. An Analysis of the Waste Water Treatment Maintenance Mechanic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Anthony B.; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the waste water treatment mechanics occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Twelve duties are broken…

  1. Tannery wastes water treatment using Moringa Stenopetala seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High amount of heavy metal ions like Cr in the environment has been harmful for animal and human health. Bioadsorption of Cr from tannery wastes would be an alternative method to the chemical treatment in tannery industries. Hence, in this study the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract to adsorption Cr from ...

  2. Balancing Waste Water Treatment Plant Load Using Branch and Bound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nooijen, R.R.P.; Kolechkina, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of smoothing dry weather inflow variations for
    a Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) that receives sewage from
    multiple mixed sewer systems is presented, together with a first rough
    solution algorithm. A simplification followed by a naive translation into
    a zero-one linear

  3. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  4. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment systems. Eighty-five percent of tie-dye entrepreneurs agreed that there must be wastewater treatment before release into the environment. From group discussions, it was found that the entrepreneurs realized the wastewater problem and wanted to carry out environment friendly tie-dyeing. Our study demonstrated that the average value of the colour density, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total dissolved solids (TDS and pH of the wastewater characteristics were 170 SU (space units, 1584 mg/l, 2487 mg/l and 8, respectively. For the upflow anaerobic filter, 5 sets of experiments, with 24 hours retention time, were designed, with 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % of cow’s feces ferment, respectively (sets 1st-5th. The result showed decreasing colour densities from 170 SU to 160 SU (dark colour, 60 SU (very light colour, 12 SU (no colour, 10 SU (no colour and 10 SU (no colour, respectively. We conclude that the upflow anaerobic filter, containing 2% cow’s feces ferment is an efficient way to reduce colour density of the wastewater. Mixing cow’s feces ferment with tie-dye wastewater increased COD and TDS in wastewater. Mean COD was increased by residual organic matter from 1584 mg/l (before treatment to (after-treatment, sets 2nd- 5th 1600 mg/l, 1680 mg/l, 1710 mg/l and 1750 mg/l, respectively. COD aftertreatment was higher than the industrial effluence standard (400 mg/l. Further treatment COD might include wetland procedures. TDS was increased by some residual organic matter

  5. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of 2017 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    A full-scale, transparent mock-up of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Project High Level Waste glass melter riser and pour spout has been constructed to allow for testing with visual feedback of particle settling, accumulation, and resuspension when operating with a controlled fraction of crystals in the glass melt. Room temperature operation with silicone oil and magnetite particles simulating molten glass and spinel crystals, respectively, allows for direct observation of flow patterns and settling patterns. The fluid and particle mixture is recycled within the system for each test.

  6. Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško

    OpenAIRE

    Kortnik, Jože; Leskovar, Jože

    2015-01-01

    Review paper Received: October 25, 2013 Accepted: November 7, 2013 Mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment in Waste centre Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Ravnanje z mešanimi komunalnimi odpadki v Zbirnem centru Spodnji Stari Grad, Krško Jože Kortnik1'*, Jože Leskovar2 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Mining and Geotechnology, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Kostak, d. d., Leskovška cesta 2a, 8270 Krško, Slovenia Correspo...

  7. Waste Water Treatment of Dye Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Pattana Boonyaprapa

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study tie-dye process data and wastewater characteristics from 60 entrepreneurs, and to study the colour density treatment in pilot scale by using upflow anaerobic filters. From 60 filled-out questionnaires, it was found that all tie-dye entrepreneurs used reactive dyes by a hot method. Ninety-eight percent of the tie-dye enterpreneurs produced wastewater at the rate of not more than 1500 liters per day. All of them lacked tie-dye wastewater treatment s...

  8. Treatment of Molybdate Containing Waste Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the treatment of an aqueous solution comprising sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate and sodium molybdate, said process comprising freeze crystallising the solution at the eutectic freezing point thereof and recovering substantially pure ice crystals,

  9. Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Summary

    This thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of

  10. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg-1waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Phosphorus Considerations - Module 19, Objectives, and Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    The treatment of wastewater phosphorus via land application includes both chemical and biological mechanisms. Chemically, phosphorus reacts with iron, aluminum, and calcium compounds in the soil providing efficient removal over a wide range of pH values. Phosphorus is also absorbed by rooted plants which, upon harvest, constitute a further removal…

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions of different waste treatment options for sector-specific commercial and industrial waste in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helftewes, Markus; Flamme, Sabine; Nelles, Michael

    2012-04-01

    This article investigates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from commercial and industrial (C&I) waste treatment considering five sector-specific waste compositions and four different treatment scenarios in Germany. Results show that the highest share of CO₂-equivalent emissions can be avoided in each of the analysed industrial sectors if solid recovered fuel (SRF) is produced for co-incineration in cement kilns. Across all industries, emissions of approximately 680 kg CO₂-eq. Mg⁻¹ C&I waste can be avoided on average under this scenario. The combustion of C&I waste in waste incineration plants without any previous mechanical treatment generates the lowest potential to avoid GHG emissions with a value of approximately 50 kg CO₂-eq. Mg⁻¹ C&I waste on average in all industries. If recyclables are sorted, this can save emissions of approximately 280 kg CO₂-eq. Mg⁻¹ C&I waste while the treatment in SRF power plants amounts to savings of approximately 210 kg CO₂-eq. Mg⁻¹ C&I waste. A comparison of the treatment scenarios of the waste from these five sectors shows that waste treatment of the craft sector leads to the lowest CO₂-equivalent reduction rates of all scenarios. In contrast, the treatment of waste from catering sector leads to the highest CO₂-equivalent reduction rates except for direct incineration in waste incineration plants. The sensitivity analysis of the different scenarios for this paper shows that the efficiency and the substitution factor of energy have a relevant influence on the result. Changes in the substitution factor of 10% can result in changes in emissions of approximately 55 to 75 kg CO₂-eq. Mg⁻¹ in waste incineration plants and approximately 90 kg CO₂-eq. Mg⁻¹ in the case of cement kilns.

  13. Innovative processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacary, V.; Barre, Y. [Laboratoire des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, CEA, Marcoule 30 (France); Plasari, E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique - CNRS, Nancy 54 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because of the high salinity (0.5 to 2 M) of liquid wastes and the variability of their composition, the method which is the most appropriate and commonly used to remove the contaminants consists in the in situ formation of adsorbent particles in the waste stream. This technique is often called coprecipitation. To increase the efficiency of this treatment, a study is performed to point out the impact of the choice of the process and the influence of operating parameters (mean residence time, stirring speed, etc.) on the formation of crystals and ultimately on their ability to capture radionuclide. Barium sulphate was chosen as a reference because it is a well known precipitate and a material used in the decontamination facilities to remove radiostrontium. Two issues are encountered with the classic treatments which are consequences of the variability of effluents composition. On the one hand when high activity effluents have to be treated, the efficiency of the classic processes can not be sufficient and the liquid must be once again decontaminated. Thus the volume of disposal waste produced by the treatment is doubled. On the other hand when low activity effluents have to be treated, the classic processes produce a low activity waste. Consequently the volume of storage occupied by this waste is disproportionate with regard to its low activity. To return the more flexible process, various configurations were tested. They can be classified in two categories: improvements of the classic treatments and new types of reactors. Because of the good results which are obtained, these processes are patent pending. To support the experimental investigations, a modelling study at the reactor scale is initiated to distinguish the influence of each process parameter. These models assume that the surface of adsorbent particles is continuously renewed by crystal growth. The aim of this work is to determine the decisive parameters which allow the

  14. Pure oxygen for the urban water waste treatment; Oxigeno puro para tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Pastor, F.S.; Ferrer Gaztambide, J. [EDAR La China (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    The pilot plant for waste water treatment in La China (Spain) is described. This plant used pure oxygen for the waste water treatment. The best depuration, the flexibility to experiment the fluctuations of flow and change are studied. (Author)

  15. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  16. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  17. Nitrogen removal from concentrated latex wastewater by land treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikanda Thongnuekhang

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the concentrated latex factories in the South of Thailand discharge treated wastewater that contains high level of nitrogen to a nearby river or canals leading to a water pollution problem. A study of land treatment system was conducted to treat and utilize nitrogen in treated wastewater from the concentrated latex factory. The experimental pilot-scale land treatment system was constructed at the Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus. It consisted of water convolvulus (Ipomea aquatica, I. Reptans, tropical carpet grass (Axonopus compresus (Swartz Beav. and control unit (no plantation. The treated wastewater from the stabilization pond system of the selected concentrated latex factoryin Songkhla was used to irrigate each experimental unit. Influent and effluent from the experimental units were analyzed for TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, NO3 --N, NO2 --N, BOD5, sulfate, pH and EC. The land treatment system resulted a high removal efficiency for nitrogen. Tropical carpet grass provided higher removal efficiency than other units for all parameters. The removal efficiency of water convolvulus and control unit were not significantly different. The average removal efficiency of TKN, NH3-N, Org-N, BOD5 and sulfate for tropical carpet grass unit were 92, 97, 61, 88 and 52%, for water convolvulus unit were 75, 80, 43, 41 and 30%, and for control unit were 74, 80, 41, 31 and 28%, respectively. Mass balance of nitrogen transformation was conducted. It revealed that plant uptake was the major mechanism for nitrogen removal in land treatment.

  18. Land Treatment Research and Development Program, Synthesis of Research Results,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    the impact of effluent application. Elgawhary, S.M., I.K. Iskandar and B.J. Blake (1979) Evaluation of nitrification inhibitors in cold regions lond...investigate the possibility that nitrapyrin could be useful. as a nitrification inhibitor in land treatment. Laboratory tests included soil incubation and soil...the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, the Agriculture Research Service, St. Paul, Minnesota, and many

  19. Characterization of residues from physicochemical treatment of waste fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urniezaite, Inga; Denafas, Gintaras; Jankunaite, Dalia

    2010-07-01

    Fluorescent lamps are widely used world-wide due to their long life and energy saving capability. These lamps contain mercury (Hg) as a source of fluorescent radiation. The object of this study is a new technology for physicochemical treatment of waste fluorescent lamps. The residuals of the technological process were evaluated for potential leaching of heavy metals into the environment. Evaluation was performed using standardized extraction tests. Additionally, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis, as well as tests with complex-forming agents and under pH-stable conditions were performed aiming to predict stability of the residuals in various environmental conditions. According to the XRD analysis, the minerals fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite were dominant in analyzed samples. The results of total extraction by aqua regia revealed that residuals contain relatively high total concentrations of Hg, Mn, and Zn. Concentrations of heavy metals, leaching to aqueous solution, were compared to leaching limit values (according to EU legislation). The concentrations of available Hg in the waste fluorescent lamp treatment products, according to its solubility in the water, exceed the limit values. The measured water-leachable Hg concentration was 4.88 mg kg(-1), while the value for waste acceptable at hazardous waste landfill sites is 2 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of other measured heavy metals did not exceed the limit values. According to the results, Hg stabilization potential for presented technology exceeds 99%.

  20. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  1. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus; Riber, Christian; Kamuk, Bettina; Astrup, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    address and include costs in existing waste facilities in decision-making may unintendedly lead to higher overall costs at societal level. To avoid misleading conclusions, economic assessment of alternative SWM solutions should not only consider potential costs associated with alternative treatment but also include marginal costs associated with existing facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  3. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2010-01-04

    This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

  4. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  5. Waste-to-energy, municipal solid waste treatment, and best available technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenfeng; Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2018-01-01

    . This study allows multiple stakeholders to participate in the process of decision-making and they are also allowed to use linguistic variables to rate the alternatives and determine the weights of the evaluation criteria. The interval-valued fuzzy group decision making trail and evaluation laboratory......The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an urgently important task of many countries. This objective of this study is to present a novel group multi-attribute decision analysis method for prioritizing the MSW treatment alternatives based on the interval-valued fuzzy set theory...... (DEMATEL) method was developed to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria by considering the independent relationships among these criteria. The multi-actor interval-valued fuzzy grey relational analysis was developed to rank the waste-to-energy scenarios. Four alternative processes for MSW...

  6. 40 CFR 403.19 - Provisions of specific applicability to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. 403.19 Section 403.19 Protection of Environment... Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term “Participating... Industrial User discharging to the Owatonna Waste Water Treatment Facility in Owatonna, Minnesota, when a...

  7. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  8. Comparison of alternative treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    From 1993 to 1996, the Department of Energy, Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (OST), has sponsored a series of systems analyses to guide its future research and development (R&D) programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored in the DOE complex. The two original studies were of 20 mature and innovative thermal systems. As a result of a technical review of these thermal system studies, a similar study of five innovative nonthermal systems was conducted in which unit operations are limited to temperatures less than 350{degrees}C to minimize volatilization of heavy metals and radionuclides, and de novo production of dioxins and furans in the offgas. Public involvement in the INTS study was established through a working group of 20 tribal and stakeholder representatives to provide input to the INTS studies and identify principles against which the systems should be designed and evaluated. Pre-conceptual designs were developed for all systems to treat the same waste input (2927 lbs/hr) in a single centralized facility operating 4032 hours per year for 20 years. This inventory consisted of a wide range of combustible and non-combustible materials such as paper, plastics, metals, concrete, soils, sludges, liquids, etc., contaminated with trace quantities of radioactive materials and RCRA regulated wastes. From this inventory, an average waste profile was developed for simulated treatment using ASPEN PLUS{copyright} for mass balance calculations. Seven representative thermal systems were selected for comparison with the five nonthermal systems. This report presents the comparisons against the TSWG principles, of total life cycle cost (TLCC), and of other system performance indicators such as energy requirements, reagent requirements, land use, final waste volume, aqueous and gaseous effluents, etc.

  9. 40 CFR 265.273 - Waste analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waste analysis. 265.273 Section 265.273 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Land Treatment § 265.273 Waste analysis. In addition to the waste analyses required by § 265.13...

  10. T.S. ELIOT'S MISREADING OF SOME LITERARY SOURCES IN THE WASTE LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Satya Limanta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A poet cannot be a poet at all if he is not connected with all the poetic tradition before him. This is T.S. Eliot's dictum which he stated in Tradition and the Individual Talent and which he practiced in his work The Waste Land. T.S. Eliot showed his relationship with the past through all the quotations and allusions to mythical, literary, and religious works. His reading of those sources according to Paul de Man cannot avoid misreading or misinterpretation. Harold Bloom has tried to build up a theory of misreading, which he prefers to call misprision, especially applied to and done by poets in The Anxiety of Influence. Throughout this article I shall show how T.S. Eliot has applied some of the ways Bloom describes in reading some of the literary sources, and by so doing Eliot has given new meaning to them.

  11. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes. A selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Tappen, J. (comps.)

    1978-06-01

    The data file was built to provide information support to DOE researchers in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal and management. The scope of the data base emphasizes studies which deal with the ''old'' Manhattan sites, commercial disposal sites, and the specific parameters which affect the soil and geologic migration of radionuclides. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data base to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the ''Measured Radionuclides'' field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the ''Measured Parameters'' field. The 504 references are rated indicating applicability to shallow land burial technology and whether interpretation is required. Indexes are provided for author, geographic location, title, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, keywords, subject categories, and publication description. (DLC)

  12. Treatment of waste thermal waters by ozonation and nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Z L; Szép, A; Kertész, S; Hodúr, C; László, Z

    2013-01-01

    After their use for heating, e.g. in greenhouses, waste thermal waters may cause environmental problems due to their high contents of ions, and in some cases organic matter (associated with an oxygen demand) or toxic compounds. The aims of this work were to decrease the high organic content of waste thermal water by a combination of ozone treatment and membrane separation, and to investigate the accompanying membrane fouling. The results demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand and the total organic content can be effectively decreased by a combination of ozone pretreatment and membrane filtration. Ozone treatment is more effective for phenol elimination than nanofiltration alone: with a combination of the two processes, 100% elimination efficiency can be achieved. The fouling index b proved to correlate well with the fouling and polarization layer resistances.

  13. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  14. Short mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste allows landfill impact reduction saving waste energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, Barbara; Salati, Silvia; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Carrera, Alberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of full scale MBT process (28 d) in removing inhibition condition for successive biogas (ABP) production in landfill and in reducing total waste impact. For this purpose the organic fraction of MSW was treated in a full-scale MBT plant and successively incubated vs. untreated waste, in simulated landfills for one year. Results showed that untreated landfilled-waste gave a total ABP reduction that was null. On the contrary MBT process reduced ABP of 44%, but successive incubation for one year in landfill gave a total ABP reduction of 86%. This ABP reduction corresponded to a MBT process of 22 weeks length, according to the predictive regression developed for ABP reduction vs. MBT-time. Therefore short MBT allowed reducing landfill impact, preserving energy content (ABP) to be produced successively by bioreactor technology since pre-treatment avoided process inhibition because of partial waste biostabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  16. Proposal for the award of a contract for the collection and transport of waste and the treatment of standard waste

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the collection of waste from the CERN site and its transport and treatment of the standard waste. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with SAUVIN SCHMIDT (CH), the lowest bidder, for the collection and transport of waste and the treatment of standard waste for a period of three years for a maximum estimated amount of 2 220 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 June 2009. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  17. Discharge of water containing waste emanating from land to the marine environment: a water quality management perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Water Act, 1998 (Act 36 of 1998) mandates the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry to manage all water containing waste (wastewater), which emanates from land-based sources and which directly impact on the marine environment...

  18. 10 CFR 51.62 - Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental report-land disposal of radioactive waste licensed under 10 CFR part 61. 51.62 Section 51.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED..., amendment or renewal of a license, new information regarding the environmental impact of previously proposed...

  19. Wow Technology’s innovative radioactive liquid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, A.

    2015-07-01

    WOW presents its revolutionary technology and equipment for liquid radioactive waste treatment: outperforming ultimate water decontamination and purification process, enhanced sludge concentration, no secondary waste nor consumables, fully automated, remote controlled and self-decontaminating device. The WOW’s technology is based upon a never before observed discovery of fluid dynamics science: the possibility of performing a molecular separation between solute and suspended elements and the solvent. The combination of such a molecular separation process with a standard vacuum evaporation improves the abatement performances by thousands of times, with respect to those of the state of the art vacuum evaporators. In addition to this, no secondary waste is produced during the process, as no filters, membranes, resins or additives are used. WOW equipment, automated and remote controlled, self decontaminates after use and can be designed and constructed either tailored to the application needs or with a modular approach for enhanced transportability and application flexibility. After the preliminary verification by CNR, the Italian National Research Center, Wow Technology decontamination device was tested c/o LENA, the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Energy of the University of Pavia, Italy with a simulated solution 6000 times more contaminated than the nuclear reactor’s cooling water of Fukushima-Daiichi NPP. In addition to that, WOW Technology was also used in a real case at the Radiochemistry laboratory of the Pavia’s University Chemistry department. Both the above mentioned contaminated fluids have been successfully decontaminated without production of additional or secondary waste WOW Technology has already performed on industrial scale c/o the Nuclear Repository of S.S.M. in Saluggia, Italy: 45000 liters of acid radioactive solution have been successfully decontaminated to a Decontamination Factor (DF) of 335000 for Cs-137 by one single evaporation step and

  20. Boundaries matter: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from alternative waste treatment strategies for California’s municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Horvathc, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    is collected, and that our system boundary begins when waste is thrown away and ends with disposal or conversion to air emissions, reducing California’s residual waste by 40% can lead to a savings of 6 Mt (million metric tonnes) of CO2-e per year, and digesting California’s biogenic waste could save 0.6 Mt CO2......-e per year. Source reduction is the most robust means to mitigate GHG emissions from waste, though either increasing landfill gas capture rates within the current management plan or digesting biogenic waste (and designing landfills to maximize carbon sequestration) provide two other important means......How waste is managed – whether as a nuisance to be disposed of, or as a resource to be reused – directly affects local and global environmental quality. This analysis explores the GHG benefits of five treatment options for residual municipal solid waste (MSW) in California: Business As Usual...

  1. On-Line Learning Modules For Waste Treatment, Waste Disposal and Waste Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Soos, Lubomir; Brokes, Peter

    2011-12-01

    This contribution is devoted to the development of an advanced vocational education and training system for professionals working in (or intending to enter) the waste management industry realized through the Leonardo project WASTRE. The consortium of the Project WASTRE includes 3 well known Technical Universities in Central Europe (TU Vienna, CVUT Prague and STU Bratislava). The project implements new didactical tools from projects EDUET, ELEVATE, RESNET and MENUET developed by MultiMedia SunShine, headed by Prof. Paul Callaghan for this education and training system. This system will be tested within courses organized by at least 3 institutions of vocational education and training: the Technical and vocational secondary school Tlmace, CHEWCON Humenne and the Union of Chambers of Craftsmen and Tradesmen of ESKISEHIR. The faculty of Mechanical Engineering (FME) of STU will coordinate the project WASTRE and will participate in the preparation of e-learning materials, organization of the courses and in the design of syllabuses, curricula, assessment and evaluation methods for the courses, the testing of developed learning materials, evaluating experiences from a pilot course and developing the e-learning materials according to the needs of end-users.

  2. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  3. Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E; Rani, D Amutha; Cheeseman, C R; Deegan, D; Wise, M; Boccaccini, A R

    2009-01-30

    This review describes the current status of waste treatment using thermal plasma technology. A comprehensive analysis of the available scientific and technical literature on waste plasma treatment is presented, including the treatment of a variety of hazardous wastes, such as residues from municipal solid waste incineration, slag and dust from steel production, asbestos-containing wastes, health care wastes and organic liquid wastes. The principles of thermal plasma generation and the technologies available are outlined, together with potential applications for plasma vitrified products. There have been continued advances in the application of plasma technology for waste treatment, and this is now a viable alternative to other potential treatment/disposal options. Regulatory, economic and socio-political drivers are promoting adoption of advanced thermal conversion techniques such as thermal plasma technology and these are expected to become increasingly commercially viable in the future.

  4. Treatment of waste water by coagulation and flocculation using biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, L.; Saravana Kumar, M. P.; Jena, Amarjit; Gulla, Sudiv; Godhwani, Bhagesh

    2017-11-01

    The present study deals with the determination of physical and chemical parameters in the treatment process of waste water by flocculation and coagulation processes using natural coagulants and assessing their feasibility for water treatment by comparing the performance with each other and with a synthetic coagulant. Initial studies were done on the synthetic waste water to determine the optimal pH and dosage, the activity of natural coagulant, followed by the real effluent from tannery waste. The raw tannery effluent was bluish-black in colour, mildly basic in nature, with high COD 4000mg/l and turbidity in the range 700NTU, was diluted and dosed with organic coagulants, AloeVera, MoringaOleifera and Cactus (O.ficus-indica). The study observed that coagulant Moringa Oleifera of 15 mg/L dose at 6 pH gave the best reduction efficiencies for major physicochemical parameters followed by Aloe Vera and Cactus under identical conditions. The study reveals that the untreated tannery effluents can be treated with environmental confirmative naturally occurring coagulants.

  5. Optimising waste treatment and energy systems - focusing on spatial and temporal issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    The aim of the TOPWASTE project is to evaluate current and future optimal treatment of waste fractions in terms of economy and the environment, with a focus on recycling versus Waste-to-Energy technologies. After optimization of the waste management system, results must be analysed so...... as to identify drivers and barriers that efficient waste utilization in Denmark is facing and discuss the economic and/or environmental benefits that might arise from a change of the current waste management system....

  6. Electrochemical Treatment of Alkaline Nuclear Wastes. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are two of the major hazardous non-radioactive species present in Hanford and Savannah River (SR) high-level waste (HLW). Electrochemical treatment processes have been developed to remove these species by converting aqueous sodium nitrate/nitrite into sodium hydroxide and chemically reducing the nitrogen species to gaseous ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrogen. Organic complexants and other organic compounds found in waste can be simultaneously oxidized to gaseous carbon dioxide and water, thereby reducing flammability and leaching risks as well as process interferences in subsequent radionuclide separation processes. Competing technologies include thermal, hydrothermal and chemical destruction. Unlike thermal and hydrothermal processes that typically operate at very high temperatures and pressures, electrochemical processes typically operate at low temperatures (<100 C) and atmospheric pressure. Electrochemical processes effect chemical transformations by the addition or removal of electrons and, thus, do not add additional chemicals, as is the case with chemical destruction processes. Hanford and SR have different plans for disposal of the low-activity waste (LAW) that results when radioactive Cs{sup 137} has been removed from the HLW. At SR, the decontaminated salt solution will be disposed in a cement waste form referred to as Saltstone, whereas at Hanford the waste will be vitrified as a borosilicate glass. Destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before disposing the decontaminated salt solution in Saltstone would eliminate possible groundwater contamination that could occur from the leaching of nitrate and nitrite from the cement waste form. Destruction of nitrate and nitrite before vitrification at Hanford would significantly reduce the size of the off-gas system by eliminating the formation of NO{sub x} gases in the melter. Throughout the 1990's, the electrochemical conversion process has been extensively studied at SR, the University

  7. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Mixed Waste Utilizing the Oak Ridge Broad Spectrum Contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, C. H.; Heacker, F. K.; Cunningham, J.; Westich, B.

    2003-02-25

    To meet the requirements of the State of Tennessee's Department of Environment and Conservation Commissioner's Order for treatment of mixed low level wastes, Oak Ridge has utilized commercial treatment companies to treat and dispose mixed waste. Over the past year, Oak Ridge has shipped organic-contaminated mixed waste for treatment to meet milestones under the Site Treatment Plan. Oak Ridge has established contracts with commercial treatment companies accessible by all DOE sites for treatment of a wide range of mixed wastes. The paper will describe and summarize the activities involved in treating and disposing of organic-contaminated mixed waste utilizing DOE complex-wide contracts and the treatment and disposal activities required. This paper will describe the case history of treatment of several organic-contaminated mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation requiring treatment prior to disposal. The paper will include waste category information, implementation activities, and contract access. The paper will discuss the specifics of the mixed waste treatment including waste characteristics, treatment process and equipment utilized, and treatment results. Additional information will be provided on task order development, waste profiling, treatment pricing, and the disposal process.

  8. Treatment of dairy waste water by coagulation and filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Choudhari, P K

    2013-01-01

    The dairy waste: effluent contains high COD, which indicates the presence of organic matter. Therefore, the studies were carried out to reduce this COD in the dairy waste water through a proper treatment. The COD reduction with alum coagulant dose 3.2 g/ dm3 within pH03 to 11 was obtained to be 438 mg/dmi at pH03, 348 mg/dm3 at pH05, 404 mg/dm3 at pH07, 295 mg/dm3 at pH08, 407 mg/dm3 at pH011 and 422 mg/dm3 at pH09 from the initial COD (COD0)1070 mg/dm3. Maximum COD reduction was 72.4% at pH08 and minimum COD reduction was 55.10 % at pH05.

  9. Design of electrochemical processes for treatment of unusual waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    UCRL- JC- 129438 PREPRINT This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor the University of California nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or the University of California. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or the University of California, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Introduction. An overview of work done on the development of three electrochemical processes that meet the specific needs of low- level waste treatment is presented. These technologies include: mediated electrochemical oxidation [I- 4]; bipolar membrane electrodialysis [5]; and electrosorption of carbon aerogel electrodes [6- 9]. Design strategies are presented to assess the suitability of these electrochemical processes for Mediated electrochemical oxidation. Mixed wastes include both hazardous and radioactive components. It is desirable to reduce the overall volume of the waste before immobilization and disposal in repositories. While incineration is an attractive technique for the destruction of organic fractions of mixed wastes, such high-temperature thermal processes pose the threat of volatilizing various radionuclides. By destroying organics in the aqueous phase at low temperature and ambient pressure, the risk of volatilization can be reduced. One approach that is

  10. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  11. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  12. Biostabilization of municipal solid waste fractions from an Advanced Waste Treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Ball

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the safe disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW, especially the biodegradable fraction, is an important goal of waste management. This study reports the effects of using composting to biostabilize the biodegradable fraction of MSW sourced from an Advanced Waste Treatment plant in Australia. The impact of biostabilization on the initial aerobic degradation of the material showed a reduction in oxygen consumption of 30% (230 g O2/kg loss of ignition (LOI in immature compost and 45% (181 g O2 kg−1 LOI in mature compost when compared with the input material (330 g O2/kg LOI. Anaerobic tests showed a reduction in biodegradability of 40% in the immature compost with biogas production 250 L/kg LOI compared with 50% in mature compost with biogas production of 218 L/kg LOI. The results confirm that the biostabilization of the biodegradable fraction of MSW diverted from landfill can result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emission.

  13. Assessment of incineration and melting treatment technologies for RWMC buried waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geimer, R.; Hertzler, T.; Gillins, R. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report provides an identification, description, and ranking evaluation of the available thermal treatment technologies potentially capable of treating the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried mixed waste. The ranking evaluation focused separately upon incinerators for treatment of combustible wastes and melters for noncombustible wastes. The highest rank incinerators are rotary kilns and controlled air furnaces, while the highest rank melters are the hearth configuration plasma torch, graphite electrode arc, and joule-heated melters. 4 refs.

  14. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    OpenAIRE

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste includi...

  15. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  16. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  18. Treatment and recycling of asbestos-cement containing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, F. [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Cioffi, R., E-mail: raffaele.cioffi@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University Parthenope, Naples (Italy); Lavorgna, M.; Verdolotti, L. [Institute for Biomedical and Composite Materials - CNR, Naples (Italy); De Stefano, L. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems - CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Asbestos-cement wastes are hazardous. {yields} High energy milling treatment at room temperature allows mineralogical and morphological transformation of asbestos phases. {yields} The obtained milled powders are not-hazardous. {yields} The inert powders can be recycled as pozzolanic materials. {yields} The hydraulic mortars containing the milled inert powders are good building materials. - Abstract: The remediation of industrial buildings covered with asbestos-cement roofs is one of the most important issues in asbestos risk management. The relevant Italian Directives call for the above waste to be treated prior to disposal on landfill. Processes able to eliminate the hazard of these wastes are very attractive because the treated products can be recycled as mineral components in building materials. In this work, asbestos-cement waste is milled by means of a high energy ring mill for up to 4 h. The very fine powders obtained at all milling times are characterized to check the mineralogical and morphological transformation of the asbestos phases. Specifically, after 120 min of milling, the disappearance of the chrysotile OH stretching modes at 3690 cm{sup -1}, of the main crystalline chrysotile peaks and of the fibrous phase are detected by means of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, respectively. The hydraulic behavior of the milled powders in presence of lime is also tested at different times. The results of thermal analyses show that the endothermic effects associated to the neo-formed binding phases significantly increase with curing time. Furthermore, the technological efficacy of the recycling process is evaluated by preparing and testing hydraulic lime and milled powder-based mortars. The complete test set gives good results in terms of the hydration kinetics and mechanical properties of the building materials studied. In fact, values of reacted lime around 40% and values of compressive

  19. Innovative processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacary, V.; Jaubert, C.; Barre, Y. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Plasari, E. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques - Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine - Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique - CNRS, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2008-07-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of liquid radioactive wastes. Many of these wastes need treatment to reduce the quantities of radioactive contaminants to levels allowed for disposal. To treat these contaminated streams, various processes can be used with varying degree of efficiency according to the characteristics (ionic strength, compositions) of waste streams. The processes using solid precipitates are the most versatile and can be divided into two groups. When particles are directly introduced in the effluent, it is an adsorption process, and when particles are formed in situ, it is a coprecipitation process. In the reprocessing plant of La Hague and in nuclear research centres of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation process has been chosen for many years to perform decontamination of liquid wastes which can not be concentrated by evaporation. The significance of coprecipitation hinges on the fact that the solubility of a minor constituent coprecipitated with a carrier is smaller than the solubility of its pure solid. The coprecipitation process has significant consequences on subsequent steps. Not only the settling and the filtration are made easier if the crystals are large, but also the stability of radionuclides in the binding agent (concrete or bitumen) is higher if they are captured in the crystalline structure of the precipitate, so the control of the coprecipitation step is essential to carry out a practical and efficient decontamination. As a consequence we chose to study the impact of process parameters (reactor design, mixing, mean residence time) on the formation of precipitates and in fine on their ability to uptake radionuclide. (authors)

  20. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2012-01-01

    were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50–60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30–40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste....... In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150–250 kg capita−1 year−1, and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions......, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled...

  1. Optimising conventional treatment of domestic waste water: quality, required surface area, solid waste minimisation and biogas production for medium and small-scale applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Municipal waste water, or sewage, is a combination of domestic and industrial effluent. The increasing volume of sewage due to urbanisation and economic growth places pressure on the treatment performance of existing waste treatment systems...

  2. Tank waste remediation system optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides an alternative strategy evolved from the current Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic baseline for accomplishing the treatment and disposal of the Hanford Site tank wastes. This optimized processing strategy with an altered treatment scheme performs the major elements of the TWRS Program, but modifies the deployment of selected treatment technologies to reduce the program cost. The present program for development of waste retrieval, pretreatment, and vitrification technologies continues, but the optimized processing strategy reuses a single facility to accomplish the separations/low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification and the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification processes sequentially, thereby eliminating the need for a separate HLW vitrification facility.

  3. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils amended with digestate derived from anaerobic treatment of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, Daniela; Bol, Roland; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Sawamoto, Takuji; López, Aranzazu Louro; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, David

    2012-10-30

    The application of organic materials to agricultural lands is considered good practice to improve soil organic matter content and recycle nutrients for crop growth. The anaerobic treatment of food waste may have environmental benefits, particularly with regard to greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation and enhancement of carbon sequestration. This work presents the results from a field experiment to evaluate CO(2) , CH(4) and N(2) O emissions from grassland amended with digestate produced by anaerobic fermentation of food waste. Experimental plots, located close to Rothamsted Research-North Wyke, were established using a randomized block design with three replicates and two treatments, added digestate (DG) and the unamended control (CNT). The digestate was applied on three occasions at an equivalent rate of 80 kg N ha(-1) . The application of digestate led to an increase in CO(2) emissions, especially after the 2(nd) application (74.1 kg CO(2) -C ha(-1)  day(-1) ) compared with the CNT soil (36.4 kg CO(2) -C ha(-1)  day(-1) ), whereas DG treatment did not affect the overall CH(4) and N(2) O emissions. The total grass yield harvested on a dry matter basis was greater in the DG treated plots (0.565 kg m(-2) ) than in the CNT plots (0.282 kg m(-2) ), as was the (15)  N content in the harvest collected from the DG plots. The results suggest that the digestate can be applied to agricultural land as a fertilizer to grow crops. Our study was conducted in an exceptionally dry growing season, so conclusions about the effect of digestate on GHG emissions should take this into account, and further field trials conducted under more typical growing seasons are needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Translating The Waste Land: Literal accuracy, poetic fidelity and cross-cultural communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wessels

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article published an Afrikaans translation of T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land in 1992. This article is a personal contemplation and evaluation of the process of literary translation as experienced in the particular case, referring to aspects of translation theory where relevant. It discusses the unremitting balancing act that literary translation requires, where the translator has to pose the need for as close a literal translation as possible against the need to render, again as faithfully as possible, the comprehensive poetic effect of the work, as regards, for example, stylistic features, emotive force and symbolic significance. Through all of this runs the thread of (a sometimes unconscious transculturation of the work, partly the result of the desire on the part of the translator to communicate the impact of the poem as successfully as possible to a specific audience with a specific cultural identity and cultural presuppositions. Sometimes the inescapable interpretative nature of literary translation could be attributable to the cultural identity of the translator himself and sometimes it could be the result of the innate cultural dimensions or temper of the recipient language. The problems encountered, solutions arrived at and transcultural evolution effected are illustrated from the (original and translated texts.

  5. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  6. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, B. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

  7. Physical properties of sand from the waste water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on characterization of selected physical properties of sewage sand from the waste water treatment plants. Sand is transported into wastewater mainly in areas with a combined se­we­ra­ge system – principally in connection with rainfalls, in case of which it is transported through the sewerage system together with rainwater, but also (within smaller extents due to leakages of sewerage systems or bad conduct of natural persons and legal entities. The main attention was focused on basic physical parameters such as content of total solid, ash free dry mass, density and granulometry. These material parameters are very often underestimated so the set of quality data is completly missing, as well as a background for designers of wastewater treatment plants. This paper should be quite useful e.g. for the purpose of technological equipment design in the region of South Moravia.

  8. Effects of ozonation on disinfection and microbial activity in waste activated sludge for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kyu-Hong; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Hong, Jun-Seok; Lim, Byung-Ran

    2003-07-01

    Effects of ozonation on microbial biomass activity and community structure in waste activated sludges from various treatment plants were investigated. The densities of viable cells and microbial community structure in the sludges treated with ozone at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS were measured on the basis of the respiratory quinone profile and LIVE/DEAD Backlight(TM). The results from the bacterial concentration and quinone profiles of the waste activated sludge showed that respiratory activities of microorganisms were detected at the ozone dose of 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS. However, fecal coliform, fecal streptococcus and Salmonella sp. in the ozonized sludge were not detected. This result implies that some microorganisms might be more tolerant to ozonation than the pathogenic indicators. The pathogens reduction requirements for Class A biosolids were still met by the ozonation at 0.4 gO{sub 3}/gDS.

  9. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  10. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  11. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this section and for treatment standards in Table CCWE—Constituent Concentrations in Waste Extracts, refer to...

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Mcnamara

    2016-09-01

      The Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC introduced a series of measures for the purpose of protecting the environment from the adverse effects of effluent discharge from wastewater treatment plants.  There are environmental costs associated with attaining the required level of water quality set out in the directive such as greenhouse gas emissions due to energy production, and ecotoxicity from sludge application to land.  The goal of this study is to assess the environmental costs in an Irish context, focusing specifically on the effects of variation in scale and discharge limitation. Life cycle assessment is the analytical tool used to evaluate the environmental impact.  The life cycle impact assessment methodology developed by the Centre of Environmental Science, Leiden University (2010 has been adopted and implemented using GaBi 6.0 life cycle assessment software.  Two plants of varying size and location were chosen for the study. The study found that energy consumption and sludge application to land are the largest contributors to the overall environmental impact associated with the treatment process at both plants.  Economies of scale were observed in energy usage during secondary aeration.   

  13. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  14. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  15. Fixed-biofilm reactors applied to waste water treatment and aquacultural water recirculating systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovendeur, J.

    1989-01-01

    Fixed-biofilm waste water treatment may be regarded as one of the oldest engineered biological waste water treatment methods. With the recent introduction of modern packing materials, this type of reactor has received a renewed impuls for implementation in a wide field of water treatment.

    In

  16. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.; Herbst, S.

    1996-10-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is collaborating with several DOE and international organizations to develop and evaluate: technologies for the treatment of acidic high-level radioactive wastes. The focus on the treatment of high-level radioactive wastes is on the removal of cesium and strontium from wastes typically 1 to 3 M in acidity. Technologies to treat groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and/or toxic metals. Technologies to remove toxic metals from hazardous or mixed waste streams, for neutral pH to 3 M acidic waste streams.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  18. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  19. Biofilm treatment of soil for waste containment and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.P.; Dennis, M.L.; Osman, Y.A.; Chase, J.; Bulla, L.A. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the potential for creating low-permeability reactive barriers for waste treatment and containment by treating soils with Beijerinckia indica, a bacterium which produces an exopolysaccharide film. The biofilm adheres to soil particles and causes a decrease in soil hydraulic conductivity. In addition, B. Indica biodegrades a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chemical carcinogens. The combination of low soil hydraulic conductivity and biodegradation capabilities creates the potential for constructing reactive biofilm barriers from soil and bacteria. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of B. Indica on the hydraulic conductivity of a silty sand. Soil specimens were molded with a bacterial and nutrient solution, compacted at optimum moisture content, permeated with a nutrient solution, and tested for k{sub sat} using a flexible-wall permeameter. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub sat}) was reduced from 1 x 10{sup -5} cm/sec to 2 x 10{sup -8} cm/sec: by biofilm treatment. Permeation with saline, acidic, and basic solutions following formation of a biofilm was found to have negligible effect on the reduced k{sub sat}, for up to three pore volumes of flow. Applications of biofilm treatment for creating low-permeability reactive barriers are discussed, including compacted liners for bottom barriers and caps and creation of vertical barriers by in situ treatment.

  20. Phyto-treatment of domestic waste water using artificial marshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca, Rodrigo; Sanchez, Fabian [Oleoducto de Crudos Pesados (OCP), Quito (Ecuador)

    2009-12-19

    The phyto-treatment of domestic waste water by the use of artificial marshes system consists in beds of treatment working in series, this beds are constituted basically by inverse filters of inert granular material where the nutrients are cached from the residual water. Most of the treatment is carried in roots steams and leaves of defined species of plants. The rest of the treatment is performed by anaerobic and aerobic bacteria that grow within the beds. In the proximities of the roots and the area near the bed surface, aerobic processes take place and in deepest zones, anaerobic processes take place. It is desirable that the aerobic process will be the predominant one, mainly to avoid bad odors; this is obtained with the correct selection of plants which must have dense and deep roots. The economic factor is also important for the selection of this type of treatment system, the cost of operation and maintenance is minimum compared with other type of systems. The operation cost is practically zero because it is not required provision of electrical energy for its operation; energy used is the solar energy through the photosynthesis process. The maintenance is reduced to pruning and cleaning that can be performed twice a year. The goals of this paper is to show our experiences during the construction, stabilization and operation of these systems installed in 13 OCP locations with different types of weather and explain the conclusions arrived after construction and operation; present this kind of systems as an alternative of economic wastewater treatment in terms of construction, operation and maintenance and as environment friendly treatment. (author)

  1. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  2. Effects of Earthquake and Human Migration on Land Cover Change and Mass Wasting from the 2010 Haiti Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y.; Lee, J.

    2015-12-01

    IntroductionThe 2010 earthquake in Haiti displaced millions of people and drastically induced mass wasting. The purpose of this study is to explore comprehensive relationships between population displacement and landslide frequency by comparing land use and land cover (LULC) maps of pre- and post-earthquake. To assess the impact of anthropogenic activities, we employed a maximum likelihood method to produce LULC maps from Landsat images for the dry season of 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Landslide inventory maps were created with ArcGIS and Google Earth to visually detect mass wasting coverage for each year. We assessed LULC characteristics of new landslide areas for pre- and post-earthquake to find out what types of land cover most likely caused landslide events and how they were affected by anthropogenic activities in Haiti. The result (Figure 1) shows that the majority of the landslides occurred in the areas of bare soil and grassland over the entire period of this study. These types of land cover are generally considered to be landslide prone due to lack of forest, which leads to a weakening of slope stability. In the earthquake year of 2010, landslide events were dominantly found in bare soil (67.5%) while grassland only occupied 5.1% of total land use. After the earthquake, landslides increased 14.6% in the forest areas, and then decreased to 7% of the total land use in 2014. Post-earthquake data shows an increase of urban area landslides (16%). After the earthquake from 2010 to 2012, landslides in the forest area noticeably increased. This may be due to refugee camps, which were constructed after the earthquake. Clearing trees for biomass energy might have resulted in poor slope stability because roots are necessary to maintain soils.

  3. Effects of animal wastes treatments of diesel polluted soils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilizing microbial counts and oil degradation in diesel-polluted soil was investigated. Heavily and moderately polluted soil samples were amended with different grades (200, 400 and 600 g) of organic nutrient supplements (poultry waste, pig waste ...

  4. Programs of recovery of radioactive wastes from the trenches and land decontamination of the radioactive waste storage center; Programas de recuperacion de los desechos radiactivos de las trincheras y de descontaminacion del predio del centro de almacenamiento de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-06-15

    In this report there are the decontamination program of the land of the Radioactive Waste Storage Center, the Program of Recovery of the radioactive waste of the trenches, the recovery of polluted bar with cobalt 60, the recovery of minerals and tailings of uranium and of earth with minerals and tailings of uranium, the recovery of worn out sealed sources and the waste recovery with the accustomed corresponding actions are presented. (Author)

  5. Implementing separate waste collection and mechanical biological waste treatment in South Africa: a comparison with Austria and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trois, Cristina; Simelane, Oscar T

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of organic compounds found in municipal solid waste (MSW) under the anaerobic landfill conditions produces gas and liquid emissions that can protract well into the landfill after-care period. The European Landfill Directives regulate the amount and nature of the organic compounds disposed into landfills. In South Africa and other developing countries, MSW is still landfilled without any kind of pre-treatment. This paper presents a pilot project of mechanical biological waste treatment (MBWT) in South Africa implemented at municipal level in the city of Durban using passively aerated open windrows. Based on case studies from Austria, England and South Africa, a waste minimisation model which can facilitate full-scale implementation of MBWT in developing countries is presented. MSW was treated in open windrows for 8 weeks. Composting temperature reached a maximum of 65 degrees C in less than 10 days. The results of eluate tests on waste samples from the windrows at the end of composting show a reduction of BOD(5) and BOD(5)/COD ratios equal to 35.7% and 16.7%, respectively. The percent waste composition of the treated MSW was 28.3% putrescibles, 17.4% garden refuse, 13.3% plastic, 12.4% fabrics, 12% paper and other elements. The waste composition shows that more than 40% of un-treated organic material and also more than 40% non-biodegradable and recyclable materials are still landfilled without any form of biological treatment or resource recovery. A simple wet and dry waste collection model can promote recycling, treatment of biological waste before landfilling, resource recovery, labour intensive jobs and hence sustainable landfilling in the South African scenario as well as in similar developing countries. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of thermal and physicochemical treatment on abattoir waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evacuation of abattoir waste waters into water bodies results in excessive proliferation of decomposers, thus causing oxygen depletion and eutrophication. This study is designed to find means of effectively treating the abattoir waste water before they are reused or discharged into water bodies. The waste water was taken ...

  7. State-of-the-art report on low-level radioactive waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibbey, A.H.; Godbee, H.W.

    1980-09-01

    An attempt is made to identify the main sources of low-level radioactive wastes that are generated in the United States. To place the waste problem in perspective, rough estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of waste that is generated. Most of the wet solid wastes arise from the cleanup of gaseous and liquid radioactive streams prior to discharge or recycle. The treatment of the process streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described for each type of government or fuel cycle installation. Similarly, the institutional wet wastes are also described. The dry wastes from all sources have smilar physical and chemical characteristics in that they can be classified as compactible, noncompactible, combustible, noncombustible, or combinations thereof. The various treatment options for concentrated or solid wet wastes and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry-waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting, and shredding. Organic materials can usually be incinerated or, in some cases, biodegraded. The filter sludges, spent resins, incinerator ashes, and concentrated liquids are usually solidified in cement, urea-formaldehyde, or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Asphalt has not yet been used as a solidificaton agent in the United States, but it probably will be used in the near future. The treatment of radioactive medical and bioresearch wastes is described, but the waste from radiochenmical, pharmaceutical, and other industries is not well defined at the present time. Recovery of waste metals and treatment of hazardous contaminated wastes are discussed briefly. Some areas appearing to need more research, development, and demonstration are specifically pointed out.

  8. Evaluating the cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing iron wastes from drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Tara M; Snyder, Kathryn V; Reddy, Raghav; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Amrose, Susan E; Raskin, Lutgarde; Hayes, Kim F

    2015-12-30

    Cement stabilization of arsenic-bearing wastes is recommended to limit arsenic release from wastes following disposal. Such stabilization has been demonstrated to reduce the arsenic concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), which regulates landfill disposal of arsenic waste. However, few studies have evaluated leaching from actual wastes under conditions similar to ultimate disposal environments. In this study, land disposal in areas where flooding is likely was simulated to test arsenic release from cement stabilized arsenic-bearing iron oxide wastes. After 406 days submersed in chemically simulated rainwater, wastes. Presenting the first characterization of cement stabilized waste using μXRF, these results revealed the majority of arsenic in cement stabilized waste remained associated with iron. This distribution of arsenic differed from previous observations of calcium-arsenic solid phases when arsenic salts were stabilized with cement, illustrating that the initial waste form influences the stabilized form. Overall, cement stabilization is effective for arsenic-bearing wastes when acidic conditions can be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  10. Advanced waste form and Melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these “troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (also with high Al2O3 concentrations). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group. An extended duration CCIM melter test was conducted on an AZ-101 waste simulant using the CCIM platform at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The melter was continually operated for approximately 80 hours demonstrating that the AZ-101 high waste loading glass composition could be readily processed using the CCIM technology. The resulting glass was close to the targeted composition and exhibited excellent durability in both

  11. Importance of biological systems in industrial waste treatment potential application to the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revis, Nathaniel; Holdsworth, George

    1990-01-01

    In addition to having applications for waste management issues on planet Earth, microbial systems have application in reducing waste volumes aboard spacecraft. A candidate for such an application is the space station. Many of the planned experiments generate aqueous waste. To recycle air and water the contaminants from previous experiments must be removed before the air and water can be used for other experiments. This can be achieved using microorganisms in a bioreactor. Potential bioreactors (inorganics, organics, and etchants) are discussed. Current technologies that may be applied to waste treatment are described. Examples of how biological systems may be used in treating waste on the space station.

  12. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment.

  13. 76 FR 19003 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Nevada and California; Site Specific Treatment Variances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... pertains to the treatment of a hazardous waste generated by the Owens-Brockway Glass Container Company in...-line instructions for submitting comments. E-mail: [email protected] and miller.jesse@epa.gov...: For more information on this rulemaking, contact Jesse Miller, Materials Recovery and Waste Management...

  14. Recycling of PVC Waste via Environmental Friendly Vapor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Jin, Fangming; Zhang, Guangyi; Duan, Xiaokun

    2010-11-01

    This paper focused on the dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic which is widely used in the human life and thereby is leading to serious "white pollution", via vapor treatment process to recycle PVC wastes. In the process, HCl emitted was captured into water solution to avoid hazardous gas pollution and corruption, and remaining polymers free of chlorine could be thermally degraded for further energy recovery. Optimal conditions for the dechlorination of PVC using vapor treatment was investigated, and economic feasibility of this method was also analyzed based on the experimental data. The results showed that the efficiency of dechlorination increased as the temperature increased from 200° C to 250° C, and the rate of dechlorination up to 100% was obtained at the temperature near 250° C. Meanwhile, about 12% of total organic carbon was detected in water solution, which indicated that PVC was slightly degraded in this process. The main products in solution were identified to be acetone, benzene and toluene. In addition, the effects of alkali catalysis on dechlorination were also studied in this paper, and it showed that alkali could not improve the efficiency of the dechlorination of PVC.

  15. Discharge and Treatment of Waste Water in Denmark:a case study about Esbjerg

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the waste water treatment situation in the area of Esbjerg. This example was chosen because the situation in Esbjerg is typical of that of most towns in Denmark, and because Esbjerg is closest to the British situation with respect to the receiving water. Esbjerg has a population of 70.000 inhabitans, and waste water treatment takes place in two treatment plants. These plants are now being extended to perform tertiary treatment, to fulfil the new Danish requirements. From ...

  16. Estimation of marginal costs at existing waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Hulgaard, Tore; Hindsgaul, Claus

    2016-01-01

    , based on the determination of average costs in such waste facilities as function of key facility and waste compositional parameters. The applicability of the method was demonstrated through a case study including two existing Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities, one with co-generation of heat and power...... (CHP) and another with only power generation (Power), affected by diversion strategies of five waste fractions (fibres, plastic, metals, organics and glass), named "target fractions". The study assumed three possible responses to waste diversion in the WtE facilities: (i) biomass was added to maintain...... a constant thermal load, (ii) Refused-Derived-Fuel (RDF) was included to maintain a constant thermal load, or (iii) no reaction occurred resulting in a reduced waste throughput without full utilization of the facility capacity. Results demonstrated that marginal costs of diversion from WtE were up to eleven...

  17. Treatment of urban residential organic waste through anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Granzotto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of waste generated nowadays is a reflection of population growth and consumerism, many times, unnecessary by people. Organic waste is the most part of the solid waste generated. This waste need to be treated adequately to avoid environmental problems and health problems in people. The objective was to treat urban residential organic waste and to verify the efficiency of the transformation into biogas and bio fertilizers. A digester of the Indian type was used in Nova Palma, Rio Grande do Sul. The research was developed in the period of three years with a daily monitoring. The average biogas production was higher in the summer for three years and it was more stable in the third year in different seasons. There were no reagents to coliforms. The study found that anaerobic digestion has potential in treating organic waste.

  18. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  19. Sustainable Waste Water Treatment in Developing Countries: A Case Study of IIT Kharagpur Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sutapa; Bokshi, Sanjit

    2017-06-01

    Treatment of wastewater and its reuse in irrigation and agriculture can mitigate the inevitable scarcity of safe drinking water in coming decades. For developing countries like India and especially in its under-privileged regions, it is high time to focus on sustainable wastewater treatment which will be economical and easy to construct, operate and maintain by unskilled users without much dependency on electricity. Addressing this issue, various sustainable methods of wastewater treatment was critically analyzed and the Waste Stabilization Pond system was selected. A facility was designed for 20,000 residents of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur campus based on its geo-climatic and wastewater characteristics. Detailed calculations were carried out to demonstrate the effluent quality with reduced BOD and E-coli is suitable for unrestricted irrigation. This project with minor customisation can act as a prototype for adjacent vast rural areas where land is available but water, electricity and skilled technicians are not. If implemented, this project will bear social benefits beyond campus such as water supply to drought prone areas, better harvest and rural employment. Moreover, it underpins government' several initiatives to develop rural infrastructure and inclusive growth of the country.

  20. A Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis of Waste Treatment Options for Food and Biodegradable Waste Management in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micky A. Babalola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with large-scale Food and Biodegradable Waste (FBW often results in many logistical problems and environmental impacts to be considered. These can become great hindrances when the integration of solid waste management is concerned. Extra care is needed to plan such waste disposal or treatment services and facilities, especially with respect to the ecological impact. Decision-making with regards to the sustainable use of these facilities also involves tradeoffs between a number of conflicting objectives, since increasing one benefit may decrease the others. In this study a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA is presented to evaluate different waste management options and their applicability in Japan. The analytical process aims at selecting the most suitable waste treatment option, using pairwise comparisons conducted within a decision hierarchy that was developed through the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results of this study show that anaerobic digestion should be chosen as the best FBW treatment option with regards to resource recovery. The study also presents some conditions and recommendations that can enhance the suitability of other options like incineration and composting.

  1. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank

  2. The status and developments of leather solid waste treatment: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huiyan; Liu, Junsheng; Han, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Leather making is one of the most widespread industries in the world. The production of leather goods generates different types of solid wastes and wastewater. These wastes will pollute the environment and threat the health of human beings if they are not well treated. Consequently, the treatment of pollution caused by the wastes from leather tanning is really important. In comparison with the disposal of leather wastewater, the treatment of leather solid wastes is more intractable. Hence, the treatment of leather solid wastes needs more innovations. To keep up with the rapid development of the modern leather industry, various innovative techniques have been newly developed. In this mini-review article, the major achievements in the treatment of leather solid wastes are highlighted. Emphasis will be placed on the treatment of chromium-tanned solid wastes; some new approaches are also discussed. We hope that this mini-review can provide some valuable information to promote the broad understanding and effective treatment of leather solid wastes in the leather industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  4. Environmental performance of an innovative waste refinery based on enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ) from the waste. The waste refinery was compared to alternative treatments such as incineration, bioreactor landfill and mechanical-biological treatment followed by utilization of the RDF (refuse-derived fuel) for energy. The performance of the waste refinery turned out to be comparable...... for virgin material and saving fossil resources. In this paper a life-cycle assessment of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials...... with incineration for most environmental categories. Landfilling turned out to be the worst option with respect to most categories (especially energy-related such as GW). The refinery treatment has large margins of improvement with respect to the environmental performance. These are mainly associated...

  5. Advanced waste form and melter development for treatment of troublesome high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maio, Vincent [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-02

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these "troublesome" waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approached to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating.

  6. Treatment of Household Waste in Small Towns of China: Status, Basic Conditions and Appropriate Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Pin-jing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Small town is the gateway of population migrating from rural areas to urban areas in the process of urbanization. The level of its household solid waste treatment is pivotal to the environmental and sanitary quality of surrounding rural areas. Furthermore, small town is the primary administrative center for rural districts, and will impose important influences on the solid waste management in villages. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of treatment modes on the household solid waste treatment in towns and surrounding villages. Based on the waste generation in small towns, this study analyzed the current status and existing problems for solid waste treatment, and discussed the related administrative management and financial supporting conditions in small towns. By summarizing the characteristics of the existing modes and comparing the costs for different treatment modes, the present study proposed that the most appropriate mode was“diversion in villages-diversion, transportation or treatment in towns-treatment and disposal in counties”, in which the town was the core node for the treatment of rural solid waste, so that the administrative and financial advantages of small towns could be highlighted and consequentially promoted the management of rural solid waste.

  7. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  8. Characterization of Waste Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate after Alkali Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rešček, A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ethylene terephthalate, PET, recycling represents one of the most successful and widespread examples of polymer recycling. This material is fully recyclable and may be used for manufacturing new products in many industrial areas. Nevertheless, the excellent properties of PET needed for its many applications are also responsible for the difficult degradation of PET and an accumulation of polymer waste, which in turn creates serious environmental problems connected to littering and illegal landfilling or incineration. The main goal of this study was to examine the effect of alkali pretreatment on the properties of PET flakes. PET flakes were washed at twotemperatures, 70 °C and 75 °C and in various time intervals of 15, 18, 21, 25, and 30 min. All samples were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and by contact angle measurements. The results showed that during the alkali treatment the partial depolymerization of PET was obtained, which resulted in the formation of various types of oligomers with hydroxyl and carboxyl end groups, which were the result of loss of high molecular structure. Decrease of intensity of characteristic vibrational bands (CO at 1717, COO at 1265 and CH2 at 722 cm-1 with extended time was observed (Figs. 1 and 2. Further on, the formation of hydroxyl groups at ṽ = 3428 cm-1 was also observed as a result of PET depolimerization during the alkali treatment, which behaviour was better visible for samples washed at 75 °C and with extended washing time (Fig 2b. During the DSC thermal analysis, multiple melting peaks were observed in some studied samples which could be linked to partial melting and re-crystallization of PET or to the occurrence of new polymer fractions of lower molecular mass (Figs. 3 and 4. It is evident that the contact angle of PET samples (Fig. 5 decreases in comparison to the PET 0, which points to the changes on the PET surface during the alkali treatment. Decrease

  9. Effects of animal wastes treatments of diesel polluted soils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavily and moderately polluted soil samples were amended with different grades (200, 400 and 600 g) of organic nutrient supplements (poultry waste, pig waste and cow dung) and inorganic fertilizer. Soil samples obtained were also polluted with different percentage of diesel oil. Viable aerobic diesel oil-utilizing ...

  10. Notas para The Waste Land: T. S. Eliot e a máquina literária = Notes on The Waste Land: T. S. Eliot and the literary machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cechinel, André

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe-se a investigar o suposto papel explicativo atribuído às notas que T. S. Eliot acrescentou ao poema The Waste Land quando de sua publicação. Para tanto, o texto volta a sua atenção, em particular, para três das várias observações em que o poeta expõe as referências por ele consultadas e referidas nos versos, isso com o intuito de verificar se de fato há um esclarecimento interpretativo prestado ao poema graças à inclusão das notas. Em linhas gerais, o choque entre os versos de The Waste Land e as notas autorais provoca um impasse que aciona o que aqui chamamos de uma “máquina literária” produtora de teses. Essa máquina, compreendida a partir de seu mecanismo estruturante, não só recusa a sugestão de que o entendimento do poema decorre da decodificação apropriada das fontes, como também produz um efeito plural responsável por desestabilizar a hierarquia classicista e canônica que a crítica literária por décadas viu ali instalada

  11. Evaluation of an Organic Waste Composting Device to Household Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alejandro Falcó

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a plug-flow automated aerobic digester for the composting of the biodegradable organic waste (BOW from a typical family at its generation rhythm was evaluated. During 13 month assessment, 179.7 kg of BOW were treated and 106.7 kg of compost were obtained with a C:N ratio of 12 and an average concentration of N of about 2.72%. Additional tests enabled to assess the generation of stable and good quality compost according to the considered standards, suitable for using as organic fertilizer and other uses, such as biotreatments. The design, location and operational characteristics of the device have determined reduced leachate emissions, the absence of unpleasant odour generation and incidence of insects or other vectors, implying the viability of their use without affecting the user´s quality of life. It could be an efficient alternative treatment for household BOW, from a technical, economic, energy, cultural and environmental point of view, easy to implement for users lacking in special training. 

  12. Nutrient abatement potential and abatement costs of waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautakangas, Sami; Ollikainen, Markku; Aarnos, Kari; Rantanen, Pirjo

    2014-04-01

    We assess the physical potential to reduce nutrient loads from waste water treatment plants in the Baltic Sea region and determine the costs of abating nutrients based on the estimated potential. We take a sample of waste water treatment plants of different size classes and generalize its properties to the whole population of waste water treatment plants. Based on a detailed investment and operational cost data on actual plants, we develop the total and marginal abatement cost functions for both nutrients. To our knowledge, our study is the first of its kind; there is no other study on this issue which would take advantage of detailed data on waste water treatment plants at this extent. We demonstrate that the reduction potential of nutrients is huge in waste water treatment plants. Increasing the abatement in waste water treatment plants can result in 70 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan nitrogen reduction target and 80 % of the Baltic Sea Action Plan phosphorus reduction target. Another good finding is that the costs of reducing both nutrients are much lower than previously thought. The large reduction of nitrogen would cost 670 million euros and of phosphorus 150 million euros. We show that especially for phosphorus the abatement costs in agriculture would be much higher than in waste water treatment plants.

  13. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter

  14. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  15. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 226}Ra determination in soil and land snails from a radioactive waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso, M.I.; Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia, N.; Abascal, F.; Salazar, S.; Velazquez, R.; Mendoza, R.

    1995-10-19

    Environmental radioactivity studies related to nuclear facilities can provide information concerning the transfer of radionuclides to the surrounding soils, water and the local biota. A study of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K content in soils and in land snails, Helix aspersa Mueller, has been performed at the confined Storage Centre for Radioactive Waste (Maquixco, Mexico). At this site, solid and liquid radioactive waste has been stored for two decades; tailing piles of radiometric ore also stood for some time before being buried in specific containers. The nuclear technique used was gamma spectrometry. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for soil and land snails chemical analysis. The preliminary results obtained in soil samples show {sup 226}Ra and {sup 137}Cs values ranging from 88 to 19{sup 9}79? and from 89 to 4961 Bq/kg (dry wt.), respectively, depending on the sampling region. For the snails, {sup 226}Ra levels in shell samples up to a factor of 9 greater were obtained for the site samples as compared with reference samples collected 100 km away. The results are discussed as a function of the uranium ore tailings localization at the site; a preliminary estimation of concentration factors (soil/snail) is also intended.

  16. Treatment technologies of wastes asbestos contents; Tecnologie di trattamento di rifiuti contenenti amianto. Documento di indirizzo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G.; Ferri, F. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Paglietti, F.; Plescia, P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Trattamento Minerali, Rome (Italy); Reynaud, S. [Electric Power Production Company-Struttura e Ricerca, Rome (Italy); Todarello, G. [Centro Sviluppo Materiali SpA, Rome (Italy); Martinelli, C. [ARPAV, Dipt. provinciale di Verona, Verona (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    This report illustrates the actual situation on waste treatment and disposal of asbestos containing wastes. Particularly Italian experiences in the industrial sector. [Italian] Il presente documento fa il punto della situazione per quanto attiene alle problematiche relative al trattamento ed allo smaltimento dei rifiuti contenenti amianto. Un cenno particolare e' stato posto sulle esperienze industriali italiane.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant : recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    OpenAIRE

    Martín González, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valori...

  18. Land

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Audouin, M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsustainable agricultural practices have had a role to play in the degradation of land on which agriculture depends. South Africa has an international obligation to develop a National Action Programme (NAP), the purpose of which is to identify...

  19. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In the endeavour of avoiding presence of biodegradable waste in landfills and increasing recycling, mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plants have seen a significant increase in number and capacity in the last two decades. The aim of these plants is separating and stabilizing the quickly...... biodegradable fraction of the waste as well as recovering recyclables from mixed waste streams. In this study the environmental performance of eight MBT-based waste management scenarios in Spain was assessed by means of life cycle assessment. The focus was on the technical and environmental performance...

  20. Assessment of Animal Waste Treatment by Means of Biodigesters on Pig Farms in the Red River

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lai Thi, Cuc

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out at 12 pig farms in three provinces of Hai Duong, Hung Yen and Bac Ninh. Results showed that the daily amounts of solid and liquid wastes were rather large (50 - 260 kg of solid wastes and 3 - 20 m3 of liquid wastes). The liquid waste treatment with biodigesters decreased the BOD5 and COD concentrations (BOD5 decreased by 75.0 - 80.8% at the sow houses and 75.89 – 80.36% at the growing–finishing pig houses; COD decreased by 66.85% and 64.94 - 69.73% at the sow...

  1. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  2. Incineration facilities for treatment of radioactive wastes: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of incinerator installations in the US and in foreign countries. Included are descriptions of inactive incinerators, incinerator facilities currently in operation, and incinerator installations under construction. Special features of each installation and operational problems of each facility are emphasized. Problems in the incineration of radioactive waste are discussed in relation to the composition of the waste and the amount and type of radioactive contaminant.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  4. Site Selection Methodology for the Land Treatment of Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    several different preapplication and crop alternatives. Table A9 presents the hydraulic assimilative rapacity and drainage re- quirements of each of...requirements for slow in- filtration. Land area requirements for rapid infiltration are a function of the soil hydraulic assimilation rapacity and the

  5. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  6. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  7. A waste heat boiler concept for co-generation applications on land and at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riet, F. van (Louvain Univ. (Belgium) Clayton Industries (BE))

    1992-02-01

    Heat recovery systems for exhaust gases have been developed for both industrial and marine applications. Clayton Exhaust Gas Boilers are used on cargo ships, chemical carriers, ferries, reefer vessels, gas tankers, rigs, fish processing vessels and a wide range of other types of ship. Generally, an installation consists of a combination of one or more fired steam generators and an exhaust gas steam generator or boiler. This means that the fired unit(s) are in operation whilst the ship is in port and the exhaust gas unit is producing steam whilst the ship is at sea. Typical industrial applications for Waste Heat Recovery Systems are in combination with incinerators, diesel engines, gas turbines, glass furnaces, enamel ovens, stress relieving ovens etc. Clayton Waste Heat Recovery Systems can be applied to waste gases ranging from 200{sup o}C to 1400{sup o}C and rated from 680 kg/h to 59.000 kg/h. (Author).

  8. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  9. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  10. The treatment and purification of wool and mohair scouring wastes- a survey

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mozes, TE

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available in these streams. The aim of this survey is to provide a retrospect of the various processes for the treatment and purification of wool and mohair scouring wastes from 1874 to the present....

  11. Treatment Study Plan for Nitrate Salt Waste Remediation Revision 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Catherine L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The two stabilization treatment methods that are to be examined for their effectiveness in the treatment of both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt wastes include (1) the addition of zeolite and (2) cementation. Zeolite addition is proposed based on the results of several studies and analyses that specifically examined the effectiveness of this process for deactivating nitrate salts. Cementation is also being assessed because of its prevalence as an immobilization method used for similar wastes at numerous facilities around the DOE complex, including at Los Alamos. The results of this Treatment Study Plan will be used to provide the basis for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit modification request of the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit for approval by the New Mexico Environment Department-Hazardous Waste Bureau (NMED-HWB) of the proposed treatment process and the associated facilities.

  12. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  13. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D. [Mirage Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  14. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  16. Simultaneous treatment of low-level miscellaneous solid waste by thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, T.; Adachi, K.; Yasui, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction is a cost saving method for the final disposal of radioactive waste. On one hand, arc plasma heating can provide sufficient heat independent of the chemical and physical properties of waste, therefore enabling stable heating at high treatment rates. CRIEPI (central research institute of electric power industry) focused on the advantages of arc plasma heating, and has clarified that arc plasma heating can be used in a simultaneous melting treatment process for low-level miscellaneous mixed solid waste, generated from nuclear power plants for volume reduction, and in the stabilization of radionuclides. (authors)

  17. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting...... partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating...... the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization....

  18. Corps of Engineers Land Treatment of Wastewater Research Program, An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, p. 38-44. The N transformations of interest to this workshop are nitrification , denitrification...I.K. Tskandar and B.J. Blake (1979) Evaluation of nitrification inhibitors in cold regions land treatment of wastewater: Part 1. Nitrapyrin. CRREL...as a nitrification inhibitor in land treatment. Laboratory tests included soil incubation and soil column studies. Variables were soil type

  19. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  20. Wet Oxidation as a Waste Treatment Method in Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, B. L.; Wydeven, T.

    1982-01-01

    The chemistry of the wet oxidation process was investigated in relation to production of plant nutrients from plant and human waste materials as required for a closed life support system. Hydroponically grown lettuce plants were used as a model plant waste, and oxygen gas was used as an oxidant. Organic nitrogen content was decreased 88-100%, depending on feed material. Production of ammonia and nitrogen gas accounted for all of the observed decrease in organic nitrogen content. No nitrous oxide (N2O) was detected. The implications of these results for closed life support systems are discussed.

  1. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  2. Environmental impact by toxic compounds from waste treatment; Miljoepaaverkan fraan toxiska aemnen vid hantering av avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefblad, Gun; Bisaillon, Mattias; Sundberg, Johan (Profu AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    The study deals with emissions of toxic compounds from waste treatment to the environment with the aim of improving the state of knowledge and to find a way of describing the environmental impact from these substances. Toxicity is one of a number of environmental aspects necessary to address in the planning of waste treatment and in the daily waste treatment routines in order to fulfill the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment and other environmental requirements. The study includes waste to incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion. A comparison between methods were made for biological household waste. According to our study, the compounds of importance for waste treatment are metals and persistent organic compounds. These tend to bioaccumulate and enrich in food chains. The substances are important for the environmental objective A Non-Toxic Environment. In a first step the compounds chosen in this study may be suggested for describing toxicity from waste treatment: As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, dioxin, PCB, the phthalate DEHP and the brominated flame retardant HBCDD. Other substances may be added to the list in a next step from up-dated and quality-assured characterisation factors or from other requirements or preferences. There is a limited knowledge on toxic compounds in waste flows and in different environmental compartments. More data are available for metals than for organic substances. There is also a limited knowledge on the fate of the compounds during the waste treatment processes. Most information is found for incineration. During composting and anaerobic digestion the metals will mainly be emitted to the environment by use of the compost and the anaerobic digestion residue. Organic substances will to some extent be degraded during the processes. However, there are gaps of knowledge to fill for the further work on estimating toxic emissions. There is mainly a need for more extensive data on toxic compounds in waste and their variations. A test

  3. Effect of microwave pre-treatment of thickened waste activated sludge on biogas production from co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge and municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, E; Sartaj, M; Kennedy, K

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, with thickened waste activated sludge and primary sludge has the potential to enhance biodegradation of solid waste, increase longevity of existing landfills and lead to more sustainable development by improving waste to energy production. This study reports on mesophilic batch and continuous studies using different concentrations and combinations (ratios) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste, thickened waste activated sludge (microwave pre-treated and untreated) and primary sludge to assess the potential for improved biodegradability and specific biogas production. Improvements in specific biogas production for batch assays, with concomitant improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile solid removal, were obtained with organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge mixtures at a ratio of 50:25:25 (with and without thickened waste activated sludge microwave pre-treatment). This combination was used for continuous digester studies. At 15 d hydraulic retention times, the co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste:organic fraction of municipal solid waste:primary sludge and organic fraction of municipal solid waste:thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge resulted in a 1.38- and 1.46-fold increase in biogas production and concomitant waste stabilisation when compared with thickened waste activated sludge:primary sludge (50:50) and thickened waste activated sludge microwave:primary sludge (50:50) digestion at the same hydraulic retention times and volumetric volatile solid loading rate, respectively. The digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste with primary sludge and thickened waste activated sludge provides beneficial effects that could be implemented at municipal wastewater treatment plants that are operating at loading rates of less than design capacity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Hydrothermal treatment for inactivating some hygienic microbial indicators from food waste-amended animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Chen, Ting; Li, Huan

    2012-07-01

    To achieve the hygienic safety of food waste used as animal feed, a hydrothermal treatment process of 60-110 degrees C for 10-60 min was applied on the separated food waste from a university canteen. Based on the microbial analysis of raw waste, the inactivation of hygienic indicators of Staphylococcus aureus (SA), total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TPC), and molds and yeast (MY) were analyzed during the hydrothermal process. Results showed that indicators' concentrations were substantially reduced after hydrothermal treatment, with a greater reduction observed when the waste was treated with a higher temperature and pressure and a longer ramping time. The 110 degrees C hydrothermal treatment for 60 min was sufficient to disinfect food waste as animal feed from the viewpoint of hygienic safety. Results obtained so far indicate that hydrothermal treatment can significantly decrease microbial indicators' concentrations but does not lead to complete sterilization, because MY survived even after 60 min treatment at 110 degrees C. The information from the present study will contribute to the microbial risk control of food waste-amended animal feed, to cope with legislation on food or feed safety.

  5. Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application documentation consists of both Part A and a Part B permit application documentation. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this treatment and storage unit, including the current revision, is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Once the initial Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit is issued, the following process will be used. As final, certified treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific documents are developed, and completeness notifications are made by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology, additional unit-specific permit conditions will be incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit through the permit modification process. All treatment, storage, and/or disposal units that are included in the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application will operate under interim status until final status conditions for these units are incorporated into the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit. The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility contains information current as of May 1, 1993.

  6. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  7. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  8. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  9. Diversity and antibiotic resistance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking and waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Vânia; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Silva, Márcia; Manaia, Célia M

    2011-11-01

    The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of aeromonads were examined in samples from drinking and waste water treatment plants (surface, ground and disinfected water in a drinking water treatment plant, and raw and treated waste water) and tap water. Bacteria identification and intra-species variation were determined based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB and cpn60 gene sequences. Resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. Aeromonas veronii prevailed in raw surface water, Aeromonas hydrophyla in ozonated water, and Aeromonas media and Aeromonas puntacta in waste water. No aeromonads were detected in ground water, after the chlorination tank or in tap water. Resistance to ceftazidime or meropenem was detected in isolates from the drinking water treatment plant and waste water isolates were intrinsically resistant to nalidixic acid. Most of the times, quinolone resistance was associated with the gyrA mutation in serine 83. The gene qnrS, but not the genes qnrA, B, C, D or qepA, was detected in both surface and waste water isolates. The gene aac(6')-ib-cr was detected in different waste water strains isolated in the presence of ciprofloxacin. Both quinolone resistance genes were detected only in the species A. media. This is the first study tracking antimicrobial resistance in aeromonads in drinking, tap and waste water and the importance of these bacteria as vectors of resistance in aquatic environments is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  11. Assessing Waste Water Treatment Plant Effluent for Thyroid Hormone Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much information has been coming to light on the estrogenic and androgenic activity of chemicals present in the waste water stream and in surface waters, but much less is known about the presence of chemicals with thyroid activity. To address this issue, we have utilized two assa...

  12. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Minh Giang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current household solid waste treatment practices in most cities in Vietnam caused a great amount of direct greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Available solid waste treatment technologies should be seriously taken  into consideration as a wedge of GHG mitigation in waste sector base on presently Vietnamese economic conditions. This study aim to evaluate the potential amount of GHG mitigation from current domestic solid waste treatment technologies in Vietnam including landfills and composting from various management scenarios. In oder to use Tier 2 model of IPCC 2006 for GHG estimation from landfills, an analysis on current household solid waste management system of the city was obtained by using material flow analysis approach. A case study in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam was carried out in this research. As a result, there was a reduced of over 70% of the amount of CH4 emissions and  up to 53% of total GHG saving (CO2-eq from avoiding organic waste to landfill. In addition, applying an energy recovery from LFG system to available landfills would lead to aproximately 75% of GHG saved compare to current emission of waste sector.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16Citation: Giang, H.M.,Luong, N.D., and Huong, L.T.M.2013. Assessment of potential greenhouse gas mitigation of available household solid waste treatment technologies. . Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.10-16

  13. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal; Seminar po obrashcheniyu s otkhodami i ikh utilizatsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  14. Considerations for Net Zero Waste Installations: Treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    security and sustainability is essential to mission accomplishment. The Army’s goal is to manage “net zero installations” (NZI), i.e., installations that...and sustainability at Army installations is operationally necessary, financially prudent, and essential to mission accomplishment. Moreover, the Army... restaurants , schools, hospitals, and dining halls) and family housing areas where food waste is continually generated. ERDC/CERL TR-15-21 24

  15. Thermal treatments of solid wastes. Different strategies for related pollutant management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolella, C.; Convertti, A.; Rovatti, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy); Boschi, R.; Cozzani, V.; Tognotti, L. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatment of solid wastes present different advantages/disadvantages as far as recovery and emissions concerns. They provide a captive energy source; reduce the quantity of waste to be landfilled; there are limited by-product and pollutant generating problems. Combined treatment of solid wastes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification) have been considered to evaluate the energy recovery as well as the quality and the amount of pollutants potentially generated by the combined processes. Direct incineration of MSW, RDF or specific industrial wastes represents a viable, definitive, low environmental impact solution for most refuses. Treatment of emissions can be efficiently achieved by dry or wet processes. Nowadays abatement technologies are able to provide emissions within the guidelines of EEC countries. Problems arise when wastes contain large amount of chlorinated compounds (for example PVC) and/or heavy rentals: incineration may be not best way to be pursued. The general aim of the research program carried out by ISTIC (Genova), and Department of Chemical Engineering (Pisa) is to gain fundamental information on pyrolysis of refuse materials and to study the possible industrial application of these processes. Possible solutions have been studied in terms of material and energy balances, in order to verify the feasibility of combined treatments. Here, preliminary results are given on a two-stage process (low temperature pyrolysis (LTP) followed by incineration or gasification/pyrolysis) for treating specific wastes. (author)

  16. Life cycle comparison of waste-to-energy alternatives for municipal waste treatment in Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Douglas, Carla; Méndez, Jacqueline; Szarka, Nóra; Muñoz, Edmundo; Navia, Rodrigo; Schock, Steffen; Konrad, Odorico; Ulloa, Claudia

    2013-10-01

    The energy system in the Region of Aysén, Chile, is characterized by a strong dependence on fossil fuels, which account for up to 51% of the installed capacity. Although the implementation of waste-to-energy concepts in municipal waste management systems could support the establishment of a more fossil-independent energy system for the region, previous studies have concluded that energy recovery systems are not suitable from an economic perspective in Chile. Therefore, this work intends to evaluate these technical options from an environmental perspective, using life cycle assessment as a tool for a comparative analysis, considering Coyhaique city as a case study. Three technical alternatives were evaluated: (i) landfill gas recovery and flaring without energy recovery; (ii) landfill gas recovery and energy use; and (iii) the implementation of an anaerobic digestion system for the organic waste fraction coupled with energy recovery from the biogas produced. Mass and energy balances of the three analyzed alternatives have been modeled. The comparative LCA considered global warming potential, abiotic depletion and ozone layer depletion as impact categories, as well as required raw energy and produced energy as comparative regional-specific indicators. According to the results, the use of the recovered landfill gas as an energy source can be identified as the most environmentally appropriate solution for Coyhaique, especially when taking into consideration the global impact categories.

  17. Scori: specialist of the thermal treatment of wastes in cement industry; Scori: specialiste du traitement thermique des dechets en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Todays, the valorization in cement industry is an integral part of the treatment of industrial wastes in France. This solution, widely developed in other European countries, has been considered as an integral way of wastes elimination by the European directive on special industrial wastes incineration. In this context, with 460000 t processed in France and Belgium and a 600000 t capacity, the SCORI company is considered as the European specialist of the industrial wastes treatment in cement industry thanks to its know-how developed with its partners Ciment Calcia, Lafarge Ciments, Holderbank and Vicat. This paper describes the advantages of cement kilns for the destruction of organic compounds, the part of inorganic and mineral wastes introduced, the purification of combustion gases, the energy valorization of wastes, the pre-treatment of some special wastes before combustion, and the different types of wastes accepted in cement industry (selection, risk assessment, legal aspects and safety). (J.S.)

  18. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  19. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2009-11-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970-2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970-2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO( 2)-eq. capita(-1) in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO(2)-eq. capita(-1) in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes.

  20. Optimised anaerobic treatment of house-sorted biodegradable waste and slaughterhouse waste in a high loaded half technical scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, C; Grasmug, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes from households, slaughterhouses and meat processing industries was optimised in a half technical scale plant. The plant was operated for 130 days using two different substrates under organic loading rates of 10 and 12 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Since the substrates were rich in fat and protein components (TKN: 12 g.kg(-1) the treatment was challenging. The process was monitored on-line and in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that an intensive and stable co-digestion of partly hydrolysed organic waste and protein rich slaughterhouse waste can be achieved in the balance of inconsistent pH and buffering NH4-N. In the first experimental period the reduction of the substrate COD was almost complete in an overall stable process (COD reduction >82%). In the second period methane productivity increased, but certain intermediate products accumulated constantly. Process design options for a second digestion phase for advanced degradation were investigated. Potential causes for slow and reduced propionic and valeric acid degradation were assessed. Recommendations for full-scale process implementation can be made from the experimental results reported. The highly loaded and stable codigestion of these substrates may be a good technical and economic treatment alternative.

  1. Olive oil waste treatment: a comparative and critical presentation of methods, advantages & disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kassaveti, Aikaterini; Stefanatos, Stelios

    2007-01-01

    Since olive oil industries were considered responsible for a great amount of pollution there has been a strong need for optimization of olive oil waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; bioremediation (ex-situ, in-situ), thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification), evaporation, membrance processes, electrolysis, ozonation, digestion, coagulation/flocculation/precipitation, and distillation. Both advantages and disadvantages in conjunction with respective methodology and explicit flow diagrams were presented per waste treatment method. Furthermore, most recent studies were reported and more than twenty-five figures showing mainly the effectiveness of the current waste treatment methods versus time or temperature were displayed. The comparative presentation of the various olive oil waste treatment methodologies showed that though bioremediation stands for the most enviromentally friendly technique, its required longer treatment time in conjuction with its weakness to deal with elemental contaminants makes imperative the employment of a second alternative technique which could either be a membrance process (low energy cost, reliability, reduced capital cost) or a coagulation/flocculation method because of its low cost and high effectiveness. Biogas production appears to be another promising and energy effective waste treatment method. On the other hand, methods like distillation and ozonation (high cost) and electrolysis (experimental level) are unlikely to dominate this field unless their high cost is substantially reduced in the near future.

  2. Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project melter system preliminary design technical review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, T.L.; Raivo, B.D.; Soelberg, N.R.; Wiersholm, O.

    1995-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project sponsored a plasma are melter technical design review meeting to evaluate high-temperature melter system configurations for processing heterogeneous alpha-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (ALLW). Thermal processing experts representing Department of Energy contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency, and private sector companies participated in the review. The participants discussed issues and evaluated alternative configurations for three areas of the melter system design: plasma torch melters and graphite arc melters, offgas treatment options, and overall system configuration considerations. The Technical Advisory Committee for the review concluded that graphite arc melters are preferred over plasma torch melters for processing ALLW. Initiating involvement of stakeholders was considered essential at this stage of the design. For the offgas treatment system, the advisory committee raised the question whether to a use wet-dry or a dry-wet system. The committee recommended that the waste stream characterization, feed preparation, and the control system are essential design tasks for the high-temperature melter treatment system. The participants strongly recommended that a complete melter treatment system be assembled to conduct tests with nonradioactive surrogate waste material. A nonradioactive test bed would allow for inexpensive design and operational changes prior to assembling a system for radioactive waste treatment operations.

  3. Selectivity of NF membrane for treatment of liquid waste containing uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Barbosa, Celina C.R., E-mail: eemo@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Julio C., E-mail: julio@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro(UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica

    2013-07-01

    The performance of two nanofiltration membranes were investigated for treatment of liquid waste containing uranium through two conditions permeation: permeation test and concentration test of the waste. In the permeation test solution permeated returned to the feed tank after collected samples each 3 hours. In the test of concentration the permeated was collected continuously until 90% reduction of the feed volume. The liquid waste ('carbonated water') was obtained during conversion of UF{sub 6} to UO{sub 2} in the cycle of nuclear fuel. This waste contains uranium concentration on average 7.0 mg L{sup -1}, and not be eliminated to the environmental. The waste was permeated using a cross-flow membrane cell in the pressure of the 1.5 MPa. The selectivity of the membranes for separation of uranium was between 83% and 90% for both tests. In the concentration tests the waste was concentrated around for 5 times. The surface layer of the membranes was evaluated before and after the tests by infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), field emission microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force spectroscopy (AFM). The membrane separation process is a technique feasible to and very satisfactory for treatment the liquid waste. (author)

  4. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials.

  5. FLASH Technology: Full-Scale Hospital Waste Water Treatments Adopted in Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rame; Tridecima, Adeodata; Pranoto, Hadi; Moesliem; Miftahuddin

    2018-02-01

    A Hospital waste water contains a complex mixture of hazardous chemicals and harmful microbes, which can pose a threat to the environment and public health. Some efforts have been carried out in Nangroe Aceh Darussalam (Aceh), Indonesia with the objective of treating hospital waste water effluents on-site before its discharge. Flash technology uses physical and biological pre-treatment, followed by advanced oxidation process based on catalytic ozonation and followed by GAC and PAC filtration. Flash Full-Scale Hospital waste water Treatments in Aceh from different district have been adopted and investigated. Referring to the removal efficiency of macro-pollutants, the collected data demonstrate good removal efficiency of macro-pollutants using Flash technologies. In general, Flash technologies could be considered a solution to the problem of managing hospital waste water.

  6. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic...... waste have shown reductions of microorganisms allowing for unrestricted utilization in agriculture, meeting the product control:FS below 100/g and no Salmonella detected. The effect of storage of sludge at summer and winter temperatures respectively has been investigated. At temperatures (around 20°C...

  7. Technology for Waste Treatment at Remote Army Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Chollenge Dose (log 10 ) ILow IMedium High ORGANISM 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11111111111KEYc 1. Ascaris lumbricoides t ____o 2. Ancylostoma duodenale...histolytica ង but usually - 10 cysts Helminths Ascaris lumbricoides Many rnontns eggs 171 APPENDIX J: INPUT WASTE CHARACTERIZATION Domestic composting...destroy most pathogens. For determining the extent of pathogen destruction in sewage sludge, Ascaris (a parasitic helminth) is one of the intestinal

  8. Heavy metal evaporation kinetics in thermal waste treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Ch.; Stucki, S.; Schuler, A.J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    To investigate the evaporation kinetics of heavy metals, experiments were performed by conventional thermogravimetry and a new method using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The new method allows online measurements in time intervals that are typically below one minute. The evaporation of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from synthetic mixtures and filter ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) was of major interest. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  9. US - European Workshop on Thermal Waste Treatment for Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    a 2 20 2 -C02 .H𔃼 0 vapeul- organique de30A _________Effuetsno Bassi de vitesse:te 1Ion5 n/ diluDEt 400 A...Temperatures et Pressions assurant une liquefaction des solides organiques en 1 Heure 12 Table Il. Chemicals Successfully Treated by Supercritical Water...Bordeaux, France HYDROTHERMAL CONVERSION OF WASTES ->Oxidation -Reduction Research Director (CNRS) Institut de Chimie de la Matie’re Condense~e de

  10. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2009-01-01

    production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes......Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970ĝ€"2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper...... in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed...

  11. Development and status of the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan or I love that mobile unit of mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounini, L. [USDOE Grand Junction Project Office, CO (United States); Williams, M. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States); Zygmunt, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Nine Department of Energy (DOE) sites reporting to the Albuquerque Office (AL) have mixed waste that is chemically hazardous and radioactive. The hazardous waste regulations require the chemical portion of mixed waste to be to be treated to certain standards. The total volume of low-level mixed waste at the nine sites is equivalent to 7,000 drums, with individual site volumes ranging from 1 gallon of waste at the Pinellas Plant to 4,500 drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nearly all the sites have a diversity of wastes requiring a diversity of treatment processes. Treatment capacity does not exist for much of this waste, and it would be expensive for each site to build the diversity of treatment processes needed to treat its own wastes. DOE-AL assembled a team that developed the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan that uses the resources of the nine sites to treat the waste at the sites. Work on the plan started in October 1993, and the plan was finalized in March 1994. The plan uses commercial treatment, treatability studies, and mobile treatment units. The plan specifies treatment technologies that will be built as mobile treatment units to be moved from site to site. Mobile units include bench-top units for very small volumes and treatability studies, drum-size units that treat one drum per day, and skid-size units that handle multiple drum volumes. After the tools needed to treat the wastes were determined, the sites were assigned to provide part of the treatment capacity using their own resources and expertise. The sites are making progress on treatability studies, commercial treatment, and mobile treatment design and fabrication. To date, this is the only plan for treating waste that brings the resources of several DOE sites together to treat mixed waste. It is the only program actively planning to use mobile treatment coordinated between DOE sites.

  12. Treatment of waste water from flue gas cleaning; Behandlung von Abwasser der Rauchgasreinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiermann, Klaus; Meyerhoff, Thomas [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Celle (Germany); Hagen, Klaus [Berkefeld - VWS Deutschland GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany); Basabe, Juan Luis [HPD Process Engineering S.A., Bilbao (Spain); Vendrup, Michael [Krueger A/S, Soeborg (Denmark)

    2012-11-01

    Strict limits must be adhered to for treating waste water incurred during flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). One and two-stage precipitation processes have proven themselves in FGD waste water treatment. Metals can be removed with the MetClean {sup registered} process. Another option is evaporation. Waste water ZLD systems (Zero Liquid Discharge) recover, via a falling film evaporator with subsequent crystallisation, more than 98 % of the water and produce, aside from the condensate, only solid material that can be disposed of in landfill. A further development, named ZLD CoLD trademark, significantly reduces the investment and operating costs of this solution. (orig.)

  13. Environmental and economic vision of plasma treatment of waste in Makkah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaly, Ahmed Rida; van Oost, Guido

    2017-10-01

    An environmental and economic assessment of the development of a plasma-chemical reactor equipped with plasma torches for the environmentally friendly treatment of waste streams by plasma is outlined with a view to the chemical and energetic valorization of the sustainability in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is especially applicable in the pilgrimage season in the city of Makkah, which is a major challenge since the amount of waste was estimated at about 750 thousand tons through Arabic Year 1435H (2015), and is growing at a rate of 3%-5% annually. According to statistics, the value of waste in Saudi Arabia ranges between 8 and 9 billion EUR. The Plasma-Treatment Project (PTP) encompasses the direct plasma treatment of all types of waste (from source and landfill), as well as an environmental vision and economic evaluation of the use of the gas produced for fuel and electricity production in KSA, especially in the pilgrimage season in the holy city Makkah. The electrical power required for the plasma-treatment process is estimated at 5000 kW (2000 kW used for the operation of the system and 3000 kW sold), taking into account the fact that: (1) the processing capacity of solid waste is 100 tons per day (2) and the sale of electricity amounts to 23.8 MW at 0.18 EUR per kWh. (3) The profit from the sale of electricity per year is estimated at 3.27 million EUR and the estimated profit of solid-waste treatment amounts to 6 million EUR per year and (4) the gross profit per ton of solid waste totals 8 million EUR per year. The present article introduces the first stage of the PTP, in Makkah in the pilgrimage season, which consists of five stages: (1) study and treatment of waste streams, (2) slaughterhouse waste treatment, (3) treatment of refuse-derived fuel, (4) treatment of car tires and (5) treatment of slag (the fifth stage associated with each stage from the four previous stages).

  14. Analysis of accident sequences and source terms at treatment and storage facilities for waste generated by US Department of Energy waste management operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Nabelssi, B.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Policastro, A.; Freeman, W.; Jackson, R.; Mishima, J.; Turner, S.

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the methodology, computational framework, and results of facility accident analyses performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS). The accident sequences potentially important to human health risk are specified, their frequencies assessed, and the resultant radiological and chemical source terms evaluated. A personal-computer-based computational framework and database have been developed that provide these results as input to the WM PEIS for the calculation of human health risk impacts. The WM PEIS addresses management of five waste streams in the DOE complex: low-level waste (LLW), hazardous waste (HW), high-level waste (HLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and transuranic waste (TRUW). Currently projected waste generation rates, storage inventories, and treatment process throughputs have been calculated for each of the waste streams. This report summarizes the accident analyses and aggregates the key results for each of the waste streams. Source terms are estimated, and results are presented for each of the major DOE sites and facilities by WM PEIS alternative for each waste stream. Key assumptions in the development of the source terms are identified. The appendices identify the potential atmospheric release of each toxic chemical or radionuclide for each accident scenario studied. They also discuss specific accident analysis data and guidance used or consulted in this report.

  15. Exposure to airborne fungi during sorting of recyclable plastics in waste treatment facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Černá; Zdeňka Wittlingerová; Magdaléna Zimová; Zdeněk Janovský

    2017-01-01

    Background: In working environment of waste treatment facilities, employees are exposed to high concentrations of airborne microorganisms. Fungi constitute an essential part of them. This study aims at evaluating the diurnal variation in concentrations and species composition of the fungal contamination in 2 plastic waste sorting facilities in different seasons. Material and Methods: Air samples from the 2 sorting facilities were collected through the membrane filters method on 4 different ty...

  16. Alternative treatment of solid waste and energy recovery through burning furnaces: an analysis

    OpenAIRE

    coelho, thaysi castro; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Serra, Juan Carlos Valdés; Universidade Federal do Tocantins; Lustosa, Jordanna Barreira; Universidade Federal do Tocantins

    2013-01-01

    Currently a new alternative for the treatment of urban solid waste consisting of a technology that promotes reduction of the volume of the solid residues combined with power generation has been observed. Such technology is the waste burning kilns, which had its greatest expansion in Europe and the United States, currently being introduced in Brazil, yet so timid, lacking large plants in operation. Therefore, from a literature review and identification of plants in operation, the proposal was ...

  17. Valorisation of Moringaoleifera waste: treatment and reuse of textile dye effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca Vallvé, M. Mercedes; López Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on the valorisation of an agricultural waste as natural coagulant to treat wastewater from the textile industry. In this paper, the waste of Moringaoleifera oil extraction is used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. Moringaoleifera shows better results for dye removal than conventional treatment of coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 and polyelectrolyte. Treated water can be reused in new dyeing processes of cotton fabrics with high...

  18. Application of Sludges and Wastewaters on Agricultural Land: A Planning and Educational Guide, MCD-35. Research Bulletin 1090.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Bernard D., Ed.; Miller, Robert H., Ed.

    This report addresses the application of agricultural processing wastes, industrial and municipal wastes on agricultural land as both a waste management and resource recovery and reuse practice. The document emphasizes the treatment and beneficial utilization of sludge and wastewater as opposed to waste disposal. These objectives are achieved…

  19. Mixed-waste treatment -- What about the residuals? A comparative analysis of MSO and incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    This report examines the issues concerning final waste forms, or residuals, that result from the treatment of mixed waste in molten salt oxidation (MSO) and incinerator systems. MSO is a technology with the potential to treat a certain segment of the waste streams at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. MSO was compared with incineration because incineration is the best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) for the same waste streams. The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) prepared this report for the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration (OER). The goals of this study are to objectively evaluate the anticipated residuals from MSO and incineration, examine regulatory issues for these final waste forms, and determine secondary treatment options. This report, developed to address concerns that MSO residuals present unique disposal difficulties, is part of a larger effort to successfully implement MSO as a treatment technology for mixed and hazardous waste. A Peer Review Panel reviewed the MSO technology in November 1991, and the implementation effort is ongoing under the guidance of the MSO Task Force.

  20. The greenhouse gas and energy balance of different treatment concepts for bio-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Maria E; Müller, Wolfgang; Bockreis, Anke

    2013-10-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy performance of bio-waste treatment plants been investigated for three characteristic bio-waste treatment concepts: composting; biological drying for the production of biomass fuel fractions; and anaerobic digestion. Compared with other studies about the environmental impacts of bio-waste management, this study focused on the direct comparison of the latest process concepts and state-of-the-art emission control measures. To enable a comparison, the mass balance and products were modelled for all process concepts assuming the same bio-waste amounts and properties. In addition, the value of compost as a soil improver was included in the evaluation, using straw as a reference system. This aspect has rarely been accounted for in other studies. The study is based on data from operational facilities combined with literature data. The results show that all three concepts contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions and show a positive balance for cumulated energy demand. However, in contrast to other studies, the advantage of anaerobic digestion compared with composting is smaller as a result of accounting for the soil improving properties of compost. Still, anaerobic digestion is the environmentally superior solution. The results are intended to inform decision makers about the relevant aspects of bio-waste treatment regarding the environmental impacts of different bio-waste management strategies.

  1. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact.

  2. EXPERIENCES OF POLISH MECHANICAL HEAT TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurand Damian Bień

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Poland and in several EU countries, the processing of mixed municipal waste is based on waste treatment in mechanical and biological installations and thermal processing plants. The experience gained from the operation of these installations, particularly in the aspect of material recycling, what is important in an aspect of the circular economy formulation is not satisfactory. To think about a high level of reuse and recycling of municipal waste, which is expected to be at least 65% by 2030, efforts to improve waste quality are needed. Certainly, one of the solution is a selective collection of waste at source, but here it is important to say that it should be conducted at a real high level. How costly it is, many countries already know. In search of other methods the UK countries are turning their attention to mechanical heat treatment technology. In Poland there is one such installation so the idea of this paper is discuss issues connected with it. The practical experience of operating of this installations shows so far that the process gives an ability to match good process parameters to a variable input. The very good quality of secondary raw materials obtained in the process has a higher attractiveness to the final consumer. Also levels of recycling for the four fractions of waste, such as: paper, metals, plastics and glass are high and exceeds significantly factors achieved in the process of mechanical and biological treatment.

  3. Application of thermal plasma technology for the treatment of solid wastes in China: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Kou; Yan, Shengjun; Li, Yaojian; Han, Dan

    2016-12-01

    With its enormous social and economical development, China is now experiencing a rapid increase in solid wastes generation and growing pressure for solid wastes management. Today solid wastes in China are mainly managed by a combination of landfill, incineration, and composting. Within different possible treatment routes, thermal plasma technology (TPT) offers the advantages of efficiently gasifying the organic contents of solid wastes into syngas that can be used for heat and power generation, and vitrifying the inorganics simultaneously into glassy slag with very low leachabilities. This process makes it feasible for near-zero emission into the environment while making use of all the useful components. Encouraged by the industrial operations of solid wastes treatment plants using TPT in some countries, several plasma demonstration projects have already been undertaken in China. This paper provides a preliminary overview of the current laboratory researches and industrial developments status of TPT for the treatment of solid wastes in China and analyzes the existing challenges. Furthermore, the future prospects for TPT in China are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  5. Exergy analysis in the assessment of the sustainability of waste gas treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; Dirckx, J

    2001-06-12

    This study focuses on the sustainability of different technological options for the treatment of waste gases from a waste water treatment plant loaded with volatile organic compounds. The options considered are biofiltration, active carbon adsorption and catalytic and thermal oxidation. The amount of resources and utilities to construct and operate each system have been investigated from the point of view of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The unit in which all resources are treated is Joules of exergy. It was concluded that biofiltration was the most exergetically efficient system. The cumulative exergy consumption of the resources and utilities for construction and operation have been quantified in exergy terms. Further on, the requirements for the abatement of emissions generated by operating the waste gas treatment systems and the amount of renewables have been taken into account in the assessment of the sustainability of the waste gas treatment technologies. Finally, a comparison between exergy analysis and life cycle analysis in assessing the sustainability of the waste gas treatment options, is presented.

  6. Energy performance of an integrated bio-and-thermal hybrid system for lignocellulosic biomass waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyi; Zhang, Jingxin; Tong, Yen Wah; Yang, Wenming; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass waste, a heterogeneous complex of biodegradables and non-biodegradables, accounts for large proportion of municipal solid waste. Due to limitation of single-stage treatment, a two-stage hybrid AD-gasification system was proposed in this work, in which AD acted as pre-treatment to convert biodegradables into biogas followed by gasification converting solid residue into syngas. Energy performance of single and two-stage systems treating 3 typical lignocellulosic wastes was studied using both experimental and numerical methods. In comparison with conventional single-stage gasification treatment, this hybrid system could significantly improve the quality of produced gas for all selected biomass wastes and show its potential in enhancing total gas energy production by a maximum value of 27% for brewer's spent grain treatment at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3gVS/L/day. The maximum overall efficiency of the hybrid system for horticultural waste treatment was 75.2% at OLR of 11.3gVS/L/day, 5.5% higher than conventional single-stage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Effects of thermal pre-treatments on solid slaughterhouse waste methane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Abalde, A; Fernández, B; Silvestre, G; Flotats, X

    2011-07-01

    The effects of thermal pre-treatments on the biogas production potential of two solid slaughterhouse waste types (poultry and piggery slaughterhouse by-products) were assessed by means of batch experiments. Both animal by-products were characterized in terms of fat, protein and carbohydrate concentrations. The selected thermal pre-treatments, pasteurization (70 °C for 60 min) and sterilization (133 °C and 3 bars for 20 min), are included in the current European regulations for the disposal or use of animal by-products. The pre-treatments produced notable improvements in organic matter solubilization, but had different effects on the anaerobic bioavailability of the treated substrates. The methane yield of the initial volatile solids did not increase significantly after pre-treatment when carbohydrate concentration was high, reaching a maximum of 0.48 m(CH4)(3) kg(VS)(-1) for the pasteurized poultry waste. However, this yield increased by up to 52.7% after pasteurization and 66.1% after sterilization for the lower carbohydrate concentration sample (piggery waste), reaching maxima of 0.88 and 0.96 m(CH4)(3) kg(VS)(-1), respectively. The maximum methane production rates, measured as the maximum slope of the accumulated methane production curve, per unit of initial biomass content, were also different. While this rate increased by 52.6% and 211.6% for piggery waste after pasteurization and sterilization, respectively, it decreased by 43.8% for poultry waste after pasteurization with respect to untreated waste. Compounds with low biodegradability that are produced by Maillard reactions during thermal pre-treatment could explain the low bioavailability observed for waste with a high carbohydrate concentration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelisti, Sara [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, Carla [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom); Clift, Roland [Centre for Environmental Strategy, The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lettieri, Paola, E-mail: p.lettieri@ucl.ac.uk [Chemical Engineering Department, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris [Advanced Plasma Power (APP), Unit B2, Marston Gate, South Marston Business Park, Swindon SN3 4DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of an advanced two-stage process is undertaken. • A comparison of the impacts of the process when fed with 7 feedstock is presented. • Sensitivity analysis on the system is performed. • The treatment of RDF shows the lowest impact in terms of both GWP and AP. • The plasma shows a small contribution to the overall impact of the plant. - Abstract: In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20 MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams

  10. Evaluation of pre-treatment processes for increasing biodegradability of agro-food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, D; Sastre, E; Gómez, M; Nieto, P

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) technology can be employed for treating sewage sludge, livestock waste or food waste. Generally, the hydrolysis stage is the rate-limiting step of the AD processes for solid waste degradation. Therefore, physical, chemical and biological pre-treatment methods or their combination are required, in order to reduce the rate of such a limiting step. In this study, four methods (mechanical shredding, acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis and sonication) were tested to improve methane production and anaerobic biodegradability of different agro-food wastes and their mixtures. The kinetics of anaerobic degradation and methane production ofpre-treated individual wastes and selected mixtures were investigated with batch tests. Sonication at lower frequencies (37 kHz) proved to give the best results with methane productivity enhancements of over 100% in the case of pig manure and in the range of 10-47% for the other wastes assayed. Furthermore, the ultimate methane production was proportional, in all the cases, to the specific energy input applied (Es). Sonication can, thus, enhance waste digestion and the rate and quantity of biogas generated. The behaviour of the other pre-treatments under the conditions assayed is not significant. Only a slight enhancement of biogas production (around 10%) was detected for whey and waste activated sludge (WAS) after mechanical shredding. The lack of effectiveness of chemical pre-treatments (acid and alkaline hydrolysis) can be justified by the inhibition of the methanogenic process due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium (up to 8 g l(-1) in some tests). Only in the case of WAS did the acid hydrolysis considerably increase the biodegradability of the sample (79%), because in this case no inhibition by sodium took place. Some hints of a synergistic effect have been observed when co-digestion of the mixtures was performed.

  11. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  12. Utilization of immobilized urease for waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of using immobilized urease for urea removal from waste water for space system applications is considered, specifically the elimination of the urea toxicity problem in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. Because urease catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide, control of their concentrations within nontoxic limits was also determined. The results of this study led to the use of free urease in lieu of the immobilized urease for controlling urea concentrations. An ion exchange resin was used which reduced the NH3 level by 94% while reducing the sodium ion concentration only 10%.

  13. Emergency watershed treatments on burned lands in southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ed Gross; Ivars Steinblums; Curt Ralston; Howard Jubas

    1989-01-01

    Following extensive, natural wildfires on the Siskiyou National Forest in southwest Oregon during fall 1987, numerous rehabilitation measures were applied to severely burned public and private forest watersheds. Treatments were designed to prevent offsite degradation of water quality and fisheries, to minimize soil erosion and productivity losses, and to prevent...

  14. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  15. Field demonstration of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes: preliminary site characterization and progress report. [Trench liners and grout for improving shallow land burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.

    1982-12-01

    A 5-year field demonstration (ETF) of improved shallow land burial practices for low-level radioactive solid wastes in a humid environment evaluates the use of a trench liner and grout as alternate trench treatments for improving shallow land burial site performance in the humid East. The ETF is located within the Copper Creek thrust block of the Valley and Ridge Province of east Tennessee and is underlain by strata of the Middle to Late Cambrian Conasauga Group. The Maryville Limestone formation, which is composed of ribbon-bedded and interclastic limestones and dark grey shales and mudstones, comprises the bedrock immediately beneath the site. The bedrock and residuum structure are characterized by anticlinal folds with numerous joints and fractures, some of which are filled with calcite. Seismic and electrical resistivity geophysical methods were useful in characterizing the thickness of residuum and presence of structural features. Soils are illitic and range from podzolic to lithosols to alluvial in the vicinity of the ETF, but the original soil solum was removed in 1975 when the mixed hardwood forest was cleared and the site was planted in grasses. The remaining residuum consists of acidic soil aggregate and extensively weathered siltstone and sandstone which exhibit the original rock structure. Mean annual precipitation at the site is 1500 mm, although during the initial study period (10-1-80 to 9-30-81) the annual total was 939 mm. Runoff was estimated to be about 50% of the precipitation total, based on observations at two Parshall flumes installed at the site. Storm runoff is quite responsive to rainfall, and the lag time between peak rainfall and runoff is less than 15 min during winter storms. Tracer studies of the ground-water system, suggest that ground-water flow has two distinct components, one associated with fracture flow and the other with intergranular flow.

  16. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  17. Advances in the Glass Formulations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    The Department of Energy-Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site in Washington. The WTP that is being designed and constructed by a team led by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) will separate the tank waste into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) fractions with the majority of the mass (~90%) directed to LAW and most of the activity (>95%) directed to HLW. The pretreatment process, envisioned in the baseline, involves the dissolution of aluminum-bearing solids so as to allow the aluminum salts to be processed through the cesium ion exchange and report to the LAW Facility. There is an oxidative leaching process to affect a similar outcome for chromium-bearing wastes. Both of these unit operations were advanced to accommodate shortcomings in glass formulation for HLW inventories. A by-product of this are a series of technical challenges placed upon materials selected for the processing vessels. The advances in glass formulation play a role in revisiting the flow sheet for the WTP and hence, the unit operations that were being imposed by minimal waste loading requirements set forth in the contract for the design and construction of the plant. Another significant consideration to the most recent revision of the glass models are the impacts on resolution of technical questions associated with current efforts for design completion.

  18. Data entry module and manuals for the Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Justin L.; Pilliod, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Across the country, public land managers make decisions each year that influence landscapes and ecosystems within their jurisdictions. Many of these decisions involve vegetation manipulations, which often are referred to as land treatments. These treatments include removal or alteration of plant biomass, seeding of burned areas, application of herbicides, and other activities. Data documenting these land treatments usually are stored at local management offices in various formats. Therefore, anyone interested in the types and effects of land treatments across multiple jurisdictions must first assemble the information, which can be difficult if data discovery and organization involve multiple local offices. A centralized system for storing and accessing the data helps inform land managers when making policy and management considerations and assists scientists in developing sampling designs and studies. The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as a comprehensive database incorporating tabular data, documentation, photographs, and spatial data about land treatments in a single system. It was developed over a period of several years and refined based on feedback from partner agencies and stakeholders. Currently, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) land treatment data are being entered by USGS personnel as part of a memorandum of understanding between the USGS and BLM. The LTDL has a website maintained by the USGS Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center where LTDL data can be viewed http://ltdl.wr.usgs.gov/. The resources and information provided in this data series allow other agencies, organizations, and individuals to download an empty, stand-alone LTDL database to individual or networked computers. Data entered in these databases may be submitted to the USGS for possible inclusion in the online LTDL. Multiple computer programs are used to accomplish the objective of the LTDL. The support of an information

  19. Treatment of oily wastes using high-shear rotary ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, B.E.; Viadero, R. Jr.; Young, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lin, W. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The high-shear rotary ultrafiltration (UF) system uses membrane rotation to provide the turbulence required to minimize concentration polarization and flux decline. The high-shear UF system was effective in concentrating oily wastes from about 5% to as high as 65%. The decoupling of turbulence promotion from feed pressurization/recirculation by rotating the membrane was the primary reason for the improvement in performance over that observed with conventional UF systems. Transitional and gel layer oil concentrations (20% and 50--59%, respectively) were higher than values reported in the literature. Permeate flux was dependent on the temperature and rotational speed. Flux increased by about 45% when the temperature was increased from 43 to 60 C. A larger decrease in waste viscosity, over that predicted for water alone, and increased oil droplet diffusivity were hypothesized as reasons for the stronger than expected flux-temperature relationship. The flux-rotational speed ({omega}) relationship was described by J = f({omega}){sup 0.90}; however, the gel layer exhibited stability with increasing {omega}. The ceramic membrane was superior to the polymeric membrane in regards to permeate flux and quality as well as cleaning and durability.

  20. Bacterial Treatment and Metal Characterization of Biomedical Waste Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Heera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical waste ash generated due to the incineration of biomedical waste contains large amounts of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which is disposed of in regular landfills, and results in unfavorable amounts of hazardous materials seeping into the ground and may pollute surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is essential to remove the toxicity of ash before disposal into landfills or reutilization. Environmental characteristic analysis of BMW ash showed increased hardness (1320 mg/L and chloride (8500 mg/L content in leachate compared to World Health Organization (WHO and Environment Protection Agency (EPA guidelines for drinking water (hardness, 300 mg/L; chloride, 250 mg/L. The alkalinity and pH of the ash leachate were 400 mg/L and 8.35, respectively. In this paper, study was carried out to investigate the metal tolerance level of bacterial isolates isolated from soil. The isolate Bacillus sp. KGMDI can tolerate up to 75 mg/L of metal concentration (Mn, Mo, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn in enriched growth medium. This shows that the isolated culture is capable of growing in presence of high concentration of heavy metals and acts as potential biological tool to reduce the negative impact of BMW ash on the environment during landfilling.

  1. Treatment of Refinery Waste Water Using Environmental Friendly Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M. Geetha; Al-Moshrafi, Samira Mohammed Khamis; Al Hudaifi, Alaa; Al Aisari, Buthaina Hamood

    2017-09-01

    This research evaluates the effectiveness of activated carbon prepared from walnut shell in the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water by adsorption technique. A series of batch experiments were carried out by varying the effluent solution pH, stirring time, stirring speed and adsorbent dosage in the reduction of pollutants from refinery effluent. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer Emmett and Teller (BET) isotherm and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The best quality activated carbon was obtained with a particle size of 0.75 µm, activation temperature of 800 °C and activation time 24 h. The maximum BET surface area obtained was 165.2653 m2/g. The experimental results demonstrates that the highest percentage reduction in COD was 79%, using 0.6 g walnut shell powder at an optimum stirring speed of 100 rpm, at pH 6 and 120 min of contact time. The outcome of the result shows that walnut shell carbon is a potentially useful adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from refinery waste water.

  2. Assessment of Options for the Treatment of Nitrate Salt Wastes at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Patrice Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    This paper summarizes the methodology used to evaluate options for treatment of the remediated nitrate salt waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The method selected must enable treatment of the waste drums, which consist of a mixture of complex nitrate salts (oxidizer) improperly mixed with sWheat Scoop®1, an organic kitty litter and absorbent (fuel), in a manner that renders the waste safe, meets the specifications of waste acceptance criteria, and is suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. A Core Remediation Team was responsible for comprehensively reviewing the options, ensuring a robust, defensible treatment recommendation. The evaluation process consisted of two steps. First, a prescreening process was conducted to cull the list on the basis for a decision of feasibility of certain potential options with respect to the criteria. Then, the remaining potential options were evaluated and ranked against each of the criteria in a consistent methodology. Numerical scores were established by consensus of the review team. Finally, recommendations were developed based on current information and understanding of the scientific, technical, and regulatory situation. A discussion of the preferred options and documentation of the process used to reach the recommended treatment options are presented.

  3. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Sonavane, M S; Kore, S G; Sonar, N L; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y; Chattopadyaya, S; Dani, U; Kulkarni, Y; Changrani, R D

    2011-11-30

    The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like (106)Ru and (99)Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 μCi/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m(3) of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived (90)Y isotope. The cement waste product prepared using the TBP degraded product was having good chemical durability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance optimization of biological waste treatment by flotation clarification at a chemical manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerecz, B.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Miller, D.R. [Komline-Sanderson, Peapack, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., utilizes a deep-tank activated sludge wastewater treatment system with a dissolved air flotation clarifier (DAF) to effectively treat amine wastes containing residual organics, ammonia-nitrogen and organic nitrogen. The bio-system, a deep tank aeration system, produces a high quality final effluent low in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia and organic nitrogen, turbidity and total suspended solids. Prior to installing the DAF, treatment performance was at risk with a gravity clarifier. Waste treatment performance was jeopardized by poor settling bio-flocs and uncontrollable solids-liquid separation problems within the gravity clarifier. The solids settleability problems resulted primarily from mixed liquor nitrogen supersaturation degassing in the clarifier. As a result of the degassing, biomass floated on the gravity clarifier or overflowed the effluent weir. As a result of biomass loss periodically organic carbon and total Kjeldahl nitrogen loadings had to be reduced in order to maintain optimal food-to-mass ratios. As biomass levels dropped within the aeration basin, waste treatment performance was at risk and waste loads had to be decreased causing waste inventories to increase in storage tanks.

  5. Ecological effects of soil properties and metal concentrations on the composition and diversity of microbial communities associated with land use patterns in an electronic waste recycling region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wencheng; Dong, Changxun; Wu, Jiahui; Liu, Xiaowen; Wu, Yingxin; Chen, Xianbin; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-12-01

    Soil microbes play vital roles in ecosystem functions, and soil microbial communities may be strongly structured by land use patterns associated with electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities, which can increase the heavy metal concentration in soils. In this study, a suite of soils from five land use types (paddy field, vegetable field, dry field, forest field, and e-waste recycling site) were collected in Longtang Town, Guangdong Province, South China. Soil physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations were measured, and the indigenous microbial assemblages were profiled using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and clone library analyses. The results showed that mercury concentration was positively correlated with both Faith's PD and Chao1 estimates, suggesting that the soil microbial alpha diversity was predominantly regulated by mercury. In addition, redundancy analysis indicated that available phosphorus, soil moisture, and mercury were the three major drivers affecting the microbial assemblages. Overall, the microbial composition was determined primarily by land use patterns, and this study provides a novel insight on the composition and diversity of microbial communities in soils associated with e-waste recycling activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The potential role of aerobic biological waste treatment in regenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, M. L.; Nafis, D.; Sze, E.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using aerobic biological waste treatment in closed systems. Issues that are addressed in this paper are: (1) how high a degree of material balance is possible, (2) how much might such a system weigh, and (3) how would system closure and weight be affected if animals were included in the system. A computer model has been developed to calculate for different scenarios the compositions and amounts of the streams entering or leaving the waste treatment system and to estimate the launch weight of such a system. A bench scale apparatus has been built to mimic the proposed waste treatment system; the experiments are used to verify model predictions and to improve model parameter estimations.

  7. Constructed wetlands for municipal solid waste landfill leachate treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peverly, J.; Sanford, W.E.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    In 1989, the US Geological Survey and Cornell University, in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Tompkins County Solid Waste Department, began a three-year study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Ithaca, New York, to test the effectiveness of leachate treatment with constructed wetlands and to examine the associated treatment processes. Specific objectives of the study were to examine: treatment efficiency as function of substrate composition and grain size, degree of plant growth, and seasonal changes in evapotranspiration rates and microbial activity; effects of leachate and plant growth on the hydraulic characteristics of the substrate; and chemical, biological, and physical processes by which nutrients, metals, and organic compounds are removed from leachate as it flows through the substrate. A parallel study at a municipal solid-waste landfill near Fenton, New York was conducted by researchers at Cornell University, Ithaca College, and Hawk Engineering (Trautmann and others, 1989). Results are described.

  8. Calculation of chemical quantities for the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Signore, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McClenahan, Robert L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) receives, stores, and treats both low-level and transuranic radioactive liquid wastes (RLW). Treatment of RLW requires the use of different chemicals. Examples include the use of calcium oxide to precipitate metals and radioactive elements from the radioactive liquid waste, and the use of hydrochloric acid to clean membrane filters that are used in the treatment process. The RL WTF is a Hazard Category 2 nuclear facility, as set forth in the LANL Final Safety Analysis Report of October 1995, and a DOE letter of March 11, 1999. A revised safety basis is being prepared for the RLWTF, and will be submitted to the NNSA in early 2007. This set of calculations establishes maximum chemical quantities that will be used in the 2007 safety basis.

  9. Potential for polyhydroxyalkanoate production on German or European municipal waste water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, T; Steinmetz, H

    2016-08-01

    Biopolymers, which are made of renewable raw materials and/or biodegradable residual materials present a possible alternative to common plastic. A potential analysis, based on experimental results in laboratory scale and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 20% of the 2015 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition a profound estimation regarding all European Union member states showed that theoretically about 115% of the actual worldwide biopolymer production could be produced on European waste water treatment plants. With an upgraded biopolymer production and a theoretically reachable biopolymer proportion of around 60% of the cell dry weight a total of 1,794,656tPHAa or approximately 236% of today's biopolymer production could be produced on waste water treatment plants in the European Union, using primary sludge as raw material only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term trends in restoration and associated land treatments in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Stella M.; Munson, Seth M.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.; Bradford, John B.; Butterfield, Bradley J.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments, such as revegetation with seeding or invasive species removal, have been applied on U.S. public lands for decades. Temporal trends in these management actions have not been extensively summarized previously, particularly in the southwestern United States where invasive plant species, drought, and fire have altered dryland ecosystems. We assessed long-term (1940–2010) trends in restoration using approximately 4,000 vegetation treatments conducted on Bureau of Land Management lands across the southwestern United States. We found that since 1940, the proportions of seeding and vegetation/soil manipulation (e.g. vegetation removal or plowing) treatments have declined, while the proportions of prescribed burn and invasive species treatments have increased. Treatments in pinyon-juniper and big sagebrush communities declined in comparison to treatments in desert scrub, creosote bush, and riparian woodland communities. Restoration-focused treatment objectives increased relative to resource extraction objectives. Species richness and proportion of native species used in seeding treatments also increased. Inflation-adjusted costs per area rose 750% for vegetation/soil manipulation, 600% for seeding, and 400% for prescribed burn treatments in the decades from 1981 to 2010. Seeding treatments were implemented in warmer and drier years when compared to the climate conditions of the entire study period and warmer and wetter years relative to several years before and after the treatment. These results suggest that treatments over a 70-year period on public lands in the southwestern United States are shifting toward restoration practices that are increasingly large, expensive, and related to fire and invasive species control.

  11. Treatment of Uranium-Contaminated Concrete for Reducing Secondary Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S; Park, U. K; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A volume reduction of the concrete waste by appropriate treatment technologies will decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of and result in a reduction of the disposal cost and an enhancement of the efficiency of the disposal site. Our group has developed a decontamination process for uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) concrete, and some experiments were performed to reduce the second radioactive waste. A decontamination process was developed to remove uranium from concrete waste. The yellow or brown colored surface of the wall brick with high concentration of uranium was removed by a chisel until the radioactivity of remaining block reached less than 1 Bq/g. The concrete waste coated with epoxy was directly burned by an oil flame, and the burned surface was then removed using the same method as the treatment of the brick. The selective mechanical removal of the concrete block reduced the amount of secondary radioactive waste. The concrete blocks without an epoxy were crushed to below 30 mm and sifted to 1 mm. When the concrete pieces larger than 1 mm were sequentially washed with a clear recycle solution and 1.0 M of nitric acid, their radioactivity reached below the limit value of uranium for self-disposal. For the concrete pieces smaller than 1 mm, a rotary washing machine and electrokinetic equipment were also used.

  12. Recycling of waste printed circuit boards: a review of current technologies and treatment status in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Guo, Jie; Xu, Zhenming

    2009-05-30

    From the use of renewable resources and environmental protection viewpoints, recycling of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) receives wide concerns as the amounts of scrap PCBs increases dramatically. However, treatment for waste PCBs is a challenge due to the fact that PCBs are diverse and complex in terms of materials and components makeup as well as the original equipment's manufacturing processes. Recycle technology for waste PCBs in China is still immature. Previous studies focused on metals recovery, but resource utilization for nonmetals and further separation of the mixed metals are relatively fewer. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a proper recycle technology for waste PCBs. In this paper, current status of waste PCBs treatment in China was introduced, and several recycle technologies were analyzed. Some advices against the existing problems during recycling process were presented. Based on circular economy concept in China and complete recycling and resource utilization for all materials, a new environmental-friendly integrated recycling process with no pollution and high efficiency for waste PCBs was provided and discussed in detail.

  13. An overview of municipal solid waste management and landfill leachate treatment: Malaysia and Asian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Rui, Lo Ming; Isa, Awatif Md; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Alrozi, Rasyidah

    2017-12-01

    Currently, generation of solid waste per capita in Malaysia is about 1.1 kg/day. Over 26,500 t of solid waste is disposed almost solely through 166 operating landfills in the country every day. Despite the availability of other disposal methods, landfill is the most widely accepted and prevalent method for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in developing countries, including Malaysia. This is mainly ascribed to its inherent forte in terms cost saving and simpler operational mechanism. However, there is a downside. Environmental pollution caused by the landfill leachate has been one of the typical dilemmas of landfilling method. Leachate is the liquid produced when water percolates through solid waste and contains dissolved or suspended materials from various disposed materials and biodecomposition processes. It is often a high-strength wastewater with extreme pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), inorganic salts and toxicity. Its composition differs over the time and space within a particular landfill, influenced by a broad spectrum of factors, namely waste composition, landfilling practice (solid waste contouring and compacting), local climatic conditions, landfill's physico-chemical conditions, biogeochemistry and landfill age. This paper summarises an overview of landfill operation and leachate treatment availability reported in literature: a broad spectrum of landfill management opportunity, leachate parameter discussions and the way forward of landfill leachate treatment applicability.

  14. Argonne-West facility requirements for a radioactive waste treatment demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; Felicione, F.S.; Black, D.B.; Kelso, R.B.; McClellan, G.C.

    1995-03-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), near Idaho Falls, Idaho, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used and/or modified to meet the environmental and waste management research needs of DOE. One example is the use of an Argonne-West facility to conduct a radioactive waste treatment demonstration through a cooperative project with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. The Plasma Hearth Process (PBP) project will utilize commercially-adapted plasma arc technology to demonstrate treatment of actual mixed waste. The demonstration on radioactive waste will be conducted at Argonne`s Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). Utilization of an existing facility for a new and different application presents a unique set of issues in meeting applicable federal state, and local requirements as well as the additional constraints imposed by DOE Orders and ANL-W site requirements. This paper briefly describes the PHP radioactive demonstrations relevant to the interfaces with the TREAT facility. Safety, environmental design, and operational considerations pertinent to the PHP radioactive demonstration are specifically addressed herein. The personnel equipment, and facility interfaces associated with a radioactive waste treatment demonstration are an important aspect of the demonstration effort. Areas requiring significant effort in preparation for the PBP Project being conducted at the TREAT facility include confinement design, waste handling features, and sampling and analysis considerations. Information about the facility in which a radioactive demonstration will be conducted, specifically Argonne`s TREAT facility in the case of PHP, may be of interest to other organizations involved in developing and demonstrating technologies for mixed waste treatment.

  15. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putus Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

  16. "Living off the land": resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Odum, H T; Brown, M T; Alling, A

    2001-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens(TM)) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  17. Integrated gasification and plasma cleaning for waste treatment: A life cycle perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Sara; Tagliaferri, Carla; Clift, Roland; Lettieri, Paola; Taylor, Richard; Chapman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    In the past, almost all residual municipal waste in the UK was landfilled without treatment. Recent European waste management directives have promoted the uptake of more sustainable treatment technologies, especially for biodegradable waste. Local authorities have started considering other options for dealing with residual waste. In this study, a life cycle assessment of a future 20MWe plant using an advanced two-stage gasification and plasma technology is undertaken. This plant can thermally treat waste feedstocks with different composition and heating value to produce electricity, steam and a vitrified product. The objective of the study is to analyse the environmental impacts of the process when fed with seven different feedstocks (including municipal solid waste, solid refuse fuel, reuse-derived fuel, wood biomass and commercial & industrial waste) and identify the process steps which contribute more to the environmental burden. A scenario analysis on key processes, such as oxygen production technology, metal recovery and the appropriate choice for the secondary market aggregate material, is performed. The influence of accounting for the biogenic carbon content in the waste from the calculations of the global warming potential is also shown. Results show that the treatment of the refuse-derived fuel has the lowest impact in terms of both global warming potential and acidification potential because of its high heating value. For all the other impact categories analysed, the two-stage gasification and plasma process shows a negative impact for all the waste streams considered, mainly due to the avoided burdens associated with the production of electricity from the plant. The plasma convertor, key characteristic of the thermal process investigated, although utilising electricity shows a relatively small contribution to the overall environmental impact of the plant. The results do not significantly vary in the scenario analysis. Accounting for biogenic carbon

  18. Odour annoyance and physical symptoms among residents living near waste treatment centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatamila, Marjaleena; Verkasalo, Pia K; Korhonen, Maarit J; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Viluksela, Marja K; Nevalainen, Aino

    2011-01-01

    Waste treatment processes produce odours and biological emissions to the environment, but their health effects are controversial. The aim of our study was to assess odour-associated self-reported physical symptoms among residents living near waste treatment centres. The study was conducted in the surroundings of five large-scale Finnish waste treatment centres with composting plants. In 2006, 1142 randomly selected residents living within 1.5, 3.0 and 5.0 km of these centres were interviewed by telephone. A questionnaire with 102 items asked about respondent's personal characteristics, odour exposure and symptoms during the preceding 12 months. Physical symptoms were analysed by distance to the waste treatment centre and by the respondent's perception and annoyance of waste treatment odour. The residents who were classified as "annoyed of the odour" reported following physical symptoms more than the others did: unusual shortness of breath (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2), eye irritation (1.5, 1.1-2.1), hoarseness/dry throat (1.5, 1.1-2.0), toothache (1.4, 1.0-2.1), unusual tiredness (1.5, 1.1-2.0), fever/shivering (1.7, 1.1-2.5), joint pain (1.5, 1.1-2.1) and muscular pain (1.5, 1.1-2.0). Moreover, the ORs for almost all other physical symptoms were elevated among the annoyed respondents. Reported odour annoyance near the waste treatment centres showed an association with many physical symptoms among residents living in the neighbouring areas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geodiametris: an integrated geoinformatic approach for monitoring land pollution from the disposal of olive oil mill wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.

  20. The newest achievements of studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Peizhe [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    From 1991 to 1996, key studies on the reutilization, treatment, and disposal technology of hazardous wastes have been incorporated into the national plan for environmental protection science and technology. At present, the research achievements have been accomplished, have passed national approval, and have been accepted. The author of this paper, as leader of the national group for this research work, expounds the newest achievements of the studies involving four parts: (1) the reutilization technology of electroplating sludge, including the ion-exchange process for recovering the sludge and waste liquor for producing chromium tanning agent and extracting chromium and colloidal protein from tanning waste residue; on the recovery of heavy metals from the electroplating waste liquor with microbic purification; on the demonstration project of producing modified plastics from the sludge and the waste plastics; and on the demonstration of the recovery of heavy metals from waste electroplating sludge by using the ammonia-leaching process; (2) the demonstrative research of reutilization technology of chromium waste residues, including production of self-melting ore and smelting of chromium-containing pig iron, and of pyrolytic detoxification of the residue with cyclone furnace; (3) the incineration technology of hazardous wastes with successful results of the industrial incinerator system for polychlorinated biphenyls; and (4) the safety landfill technology for disposal of hazardous wastes, with a complete set of technology for pretreatment, selection of the site, development of the antipercolating materials, and design and construction of the landfill. Only a part of the achievements is introduced in this paper, most of which has been built and is being operated for demonstration to further spreading application and accumulate experience. 6 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Separation technologies for the treatment of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, T.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Currently about 6.8 million L of acidic, radioactive liquid waste that is not amenable to calcination, and about 3800 m{sup 3} of calcine exist at the ICPP. Legal drivers (court orders) and agreements between the state of Idaho, the U.S. Navy, and DOE exist that obligate INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for treatment and interim storage of the radioactive liquid and calcine wastes. Per these agreements, all tank waste must be removed from the underground liquid storage tanks by the year 2012, and high-level radioactive waste must be treated and removed from INEL by 2035. Separation of the radionuclides from the wastes, followed by immobilization of the high-activity and low-activity fractions in glass and grout, respectively, is the approach preferred by INEL. Technologies to remove actinides (U, Np, Pu, and Am), Cs, Sr, and possibly Tc from highly acidic solutions are required to process INEL wastes. Decontamination of the wastes to NRC Class A low-level waste (LLW) is planned. Separation and isolation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cr) from the highly radioactive waste streams may also be required. Remediation efforts will begin in FY 1997 to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides (Cs and Sr) from groundwater located at the Test Area North facility at INEL. A plume of VOCs and radionuclides has spread from the former TSF-05 injection well, and a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Conservation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation action is under way. A Record of Decision was signed in August 1995 that commits INEL to remediate the plume from TSF-05. Removal of Sr and Cs from the groundwater using commercially available ion-exchange resins has been unsuccessful at meeting maximum contaminant levels, which are 119 pCi/L and 8 pCi/L for Cs and Sr, respectively. Cesium and Sr are the major contaminants that must be removed from the groundwater.

  2. Survey the Effect of Pistachio Waste Composting Process with Different Treatments on Concentration of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Composting is one of the pistachio wastes management methods. In the appropriate compost production nutrients and heavy metals are determinant. The aim of this study is survey the effect of pistachio wastes composting process with different treatments on the concentration of heavy metals. Methods: In this study, during the 60-day pistachio wastes composting process with two treatments of dewatered sewage sludge and cow manure, pH, EC, carbon to nitrogen ratio, Heavy metals and nutrients indicators were studied. The results were compared with WHO and Iranian National standard. Drawing the diagrams by Excel software (Version 2007 and Statistical analysis was performed by Spss Software (version 20 at a significance level of 0.005.  Results: During the 60-day composting pH initially had downward trend and then increased. The Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and C/N ratio had downward trend and the EC, Na, K had increasing trend. Eventually, Iron, zinc, copper and manganese were less than the standard, Sodium was in Standard range and potassium was more than specified standards in the produced compost from pistachios waste with both treatments.  Conclusion: The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals and nutrients in the produced compost with both treatments were in the acceptable range. Eventually quality of produced compost with cow manure treatment due to better decomposition and greater stability was better than processed compost with dewatered sewage sludge treatment.

  3. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  4. AVAILABILITY OF SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANES SEPARATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE TREATMENT OF LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela DULAMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The semipermeable membranes separation techniques (like: microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis concern a wide range of radwastes that includes solutions, which are usually putting serious problems during treatment operations. A relevant example is given by the wastes issued from the decontamination operations which contain large quantities of detergents and complexant agents. The paper presents several experimental tests by membrane techniques carried out on a pilot scale device at Institute for Nuclear Research Piteşti. The purpose of the experimental study was to elaborate and evaluate an adequate technology for treatment of low salt content liquid radioactive waste, by using indigenous semipermeable membrane.

  5. Techniques of material-flow-specific residual waste treatment; Techniken der stoffstromspezifischen Restabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maak, D.; Collins, H.J. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig, Leichtweiss - Inst. fuer Wasserbau (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The success achieved with large-scale plants for mechanical-biological residual waste treatment has led to a change of course in waste pretreatment. In view of the low emissions via the water and gas routes from landfilled wastes and the low costs of waste treatment some authorising authorities have meanwhile issued special licences pursuant to clause no. 2.4 of the Technical Code on Household Waste, thus enabling mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants to continue operations beyond the year 2005. Beside offering a means of treatment and disposal, cost-effective mechanical-biological pretreatment also provides an opportunity for going over to material-flow-specific residual waste treatment. These process stages permit recirculating valuable materials and using other materials for energy production. They can be retrofitted on a modular basis in existing plants. If these advantages of the present innovative pretreatment methods are not used, then mechanical-biological pretreatment can still serve as a preparatory stage for thermal treatment. To date there has been no practical experience with this innovative method of residual waste treatment. However, industrial-scale trials have shown that each individual treatment stage is capable of being carried out successfully. [Deutsch] Die guten Erfolge im grosstechnischen Betrieb von Anlagen zur mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung haben zu einer Kursaenderung bei der Vorbehandlung von Abfaellen gefuehrt. Geringe Emissionen der deponierten Abfaelle auf dem Gas- und Wasserpfad sowie geringe Kosten fuer die Behandlung der Abfaelle haben dazu gefuehrt, dass inzwischen bereits einige Genehmigungsbehoerden eine Ausnahmegenehmigung nach Nr. 2.4 der TA Siedlungsabfall erteilt haben und damit der Betrieb von mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlungsanlagen auch nach 2005 ermoeglicht wird. Neben der alleinigen Behandlung und Deponierung bietet die kostenguenstige Vorbehandlung mit mechanisch

  6. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT FOR HANFORD'S LOW ACTIVITY WASTE AND SECONDARY WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Cozzi, A.; Bannochie, C.; Burket, P.; Daniel, G.

    2011-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP's LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as Cs-137, I-129, Tc-99, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap. The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to recycle it to the supplemental LAW treatment to avoid a large steady state accumulation in the pretreatment-vitrification loop. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and/or WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates

  7. Polyoxometalates for radioactive waste treatment. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, M.T.

    1998-06-01

    'This research is directed towards the use of polyoxoanions of the early transition metals (primarily tungsten) as possible sequestrants and storage matrices for lanthanide, actinide, and technetium species. The latter substances are important radioactive components of tank wastes from spent commercial nuclear fuel, but are present in low proportion by mass. Technetium is a particularly troublesome component because it is highly mobile in groundwater and is volatilized in vitrification processes currently under examination for long-term storage. Scientific goals: synthesis and characterization of new and selective polyoxotungstate complexes of Ln{sup 3+}, An{sup 4+}, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}; exploration of stable polyoxoanions containing Tc (using, in the first instance, Re as a nonradioactive surrogate); thermal conversion of polytungstate complexes to tungsten bronze materials for their evaluation as inert storage matrices. This report summarizes the results after 20 months of a 3-year project.'

  8. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jiříček

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest flux was achieved with the thinnest membranes and the best energy efficiency was achieved with the thickest membranes. All membranes had salt retention above 99%. Nanotechnology offers the potential to find modern solutions for desalination of waste waters, by introducing new materials with revolutionary properties, but new membranes must be developed according to the target application.

  9. From Centralized Disassembly to Life Cycle Management: Status and Progress of E-waste Treatment System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Yang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    China is now facing e-waste problems from both growing domestic generation and illegal imports. Many stakeholders are involved in the e-waste treatment system due to the complexity of e-waste life cycle. Beginning with the state of the e-waste treatment industry in China, this paper summarizes the latest progress in e-waste management from such aspects as the new edition of the China RoHS Directive, new Treatment List, new funding subsidy standard, and eco-design pilots. Thus, a conceptual model for life cycle management of e-waste is generalized. The operating procedure is to first identify the life cycle stages of the e-waste and extract the important life cycle information. Then, life cycle tools can be used to conduct a systematic analysis to help decide how to maximize the benefits from a series of life cycle engineering processes. Meanwhile, life cycle thinking is applied to improve the legislation relating to e-waste so as to continuously improve the sustainability of the e-waste treatment system. By providing an integrative framework, the life cycle management of e-waste should help to realize sustainable management of e-waste in developing countries.

  10. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Hee Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe2+, Fenton-like (Fe3+, and ozone (O3 oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100–1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O3-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O3 doses (10–90 mg/L. We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1% and COD lowering (64.9% among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O3 oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O3 dose were varied systematically to optimize O3 oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O3 dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%.

  11. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Gyu-Tae; Jeong, Dae-Woon

    2017-10-07

    To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe(2+)), Fenton-like (Fe(3+)), and ozone (O₃) oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100-1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O₃-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O₃ doses (10-90 mg/L). We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1%) and COD lowering (64.9%) among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O₃ oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O₃ dose) were varied systematically to optimize O₃ oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O₃ dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%).

  12. Group hydrotherapy versus group land-based treatment for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, T; Long, N; Storay, I; Smith, J

    1997-01-01

    Sixty subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) were sequentially allocated to either hydrotherapy treatment or land treatment groups in order of presentation. Subjects acted as their own controls for a period of three weeks, after which they attended their respective group sessions twice weekly for six weeks. Twenty-eight subjects from each group attended all treatment and assessment sessions. Results indicated that both groups improved significantly in functional ability and in decreasing pain levels. Thoracolumbar mobility did not improve significantly in either group. Overall there was no significant difference found between the two types of treatment, although results should be viewed as encouraging for the advocates of both hydrotherapy and land-based exercise as a treatment for chronic LBP.

  13. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  14. Characterization of compost-like outputs from mechanical biological treatment of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Sally M; Bateson, Thomas; Gronow, Jan R; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2010-06-01

    Throughout the world, most municipal solid waste consists of biodegradable components. The most abundant biological component is cellulose, followed by hemicellulose and lignin. Recycling of these components is important for the carbon cycle. In an attempt to reduce the environmental impacts of biodegradable wastes, mechanical biological treatments (MBTs) are being used as a waste management process in many countries. MBT plants attempt to mechanically separate the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable components. The nonbiodegradable components are then sent for reprocessing or landfilled, whereas the biodegradable components are reduced in biological content through composting or anaerobic digestion, leaving a compost-like output (CLO). The further use of these partially degraded residues is uncertain, and in many cases it is likely that they will be landfilled. The implications of this for the future of landfill management are causing some concern because there is little evidence that the long-term emissions tail will be reduced. In this study, the CLOs from four different biological treatment processes were characterized for physical contamination through visual inspection and for biological content using a sequential digestion analysis. The results indicate that the composition of the incoming waste, dependent on the way the waste was collected/segregated, was the factor that influenced biological content most, with length of treatment process the second most important.

  15. Performance evaluation of integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology in palm oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, J. R.; Suprihatin, S.; Indrasti, N. S.; Hasanudin, U.; Fujie, K.

    2017-05-01

    The oil palm industry significantly contributes to environmental degradation if without waste management properly. The newest alternative waste management that might be developed is by utilizing the effluent of POME anaerobic digestion with EFB through integrated anaerobic decomposition process. The aim of this research was to examine and evaluate the integrated solid-liquid waste treatment technology in the view point of greenhouse gasses emission, compost, and biogas production. POME was treated in anaerobic digester with loading rate about 1.65 gCOD/L/day. Treated POME with dosis of 15 and 20 L/day was sprayed to the anaerobic digester that was filled of 25 kg of EFB. The results of research showed that after 60 days, the C/N ratio of EFB decreased to 12.67 and 10.96 for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. In case of 60 day decomposition, the integrated waste treatment technology could produce 51.01 and 34.34 m3/Ton FFB which was equivalent with 636,44 and 466,58 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively. The results of research also showed that integrated solid-liquid wastes treatment technology could reduce GHG emission about 421.20 and 251.34 kgCO2e/ton FFB for dosis of treated POME 15 and 20 L/day, respectively.

  16. Preparation and evaporation of Hanford Waste treatment plant direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Howe, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream involves concentrating the condensate in a new evaporator at the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and returning it to the LAW melter. The LMOGC stream will contain components, e.g. halides and sulfates, that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in glass waste forms, and present a material corrosion concern. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components are expected to accumulate in the LMOGC stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfates in the glass and is a key objective of this program. In order to determine the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, determine the formation and distribution of key regulatoryimpacting constituents, and generate an aqueous stream that can be used in testing of the subsequent immobilization step. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of the LMOGC stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to (1) prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter Off-gas Condensate expected during DFLAW operations, (2) demonstrate evaporation in order to predict the final composition of the effluents from the EMF

  17. Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arriaga, Sonia; de Jonge, Nadieh; Lund Nielsen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals are persistent pollutants that are only partially degraded in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used as a polishing step on a full-scale WWTP, and its ability to remove micropollutants...

  18. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  19. Utilization of Waste Materials for the Treatment of Waste Water Contaminated with Sulphamethoxazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    The activities were carried out to develop potential adsorbents from waste material and employ them for the removal of hazardous antibacterial, Sulphamethoxazole from the wastewater by adsorption technique. The selection of this method was done because of its economic viability. The method has the potency of eradicating the perilous chemicals which make their appearance in water and directly or indirectly into the whole biological system, through the ejection of effluents by the industries in flowing water. The adsorption technique was used to impound the precarious antibiotics from wastewater using Deoiled Soya an agricultural waste and Water Hyacinth a prolific colonizer. The adsorption capacity of these adsorbents was further enhanced by treating them with sodium hydroxide solution and it was seen that the adsorption capacity increases by 10% to 25%. Hence a comparative account of the adsorption studies of all the four adsorbents i.e. Deoiled Soya, Alkali treated Deoiled Soya, Water Hyacinth and Alkali treated Water Hyacinth has been discussed in this paper. Different isotherms like Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin Radushkevich were also deduced from the adsorption data. Isotherm studies were in turn used in estimating the thermodynamic parameters. Deoiled Soya (DOS) showed sorption capacity of 0.0007 mol g(-1) while Alkali treated Deoiled Soya (ADOS) exhibited 0.0011 mol g(-1) of sorption capacity which reveals that the adsorption is higher in case of alkali treated adsorbent. The mean sorption energy (E) was obtained between 9 to 12 kJ/mol which shows that the reaction proceeds by ion exchange reaction. Various kinetic studies like order of reaction, mass transfer studies, mechanism of diffusion were also performed for the ongoing processes. The mass transfer coefficient obtained for alkali treated moieties was higher than the parent moieties. The breakthrough curves plotted from the column studies show percentage saturation of 90% to 98%. Moreover the

  20. Land Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is working to develop methods and guidance to manage and clean up contaminated land, groundwater and nutrient pollution as well as develop innovative approaches to managing materials and waste including energy recovery.

  1. Environmental and resource burdens associated with world biofuel production out to 2050: footprint components from carbon emissions and land use to waste arisings and water consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P; Li, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Environmental or 'ecological' footprints have been widely used in recent years as indicators of resource consumption and waste absorption presented in terms of biologically productive land area [in global hectares (gha)] required per capita with prevailing technology. In contrast, 'carbon footprints' are the amount of carbon (or carbon dioxide equivalent) emissions for such activities in units of mass or weight (like kilograms per functional unit), but can be translated into a component of the environmental footprint (on a gha basis). The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the world production of liquid biofuels have been computed for the period 2010-2050. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from the 2011 International Energy Agency (IEA) 'technology roadmap' for transport biofuels. This suggests that, although first generation biofuels will dominate the market up to 2020, advanced or second generation biofuels might constitute some 75% of biofuel production by 2050. The overall environmental footprint was estimated to be 0.29 billion (bn) gha in 2010 and is likely to grow to around 2.57 bn gha by 2050. It was then disaggregated into various components: bioproductive land, built land, carbon emissions, embodied energy, materials and waste, transport, and water consumption. This component-based approach has enabled the examination of the Manufactured and Natural Capital elements of the 'four capitals' model of sustainability quite broadly, along with specific issues (such as the linkages associated with the so-called energy-land-water nexus). Bioproductive land use was found to exhibit the largest footprint component (a 48% share in 2050), followed by the carbon footprint (23%), embodied energy (16%), and then the water footprint (9%). Footprint components related to built land, transport and waste arisings were all found to account for an insignificant proportion to the overall environmental footprint, together amounting to

  2. US Department of Energy interim mixed waste inventory report: Waste streams, treatment capacities and technologies: Volume 4, Site specific---Ohio through South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to provide an inventory of its mixed wastes and treatment capacities and technologies in response to Section 105(a) of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct) of 1992 (Pub. L. No. 102-386). As required by the FFCAct-1992, this report provides site-specific information on DOE`s mixed waste streams and a general review of available and planned treatment facilities for mixed wastes at the following five Ohio facilities: Battelle Columbus Laboratories; Fernald Environmental Management Project; Mound Plant; Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and RMI, Titanium Company.

  3. PHYTOREMEDIATION ASSISTED DEGRADED LAND USING CLOSED CYCLE ORGANIC WASTE MATTER IN NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioleta Stępień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The thesis has evaluated the impact of the composition of the compost mixture containing sewage sludge, grass and organic fraction of municipal waste, on the effectiveness of the composting process as well as the influence of the obtained composts on the effectiveness of soil phytoremediation. In the first stage, the composting process was carried out and in the second stage of the research, a pot experiment was conducted and the soil supplements were gradually applied, then their influence on the process of degraded soil renourishment was evaluated. During the research, the physical and chemical properties of the soils after the use of resources such as compost and bio-fertilizer gained from the processing of sewage sludge during the process of assisted phytoremediation of highly degraded soil (high content of heavy metals were assessed. The composting process was carried out in two stages, the first of which lasted for four weeks and was carried out in a closed bioreactor with a flow of added oxygen. The second stage, on the other hand, included so-called ripening. This process lasted for six weeks and it also included the flow of added oxygen. By the end of the process, both mixtures were characterized by high content of nutrients and low content of heavy metals which qualified them to be used in the process of renourishment of degraded soils. The conducted research confirms the possibility of using the obtained composts for fertilization. Moreover, the granulate obtained from the processing of the sewage sludge showed positive influence on the examined soil. All of the supplements increased the increment of the obtained biomass, introducing the missing nutrients into the soil.

  4. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  5. Reverse osmosis treatment of wastes from the textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audran, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Frizzarin, L.

    1995-09-01

    Reserve osmosis has been used in the textile industry for cleaning up effluent before sending it to the treatment plant. This process was preceded by a combination of flocculation and sedimentation. This system reduced water consumption since part of the water was reused, and also reduced the quantity of effluent to be dealt with by the treatment plant. (authors). 2 figs.

  6. Simultaneous stack-gas scrubbing and waste water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous treatment of wastewater and S02-laden stack gas make both treatments more efficient and economical. According to results of preliminary tests, solution generated by stack gas scrubbing cycle reduces bacterial content of wastewater. Both processess benefit by sharing concentrations of iron.

  7. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... was collected by sampling and sorting residual household waste in Denmark. The food waste was subdivided into three fractions: (1) avoidable vegetable food waste, (2) avoidable animal-derive food waste, and (3) avoidable food waste. The correlation was carried out using: (a) the amount of food waste (kg per......Food waste is a growing public concern because the food production and distribution exert enormous pressure on natural resources such as land, water and energy, and leads to significant environmental, societal and economic impacts. Thus, the European Commission has aimed to reduce to 50% the total...

  8. RESOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER GENERATED BY CAR WASHES AND TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-12-01

    big cities of Russia. At the same time, the quality of the waste water treated by local water treatment stations fails to meet the present-day standard requirements. Moreover, potable water shall not be used for the purpose of washing transport vehicles. Within the recent 10 years, MGSU has developed a number of research projects aimed at the resolution of this problem. The concept developed by the MGSU specialists is to attain the highest quality of treated waste water generated by car washes and transport enterprises using the most advanced technologies of water treatment rather than to design new water treatment plants. Various methods may be applied for this purpose: restructuring of water treatment facilities, advanced feed, updated regulations governing the operation of water treatment plants.

  9. Saponification pretreatment and solids recirculation as a new anaerobic process for the treatment of slaughterhouse waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affes, R; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X; Carrère, H; Steyer, J P; Battimelli, A

    2013-03-01

    Different configurations of anaerobic process, adapted to the treatment of solid slaughterhouse fatty waste, were proposed and evaluated in this study. The tested configurations are based on the combination of anaerobic digestion with/without waste saponification pretreatment (70 °C during 60 min) and with/without recirculation of the digestate solid fraction (ratio=20% w/w). After an acclimation period of substrate pulses-feeding cycles, the reactors were operated in a semi-continuous feeding mode, increasing organic loading rates along experimental time. The degradation of the raw substrate was shown to be the bottleneck of the whole process, obtaining the best performance and process yields in the reactor equipped with waste pretreatment and solids recirculation. Saponification promoted the emulsification and bioavailability of solid fatty residues, while recirculation of solids minimized the substrate/biomass wash-out and induced microbial adaptation to the treatment of fatty substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  11. Analysis of the energy potential of municipal solid waste for the thermal treatment technology development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midor Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of overproduction of waste has been a local issue for many years. Since the new environment law came into effect, the current approach to waste management has changed significantly. The accessible technological possibilities of thermal waste treatment with the energy recovery set a new area of research over the process of choosing effective and rational way of calorific waste management. The objective of this article is to provide assessment results of the analysed energy potential in waste management system in the form of calorific waste stream. In includes all the activities and actions required to manage municipal solid waste from its inception to its final disposal i.e. collection, transport, treatment and disposal. The graphical representation of waste flow indicates the lost opportunities of waste energy recovery. Visual research method was supported and founded on value stream mapping. On the basis of the results were presented the directions of further improvement of calorific waste stream mapping for the purposes of implementation the thermal treatment technology in the selected waste management region.

  12. Analysis of the energy potential of municipal solid waste for the thermal treatment technology development in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midor, Katarzyna; Jąderko, Karolina

    2017-11-01

    The problem of overproduction of waste has been a local issue for many years. Since the new environment law came into effect, the current approach to waste management has changed significantly. The accessible technological possibilities of thermal waste treatment with the energy recovery set a new area of research over the process of choosing effective and rational way of calorific waste management. The objective of this article is to provide assessment results of the analysed energy potential in waste management system in the form of calorific waste stream. In includes all the activities and actions required to manage municipal solid waste from its inception to its final disposal i.e. collection, transport, treatment and disposal. The graphical representation of waste flow indicates the lost opportunities of waste energy recovery. Visual research method was supported and founded on value stream mapping. On the basis of the results were presented the directions of further improvement of calorific waste stream mapping for the purposes of implementation the thermal treatment technology in the selected waste management region.

  13. Future land use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) changing mission, coupled with the need to apply appropriate cleanup standards for current and future environmental restoration, prompted the need for a process to determine preferred Future Land Uses for DOE-owned sites. DOE began the ``Future Land Use`` initiative in 1994 to ensure that its cleanup efforts reflect the surrounding communities` interests in future land use. This plan presents the results of a study of stakeholder-preferred future land uses for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), located in central Long Island, New York. The plan gives the Laboratory`s view of its future development over the next 20 years, as well as land uses preferred by the community were BNL ever to cease operations as a national laboratory (the post-BNL scenario). The plan provides an overview of the physical features of the site including its history, topography, geology/hydrogeology, biological inventory, floodplains, wetlands, climate, and atmosphere. Utility systems and current environmental operations are described including waste management, waste water treatment, hazardous waste management, refuse disposal and ground water management. To complement the physical descriptions of the site, demographics are discussed, including overviews of the surrounding areas, laboratory population, and economic and non-economic impacts.

  14. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  15. Interim land use planning for the Rocky Flat Sites a phased approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.; Marquez, W. [S.M. Stoller Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A phased approach to interim land use planning for the Rocky Flats site should be based on the elimination of land disposition constraints, as land disposition in the central land use planning issue to be decided for the site now that its mission has changed. Land use planning for Rocky Flats must be considered interim until a formal land use decision is made by DOE and the stakeholders. The most significant land disposition constraints for Rocky Flats are waste, Special Nuclear Material (SNM), and contamination. Waste is a significant potential constraint as a result of limited waste treatment and storage capacity onsite, as well as the site`s current unavailability for waste disposal. SNM onsite imposes safeguards and security restrictions that represent significant potential constraints to land disposition. Contamination is a potentially significant constraint depending on the cleanup level selected for an area.

  16. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Preparation of alveolate hydrophobic catalyst for tritium waste gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong; Peng, Shuming, E-mail: yy567@sina.com; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang; Li, Jiamao

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The catalyst is hydrophobic, it will not be poisoned by steam in room air at room temperature which is better than Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • At room temperature, the conversion of low concentration of H2 and tritium gas in room air over the catalyst is high. • The air resistance of catalyst is much lower than graininess Pt-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • It is inorganic and will not burn. - Abstract: To prepare a catalyst for the detritiation of waste gases at high flow rates, a heat-resistant hydrophobic zeolitic molecular sieve coating was synthesized on the surface of alveolate cordierite by hydrothermal processing. The alveolate hydrophobic catalyst prepared from the support was essentially waterproof and not easily poisoned by moisture. At room temperature, the conversion of low concentrations of H{sub 2} in humid air over the catalyst was higher than 95% at different space velocities (0–16,000 h{sup −1}) and different relative humidities. The reaction rate constant of the oxidation of tritium over alveolate hydrophobic catalyst is 0.182 s{sup −1} at 293.3 K–293.7 K and 59%–60% RH, it is much higher than the catalyst of reference honeycomb catalyst.

  18. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO`s) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968.

  19. Resource recovery from municipal solid waste by mechanical heat treatment: An opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Ibrahim, Nurazim; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) stream in Malaysia consists of 50 to 60 % of food wastes. In general, food wastes are commingled in nature and very difficult to be managed in sustainable manner due to high moisture content. Consequently, by dumping food wastes together with inert wastes to the landfill as final disposal destination incurs large space area and reducing the lifespan of landfill. Therefore, certain fraction of the MSW as such; food wastes (FW) can be diverted from total disposal at the landfill that can improve landfill lifespan and environmental conservation. This study aims to determine the resource characteristics of FW extracted from USM cafeteria by means of mechanical heat treatment in the presence of autoclaving technology. Sampling of FW were conducted by collecting FW samples from disposal storage at designated area within USM campus. FW characteristics was performed prior and autoclaving process. The results have demonstrated that bones fraction was the highest followed by vegetable and rice with 39, 27 and 10%, respectively. Meanwhile, based on autoclaving technique, moisture content of the FW (fresh waste) were able to be reduced ranging from 65-85% to 59-69% (treated waste). Meanwhile, chemical characteristics of treated FW results in pH, TOC, TKN, C/N ratio, TP, and TK 5.12, 27,6%, 1.6%, 17.3%, 0.9% and 0.36%. The results revealed that autoclaving technology is a promising approach for MSW diversion that can be transformed into useful byproducts such as fertilizer, RDF and recyclable items.

  20. INDUSTRIAL WASTED WATER TREATMENT WITH ALUMINIUM SULPHATE COAGULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khromysheva О.О.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical regularities of coagulant treatment of sewage of Open Joint-Stock Company «GidrosylaMZTG» from heavy metals, chlorides and sulfates by with aluminum sulphate are studied.

  1. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  2. Economic aspects of thermal treatment of solid waste in a sustainable WM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarutto, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Provides a comprehensive review of the applied economic literature dedicated to WtE. • Offers a detailed discussion of the main assumptions that characterize alternative positions. • Highlights the most robust achievements obtained by the applied economic research in this field. • Compares economic and non-economic valuation techniques. - Abstract: This paper offers a systematic review of the literature of the last 15 years, which applies economic analysis and theories to the issue of combustion of solid waste. Waste incineration has attracted the interest of economists in the first place concerning the comparative assessment of waste management options, with particular reference to external costs and benefits. A second important field of applied economic research concerns the market failures associated with the provision of thermal treatment of waste, that justify some deviation from the standard competitive market model. Our analysis discusses the most robust achievements and the more controversial areas. All in all, the economic perspective seems to confirm the desirability of assigning a prominent role to thermal treatments in an integrated waste management strategy. Probably the most interesting original contribution it has to offer concerns the refusal of categorical assumptions and too rigid priority ladders, emphasizing instead the need to consider site-specific circumstances that may favor one or another solution.

  3. Performance of mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal waste in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Emilia; Jędrczak, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    The number and capacity of mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants in Europe increased significantly in the past two decades as a response to the legal obligation to limit the landfilling of biodegradable waste in landfills and to increase recycling and energy recovery from waste. The aim of these plants is to prepare residual municipal waste for recovery and disposal operations, including especially separation and stabilization of the easily biodegradable fraction (the biofraction). The final products of MBP technology are recyclables, stabilate, high calorific fraction which is used for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and the remaining residual fraction. The shares of the output fractions, especially of the recyclables and RDF determine the overall efficiency of MBT technology in diverting waste from landfills. In this paper results of an assessment of one exemplary MBT plant are provided. The analysis was performed within a comparative study in which 20 selected MBT plants in Poland were subject to a detailed analysis, focusing, both at the design parameters as well as operational ones. The selected plant showed relatively higher overall materials recovery efficiency. With the view to circular economy targets, increased automation of the mechanical waste treatment will be required to support achieving high level diversion from landfills. The study reviled that stabilisation of biofraction should be improved by a better control of process conditions, especially moisture content.

  4. Combining mechanical-biological residual waste treatment plants with grate firing; Kombination MBA mit Rostfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, E. [ABB Umwelttechnik GmbH, Butzbach (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The promulgation of the Technical Code on Household Waste obliges the local authorities responsible for waste disposal to review existing and prepare new waste management plans. Given the present state of the art the Code`s limit value for loss due to burning of 5% makes thermal treatment of the residual waste practically compulsory. In preparation of these developments and in order to lower costs in general and be able respond flexibly to customer demands ABB is currently undertaking great efforts to provide thermal residual waste treatment plants with a modular design. [Deutsch] Mit Veroeffentlichung der TASi wurden die entsorgungspflichtigen Gebietskoerperschaften gezwungen, bereits vorhandene Abfall-Wirtschaftsplaene zu ueberarbeiten bzw. neue zu erstellen. Technisch laeuft nach derzeitigem Wissensstand der in der TASi vorgegebene maximale Gluehverlust von 5% darauf hinaus, dass eine thermische Behandlung des Restabfalls zwingend vorgegeben ist. Um hierfuer geruestet zu sein, aber auch um generell Kosten zu senken unf flexibel auf Kundenwuensche eingehen zu koennen, unternimmt ABB grosse Abstrengungen, den Aufbau von Anlagen zur thermischen Restabfallbehandlung modular zu gestalten. (orig./SR)

  5. Microwave-driven plasma gasification for biomass waste treatment at miniature scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, G.S.J.; Navarrete Muñoz, A.; Purushothaman Vellayani, A.; Stefanidis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Gasification technology may combine waste treatment with energy generation. Conventional gasification processes are bulky and inflexible. By using an external energy source, in the form of microwave-generated plasma, equipment size may be reduced and flexibility as regards to the feed composition

  6. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  7. Limited bacterial diversity within a treatment plant receiving antibiotic containing waste from bulk drug production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marathe, Nachiket P.; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted

  8. New Methodology in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of waste water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael

    chose among different waste water treatments? Which ones are most beneficial in a holistic perspective? Here, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach as a decision supporting tool may help because its goal is to allow quantification and direct comparison of characteristics as diverse as energy...

  9. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders; Bhander, Gurbakhash S; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2011-04-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaerobic digestion and combinations hereof are available in the model, but the user can change all key parameters in the biological treatment module so that specific local plants and processes can be modelled. EASEWASTE is one of the newest waste LCA models and the biological treatment module was built partly on features of earlier waste-LCA models, but offers additional facilities, more flexibility, transparency and user-friendliness. The paper presents the main features of the module and provides some examples illustrating the capability of the model in environmentally assessing and discriminating the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. To compost or not to compost: carbon and energy footprints of biodegradable materials’ waste treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermann, B.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837415; DeBeer, L.; De Wilde, B.; Blok, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2011-01-01

    Many life cycle assessments of bio-based and biodegradable materials neglect the post-consumer waste treatment phase because of a lack of consistent data, even though this stage of the life cycle may strongly influence the conclusions. The aim of this paper is to approximate carbon and energy

  11. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, H.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  12. Removal of two antibacterial compounds triclocarban and triclosan in a waste water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigates the fate of Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS) in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Our goal was to identify the most effective removal step and to determine the amount on the solid phase versus degraded. Our influent contained higher TCS than TCC concentrations (8....

  13. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  14. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  15. Studies on the co-treatment of the municipal sewage sludge and oil wastes by using microorganism from the land farming of the PETROBRAS President Getulio Vargas refinery - REPAR; Estudos sobre o co-tratamento de lodo de esgoto domestico e residuos oleosos com microorganismos do landfarming da refinaria Presidente Getulio Vargas, PETROBRAS/REPAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Rodrigo Azevedo; Goncalves, Claudia Martins; Krenczynski, Michele Cristine; Nascimento Neto, Durval [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia do Solo; Carvalho, Francisco Jose Pereira de Campos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Grube, Karl; Coelho, Ibirajara Jorge Evangelhista [PETROBRAS, PR (Brazil). REPAR

    1998-07-01

    In the present work a set of results from the evaluation of the use of oily substrate for biodegration of municipal sewage sludge, with microorganisms from the landfaming are presented. The treatments of contaminated soil with sewage sludge, were: inoculum plus oily substrate, landfarming plus inoculum and only municipal sludge. In all treatments the municipal sewage sludge was varied. The obtained results indicate possible treatment of municipal sewage sludge with landfarming microorganisms plus oily substrates. (author)

  16. Management of Biomedical Waste in India and Other Countries: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    , B. Ramesh Babu; , A.K. Parande; , R. Rajalakshmi; , P. Suriyakala; , M. Volga

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is (i) to summarize the rules for management and handling of biomedical wastes, (ii) to give the definition, categories of biomedical wastes, suggested storage containers including colour-coding and treatment options, (iii) mainly to highlight the effects of biomedical waste in the environment such as air, land, radioactive pollution and (iv) disposal of wastes, regulation and recommendations. Health-care waste management in several countries including India is rec...

  17. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge from waste water. Tratamiento termico de lodos procedentes de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G. (Universidad de Trento (Italy)); Canziani, R.; Ragazzi, M. (Politicnico de Milan (Italy))

    1994-01-01

    Thermal Treatment of sewage sludge can be beneficial as a pre-treatment step of many treatment/disposal options, but above all, it allows the recovery of the energetic content sludge. Energy recovery from sewage sludge can be performed in many ways; direct incineration thermal drying followed by incineration and co-combustion with municipal solid wastes or other non conventional fuels. Another option is the recovery of waste energy (e.g. from an endo thermal engine using biogas as fuel) to dry sludge wich, in turn can be used as a fuel. The paper will evaluate several options of thermal treatment of sewage sludge, with particular emphasis on the energetic yield from different processes. (Author)

  18. Rapid and Decentralized Human Waste Treatment by Microwave Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tu Anh; Babel, Sandhya; Boonyarattanakalin, Siwarutt; Koottatep, Thammarat

    2017-07-01

      This study evaluates the technical feasibility of using microwave radiation for the rapid treatment of human feces. Human feces of 1000 g were radiated with a commercially available household microwave oven (with rotation) at different exposure time lengths (30, 50, 60, 70, and 75 mins) and powers (600, 800, and 1000 W). Volume reduction over 90% occurred after 1000 W microwave radiation for 75 mins. Pathogen eradiation performances of six log units or more at a high range of microwave powers were achieved. Treatments with the same energy input of 1000 Wh, but at lower powers with prolonged exposure times, significantly enhanced moisture removal and volume reduction. Microwave radiation caused carbonization and resulted in a more stable end product. The energy content of the samples after microwave treatment at 1000 W and 75 mins is 3517 ± 8.85 calories/g of dried sample, and the product can also be used as compost.

  19. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  20. Assessment of impacts of combined treatment of solid urban waste landfill leachate and sewage on aquatic biota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camille Ferreira Mannarino; Josino Costa Moreira; João Alberto Ferreira; Ana Rosa Linde Arias

    2013-01-01

      The impact on tilapia fish of combined treatment of landfill leachate and domestic sewage was monitored in a waste treatment plant that operated on a pilot scale using the activated sludge process...

  1. RECIRCULATION OF BIOGAS RESIDUE TO AGRICULTURAL LAND IN NAMIBIA– RISKS AND POTENTIALS IN FULL UTILIZATION OF ORGANIC WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Nehrenheim, Emma; Klintenberg, Patrik; Odlare, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The current situation of waste disposal in Namibia is under developed. The country has a large meat and dairy industry as well as some breweries and wineries and today, none of the organic wastes are reused, recycled or utilized for energy utilization. Little has been done in order to collect and utilize the resources in the organic waste from these industries but there is currently some early stage projects in planning related to biogas production from organic wastes. This study aims at eval...

  2. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  3. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  4. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter. Preliminary settling and resuspension testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The full-scale, room-temperature Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) High-Level Waste (HLW) melter riser test system was successfully operated with silicone oil and magnetite particles at a loading of 0.1 vol %. Design and construction of the system and instrumentation, and the selection and preparation of simulant materials, are briefly reviewed. Three experiments were completed. A prototypic pour rate was maintained, based on the volumetric flow rate. Settling and accumulation of magnetite particles were observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. The height of the accumulated layer at the bottom of the riser, after the first pouring experiment, approximated the expected level given the solids loading of 0.1 vol %. More detailed observations of particle resuspension and settling were made during and after the third pouring experiment. The accumulated layer of particles at the bottom of the riser appeared to be unaffected after a pouring cycle of approximately 15 minutes at the prototypic flow rate. The accumulated layer of particles along the bottom of the throat was somewhat reduced after the same pouring cycle. Review of the time-lapse recording showed that some of the settling particles flow from the riser into the throat. This may result in a thicker than expected settled layer in the throat.

  5. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water * OPSAHU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: Industrialization played an important role for scio-economy of the country. Generally, a lot of water is used and lot of wastewater generated from industries due their processes and washing purpose. A large number of chemicals are used for the production of potable water and in the treatment of wastewater ...

  6. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water | Sahu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In potable water treatment chemicals such as inorganic salts and polymeric organic coagulants are used for primary coagulation, as coagulant aids and for sludge dewatering; lime and soda ash allowed for pH correction and water stabilization; caustic soda is used for pH adjustment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) can ...

  7. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  8. The thermal waste treatment: A technology for the environment; Termodistruzione dei rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1996-09-01

    The present report is divided into three parts: the first describes the combustion technology and energy recovery process, analyses the most efficient devices to reduce exhaust emissions, examines the environmental effects of emissions and reports economical considerations on the technology. The second part describes the commercial, pre commercial and experimental devices and their appliance sectors. The third part analyses the Italian situation taking into account separately industrial and municipal solid wastes. The aim of the distinction is to define for each stream the problems connected to the diffusion of the thermal waste treatment and the obstacles encountered to obtain information about the existent plant.

  9. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Wantawin, C.; Chobthiangtham, P.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to m...

  10. Innovative hazardous waste treatment technologies: A developer's guide to support services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-01

    In the most recent amendments to the hazardous waste site remediation statute (the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act - SARA), Congress expressed a preference for permanent remedies that reduce the toxicity, mobility, and/or volume of contaminants. Achievements of this goal requires the development and application of innovative approaches to hazardous waste treatment. The booklet provides information on sources of assistance and support in bringing technologies from the proof of concept stage to the commercialization stage. It includes information on sources of grant funding and technical assistance, and identifies incubators, test and evaluation facilities, and university-affiliated research centers that can provide a range of technology development and evaluation services.

  11. Assessment of the efficacy of Aspergillus sp. EL-2 in textile waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Ola M; Kareem, Hussein Abd El; Fatahy, Reham

    2012-04-01

    Fungal biomass has the ability to decolorize a wide variety of dyes successfully through a number of mechanisms. A brown rot isolate, previously identified as Aspergillus sp. EL-2, was used in the aerobic treatment of textile waste water efficiently. In the current work, the treated waste water was tested chemically using more than one combined treatment. Microbial toxicity, phytotoxicity, genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were also studied to assess the toxicity level for each treatment. The obtained data suggest that the contribution of more than one mode of treatment is essential to ensure complete destruction of the by-products. The use of gamma irradiation (25 kGy) after the bioremediation step led to the decrease of the by-products of biodegradation as observed by visible spectrum and Fourier transfer infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The toxicity assessment presented variable results indicating the need for more than one toxicity test to confirm the presence or absence of hazardous compounds. Brown rot fungus could be used efficiently in the treatment of textile waste water without the risk of obtaining high carcinogenic or genotoxic compounds, especially if combined treatment is employed.

  12. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants. Konflikte um Standorte fuer Abfallbehandlungs- und -beseitigungsanlagen; Ursachen und Loesungsansaetze aus oekonomischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Assessment of the state of food waste treatment in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J W; Barlaz, M A; Themelis, N J; Ulloa, P

    2010-01-01

    Currently in the US, over 97% of food waste is estimated to be buried in landfills. There is nonetheless interest in strategies to divert this waste from landfills as evidenced by a number of programs and policies at the local and state levels, including collection programs for source separated organic wastes (SSO). The objective of this study was to characterize the state-of-the-practice of food waste treatment alternatives in the US and Canada. Site visits were conducted to aerobic composting and two anaerobic digestion facilities, in addition to meetings with officials that are responsible for program implementation and financing. The technology to produce useful products from either aerobic or anaerobic treatment of SSO is in place. However, there are a number of implementation issues that must be addressed, principally project economics and feedstock purity. Project economics varied by region based on landfill disposal fees. Feedstock purity can be obtained by enforcement of contaminant standards and/or manual or mechanical sorting of the feedstock prior to and after treatment. Future SSO diversion will be governed by economics and policy incentives, including landfill organics bans and climate change mitigation policies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of advanced treatment technologies of radio-aqueous waste by an environmental friendly decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Moon, J. K. and others

    2006-01-15

    This project was aimed at the technology developments of electrode fabrication, electrolytic reactor design and fabrication, electrolytic processes and the analyses of electroytic reaction mechanisms, which were essential elements for the development of electrolytic systems to decompose or teat environmentally- friendly the several salts contained in waste solutions which are to be generated in the fields of nuclear/non-nuclear industries. Major research items carried our in this project were as follows; - Development of technologies to choose and fabricate the anodes and cathodes for the treatments of waste solutions containing nitrogen compounds and organics. - Development of a membrane electrolyzer stacked by mono-polar unit cells with independent series flow path of electrolytes - Development of an electrolyzer with a self-pH adjustment and an electrolytic process for ammonia decomposition by using the electrolyzer - Analysis of electrolytic reaction mechanism of ammonia - Development of an ion exchange membrane electrolyzer with only one discharge of pH-controlled electrolyte solution - Development of electrolytic dechlorination technology for the treatment of chloride molten salt waste salt from pyroprocess. - Development of technologies for treatment of high concentration nitric acid and recovery of waste organic solvent.

  16. Assessment of chars from black coal carbonization for adsorption treatment of waste water from coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolany, B.; Szkuta-Pochopien, T.; Malczyk, R.; Sekula, M.

    1985-06-01

    The Institute for Chemical Coal Processing investigated efficiency of carbon adsorption in treatment of waste water from a coking plant in Poland. Four types of adsorption media were used: a coarse-grained non-activated char, a fine-grained non-activated char, a coarse-grained activated char and Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon produced on a commercial scale. The chars were produced by carbonization of black coal from Poland in a rotary chamber using semicoke as heat carrier. Sorptive properties of 4 types of chars were compared. All the tested chars were characterized by sorptive properties in relation to chemical compounds from waste water. The coarse-grained activated char was superior to other chars. The working sorptive capacity of the coarse-grained activated char amounted to 86% of the capacity of Carbopol Z-4 activated carbon (when 2 chars were used for reducing chemical oxygen demand of waste water to about 35% of the initial level, treatment efficiency amounted to 65%). Use of the coarse-grained activated char for waste water treatment in coking plants on a commercial scale is recommended. 13 references.

  17. Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production on Waste Water Treatment Plants: Process Scheme, Operating Conditions and Potential Analysis for German and European Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittmann, Timo; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2017-06-06

    This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP) and a subsequent analysis of the production potential in Germany and the European Union (EU). Therefore, tests with different types of sludge from a WWTP were investigated regarding their volatile fatty acids (VFA) production-potential. Afterwards, primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT) and withdrawal (WD)) in order to find suitable settings for a high and stable VFA production. In a second step, various tests regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition to determine the influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were conducted. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4 days and a small WD of 25% at pH = 6 and around 30 °C is preferable for a high VFA production rate (PR) of 1913 mgVFA/(L×d) and a stable VFA composition. A high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW) was reached at lower substrate concentration, 20 °C, neutral pH-value and a 24 h cycle time. A final step a potential analysis, based on the results and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 19% of the 2016 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition, a profound estimation regarding the EU showed that in theory about 120% of the worldwide biopolymer production (in 2016) could be produced on European waste water treatment plants.

  18. Waste and resources management. Ordinance on Environmentally Compatible Storage of Waste from Human Settlements and on Biological Waste Treatment Facilities (Landfill Ordinance - AbfAblV) - one year on; Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft. 1 Jahr Abfallablagerungsverordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, K.; Bergs, C.G.; Kosak, G.; Wallmann, R.; Bidlingmaier, W. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    As early as the beginning of 2005 there were signs of trouble ahead resulting from the new Landfill Ordinance - it was only the extent of the trouble that was somewhat underestimated. Suddenly and unexpected to everyone, the industrial wastes that were supposed to have been avoided or reutilised were there again. These ''returned wastes'', in most cases arisings that were not taken into account during plant design, are currently causing serious capacity problems both in waste incineration and in mechanical biological waste treatment plants. In not a few cases the originally planned supply rates are being exceeded by up to 35%, with dramatic consequences. Another source of problems is the lack of utilisation capacities for high-caloric waste fractions, especially for those from mechanical biological waste treatment. The underlying causes are manifold, ranging from market misjudgment, insufficient fuel processing capacities to supposed or factual quality problems with the generated secondary fuel. The only remedial option available at present - at least from the legal viewpoint - is interim storage. The changed framework conditions for biowaste and green waste utilisation brought about by the Renewable Energy Law offers new interesting perspectives. Numerous unresolved questions and quite as many solution proposals provide reason enough for making residual waste treatment and biowaste utilisation one of the focal topics of the congress. Many EU countries, but also developing and threshold countries, are on the verge of making decisions on waste utilisation and treatment. The experiences, positive and negative, that have been gained to date in Germany with the full-area implementation of residual waste treatment can serve these countries as a valuable guide. Another focal topic of the congress is climate and resource protection.

  19. Demonstration of New Technologies Required for the Treatment of Mixed Waste Contaminated with {ge}260 ppm Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2002-02-06

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) defines several categories of mercury wastes, each of which has a defined technology or concentration-based treatment standard, or universal treatment standard (UTS). RCRA defines mercury hazardous wastes as any waste that has a TCLP value for mercury of 0.2 mg/L or greater. Three of these categories, all nonwastewaters, fall within the scope of this report on new technologies to treat mercury-contaminated wastes: wastes as elemental mercury; hazardous wastes with less than 260 mg/kg [parts per million (ppm)] mercury; and hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury. While this report deals specifically with the last category--hazardous wastes with 260 ppm or more of mercury--the other two categories will be discussed briefly so that the full range of mercury treatment challenges can be understood. The treatment methods for these three categories are as follows: Waste as elemental mercury--RCRA identifies amalgamation (AMLGM) as the treatment standard for radioactive elemental mercury. However, radioactive mercury condensates from retorting (RMERC) processes also require amalgamation. In addition, incineration (IMERC) and RMERC processes that produce residues with >260 ppm of radioactive mercury contamination and that fail the RCRA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) limit for mercury (0.20 mg/L) require RMERC, followed by AMLGM of the condensate. Waste with <260 ppm mercury--No specific treatment method is specified for hazardous wastes containing <260 ppm. However, RCRA regulations require that such wastes (other than RMERC residues) that exceed a TCLP mercury concentration of 0.20 mg/L be treated by a suitable method to meet the TCLP limit for mercury of 0.025 mg/L. RMERC residues must meet the TCLP value of {ge}0.20 mg/L, or be stabilized and meet the {ge}0.025 mg/L limit. Waste with {ge}260 ppm mercury--For hazardous wastes with mercury contaminant concentrations {ge}260 ppm and RCRA

  20. Assessing the costs of municipal solid waste treatment technologies in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2017-11-01

    The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the main costs incurred by local authorities in developing countries. According to some estimates, these costs can account for up to 50% of city government budgets. It is therefore of importance that policymakers, urban planners and practitioners have an adequate understanding of what these costs consist of, from collection to final waste disposal. This article focuses on a specific stage of the MSW value chain, the treatment of waste, and it aims to identify cost patterns associated with the implementation and operation of waste treatment approaches in developing Asian countries. An analysis of the capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) of a number of facilities located in countries of the region was conducted based on a database gathering nearly 100 projects and which served as basis for assessing four technology categories: composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), thermal treatment, and the production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Among these, it was found that the least costly to invest, asa function of the capacity to process waste, are composting facilities, with an average CAPEX per ton of 21,493 USD 2015 /ton. Conversely, at the upper end featured incineration plants, with an average CAPEX of 81,880 USD 2015 /ton, with this treatment approach ranking by and large as the most capital intensive of the four categories assessed. OPEX figures of the plants, normalized and analyzed in the form of OPEX/ton, were also found to be higher for incineration than for biological treatment methods, although on this component differences amongst the technology groups were less pronounced than those observed for CAPEX. While the results indicated the existence of distinct cost implications for available treatment approaches in the developing Asian context, the analysis also underscored the importance of understanding the local context asa means to properly identify the cost structure of each specific plant

  1. Treatment of waste lubricating oil using BERC/ERDA solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlew, J.S.; Sluski, R.J.

    1976-06-25

    From data generated in the laboratory and pilot plant studies a quality rerefined oil can be produced via BERC/ERDA solvent extraction and clay treatment. Some of the important processing variables that determine the quality of the finished product are temperature of solvent extraction, type of clay used, temperature and time of clay treatment, and the atmosphere under which the oil is treated with clay. Yields of 75 percent based on water-distillate-free oil can be expected at the conditions used in pilot plant operations. The oils obtained could be compounded to produce a large number of high quality lubricating products. Unlike an acid-clay process where the acid sludges pose an environmental problem, the BERC/ERDA system produces a marketable sludge.

  2. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  3. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  4. Valorisation of fish by-products against waste management treatments--Comparison of environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Antelo, Luis T; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    Reuse and valorisation of fish by-products is a key process for marine resources conservation. Usually, fishmeal and oil processing factories collect the by-products generated by fishing port and industry processing activities, producing an economical benefit to both parts. In the same way, different added-value products can be recovered by the valorisation industries whereas fishing companies save the costs associated with the management of those wastes. However, it is important to estimate the advantages of valorisation processes not only in terms of economic income, but also considering the environmental impacts. This would help to know if the valorisation of a residue provokes higher impact than other waste management options, which means that its advantages are probably not enough for guarantying a sustainable waste reuse. To that purpose, there are several methodologies to evaluate the environmental impacts of processes, including those of waste management, providing different indicators which give information on relevant environmental aspects. In the current study, a comparative environmental assessment between a valorisation process (fishmeal and oil production) and different waste management scenarios (composting, incineration and landfilling) was developed. This comparison is a necessary step for the development and industrial implementation of these processes as the best alternative treatment for fish by-products. The obtained results showed that both valorisation process and waste management treatments presented similar impacts. However, a significant benefit can be achieved through valorisation of fish by-products. Additionally, the implications of the possible presence of pollutants were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conversion of a MBA to the treatment of biological wastes; Umnutzung einer MBA zur Bioabfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deubig, Jan B. [Zentrale Abfallwirtschaft Kaiserslautern (ZAK) AoeR Kapiteltal, Kaiserslautern (Germany); Stadtmueller, Gregor [Zentrale Abfallwirtschaft Kaiserslautern (ZAK) AoeR Kapiteltal, Kaiserslautern (Germany). Abt. Technik; Greuel, Michael [Schirmer Umwelttechnik GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Deubig, Isabel [Zentrale Abfallwirtschaft Kaiserslautern (ZAK) AoeR Kapiteltal, Kaiserslautern (Germany). Abt. Stoffstrommanagement

    2013-03-01

    The Zentrale Abfallwirtschaft Kaiserslautern (ZAK) - gemeinsame kommunale Anstalt der Stadt und des Landkreises Kaiserslautern (Kaiserslautern, Federal Republic of Germany) is a public waste management authority being responsible for 250,000 inhabitants with respect to the utilization of municipal waste and with respect to the collection of problematic waste materials and electric appliances. Due to the changing framework conditions in the waste management, ZAK looks for solutions which facilitate the handling with increasing specific costs at simultaneously preservation of created values and compliance with social and ecologic standards. The change of the utilization of the cluster of plants to a mechanical-biological biowaste treatment plant within a regional cooperation project with formation of clusters in the waste management is an alternative to the unchanged continuation of the status quo or to a shutdown. Within the project transformation, existing power plants have been partly subject to a utilization conversion for the second time. ZAK increases its profile as a biomass competence centre. The MBA technology demonstrates its process-technical determined enhanced flexibility of mass flow.

  6. Microwave as an emerging technology for the treatment of biohazardous waste: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Microwave is an emerging technology to treat biohazardous waste, including material from healthcare facilities. A screen of the peer-reviewed literature shows that only limited information may be found in this area of work and, furthermore, analysis of the references reveals that sometimes not all necessary aspects for the appropriate use of the technology are considered. Very often conventional microwave technology is applied for the inactivation of pathogens, which might make sense for certain applications but, on the other hand, may lead to the misbelief that microwave systems cannot be used for the inactivation of a solid "dry" waste. However, conventional microwave units have no means to control the inactivation process, and especially moisture content. But there are a few sophisticated microwave technologies with appropriate measurements allowing a validated inactivation of biohazardous materials. These technologies are an effective tool for inactivation and some of them are commercially available. It must also be considered that the waste should be preferably inactivated either directly at the place where it is generated or biohazardous waste should be transported only in closed systems. Moreover, microwave technology presents a possibility to save energy costs in comparison to the more widely used autoclaves. This mini-review will discuss important aspects for the use of microwave technology for the treatment of biohazardous waste.

  7. Current perspectives on biomedical waste management: Rules, conventions and treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini R Capoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unregulated biomedical waste management (BMWM is a public health problem. This has posed a grave threat to not only human health and safety but also to the environment for the current and future generations. Safe and reliable methods for handling of biomedical waste (BMW are of paramount importance. Effective BMWM is not only a legal necessity but also a social responsibility. This article reviews the current perspectives on BMWM and rules, conventions and the treatment technologies used worldwide. BMWM should ideally be the subject of a national strategy with dedicated infrastructure, cradle-to-grave legislation, competent regulatory authority and trained personnel. Improving the management of biomedical waste begins with waste minimisation. These standards, norms and rules on BMWM in a country regulate the disposal of various categories of BMW to ensure the safety of the health-care workers, patients, public and environment. Furthermore, developing models for the monitoring of hospital health-care waste practices and research into non-burn eco-friendly sustainable technologies, recycling and polyvinyl chloride-free devices will go in long way for safe carbon environment. Globally, greater research in BMWM is warranted to understand its growing field of public health importance.

  8. Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, K; Fatta, D; Malamis, S; Haralambous, K; Loizidou, M

    2005-08-31

    Plasma gasification/vitrification is a technologically advanced and environmentally friendly method of disposing of waste, converting it to commercially usable by-products. This process is a drastic non-incineration thermal process, which uses extremely high temperatures in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose input waste material into very simple molecules. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of plasma technology enable a plasma gasification/vitrification facility to treat a large number of waste streams in a safe and reliable manner. The by-products of the process are a combustible gas and an inert slag. Plasma gasification consistently exhibits much lower environmental levels for both air emissions and slag leachate toxicity than other thermal technologies. In the framework of a LIFE-Environment project, financed by Directorate General Environment and Viotia Prefecture in Greece, a pilot plasma gasification/vitrification system was designed, constructed and installed in Viotia Region in order to examine the efficiency of this innovative technology in treating industrial hazardous waste. The pilot plant, which was designed to treat up to 50kg waste/h, has two main sections: (i) the furnace and its related equipment and (ii) the off-gas treatment system, including the secondary combustion chamber, quench and scrubber.

  9. Statistical Study for Some Variables in Biological Treatment for Different Type of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilyan Yaqob Mati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work four types of wastewater namely domestic, dairy, sugar and textile are used to perform statistical analysis. These wastes are treated by extended aeration system. Inlet and outlet COD and S.S are used to make the statistical correlation for F/M range of 0.1-1.    The results showed that the relation between COD and SS is linear for domestic, dairy and sugar waste having a correlation coefficient 0.9323, 0.8774 and 0.8698 respectively. The relation is of third degree for textile waste with correlation coefficient of 0.557 due to chemicals and heavy metals. The relation between F/M and COD for all wastes is linear. To predict COD value leaving treatment plant using  F/M and SS values which are allowed to be thrown to the water body, Duncan test was made depending on outlet COD and SS which show that extended aeration is not suitable for textile waste.

  10. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Wilmarth, William R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-21

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also

  11. Operation and management of Liaoning waste water treatment plants by STOAT Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yu Nan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the irregular management, the effluent water of some waste water treatment plants (WWPT of Liaoning province didn’t meet the demand of the National Discharge Standard. Meanwhile, excessive of dosage and discharge of sludge made the results of operation costs increasing and environmental pollution during the processes. The use of mathematical models for the simulationof wastewater treatment processes has gained widespread acceptance as a tool to aid the design of newworks and the optimization of existing facilities. STOAT developed by the Water Research Center is the most widely used model for simulating the WWST processes. This paper invited the STOAT as simulation model for the design and optimization of Liaoning waste water treatment plant.

  12. Investigation on the characteristics of liquid wastes depending on their generation sources and study on optimum treatment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Guk; Kim, Dong Chan; Shin, Dae Hyun; Son, Seung Geun; Roh, Nam Sun; Woo, Je Kyung [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The major research contents conducted this year are as follows: (1) environmental regulation with respect to the treatment of the liquid waste in the U.S.A., (2) the present status of the generation and treatment of liquid wastes for large producers(>1,000 ton/year), (3) analysis for heating value element, heavy metal content, halogenated species on collected samples, (4) investigation on estimation method of energy recovery rate from liquid waste, (5) design of a lab. scale reactor which could be capable of conducting thermal decomposition test with small quantity of sample. In this study, present status of liquid waste generation and treatment is investigated, and thermal decomposition characteristics are studied using a lab. scale thermal reactor. The purpose of this research is to divide liquid waste into groups and to present best treatment method for their each group. (author). 24 refs., 21 figs., 23 tabs.

  13. Enhanced energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkern, Bernd; Maier, Werner; Schneider, Ursula [iat - Ingenieurberatung fuer Abwassertechnik, Darmstadt und Stuttgart, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    In order to implement the requests of EU-IPCC-directive in a new decree for waste water treatment in Germany, best available techniques have to be defined to optimize energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Therefore energy efficiency was investigated for common treatment processes and new technologies like membrane filtration, co-digestion or phosphorus recycling. In addition, the occurrence of different technologies for waste water and sludge treatment was evaluated for different size ranges of treatment plants (in population equivalents, PE) nationwide in Germany. The definition of actual and aimed values for specific energy consumption (in kWh/(PE.a)) allowed to calculate the potential energy savings in WWTP and the additional consumption due to new processes on a national level. Under consideration of the reciprocations between optimized energy consumption in WWTP and operation practice, toe-holds to increase energy efficiency according to their relevancy for the national balance could be listed. Case studies prove the feasibility of the investigated techniques and allow proposals for minimum requirements in legal regulation concerning energy efficiency in WWTP. (orig.)

  14. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  15. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket P Marathe

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20% to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial

  16. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Shetty, Sudarshan A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL

  17. Technetium Incorporation in Glass for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Kim, Dong Sang

    2015-01-14

    . Long-term corrosion of glass waste forms is an area of current interest to the DOE, but attention to the release of Tc from glass has been little explored. It is expected that the release of Tc from glass should be highly dependent on the local glass structure as well as the chemistry of the surrounding environment, including groundwater pH. Though the speciation of Tc in glass has been previously studied, and the Tc species present in waste glass have been previously reported, environmental Tc release mechanisms are poorly understood. The recent advances in Tc chemistry that have given rise to an understanding of incorporation in the glass giving rise to significantly higher single-pass retention during vitrification are presented. Additionally, possible changes to the baseline flowsheet that allow for relatively minor volumes of Tc reporting to secondary waste treatment will be discussed.

  18. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume I, Part 3, Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    A conference sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), was held on waste management. Topics of discussion were transuranic waste management, chemical and physical treatment technologies, waste minimization, land disposal technology and characterization and analysis. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  19. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  20. Oak Ridge National Lebroatory Liquid&Gaseous Waste Treatment System Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2003-09-09

    Excellence in Laboratory operations is one of the three key goals of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Agenda. That goal will be met through comprehensive upgrades of facilities and operational approaches over the next few years. Many of ORNL's physical facilities, including the liquid and gaseous waste collection and treatment systems, are quite old, and are reaching the end of their safe operating life. The condition of research facilities and supporting infrastructure, including the waste handling facilities, is a key environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concern. The existing infrastructure will add considerably to the overhead costs of research due to increased maintenance and operating costs as these facilities continue to age. The Liquid Gaseous Waste Treatment System (LGWTS) Reengineering Project is a UT-Battelle, LLC (UT-B) Operations Improvement Program (OIP) project that was undertaken to develop a plan for upgrading the ORNL liquid and gaseous waste systems to support ORNL's research mission.