WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste isolation safety

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  2. The waste isolation pilot plant transuranic waste repository: A case study in radioactive waste disposal safety and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Leif G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological defense-generated transuranic radioactive waste (TRUW) repository in the United States was certified on the 13 of May 1998 and opened on the 26 of March 1999. Two sets of safety/performance assessment calculations supporting the certification of the WIPP TRUW repository show that the maximum annual individual committed effective dose will be 32 times lower than the regulatory limit and that the cumulative amount of radionuclide releases will be at least 10 times, more likely at least 20 times, lower than the regulatory limits. Yet, perceptions remain among the public that the WIPP TRUW repository imposes an unacceptable risk.

  3. Reliability and safety program plan outline for the operational phase of a waste isolation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, H.G.; Wood, D.E.

    1977-03-28

    A Reliability and Safety Program plan outline has been prepared for the operational phase of a Waste Isolation Facility. The program includes major functions of risk assessment, technical support activities, quality assurance, operational safety, configuration monitoring, reliability analysis and support and coordination meetings. Detailed activity or task descriptions are included for each function. Activities are time-phased and presented in the PERT format for scheduling and interactions. Task descriptions include manloading, travel, and computer time estimates to provide data for future costing. The program outlined here will be used to provide guidance from a reliability and safety standpoint to design, procurement, construction, and operation of repositories for nuclear waste. These repositories are to be constructed under the National Waste Terminal Storage program under the direction of the Office of Waste Isolation, Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division.

  4. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Technical progress report for FY-1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstetter, A.; Harwell, M.A.; Howes, B.W.; Benson, G.L.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.; Schilling, A.H.

    1979-07-01

    Associated with commercial nuclear power production in the United States is the generation of potentially hazardous radioactive wastes. The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop nuclear waste isolation systems in geologic formations that will preclude contact with the biosphere of waste radionuclides in concentrations which are sufficient to cause deleterious impact on humans or their environments. Comprehensive analyses of specific isolation systems are needed to assess the expectations of meeting that objective. The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) has been established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute) for developing the capability of making those analyses. Progress on the following tasks is reported: release scenario analysis, waste form release rate analysis, release consequence analysis, sorption-desorption analysis, and societal acceptance analysis. (DC)

  5. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Task 4. Third contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Contractor Information Meeting (October 14 to 17, 1979) was part of the FY-1979 effort of Task 4 of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP): Sorption/Desorption Analysis. The objectives of this task are to: evaluate sorption/desorption measurement methods and develop a standardized measurement procedure; produce a generic data bank of nuclide-geologic interactions using a wide variety of geologic media and groundwaters; perform statistical analysis and synthesis of these data; perform validation studies to compare short-term laboratory studies to long-term in situ behavior; develop a fundamental understanding of sorption/desorption processes; produce x-ray and gamma-emitting isotopes suitable for the study of actinides at tracer concentrations; disseminate resulting information to the international technical community; and provide input data support for repository safety assessment. Conference participants included those subcontracted to WISAP Task 4, representatives and independent subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, representatives from other waste disposal programs, and experts in the area of waste/geologic media interaction. Since the meeting, WISAP has been divided into two programs: Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) (modeling efforts) and Waste/Rock Interactions Technology (WRIT) (experimental work). The WRIT program encompasses the work conducted under Task 4. This report contains the information presented at the Task 4, Third Contractor Information Meeting. Technical Reports from the subcontractors, as well as Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), are provided along with transcripts of the question-and-answer sessions. The agenda and abstracts of the presentations are also included. Appendix A is a list of the participants. Appendix B gives an overview of the WRIT program and details the WRIT work breakdown structure for 1980.

  6. PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived

  7. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program scenario analysis methods for use in assessing the safety of the geologic isolation of nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenborg, J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Pelto, P.J.; Voss, J.W.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Forbes, I.A.; Fussell, J.B.; Burkholder, H.C.

    1978-11-01

    The relative utility of the various safety analysis methods to scenario analysis for a repository system was evaluated by judging the degree to which certain criteria are satisfied by use of the method. Six safety analysis methods were reviewed in this report for possible use in scenario analysis of nuclear waste repositories: expert opinion, perspectives analysis, fault trees/event trees, Monte Carlo simulation, Markov chains, and classical systems analysis. Four criteria have been selected. The criteria suggest that the methods: (1) be quantitative and scientifically based; (2) model the potential disruptive events and processes, (3) model the system before and after failure (sufficiently detailed to provide for subsequent consequence analysis); and (4) be compatible with the level of available system knowledge and data. Expert opinion, fault trees/event trees, Monte Carlo simulation and classical systems analysis were judged to have the greatest potential appliation to the problem of scenario analysis. The methods were found to be constrained by limited data and by knowledge of the processes governing the system. It was determined that no single method is clearly superior to others when measured against all the criteria. Therefore, to get the best understanding of system behavior, a combination of the methods is recommended. Monte Carlo simulation was judged to be the most suitable matrix in which to incorporate a combination of methods.

  8. Proceedings of the Task 4 Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program second contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Volume 1 contains the following papers: Solution Species of {sup 239}Pu in Oxidizing Environments; Solution Species of {sup 239}Pu in the Environment; Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Waste Transport in Selected Rocks; Studies of Radionuclide Availability and Migration at the Nevada Test Site Relevant to Radioactive Waste Disposal; Systematic Study of Metal Ion Sorption on Selected Geologic Media; Chromatographic K/sub d/ values of Radionuclides; Effects of Redox Potentials on Sorption of Radionuclides by Geologic Media; and Transport Properties of Nuclear Waste in Geologic Media. Individual papers were processed.

  9. Waste isolation safety assessment program. Technical progress report for FY-77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Greenborg, J.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Bradley, D.J.; Raymond, J.R.; Serne, R.J.

    1979-04-01

    Purpose of WISAP is to evaluate the post-closure effectiveness of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. The work conducted centered in four subject areas: (1) the analysis of potential repository release scenarios, (2) the analysis of potential release consequences, (3) the measurement of waste form leaching rates, and (4) the measurement of the interactions of dissolved radionuclides with geologic media. 12 figures, 24 tables.

  10. Proceedings of the Task 4 Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program second contractor information meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, Jeff R.

    1978-01-01

    Volume II contains the following papers: Laboratory Studies of Radionuclide Distributions between Selected Groundwaters and Geologic Media; Applicability of Microautoradiography to Sorption Studies; The Kinetics and Reversibility of Radionuclide Sorption Reactions with Rocks; Mobility and Sorption Processes of Radioactive Waste Materials in Subsurface Migration; Batch K/sub d/ Experiments with Common Minerals and Representative Groundwaters; Cesium and Strontium Migration in Unconsolidated Geologic Material; Statistical Investigation of the Mechanics Controlling Radionuclide Sorption; The ARDISC Model - A Computer Program to Calculate the Distribution of Trace Element Migration in Partially-Equilibrating Media; and Some Geochemical Aspects of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Disposal System. Individual papers were processed.

  11. Biotoxin Safety and Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the biotoxins included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  13. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  14. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  15. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  18. Determination of Waste Groupings for Safety Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2000-04-27

    Two workshops were held in May and July 1999 to review data analysis methodologies associated with the analysis of flammable gas behavior. The workshop participants decided that missing data could he estimated by using a distribution of values that encompassed tanks with wastes that behaved in a similar fashion. It was also determined that because of the limited amount of tank data pertaining to flammable gas generation and retention, it was not justified to divide the tanks into many small waste groupings. The purpose for grouping tanks is so that limited gas retention and release data, which may be available for some tanks within a group, can be applied to other tanks containing the same waste form. This is necessary when estimating waste properties for tanks with missing or incomplete information. Following the workshop, a preliminary tank grouping was prepared based on content of solids, liquids, sludge, saltcake, or salt slurry The saltcake and salt slurry were then grouped together and referred to as saltcake/salt slurry. Initial tank classifications were based on waste forms from the Rest Basis Inventory, the Hanford Defined Waste (HDW) (''Agnew'') Model, or the Waste Tank Summary (''Hanlon'') Report The results of this grouping arc presented in ''Flamable Gas Safety Analysis Data Review'', SNL-000 198 (Barker, et al., 1999). At the time of the release of SNL-000198, tank waste inventories were not consistent between published sources, such as the ''Best Basis Inventory'' and the ''Waste Tank Summary Report for Month Ending August 31, 1999'' (Hanlon l999). This calculation note documents the process and basis used when revising the waste groupings following the release of SNL-000198. The waste layer volume information is compared between the various databases, including information obtained from process measurements. Differences are then resolved based on tank

  19. Criteria: waste tank isolation and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1976-09-01

    The crystallized Hanford high-level wastes stored in single-shell underground tanks consist of sludges and salt cakes covered with supernatural liquor. Purpose of stabilization and isolation is to reduce the releases and losses as a result of a loss of tank integrity. The tanks will be modified so that no inadvertent liquid additions can be made. Criteria for the isolation and stabilization are given and discussed briefly. (DLC)

  20. General Safety and Waste Management Related to SAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for chemicals, radiochemicals, pathogens, and biotoxins included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  1. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Chemistry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the chemical analytes included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  2. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Pathogen Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the pathogens included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  3. Safety and Waste Management for SAM Radiochemical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Safety and Waste Management page offers section-specific safety and waste management details for the radiochemical analytes included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  4. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the fields of earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high level waste (HLW) which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. Essentially every country that is generating electricity in nuclear power plants is faced with the problem of isolating the radioactive wastes that are produced. The general consensus is that this can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the rock repository. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. The 28th International Geologic Congress that was held July 9--19, 1989 in Washington, DC provided an opportunity for earth scientists to gather for detailed discussions on these problems. Workshop W3B on the subject, Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation -- A World Wide Review'' was organized by Paul A Witherspoon and Ghislain de Marsily and convened July 15--16, 1989 Reports from 19 countries have been gathered for this publication. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States); Basabilvazo, George T. [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016 (ASER) is to provide the information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP facility. DOE Order 231.1B; DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability; and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, which requires DOE facilities to submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Alison [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Barkley, Michelle [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Poppiti, James [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  13. Safety analysis report for the Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This safety analysis report outlines the safety concerns associated with the Waste Storage Facility located in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The three main objectives of the report are: define and document a safety basis for the Waste Storage Facility activities; demonstrate how the activities will be carried out to adequately protect the workers, public, and environment; and provide a basis for review and acceptance of the identified risk that the managers, operators, and owners will assume.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Land Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    To reflect the requirement of section 4 of the Wastes Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (the Act) (Public Law 102-579), this land management plan has been written for the withdrawal area consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. The objective of this document, per the Act, is to describe the plan for the use of the withdrawn land until the end of the decommissioning phase. The plan identifies resource values within the withdrawal area and promotes the concept of multiple-use management. The plan also provides opportunity for participation in the land use planning process by the public and local, State, and Federal agencies. Chapter 1, Introduction, provides the reader with the purpose of this land management plan as well as an overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Chapter 2, Affected Environment, is a brief description of the existing resources within the withdrawal area. Chapter 3, Management Objectives and Planned Actions, describes the land management objectives and actions taken to accomplish these objectives.

  16. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  17. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  18. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Yeast Isolates from Pharmaceutical Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Recek

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop an efficient an system for waste water pretreatment, the isolation of indigenous population of microorganisms from pharmaceutical waste water was done. We obtained pure cultures of 16 yeast isolates that differed slightly in colony morphology. Ten out of 16 isolates efficiently reduced COD in pharmaceutical waste water. Initial physiological characterization failed to match the 10 yeast isolates to either Pichia anomala or Pichia ciferrii. Restriction analysis of rDNA (rDNA-RFLP using three different restriction enzymes: HaeIII, MspI and CfoI, showed identical patterns of the isolates and Pichia anomala type strain. Separation of chromosomal DNAs of yeast isolates by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed that the 10 isolates could be grouped into 6 karyotypes. Growth characteristics of the 6 isolates with distinct karyotypes were then studied in batch cultivation in pharmaceutical waste water for 80 hours.

  20. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-12

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents compliance with environmental regulations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. This BECR covers the reporting period from April 1, 2004, to March 31, 2006. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with regulations and permits issued pursuant to the following: (1) Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, Subpart A, "Environmental Standards for Management and Storage"; (2) Clean Air Act (CAA) (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §7401, et seq.); (3) Solid Waste Disposal Act (SWDA) (42 U.S.C. §§6901-6992, et seq.); (4) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. §§300f, et seq.); (5) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) (15 U.S.C. §§2601, et seq.); (6) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. §§9601, et seq.); and all other federal and state of New Mexico laws pertaining to public health and safety or the environment.

  2. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D

    2008-06-16

    This documented safety analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements', and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  3. Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the Waste Storage Facilities was developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Subpart B, 'Safety Basis Requirements,' and utilizes the methodology outlined in DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 3. The Waste Storage Facilities consist of Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area portion of the DWTF complex. These two areas are combined into a single DSA, as their functions as storage for radioactive and hazardous waste are essentially identical. The B695 Segment of DWTF is addressed under a separate DSA. This DSA provides a description of the Waste Storage Facilities and the operations conducted therein; identification of hazards; analyses of the hazards, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions; and programmatic elements that describe the current capacity for safe operations. The mission of the Waste Storage Facilities is to safely handle, store, and treat hazardous waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste, combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL (as well as small amounts from other DOE facilities).

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse Electric Company Waste Isolation Division

    1999-09-29

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements (DOE, 1990a), requires each DOE facility to prepare an EMP. This document is prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (DOE, 1990b); Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 834, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment (Draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1 (DOE, 1995), which is the driver for the Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Waste Isolation Division (WID), for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of the WIPP's effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses the WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE, 1991). This document references DOE orders and other federal and state regulations affecting environmental monitoring programs at the site. WIPP procedures

  5. Safety analysis report for DUPIC radioactive waste transport cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. C.; Ku, J. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, H. H.; Lee, H. S.; Park, J. J

    2000-12-01

    Radioactive waste package is needed to transport the radioactive waste which generated in PIEF hot cell after the test of DUPIC process. This report presents that the safety evaluation of DUPIC radioactive waste package. This cask should be easy to handle in the facilities and safe to maintain the shielding safety of operators. According to the regulations, it should be verified that the cask maintains the thermal and structural integrities under prescribed load conditions by the regulations. The basic structural functions and the integrities of the cask under required load conditions were evaluated. Therefore, it was verified that the cask is suitable to transport DUPIC radioactive waste from PIEF to RWTF.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  8. Discussions about safety criteria and guidelines for radioactive waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, the clearance levels for uranium-bearing waste have been established by the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC). The criteria for uranium-bearing waste disposal are also necessary; however, the NSC has not concluded the discussion on this subject. Meanwhile, the General Administrative Group of the Radiation Council has concluded the revision of its former recommendation 'Regulatory exemption dose for radioactive solid waste disposal', the dose criteria after the institutional control period for a repository. The Standardization Committee on Radiation Protection in the Japan Health Physics Society (The Committee) also has developed the relevant safety criteria and guidelines for existing exposure situations, which are potentially applicable to uranium-bearing waste disposal. A new working group established by The Committee was initially aimed at developing criteria and guidelines specifically for uranium-bearing waste disposal; however, the aim has been shifted to broader criteria applicable to any radioactive wastes.

  9. Parametric Criticality Safety Calculations for Arrays of TRU Waste Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Sean T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) has performed criticality safety calculations for finite and infinite arrays of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The results of these analyses may be applied in any technical area onsite (e.g., TA-54, TA-55, etc.), as long as the assumptions herein are met. These calculations are designed to update the existing reference calculations for waste arrays documented in Reference 1, in order to meet current guidance on calculational methodology.

  10. Soluble protein isolated from low cost fish and fish wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekshmy Nair, A.; Gopakumar, K.

    1982-01-01

    The method of preparation, composition, amino acid content, protein efficiency ratio and areas of possible application of water soluble protein isolates from low cost fish and fish wastes are discussed in detail in this communication.

  11. [Safety during the thermal disposal of medical waste containing PVC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatenko, N A; Karmanov, V V; Vaisman, Ya I; Samutin, N M

    2013-01-01

    In the article the issues of environmental, sanitary and hygienic safety of medical waste management are considered. Recently, for the treatment of certain types of medical waste thermal methods using small plants not equipped with a proper flue gas cleaning system are widely used. In this article the potential danger of supertoxicants generation when applying thermal methods of neutralization of medical waste that contains polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is justified by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometric studies. This research shows the necessity of introducing technologies of separate collection of PVC medical waste and its' thermal recycling in compliance with special requirements.

  12. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-06-24

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999.

  13. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility interim operational safety requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Covey, L I

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSRs) for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls required to ensure safe operation during receipt and inspection of cesium and strontium capsules from private irradiators; decontamination of the capsules and equipment; surveillance of the stored capsules; and maintenance activities. Controls required for public safety, significant defense-in-depth, significant worker safety, and for maintaining radiological consequences below risk evaluation guidelines (EGs) are included.

  14. AIR DISPERSION MODELING AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-08-01

    One concern at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the amount of alpha-emitting radionuclides or hazardous chemicals that can become airborne at the facility and reach the Exclusive Use Area boundary as the result of a release from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) or from the underground during waste emplacement operations. The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR), WIPP RCRA Permit, and WIPP Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessments include air dispersion calculations to address this issue. Meteorological conditions at the WIPP facility will dictate direction, speed, and dilution of a contaminant plume of respirable material due to chronic releases or during an accident. Due to the paucity of meteorological information at the WIPP site prior to September 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) reports had to rely largely on unqualified climatic data from the site and neighboring Carlsbad, which is situated approximately 40 km (26 miles) to the west of the site. This report examines the validity of the DOE air dispersion calculations using new meteorological data measured and collected at the WIPP site since September 1996. The air dispersion calculations in this report include both chronic and acute releases. Chronic release calculations were conducted with the EPA-approved code, CAP88PC and the calculations showed that in order for a violation of 40 CFR61 (NESHAPS) to occur, approximately 15 mCi/yr of 239Pu would have to be released from the exhaust stack or from the WHB. This is an extremely high value. Hence, it is unlikely that NESHAPS would be violated. A site-specific air dispersion coefficient was evaluated for comparison with that used in acute dose calculations. The calculations presented in Section 3.2 and 3.3 show that one could expect a slightly less dispersive plume (larger air dispersion coefficient) given greater confidence in the meteorological data, i.e. 95% worst case meteorological conditions. Calculations show that dispersion will decrease

  15. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  16. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Phillip F [ORNL

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  17. Safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [and others

    1997-12-01

    During 1994-1997 a project on the disposal of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS program. The objective of the project was to give authorities and waste producers in the Nordic countries background material for determinations about the management and disposal of radioactive waste. The project NKS/AFA-1 was divided into three sub-projects: AFA-1.1, AFA-1.2 and AFA-1.3. AFA-1.1 dealt with waste characterisation, AFA-1.2 dealt with performance assessment for repositories and AFA-1.3 dealt with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The studies mainly focused on the management of long-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from research, hospitals and industry. The AFA-1.1 study included an overview on waste categories in the Nordic countries and methods to determine or estimate the waste content. The results from the AFA-1.2 study include a short overview of different waste management systems existing and planned in the Nordic countries. However, the main emphasis of the study was a general discussion of methodologies developed and employed for performance assessments of waste repositories. Some of the phenomena and interactions relevant for generic types of repository were discussed as well. Among the different approaches for the development of scenarios for safety and performance assessments one particular method, the Rock Engineering System (RES), was chosen to be tested by demonstration. The possible interactions and their safety significance were discussed, employing a simplified and generic Nordic repository system as the reference system. New regulations for the inventory of a repository may demand new assessments of old radioactive waste packages. The existing documentation of a waste package is then the primary information source although additional measurements may be necessary. (EG) 33 refs.

  18. Technical basis for external dosimetry at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, C.F.; Goff, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

    1993-12-31

    The WIPP External Dosimetry Program, administered by Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division, for the US Department of Energy (DOE), provides external dosimetry support services for operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. These operations include the receipt, experimentation with, storage, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document describes the technical basis for the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program. The purposes of this document are to: (1) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is in compliance with all regulatory requirements, (2) provide assurance that the WIPP External Radiation Dosimetry Program is derived from a sound technical base, (3) serve as a technical reference for radiation protection personnel, and (4) aid in identifying and planning for future needs. The external radiation exposure fields are those that are documented in the WIPP Final Safety Analysis Report.

  19. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphic matrix for the waste forms. The approach involves the low temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior t the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package.

  20. Radioactive and nonradioactive waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; DREZ,P.E.; RATH,JONATHAN S.; TRELLUE,H.R.

    2000-05-19

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the handling of plutonium in research on or production of US nuclear weapons will be disposed of in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This paper describes the physical and radiological properties of the TRU waste that will be deposited in the WIPP. This geologic repository will accommodate up to 175,564 m{sup 3} of TRU waste, corresponding to 168,485 m{sup 3} of contact-handled (CH-) TRU waste and 7,079 m{sup 3} of remote-handled (RH-) TRU waste. Approximately 35% of the TRU waste is currently packaged and stored (i.e., legacy) waste, with the remainder of the waste to be packaged or generated and packaged in activities before the year 2033, the closure time for the repository. These wastes were produced at 27 US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in the course of generating defense nuclear materials. The radionuclide and nonradionuclide inventories for the TRU wastes described in this paper were used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) performance assessment calculations by Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM).

  1. A DEPTH OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR GEOLOGIC ISOLATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thadani, M.

    1980-02-01

    Current Federal plans for the isolation of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel include the possible placement of these wastes in deep geologic repositories. It is generally assumed that increasing the emplacement depth increases safety because the wastes are farther removed from the phenomena that might compromise the integrity of their isolation. Also, the path length for the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere increases with depth, thus delaying their arrival. However, increasing the depth of emplacement adds cost and operatiunal penalties. Therefore, a trade-off between the safety and the cost of waste isolation exists. A simple algorithm has been developed to relate the repository construction and operation costs, the costs associated with construction and operational hazards, and the costs resulting from radiological exposures to future generations to the depth of emplacement: The application of the algorithm is illustrated by SdDlP 1 e ca leul at ions u t il i zing se 1 ec ted parameters. The cost-optimum emplacement depths are estimated by summing the cost elements and determining the depth at which the sum would be the least. The relationship between the repository construction costs and the depth of the depository was derived from simplified rock mechanics and stability considerations applied to repository design concepts selected from the current literature and the available data base on mining and excavation costs. In developing the relationship between the repository costs and the depth of the depository, a worldwide cost information data base was used. The relationships developed are suitable for application to bedded sa1t, shale, and basalt geologies. The incremental impacts of hazards as a function of repository depth resulting from drilling, construction of repositories and hoisting systems, and operation of repositories were developed from the reported data on accidents involving shafts and mine construction activities and shaft

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security

  3. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  4. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-09-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by

  6. Carlsbad Area Office Waste Isolation Division Transition Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    In October 1993, the US Department of Energy (DOE) announced the Revised Test Strategy for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The new strategy involves conducting additional radioactive waste tests in laboratories instead of the underground at the WIPP. It will likely result in an acceleration of regulatory compliance activities needed for a disposal decision, which could result in permanent disposal of transuranic waste earlier than the previous test program and regulatory compliance strategy. The Revised Test Strategy changes the near-term program activities for the WIPP site. The revised strategy deletes radioactive waste tests at the WIPP, prior to completing all activities for initiating disposal operations, and consequently the need to maintain readiness to receive waste in the near-term. However, the new strategy enables the DOE to pursue an earlier disposal decision, supported by an accelerated regulatory compliance strategy. With the new strategy, the WIPP must prepare for disposal operations in early 1998. This Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) Transition Plan addresses the WID programmatic, budgetary, and personnel changes to conform to the Revised Test Strategy, and to support the accelerated compliance strategy and earlier disposal operations at the WIPP.

  7. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - second worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The first world wide review of the geological problems in radioactive waste isolation was published by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1991. This review was a compilation of reports that had been submitted to a workshop held in conjunction with the 28th International Geological Congress that took place July 9-19, 1989 in Washington, D.C. Reports from 15 countries were presented at the workshop and four countries provided reports after the workshop, so that material from 19 different countries was included in the first review. It was apparent from the widespread interest in this first review that the problem of providing a permanent and reliable method of isolating radioactive waste from the biosphere is a topic of great concern among the more advanced, as well as the developing, nations of the world. This is especially the case in connection with high-level waste (HLW) after its removal from nuclear power plants. The general concensus is that an adequate isolation can be accomplished by selecting an appropriate geologic setting and carefully designing the underground system with its engineered barriers. This document contains the Second Worldwide Review of Geological Problems in Radioactive Waste Isolation, dated September 1996.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-17

    This report provides the results of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment led by the Savannah River National Laboratory and conducted by a team of experts in pertinent disciplines from SRNL and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

  9. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  10. Operational readiness/risk assessment at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is currently preparing to enter its operational phase. In preparation, a risk-based management (RBM) program is being developed to ensure maximum safety and reliability of all aspects of facility operation. Training of workers, preparation of procedures, and development of emergency action plans are examples of activities currently being performed. The RBM program will verify the safety and operability of the facility prior to startup. Planned as part of the RBM is the selective application of the following risk assessment technologies: 1. operational readiness reviews, 2. vulnerability analyses, 3. safety analyses, 4. probabilistic risk assessments, 5. risk/benefit analyses. These tools provide a meaningful risk and operability analysis for startup and a useful end product for managing safety during facility operation.

  11. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L.; Hakkarainen, V.; Kaija, J.; Kuivamaki, A.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaki, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T., e-mail: lasse.ahonen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  12. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  13. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    During this fiscal year the information available in the fields of geology and hydrology of the Columbia Plateau was consolidated and two reports were issued summarizing this information. In addition, the information on engineered barriers was consolidated and a report summarizing the research to date on waste package development and design of borehole seals was prepared. The waste package studies, when combined with the hydrologic integration, revealed that even under extreme disruptive conditions, a repository in basalt with appropriately designed waste packages can serve as an excellent barrier for containment of radionuclides for the long periods of time required for waste isolation. On July 1, 1980, the first two heater tests at the Near-Surface Test Facility were started and have been successfully operated to this date. The papers on the Near-Surface Test Facility section of this report present the results of the equipment installed and the preliminary results of the testing. In October 1979, the US Department of Energy selected the joint venture of Kaiser Engineers/Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade and Douglas, Inc., to be the architect-engineer to produce a conceptual design of a repository in basalt. During the year, this design has progressed and concept selection has now been completed. This annual report presents a summary of the highlights of the work completed during fiscal year 1980. It is intended to supplement and summarize the nearly 200 papers and reports that have been distributed to date as a part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project studies.

  14. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  15. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services (WRES)

    2004-10-25

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed and authorized for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2002, to March 31, 2004. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA) (Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico.

  17. The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewhinney, J.A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Kehrman, R.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions

  18. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOWARD,BRYAN A.; CRAWFORD,M.B.; GALSON,D.A.; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-22

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal.

  19. Biosphere models for safety assesment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium); Kanyar, B. [University of Veszprem (Hungary). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B. [Studsvik Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden); Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  20. Implementation of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, L.; Tonkay, D.

    2004-10-03

    This paper discusses the implementation of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The Joint Convention: establishes a commitment with respect to safe management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste; requires the Parties to ''take appropriate steps'' to ensure the safety of their spent fuel and waste management activities, but does not delineate standards the Parties must meet; and seeks to attain, through its Contracting Parties, a higher level of safety with respect to management of their spent nuclear fuel, disused sealed sources, and radioactive waste.

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, B.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-20

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability of the Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) to meet the packaging requirements of HNF-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of special form, highway route controlled quantity, Type B fissile radioactive material. This SEP evaluates five shipments of DSWCs used for the transport and storage of Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel to the Plutonium Finishing Plant Protected Area.

  2. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  3. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: a potential solution for the disposal of transuranic waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1996-01-01

    ... Isolation Pilot Plant Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the c...

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  5. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose; Van Luik, Abraham [US Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Carlsbad Field Office

    2015-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located about 42 kilometers from the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. It is an operating deep geologic repository in bedded salt 657 meters below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert. Since its opening in March of 1999, it has received about 12,000 shipments totaling about 91,000 cubic meters of defense related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Twenty-two sites have been cleaned up of their defense-legacy TRU waste. The WIPP's shipping program has an untarnished safety record and its trucks and trailers have safely traveled the equivalent of about 60 round-trips to the Moon. WIPP received, and deserved, a variety of safety accolades over its nearly 15 year working life. In February of 2014, however, two incidents resulted in a major operational suspension and reevaluation of its safety systems, processes and equipment. The first incident was an underground mining truck fire, followed nine days later by an airborne radiation release incident. Accident Investigation Board (AIB) reports on both incidents point to failures of plans, procedures and persons. The AIB recommendations for recovery from both these incidents are numerous and are being carefully implemented. One major recommendation is to no longer have different maintenance and safety requirements for nuclear handling equipment and mining equipment. Maintenance and cleanliness of mining equipment was cited as a contributing cause to the underground fire, and the idea that there can be lesser rigor in taking care of mining equipment, when it is being operated in the same underground space as the waste handling equipment, is not tenable. At some point in the future, the changes made in response to these two incidents will be seen as a valuable lesson learned on behalf of future repository programs. WIPP will once again be seen as a ''pilot'' in the nautical sense, in terms of 'showing the way' - the way to a national and international radioactive waste

  6. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  7. ISOLATION AND PHENOTIPICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATED FROM SLAUGHTERED HOUSE WASTE AND CARCASS OF CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusnan -

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is known as a potential agent that cause food poisoning. Chicken meats could be as vehicles of food poisoning cases while they contaminated by agents during slaughtered and meat processing as well as infected chickens by S. aureus itself. The aims of the research were to isolated and characterized of S. aureus from liquid wastes of chicken slaughtered house and washing water of chicken carcass. The characterization of S aureus based on mannitol salt agar (MSA, catalase and coagulation assay, production of hemolysins, hydrophobicity test, and the reaction of hemaglutination. Thirty seven samples used in this study were collected from 16 liquid wastes slaughtered chicken house and 21 samples from washing water of chicken carcasses.The research resulted 18 S. aureus isolated from liquid wastes slaughtered house (4 isolates and from wahing water of chicken carcasses (14 isolates. All 18 isolates fermented mannitol, catalase and coagulase positive, contain of hydrophilic surfaces. Among 18 S. aureus isolates could agglutinate of rabbit erythrocytes for 55%, produced ?-hemolysis (12% and ?-hemolysis (88%.

  8. Safety evaluation on use and waste of medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Hee; Chung, Y. Y.; Chun, J. H.; Ahn, H. Y.; Lee, G. B.; Park, J. O.; Oh, G. B.; Hong, C. S.; Kim, G. S. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed a survey of many hospitals using radioisotopes in order to check the amount of use and used radioisotopes, radioactive waste, status of radiation safety and control and the exposure of radiation workers who are working at department of nuclear medicine. At the time of the survey, this study is provided as a guide to the safe handling radionuclides. It will prove helpful all users. The basic objective of radiation safety technique and national standardization of safe handling radioactive materials are to keep the radiation dose to man as low as are under any regulation within the annual dose limits recommended by Most. Further routine monitoring of I-131 high dose therapy ward was carried out the effectiveness of safety precautions taken to prevent undue release of I-131 to the environment.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014. Emended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2014 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year (CY); Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE environmental sustainability goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  11. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washinton TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 2000, to March 31, 2002. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, as amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office's (CBFO) compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. In the prior BECR, the CBFO and the management and operating contractor (MOC)committed to discuss resolution of a Letter of Violation that had been issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in August 1999, which was during the previous BECR reporting period. This Letter of Violation alleged noncompliance with hazardous waste aisle spacing, labeling, a nd tank requirements. At the time of publication of the prior BECR, resolution of the Letter of Violation was pending. On July 7, 2000, the NMED issued a letter noting that the aisle spacing and labeling concerns had been adequately addressed and that they were rescinding the violation alleging that the Exhaust Shaft Catch Basin failed to comply with the requirements for a hazardous waste tank. During the current reporting period, WIPP received a Notice of Violation and a compliance order alleging the violation of the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Regulations and the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP).

  13. Radioactive waste management in France: safety demonstration fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounian, G; Voinis, S; Boissier, F

    2012-01-01

    The main challenge in development of the safety case for deep geological disposal is associated with the long periods of time over which high- and intermediate-level long-lived wastes remain hazardous. A wide range of events and processes may occur over hundreds of thousands of years. These events and processes are characterised by specific timescales. For example, the timescale for heat generation is much shorter than any geological timescale. Therefore, to reach a high level of reliability in the safety case, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the sequence of events and processes likely to occur over the lifetime of the repository. It then becomes possible to assess the capability of the repository to fulfil its safety functions. However, due to the long periods of time and the complexity of the events and processes likely to occur, uncertainties related to all processes, data, and models need to be understood and addressed. Assessment is required over the lifetime of the radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  15. Compliance status report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the disposition of transuranic (TRU) waste generated through national defense-related activities. Approximately 53,700 m{sup 2} of these wastes have been generated and are currently stored at government defense installations across the country. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been sited and constructed to meet the criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of TRU and TRU-mixed wastes. This Compliance Status Report (CSR) provides an assessment of the progress of the WIPP Program toward compliance with long-term disposal regulations, set forth in Title 40 CFR 191 (EPA, 1993a), Subparts B and C, and Title 40 CFR {section}268.6 (EPA, 1993b), in order to focus on-going and future experimental and engineering activities. The CSR attempts to identify issues associated with the performance of the WIPP as a long-term repository and to focus on the resolution of these issues. This report will serve as a tool to focus project resources on the areas necessary to ensure complete, accurate, and timely submittal of the compliance application. This document is not intended to constitute a statement of compliance or a demonstration of compliance.

  16. Progress in long-lived radioactive waste management and disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triay, I.R.; Matthews, M.L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico (United States); Eriksson, L.G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The Salado Formation is buried more than 350 m beneath the sands and cacti of the Chihuahuan Desert and hosts the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository at a depth of approximately 650 m. Since the WIPP repository is at least 10 years ahead of any other repository development for long-lived radioactive waste, other radioactive waste management organizations and institutions could benefit both scientifically and politically from sharing the lessons learned at WIPP. Benefits would include using existing expertise and facilities to cost-effectively address and solve program-specific issues and to train staff. The characteristics of the WIPP repository and infrastructure are described in this paper. (author)

  17. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  18. Safety transport of radioactive waste in the nuclear power area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tureková Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes require strict rules for manipulation with them due to the hazards for the human health and environment, not excluding the hazards during their internal transport. The article deals with the transport of packing unit inside of the company and it proposes the possible alternatives so that meet the limit conditions and reduce the manipulation time with the radioactive material in the packing unit. The packing unite isolates fixated liquid waste from the environment while it also serves as protection. There are also important external radiation characteristics of package unit, which consist of measurable values of the scratch contamination surface and dose power on the surface of package unit. Thus, the paper is aimed to point out the necessity of the logistics during manipulation with the package unit in the process of internal transport so that the dose power of exposed employees would achieve the lowest possible level and meet the strict limits in a full extent.

  19. THERMODYNAMIC TABLES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE ISOLATION, V.1: AQUEOUSSOLUTIONS DATABASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, S.L.; Hale, F.V.; Silvester, L.F.

    1988-05-01

    Tables of consistent thermodynamic property values for nuclear waste isolation are given. The tables include critically assessed values for Gibbs energy of formation. enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity for minerals; solids; aqueous ions; ion pairs and complex ions of selected actinide and fission decay products at 25{sup o}C and zero ionic strength. These intrinsic data are used to calculate equilibrium constants and standard potentials which are compared with typical experimental measurements and other work. Recommendations for additional research are given.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-migration variance petition. Addendum: Volume 7, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This report describes various aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) including design data, waste characterization, dissolution features, ground water hydrology, natural resources, monitoring, general geology, and the gas generation/test program.

  1. Experimental program plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has prepared this Experimental Program Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (EPP) to provide a summary of the DOE experimental efforts needed for the performance assessment process for the WIPP, and of the linkages of this process to the appropriate regulations. The Plan encompasses a program of analyses of the performance of the planned repository based on scientific studies, including tests with transuranic waste at laboratory sites, directed at evaluating compliance with the principal regulations governing the WIPP. The Plan begins with background information on the WIPP project, the requirements of the LWA (Land Withdrawal Act), and its objective and scope. It then presents an overview of the regulatory requirements and the compliance approach. Next are comprehensive discussions of plans for compliance with disposal regulations, followed by the SWDA (Solid Waste Disposal Act) and descriptions of activity programs designed to provide information needed for determining compliance. Descriptions and justifications of all currently planned studies designed to support regulatory compliance activities are also included.

  2. Geological challenges in radioactive waste isolation: Third worldwide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon Editor, P.A.; Bodvarsson Editor, G.S.

    2001-12-01

    The broad range of activities on radioactive waste isolation that are summarized in Table 1.1 provides a comprehensive picture of the operations that must be carried out in working with this problem. A comparison of these activities with those published in the two previous reviews shows the important progress that is being made in developing and applying the various technologies that have evolved over the past 20 years. There are two basic challenges in perfecting a system of radioactive waste isolation: choosing an appropriate geologic barrier and designing an effective engineered barrier. One of the most important developments that is evident in a large number of the reports in this review is the recognition that a URL provides an excellent facility for investigating and characterizing a rock mass. Moreover, a URL, once developed, provides a convenient facility for two or more countries to conduct joint investigations. This review describes a number of cooperative projects that have been organized in Europe to take advantage of this kind of a facility in conducting research underground. Another critical development is the design of the waste canister (and its accessory equipment) for the engineered barrier. This design problem has been given considerable attention in a number of countries for several years, and some impressive results are described and illustrated in this review. The role of the public as a stakeholder in radioactive waste isolation has not always been fully appreciated. Solutions to the technical problems in characterizing a specific site have generally been obtained without difficulty, but procedures in the past in some countries did not always keep the public and local officials informed of the results. It will be noted in the following chapters that this procedure has caused some problems, especially when approval for a major component in a project was needed. It has been learned that a better way to handle this problem is to keep all

  3. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  4. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  5. Protease characteristics of bacteriocin producing Lysinibacilli, isolated from fruits and vegetable waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmad, Varish; Kamal, Azhar; Ahmad, Khurshid; Khan, Mohd Sajid

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the physical stability and optimization of nutrient components for an extracellular protease produced by Bacillus strains isolated from fruits and vegetable waste, Lucknow, India...

  6. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  7. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  9. Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Quarterly report, July 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report presents the technical progress for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 1980. The overall Basalt Waste Isolation Project is divided into the following principal work areas: systems integration; geosciences; hydrology; engineered barriers; near-surface test facility; engineering testing; and repository studies. Summaries of major accomplishments for each of these areas are reported.

  10. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  11. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Groundwater Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesheim, M. B.; Beauheim, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    The development of a groundwater monitoring program is an integral part of any radioactive waste disposal facility. Monitoring improves our understanding of the geologic and hydrologic framework, which improves conceptual models and the quality of groundwater models that provide data input for performance assessment. The purpose of a groundwater monitoring program is to provide objective evidence that the hydrologic system is behaving as expected (i.e., performance confirmation). Monitoring should not be limited to near-field observations but should include the larger natural system in which the repository is situated. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic wastes resulting from U.S. defense programs, can serve as a model for other radioactive waste disposal facilities. WIPP has a long-established groundwater monitoring program that is geared towards meeting compliance certification requirements set forth by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The primary task of the program is to measure various water parameters (e.g.., water level, pressure head, chemical and physical properties) using a groundwater monitoring network that currently consists of 85 wells in the vicinity of the WIPP site. Wells are completed to a number of water-bearing horizons and are monitored on a monthly basis. In many instances, they are also instrumented with programmable pressure transducers that take high-frequency measurements that supplement the monthly measurements. Results from higher frequency measurements indicate that the hydrologic system in the WIPP vicinity is in a transient state, responding to both natural and anthropogenic stresses. The insights gathered from the monitoring, as well as from hydrologic testing activities, provide valuable information that contributes to groundwater modeling efforts and performance assessment. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by

  12. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabin, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.

  13. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2017-09-01

    rural areas significantly influenced indices of risky/safe medical waste disposal (p < 0.05. Conclusion The study concluded that there was low compliance with standard HCW management. It was recommended that possession of HCW management guidelines, staff training on HCW disposal and provision of requisite equipment for proper treatment of HCW would promote environmental safety in HCW disposal.

  14. Healthcare waste management practices and safety indicators in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel; Oyekale, Tolulope Olayemi

    2017-09-25

    risky/safe medical waste disposal (p disposal and provision of requisite equipment for proper treatment of HCW would promote environmental safety in HCW disposal.

  15. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  16. Paenibacillus residui sp. nov., isolated from urban waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Figueira, Vânia; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pukall, Rüdiger; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2010-10-01

    Two bacterial strains, MC-246(T) and MC-247, were isolated from municipal urban waste compost and characterized by a polyphasic approach. Both isolates were Gram-stain-variable, endospore-forming rods that were catalase-, oxidase- and β-galactosidase-positive, and able to grow at 25-50°C and pH 7.0-9.0, with optimum growth at 37°C and pH 7. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C₁₅:₀, iso-C₁₅:₀, iso-C₁₆: ₀, anteiso-C₁₇:₀ and iso-C₁₇:₀; the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7; the cell wall peptidoglycan was of type A1γ; and the DNA G+C content was 49 mol%. These characteristics, as well as data from 16S RNA gene sequence analysis, showed that these strains were affiliated with the genus Paenibacillus; the type strains of Paenibacillus ginsengarvi and Paenibacillus hodogayensis were among their closest neighbours (< 94.2 % sequence similarity). Nevertheless, the hypothesis that strains MC-246(T) and MC-247 could represent a novel species was supported by the low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values shared with other members of the genus Paenibacillus and by the observation of distinct biochemical and physiological traits. Strains MC-246(T) and MC-247 shared 99.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed almost identical MALDI-TOF mass spectra, but could be distinguished at the phenotypic and genotypic level. However, DNA-DNA hybridization between strains MC-246(T) and MC-247 resulted in values above 70 % indicating that both organisms represent a single species, for which the name Paenibacillus residui sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MC-246(T) (=DSM 22072(T) =CCUG 57263(T)).

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) concrete-lined waste packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, T.

    1997-09-25

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a package to ship Type A, non-transuranic, fissile excepted quantities of liquid or solid radioactive material and radioactive mixed waste to the Central Waste Complex for storage on the Hanford Site.

  18. Isolation of Precursor Cells from Waste Solid Fat Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Diane; Sognier, Marguerite A.

    2009-01-01

    A process for isolating tissue-specific progenitor cells exploits solid fat tissue obtained as waste from such elective surgical procedures as abdominoplasties (tummy tucks) and breast reductions. Until now, a painful and risky process of aspiration of bone marrow has been used to obtain a limited number of tissue- specific progenitor cells. The present process yields more tissue-specific progenitor cells and involves much less pain and risk for the patient. This process includes separation of fat from skin, mincing of the fat into small pieces, and forcing a fat saline mixture through a sieve. The mixture is then digested with collagenase type I in an incubator. After centrifugation tissue-specific progenitor cells are recovered and placed in a tissue-culture medium in flasks or Petri dishes. The tissue-specific progenitor cells can be used for such purposes as (1) generating three-dimensional tissue equivalent models for studying bone loss and muscle atrophy (among other deficiencies) and, ultimately, (2) generating replacements for tissues lost by the fat donor because of injury or disease.

  19. Key regulatory drivers affecting shipments of mixed transuranic waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, P.B.; Bacigalupa, G.A.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Sinkule, B.J. [and others

    1997-02-01

    A number of key regulatory drivers affect the nature, scope, and timing of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) plans for mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which are planned to commence as soon as possible following WIPP`s currently anticipated November, 1997 opening date. This paper provides an overview of some of the key drivers at LANL, particularly emphasizing those associated with the hazardous waste component of LANL`s MTRU waste (MTRU, like any mixed waste, contains both a radioactive and a hazardous waste component). The key drivers discussed here derive from the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and its amendments, including the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAU), and from the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act (NMHWA). These statutory provisions are enforced through three major mechanisms: facility RCRA permits; the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Management Regulations, set forth in the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 4, Part 1: and compliance orders issued to enforce these requirements. General requirements in all three categories will apply to MTRU waste management and characterization activities at both WIPP and LANL. In addition, LANL is subject to facility-specific requirements in its RCRA hazardous waste facility permit, permit conditions as currently proposed in RCRA Part B permit applications presently being reviewed by the New Mexico Environment Department (NNED), and facility-specific compliance orders related to MTRU waste management. Likewise, permitting and compliance-related requirements specific to WIPP indirectly affect LANL`s characterization, packaging, record-keeping, and transportation requirements for MTRU waste. LANL must comply with this evolving set of regulatory requirements to begin shipments of MTRU waste to WIPP in a timely fashion.

  20. Radioactive wastes transport. A safety logic; Le transport des dechets radioactifs. Une logique de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The safety principle which applies to transport operations of radioactive wastes obeys to a very strict regulation. For the conditioning of wastes in package, the organisation of shipments and the qualification of carriers, the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, has implemented a rigorous policy based on the respect of a quality procedure and on the mastery of delivery fluxes. This brochure presents in a simple, illustrated and detailed manner the different steps of these transports. (J.S.)

  1. Radiological Safety Assessment of Transporting Radioactive Wastes to the Gyeongju Disposal Facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongtae Jeong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI, Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1 operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2 decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  2. Radiological safety assessment of transporting radioactive waste to the Gyeongju disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Baik, Min Hoon; Kang, Mun Ja; Ahn, Hong Joo; Hwang, Doo Seong; Hong, Dae Seok; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A radiological safety assessment study was performed for the transportation of low level radioactive wastes which are temporarily stored in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Korea. We considered two kinds of wastes: (1) operation wastes generated from the routine operation of facilities; and (2) decommissioning wastes generated from the decommissioning of a research reactor in KAERI. The important part of the radiological safety assessment is related to the exposure dose assessment for the incident-free (normal) transportation of wastes, i.e., the radiation exposure of transport personnel, radiation workers for loading and unloading of radioactive waste drums, and the general public. The effective doses were estimated based on the detailed information on the transportation plan and on the radiological characteristics of waste packages. We also estimated radiological risks and the effective doses for the general public resulting from accidents such as an impact and a fire caused by the impact during the transportation. According to the results, the effective doses for transport personnel, radiation workers, and the general public are far below the regulatory limits. Therefore, we can secure safety from the viewpoint of radiological safety for all situations during the transportation of radioactive wastes which have been stored temporarily in KAERI.

  3. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  4. Report of safety of the characterizing system of radioactive waste; Informe de seguridad del sistema caracterizador de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A.; Jimenez D, J.; Reyes L, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-09-15

    Report of safety of the system of radioactive waste of the ININ: Installation, participant personnel, selection of the place, description of the installation, equipment. Proposed activities: operations with radioactive material, calibration in energy, calibration in efficiency, types of waste. Maintenance: handling of radioactive waste, physical safety. Organization: radiological protection, armor-plating, personal dosemeter, risks and emergency plan, environmental impact, medical exams. (Author)

  5. Basalt waste isolation project. Quarterly report, April 1, 1981-June 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deju, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    This document reports progress made in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project during the third quarter of fiscal year 1981. Efforts are described for the following programs of the project work breakdown structure: systems; waste package; site; repository; regulatory and institutional; test facilities; in situ test facilities.

  6. Chem I Supplement. Chemistry Related to Isolation of High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Choppin, Gregory R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. Describes several waste disposal plans developed by various nations. Outlines the multiple-barrier concept of isolation in deep geological questions associated with the implementation of such a method. (TW)

  7. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

  8. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  9. Safety evaluation of filamentous fungi isolated from industrial doenjang koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Jo, Eun Hye; Hong, Eun Jin; Kim, Kyung Min; Lee, Inhyung

    2014-10-01

    A few starters have been developed and used for doenjang fermentation but often without safety evaluation. Filamentous fungi were isolated from industrial doenjang koji, and their potential for mycotoxin production was evaluated. Two fungi were isolated; one was more dominantly present (90%). Both greenish (SNU-G) and whitish (SNU-W) fungi showed 97% and 95% internal transcribed spacer sequence identities to Aspergillus oryzae/flavus, respectively. However, the SmaI digestion pattern of their genomic DNA suggested that both belong to A. oryzae. Moreover, both fungi had morphological characteristics similar to that of A. oryzae. SNU-G and SNU-W did not form sclerotia, which is a typical characteristic of A. oryzae. Therefore, both fungi were identified to be A. oryzae. In aflatoxin gene cluster analysis, both fungi had norB-cypA genes similar to that of A. oryzae. Consistent with this, aflatoxins were not detected in SNU-G and SNU-W using ammonia vapor, TLC, and HPLC analyses. Both fungi seemed to have a whole cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) gene cluster based on PCR of the maoA, dmaT, and pks-nrps genes, which are key genes for CPA biosynthesis. However, CPA was not detected in TLC and HPLC analyses. Therefore, both fungi seem to be safe to use as doenjang koji starters and may be suitable fungal candidates for further development of starters for traditional doenjang fermentation.

  10. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  11. Eurosafe 2006 radioactive waste management: long term safety requirements and societal expectations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety, to share experiences, exchange technical and scientific opinions, and conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum 2006 focuses on 'Radioactive Waste Management: Long Term Safety Requirements and Societal Expectations' from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry and presents the latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining increasing recognition

  12. FOOD QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE IN TERMS OF LOSS AND WASTE LIMITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Śmiechowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of 21st century is satisfying the food needs of the fast growing population of the world. Food must fulfill quality and safety standards.  The access to safe and appropriate food is not the same everywhere.  Food excess and, in consequence, food waste is present in many regions of the world. This study is meant to explain the causes of food waste on the basis of the author’s own research and study results of other scientists. The lack of authenticity and falsification belong to the new factors endangering food safety and food waste related thereto. This analysis proves that the authenticity of food improves its safety through the implementation of quality management systems, the appropriate system of food labelling and food identification by means of applicable law regulations, supervision and control systems. Main aim of this study is to address why, even though there are so many quality standards and systems, a significant problem with food loss and waste constantly occurs. Waste-causing factors have been determined on the example of bread and the handling of unconsumed bread has been attempted in this study. Waste limiting actions are necessary as food production is significantly overburdening the natural environment and generating increasing amount of waste, hazardous to the clean air. 

  13. Safety and radiation protection in waste management. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB (Sweden); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark); Lipponen, M.; Vuori, S. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Ruokola, E. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland); Palsson, S.E. [Geslavarnir (Iceland); Sekse, T. [NRPA, Oesteraas (Norway); Ramsoey, T. [IFE, Kjeller (Norway)

    2001-12-01

    During 1998-2001, a project on the management of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS programme. The project was called NKS/SOS-3 and was divided into three sub-projects: SOS-3.1 (Environmental Impact Assessment; EIA), SOS-3.2 (Intermediate storage) and SOS-3.3 (Contamination levels in metals). SOS-3.1 included four EIA seminars on the use of EIA in the Nordic countries. The seminars were held in Norway in 1998, Denmark in 1999, Iceland in 2000 and Finland in 2001. (The last seminar was performed in co-operation with the NKS project SOS-1.) The seminars focused on experiences from EIA procedures for the disposal of radioactive waste, and other experiences from EIA processes. SOS-3.2 included a study on intermediate storage of radioactive waste packages in the Nordic countries. An overview of experiences was compiled and recommendations were made regarding different intermediate storage options as well as control and supervision. SOS-3.3 included investigation of contamination levels in steel, aluminium and magnesium samples from smelting facilities and an overview of current practice for clearance in the Nordic countries. Clearance, clearance levels, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactive waste, radioactive material, intermediate storage, waste disposal, environmental impact assessment, gamma spectrometric measurements, beta measurements, neutron activation analyses. (au)

  14. High-temperature glasses for nuclear waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunnell, L.R.; Maupin, G.D.; Oma, K.H.

    1986-03-01

    As part of the effort to discover and evaluate viable second-generation waste forms, glasses with processing temperatures higher than the 1100 to 1200/sup 0/C used for reference borosilicate glasses are being examined. This approach allows the use of previously developed technology for producing nuclear waste glasses, with a few modifications. Low alkali high alumina-boron glasses processed at 1400/sup 0/C and containing 25 wt % simulated reprocessed commercial nuclear waste have been fabricated and evaluated for chemical durability. These glasses exhibited matrix dissolution rates at 90/sup 0/C in deionized water that are at least an order of magnitude lower than current reference glass compositions over a wide range of flow conditions. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Can we talk? Communications management for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a complex nuclear waste management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, S.A.; Pullen, G.M.; Brewer, D.R.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia Nuclear Waste Management Program is pursuing for DOE an option for permanently disposing radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. Included in the Program are the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project for US defense program mixed waste the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) for spent power reactor fuel and vitrified high-level waste, projects for other waste types, and development efforts in environmental decision support technologies. WIPP and YMP are in the public arena, of a controversial nature, and provide significant management challenges. Both projects have large project teams, multiple organization participants, large budgets, long durations, are very complex, have a high degree of programmatic risk, and operate in an extremely regulated environment requiring legal defensibility. For environmental projects like these to succeed, SNL`s Program is utilizing nearly all areas in PMI`s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage along multiple project dimensions such as the physical sciences (e.g., geophysics and geochemistry; performance assessment; decision analysis) management sciences (controlling the triple constraint of performance, cost and schedule), and social sciences (belief systems; public participation; institutional politics). This discussion focuses primarily on communication challenges active on WIPP. How is the WIPP team meeting the challenges of managing communications?`` and ``How are you approaching similar challenges?`` will be questions for a dialog with the audience.

  16. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  17. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  18. Structural and Thermal Safety Analysis Report for the Type B Radioactive Waste Transport Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S

    2007-09-15

    We carried out structural safety evaluation for the type B radioactive waste transport package. Requirements for type B packages according to the related regulations such as IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, Korea Most Act. 2001-23 and US 10 CFR Part 71 were evaluated. General requirements for packages such as those for a lifting attachment, a tie-down attachment and pressure condition were considered. For the type B radioactive waste transport package, the structural, thermal and containment analyses were carried out under the normal transport conditions. Also the safety analysis were conducted under the accidental transport conditions. The 9 m drop test, 1 m puncture test, fire test and water immersion test under the accidental transport conditions were consecutively done. The type B radioactive waste transport packages were maintained the structural and thermal integrities.

  19. Climate Considerations in Long-Term Safety Assessments for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Claesson Liljedahl, Lillemor [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: jens-ove.naslund@skb.se

    2013-05-15

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  20. The symbiotic relationship between waste burning and safety in liquid metal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Kessler, S.F.; Wootan, D.W.; Omberg, R.P.; Waltar, A.E.

    1993-06-01

    The relationship between the transmutation of minor actinides and fission products, and safety related reactivity feedbacks in liquid metal reactors (LMR) was explored. Several design features appear promising for performing waste transmutation while retaining the desirable safety characteristics. Innovative variations of conventional LMR configurations and compositions establish symbiotic relationships between plutonium fuel, minor actinides, and fission products. These relationships enhance safety characteristics of the core and provide acceptable fuel and burnup performance. Although a specific design has not been developed, an LMR capable of transmuting the minor actinides and fission products from up to 10 comparable light water reactors while retaining desirable safety features, appears to be feasible.

  1. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

  2. Safety evaluation for packaging for onsite transfer of B Plant organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-10-07

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the use of a 17,500-L (4,623-gal) tank manufactured by Brenner Tank, Incorporated, to transport up to 16,221 L (4,285 gal) of radioactive organic liquid waste. The waste will be transported from the organic loading pad to a storage pad. Both pads are within the B Plant complex, but approximately 4 mi apart.

  3. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Environmental Evaluation Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  4. Scaling Environment Justice: The Case of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada); Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2006-09-15

    The growing body of literature associated with environmental justice documents the extent to which poor, peripheral or minority regions are often burdened with contamination or the siting of new noxious, unwanted facilities. More recently. environmental justice studies have also begun to explore the processes and societal structures that contribute to (in)justice. The environmental justice perspective asserts that instances of local contamination or the siting of noxious facilities in disempowered neighbourhoods are not only problems for those most affected by the facility; such situations are also instances of broader concerns about fairness and equity. At the grass-roots level. in marginalised spaces, residents may adopt the environmental justice frame as a strategy to gain recognition of their 'local' problem by regional. national or global actors. In this paper we problemise this environmental justice perspective, particularly as it relates to the issue of spatial and temporal scale. We utilise the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). the military transuranic nuclear waste disposal facility located in Carlsbad, New Mexico as an example where the environmental justice perspective was not (for the most part) invoked by local residents. Since it was mostly members of civil society groups and state and federal elected officials, most living four hours away who questioned the safety and viability of the facility, while local leaders actively lobbied to bring the facility to Carlsbad, this raises questions regarding 1) what counts as marginalised space and who gets to speak for those spaces, 2) who decides what can be defined as an environmental justice issue, and 3) at what spatial and temporal scale should justice be defined. Following a further elaboration of the conceptual ideas that underpin this discussion, in the subsequent section we present the WlPP case study.

  5. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. Copyright

  6. Construction safety and waste management an economic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents an analysis of construction safety problems and on-site safety measures from an economist’s point of view. The book includes examples from both emerging countries, e.g. China and India, and developed countries, e.g. Australia and Hong Kong. Moreover, the author covers an analysis on construction safety knowledge sharing by means of updatable mobile technology such as apps in Androids and iOS platform mobile devices. The target audience comprises primarily researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  7. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Interim safety equipment list for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1996-01-25

    The purpose of this supporting document is to provide safety classifications for systems, structures, and components of the Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS) and to document the methodology used to develop these safety classifications. The WRSS requires two transfer lines, one to carry sluiced waste slurry to tank 241-AY-102 and the other to return supernatant to tank 241-C-106; pumps in each tank; sluicers to direct the supernatant stream inside tank 241-C-106; a slurry distributor in tank 241-AY-102; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning for tank 241-C-106; and instrumentation and control devices.

  9. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  10. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  11. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work.

  12. Isolation and Screening of Water Microbes for Decolourisation of Textile Dye Waste

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Singh,; R. Ranjan; Pranay P. Pankaj*

    2016-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in textile industry. Unused dyes, consisting mainly non biodegradable released along with waste water streams without any proper pre-treatment which cause nuisance for environment and accumulate in flora as well as fauna. These also exhibit allergic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties for human beings. Isolation and screening of azo dye degrading bacteria are economic in biodegradation and detoxification. In the present study, 200 waste water samples were collected...

  13. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed.

  14. Linking food waste prevention, energy consumption and microbial food safety: the next challenge of food policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Duret, Steven; Hoang, Hong-Minh; Flick, Denis; Nguyen The, Christophe; Laguerre, Onrawee

    2016-01-01

    Food safety has governed food policy for decades. More recently, concerns about sustainability of food chains have emerged. Food sustainability is becoming an increasingly important issue because food systems are not sustainable in terms of consumption of resources, their impact on ecosystems or their effect on health and social equality. A focus is given on how microbial food safety, energy consumption and food waste impact food policy. Potential contradictions between the different aspec...

  15. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Office of Waste Isolation progress report, December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerby, C.D.

    1976-01-31

    This document reports progress on the OWI's portion of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. It comprises project reports on work performed by organizations under subcontract to OWI, by DOE contractors, by OWI consultants, and by other federal agencies participating in the NWTS program. They are made under the headings technical projects, facility projects, planning and analysis, and regulatory affairs. (DLC)

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant design validation: Final report, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    This volume is comprised of the following appendices: DOE stipulated agreement with State of New Mexico (partial); geologic correlations; mathematical simulation of underground in situ behavior; C and SH shaft geologic logs and maps; waste shaft geologic logs and maps; exhaust shaft geologic log; test rooms geologic maps and sections; drift cross sections; facility level geologic core hole logs; geomechanical instrumentation data plots; and analytical data plots.

  18. Development of the HALFPACK package for optimized shipment of contact handled transuranic waste to the waste isolation pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, R.A.; Porter, S.A. [Packaging Technology, Inc, Tacoma, WA (United States); Caviness, M.L. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Several different transportation packaging designs will be utilized for making shipments of transuranic waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, USA. Although all such packages require certification by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), currently only the TRUPACT-II packaging has been granted USNRC certification (originally licensed in 1989 under USNRC Certificate of Compliance 71-9218). Initial shipments to WIPP will rely on the TRUPACT-II packaging since it is the only currently licensed package system capable of transporting large quantities of Contact-Handled Transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. Two additional packagings are currently under development to more efficiently transport CH-TRU waste and to allow the transport of Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) waste to WIPP: the HALFPACK and 72-B packagings, respectively. This paper specifically addresses the design and licensing of the HALFPACK packaging. Additional information is available regarding the design and testing of the TRUPACT-II packaging. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of salt beds in New Mexico as a geologic repository for nuclear waste. [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. Rock salt has been the leading candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste since the National Academy of Science recommended in 1957 that salt for repositories receive further evaluation. Subsequent studies have failed to reveal any phenoomena which would disqualify salt beds as a repository medium. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been devloped; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geologic and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. This paper will deal principally with the geotechnical aspects of site characterization. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP. 10 figures.

  20. A study on the safety of radioactive waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Y. C. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, W. J.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, S. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The main scope of the project is the selection of some considerable items in design criteria of radioactive waste incineration facilities not only for the protection of workers and residents during operation but also for the safe disposal of ashes after incineration. The technological and regulational status on incineration technologies in domestic and foreign is surveyed and analyzed for providing such basic items which must be contained in the guideline for safe and appropriate design, construction and operation of the facilities. The contents of the project are summarized as follows; surveying the status on incineration technologies for both radioactive and non-radioactive wastes in domestic and foreign, surveying and analysing same related technical standards and regulations in domestic and foreign, picking out main considerable items and proposing a direction of further research.

  1. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Vegetables, Wetlands and Waste: Ensuring Food Safety in Phnom Penh

    OpenAIRE

    Sideth Muong

    2004-01-01

    Across Southeast Asia, consumers and scientist are increasingly concerned about the chemical contamination of food. From cancer-causing agents in cow's milk to pesticide residues on fruit, tainted food is a major environmental problem. In Phnom Penh, this is a particularly worrying, since a large percentage of the city's vegetables are grown in wetlands that are also used to absorb municipal and industrial waste. This means that the vegetables in many local markets pose a serious health hazar...

  3. Research on treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. Progress in Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, JAERI, has been carrying out research on safe and rational disposal systems of radioactive wastes arising from medical activities and research institutes (RI and Research Institute Waste). The research area includes a study on molten solidified waste form, a geological survey on Japan, a proposal on integrated disposal systems, data acquisition for safety evaluation, and a safety analysis of disposal systems. This report introduces progress and future works for the treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. (author)

  4. Waste management to improve food safety and security for health advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Economic growth inevitably influences the food chain. Growing demand with changes in lifestyle and health consciousness encourage use of packaged and pre-prepared foods. The needs of environmental protection from waste generated are largely overlooked, and a lack of knowledge about the impact on the environment and its health effects constitute food security/safety problems. Food production and waste generation directly affect resource (i.e., energy and water) consumption and often contaminate the environment. More pressure on food production has inculcated the use of pesticides, herbicides, antibiotics and chemical fertilizers which add to current global pollution. At least half of food grown is discarded before and after it reaches consumers. It is estimated that one third to half of landfill waste comes from the food sector. This landfill releases green house gases (GHG) as well as leachate which worsen soil and water quality and safety. Pharmaceutical and chemical contaminations from residential, industrial and agricultural sources make their way into nearby water and soil and can eventually affect our food systems. Phthalates, PFOA, BPA, commonly used in plastics and personal care products, are found in unacceptable concentrations in Taiwanese waters. They, too, contribute to food contamination and long-term health risk. Existing waste management strategies warrant more stringent norms for waste reduction at source. Awareness through education could reduce food waste and its consequences. This review encompasses impacts of food production systems on the environment, pollution which results from food waste, costs and economic advantages in food waste management, and health consequences of waste.

  5. Assessment of occupational safety risks in Floridian solid waste systems using Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastani, Mehrad; Celik, Nurcin

    2015-10-01

    Safety risks embedded within solid waste management systems continue to be a significant issue and are prevalent at every step in the solid waste management process. To recognise and address these occupational hazards, it is necessary to discover the potential safety concerns that cause them, as well as their direct and/or indirect impacts on the different types of solid waste workers. In this research, our goal is to statistically assess occupational safety risks to solid waste workers in the state of Florida. Here, we first review the related standard industrial codes to major solid waste management methods including recycling, incineration, landfilling, and composting. Then, a quantitative assessment of major risks is conducted based on the data collected using a Bayesian data analysis and predictive methods. The risks estimated in this study for the period of 2005-2012 are then compared with historical statistics (1993-1997) from previous assessment studies. The results have shown that the injury rates among refuse collectors in both musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have decreased from 88 and 15 to 16 and three injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. However, a contrasting trend is observed for the injury rates among recycling workers, for whom musculoskeletal and dermal injuries have increased from 13 and four injuries to 14 and six injuries per 1000 workers, respectively. Lastly, a linear regression model has been proposed to identify major elements of the high number of musculoskeletal and dermal injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Criticality Safety Envelope for Receipt, Handling, and Storage of Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, A.M.

    1998-12-04

    Current criticality safety limits for Solid Waste Management Facility (SWMF) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Storage Pads are based on analysis of systems where mass is the only independent parameter and all other parameters are assumed at their most reactive values (Ref. 1). These limits result in administrative controls (i.e., limit stacking of containers, coordination of drums for culvert storage based on individual drum fissile inventories, and mass limits for accumulation of polyethylene boxes in culverts) which can only be met by redundant SWMF administrative controls. These analyses did not credit the nature of the waste generator process that would provide bounding limits on the other parameters (i.e. less than optimal moderation and configurations within packages (containers)). They also did not indicate the margin of safety associated with operating to these mass limits. However, by crediting the waste generator processes (and maintaining such process assumptions via controls in the criteria for waste acceptance) sufficient margin of safety can be demonstrated to justify continued SWMF TRU pad operation with fewer administrative controls than specified in the Double Contingency analysis (DCA) (Ref. 1).

  7. Safety insurance of disposal of low level radioactive waste generated from decommissioned nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Noriyuki; Ohma, Tomoyuki; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Akio; Kozawa, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yasutoshi [Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The basis technique to affect the safety design of radioactive waste disposal facility is supported by the long-term stability examination for the characterization (the water permeability, absorption and so on) of the various barrier material, development of analysis code to use for the estimation of the material movement and the chemical environment change, and the acquisition of the natural analog data which is used to confirm its validity. It is thought that the effectivity of this basis technique depends on the kind of the waste, but in the field of LLW, it is possible to apply the technique. It this report, it confirmed the basis technique, which is possible to apply to the safety design of the disposal facilities about decommissioning waste from nuclear power plant. For example, activated metal is possible to evaluate using corrosion speed. And the basic data exists to argue about the long-term stability of cement and bentonite as engineered barrier. (author)

  8. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume includes the following chapters: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant RCRA A permit application; facility description; waste analysis plan; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; RCRA contingency plan; personnel training; corrective action for solid waste management units; and other Federal laws.

  9. Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.(Rip); Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W.; Pickering, Susan Y.; Swift, Peter N.

    1999-07-13

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review

  10. Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

  11. Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  12. Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Kumari Bhuwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  13. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a research and development facility for the demonstration of the permanent isolation of transuranic radioactive wastes in a geologic formation. The facility was constructed in southeastern New Mexico in a manner intended to meet criteria established by the scientific and regulatory community for the safe, long-term disposal of transuranic wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing an application to demonstrate compliance with the requirements outlined in Title 40, Part 191 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for the permanent disposal of transuranic wastes. As mandated by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Land Withdrawal Act of 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must evaluate this compliance application and provide a determination regarding compliance with the requirements within one year of receiving a complete application. Because the WIPP is a very complex program, the DOE has planned to submit the application as a draft in two parts. This strategy will allow for the DOE and the EPA to begin technical discussions on critical WIPP issues before the one-year compliance determination period begins. This report is the first of these two draft submittals.

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  16. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...

  17. 76 FR 31611 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with Applicable Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with Applicable Federal... Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or ``we'') determined that, between...

  18. 78 FR 34380 - Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Biennial Determination of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With Applicable Federal... Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or ``we'') determined that, between...

  19. Hydraulic testing of Salado Formation evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: Second interpretive report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, R.M.; Dale, T.F.; Fort, M.D.; Stensrud, W.A. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Pressure-pulse, constant-pressure flow, and pressure-buildup tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Transmissivities have been interpreted from six sequences of tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within 15 m of the WIPP underground excavations.

  20. Geochemical assessment of nuclear waste isolation. Report of activities during fiscal year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The status of the following investigations is reported: canister/overpack-backfill chemical interactions and mechanisms; backfill and near-field host rock chemical interactions mechanisms; far-field host rock geochemical interactions; verification and improvement of predictive algorithms for radionuclide migration; and geologic systems as analogues for long-term radioactive waste isolation.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  2. Container materials for isolation of radioactive waste in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streicher, M.A.; Andrews, A. (eds.)

    1987-10-01

    The workshop reviewed the extensive data on the corrosion resistance of low-carbon steel in simulated salt repository environments, determined whether these data were sufficient to recommend low-carbon steel for fabrication of the container, and assessed the suitability of other materials under consideration in the SRP. The panelists determined the need for testing and research programs, recommended experimental approaches, and recommended materials based on existing technology. On the first day of the workshop, presentations were made on waste package requirements; the expected corrosion environment; degradation processes, including a review of data from corrosion tests on carbon steel; and rationales for container design and materials, modeling studies, and planned future work. The second day was devoted to a panel caucus, presentation of workshop findings, and open discussion. 76 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  4. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  5. Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report; Flammable Gas Safety Program: actual waste organic analysis FY 1996 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.; Hoopes, V.; Mong, G.M.; Rau, J.; Steele, R.; Wahl, K.H.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes the status of optimizing analytical methods to account for the organic components in Hanford waste tanks, with emphasis on tanks assigned to the Flammable Gas Watch List. The methods developed are illustrated by their application to samples from Tanks 241-SY-103 and 241-S-102. Capability to account for organic carbon in Tank SY-101 was improved significantly by improving techniques for isolating organic constituents relatively free from radioactive contamination and by improving derivatization methodology. The methodology was extended to samples from Tank SY-103 and results documented in this report. Results from analyzing heated and irradiated SY-103 samples (Gas Generation Task) and evaluating methods for analyzing tank waste directly for chelators and chelator fragments are also discussed.

  6. Safety equipment list for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, Project W-320: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-11-15

    The goals of the C-106 sluicing operation are: (1) to stabilize the tank by reducing the heat load in the tank to less than 42 MJ/hr (40,000 Btu/hour), and (2) to initiate demonstration of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval technology. The purpose of this supporting document (SD) is as follows: (1) to provide safety classifications for items (systems, structures, equipment, components, or parts) for the waste retrieval sluicing system (WRSS), and (2) to document and methodology used to develop safety classifications. Appropriate references are made with regard to use of existing systems, structures, equipments, components, and parts for C-106 single-shell transfer tank located in the C Tank Farm, and 241-AY-102 (AY-102) double shell receiver tanks (DST) located in the Aging Waste Facility (AWF). The Waste Retrieval Sluicing System consists of two transfer lines that would connect the two tanks, one to carry the sluiced waste slurry to AY-102, and the other to return the supernatant liquid to C-106. The supernatant, or alternate fluid, will be used to mobilize waste in C-106 for the sluicing process. The equipment necessary for the WRSS include pumps in each tank, sluicers to direct the supernatant stream in C-106, a slurry distributor in AY-102, HVAC for C-106, instrumentation and control devices, and other existing components as required.

  7. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  8. Scanning electron microscopic analyses of Ferrocyanide tank wastes for the Ferrocyanide safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, W.S.

    1995-09-01

    This is Fiscal Year 1995 Annual Report on the progress of activities relating to the application of scanning electron microscopy in addressing the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks. The status of the FY 1995 activities directed towards establishing facilities capable of providing SEM based micro-characterization of ferrocyanide tank wastes is described. A summary of key events in the SEM task over FY 1995 and target activities in FY 1996 are presented. A brief overview of the potential applications of computer controlled SEM analytical data in light of analyses of ferrocyanide simulants performed by an independent contractor is also presented

  9. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  10. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Malancha Roy; Rimi Das; Amit Kundu; Sanmoy Karmakar; Satadal Das; Pradip Kumar Sen; Anupam Debsarcar; Joydeep Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75). 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of p...

  11. DOE's Notification of Planned Change to the EPA 40 CFR Part 194 Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Carlsbad Field Office (DOE/CBFO) provided the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) this Notification of Planned Change to accept remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  12. Criticality safety study of Pu contaminated carbon waste stored in 100 L steel drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anno, J.; Simonneau, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Guerre, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    1995-12-31

    The notion of the minimum critical areal density (D{sub minca}) used to ensure the Criticality-Safety of poor solid waste is recalled with its deficiencies. D{sub minca} is assumed constant, independent of the fissile material concentration. This assumption is only true for unreflected mediums. Corrective factors are established. Furthermore, the usual norm of the Pu-H{sub 2}O, which is 0.20 g/cm{sup 2}, (concrete reflected) is greater than that for other mediums, such as Pu contaminated graphite waste (Pu-C), which is 0.036 g/cm{sup 2}. D{sub minca} calculated on infinite slabs is confirmed by calculations on infinite planar multilayers arrays of 100 l cubical waste drums. Moreover, d{sub minca} increases linearly with the steel thickness of the drums` walls and goes up to 0.17 g/cm{sup 2} for 0.105 cm of steel. The safety analysis on a real storage case takes into account the limited amount of Pu (100 g) and C (100 kg), the minimum thickness of 0.07 cm of drums` steel, their geometrical arrangement, the heterogeneity and size of contamination and the occurrence of neutronic poison (N and Cl) in the waste. Because of these parameters, the Keff are very less than 0.95 and the taken norm of 0.1 g/cm{sup 2} for the Pu-C waste is fulfilled. Finally, it is demonstrated that the mixing of Pu-C waste drums and Pu-H{sub 2}O wastes drums is allowed. (authors). 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year`s findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate.

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  15. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  16. [Systemic approach to ecologic safety at objects with radiation jeopardy, involved into localization of low and medium radioactive waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselov, E I

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with specifying systemic approach to ecologic safety of objects with radiation jeopardy. The authors presented stages of work and algorithm of decisions on preserving reliability of storage for radiation jeopardy waste. Findings are that providing ecologic safety can cover 3 approaches: complete exemption of radiation jeopardy waste, removal of more dangerous waste from present buildings and increasing reliability of prolonged localization of radiation jeopardy waste at the initial place. The systemic approach presented could be realized at various radiation jeopardy objects.

  17. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  18. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  19. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the use of nuclear energy about 17.000 t (27.000 m{sup 3}) of high level waste and about 300.000 m{sup 3} of low and intermediated level waste will have accumulated in Germany until 2022. Research in the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Division focuses on fundamental and applied aspects of the safe management of nuclear waste - in particular the nuclear aspects. In principle, our research in Forschungszentrum Juelich is looking at the material science/solid state aspects of nuclear waste management. It is organized in several research areas: The long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal is a key issue when it comes to the final disposal of high level nuclear waste in a deep geological formation. We are contributing to the scientific basis for the safety case of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. In Juelich we are focusing on a fundamental understanding of near field processes within a waste repository system. The main research topics are spent fuel corrosion and the retention of radionuclides by secondary phases. In addition, innovative waste management strategies are investigated to facilitate a qualified decision on the best strategy for Germany. New ceramic waste forms for disposal in a deep geological formation are studied as well as the partitioning of long-lived actinides. These research areas are supported by our structure research group, which is using experimental and computational approaches to examine actinide containing compounds. Complementary to these basic science oriented activities, IEK-6 also works on rather applied aspects. The development of non-destructive methods for the characterisation of nuclear waste packages has a long tradition in Juelich. Current activities focus on improving the segmented gamma scanning technique and the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. Furthermore, the waste treatment group is developing concepts for the safe management of nuclear

  20. Scenario Analysis for the Safety Assessment of Nuclear Waste Repositories: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Edoardo; Salo, Ahti; Zio, Enrico

    2017-09-05

    A major challenge in scenario analysis for the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories pertains to the comprehensiveness of the set of scenarios selected for assessing the safety of the repository. Motivated by this challenge, we discuss the aspects of scenario analysis relevant to comprehensiveness. Specifically, we note that (1) it is necessary to make it clear why scenarios usually focus on a restricted set of features, events, and processes; (2) there is not yet consensus on the interpretation of comprehensiveness for guiding the generation of scenarios; and (3) there is a need for sound approaches to the treatment of epistemic uncertainties. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of anise wastes against some multidrug resistant bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Khaled Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is becoming a serious problem, especially after the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. To overcome this problem, new and effective antibacterials or resistance modulators are highly needed and plant kingdom represents a valuable source of these compounds. In this study we investigated the antibacterial and resistance modulatory activity of Aniseeds waste Residue Extract (ASWRE and Star Anise Waste Residue Extract (SAWRE (post-distillation against 100 isolates belonging to two Gram positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and four Gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Phenolic compounds of anise wastes were determined by HPLC. The antibacterial activity of anise waste extracts assays were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC and MBC. Evaluation of synergy interaction between anise waste extracts and certain known antibacterial drugs like Cephradine, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Amoxicillin was carried out using disc diffusion method, MIC and the fractional inhibitory concentrations (FIC. The results showed that HPLC method has been developed for the determination of 25 phenolic compounds from waste extracts. Both ASWRE and SAWRE have significant antibacterial activity against all of the test bacteria. SAWRE was found to have higher amounts of phenolic compounds contents that might be responsible for their comparatively higher antibacteria activity than ASWRE. Irradiation at 10 and 30 kGy did not significantly affect the antibacterial activity of both ASWRE and SAWRE. The combination of anise waste extracts and the tested antibiotics mostly showed synergistic effect. Synergistic interaction was most expressed against Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp1 and Staphylococcus aureus (Sa1 by Tetracycline and chloramphenicol; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P2, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K3, Acinetobacter baumannii

  3. Micrococcus lactis sp. nov., isolated from dairy industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittpurna; Singh, Pradip K; Verma, Dipti; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Korpole, Suresh

    2011-12-01

    A Gram-positive, yellow-pigmented, actinobacterial strain, DW152(T), was isolated from a dairy industry effluent treatment plant. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain DW152(T) exhibited low similarity with many species with validly published names belonging to the genera Micrococcus and Arthrobacter. However, phenotypic properties including chemotaxonomic markers affiliated strain DW152(T) to the genus Micrococcus. Strain DW152(T) had ai-C(15:0) and i-C(15:0) as major cellular fatty acids, and MK-8(H(2)) as the major menaquinone. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain DW152(T) had l-lysine as the diagnostic amino acid and the type was A4α. The DNA G+C content of strain DW152(T) was 68.0 mol%. In 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain DW152(T) exhibited significant similarity with Micrococcus terreus NBRC 104258(T), but the mean value of DNA-DNA relatedness between these strains was only 42.3%. Moreover, strain DW152(T) differed in biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics from M. terreus and other species of the genus Micrococcus. Based on the above differences, we conclude that strain DW152(T) should be treated as a novel species of the genus Micrococcus, for which the name Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Micrococcus lactis sp. nov. is DW152(T) (=MTCC10523(T) =DSM 23694(T)).

  4. Human Factors engineering criteria and design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant preliminary safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.A.; Schur, A.; Stitzel, J.C.L.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides a rationale and systematic methodology for bringing Human Factors into the safety design and operations of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Human Factors focuses on how people perform work with tools and machine systems in designed settings. When the design of machine systems and settings take into account the capabilities and limitations of the individuals who use them, human performance can be enhanced while protecting against susceptibility to human error. The inclusion of Human Factors in the safety design of the HWVP is an essential ingredient to safe operation of the facility. The HWVP is a new construction, nonreactor nuclear facility designed to process radioactive wastes held in underground storage tanks into glass logs for permanent disposal. Its design and mission offer new opposites for implementing Human Factors while requiring some means for ensuring that the Human Factors assessments are sound, comprehensive, and appropriately directed.

  5. Office of Waste Isolation. Progress report, November 1977. [National waste terminal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhines, R.C.; Asher, J.M. (eds.)

    1977-12-28

    This program is part of the National Waste Terminal Storage program. The Geologic Review Group meeting was held in New Orleans, November 16-17. Start-up of the near-surface heater experiment in the Conasauga Shale formation is under way at Oak Ridge. The first shipment of experimental equipment from Oak Ridge to Avery Island, Louisiana, for the dome salt in-situ test was successfully completed. On November 9-10, a design status review on the spent fuel repository conceptual design was held with Kaiser Engineers, Inc. On November 2, OWI personnel reviewed the progress on the Economic Studies with TRW representatives.

  6. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  7. Project characteristics monitoring report: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Program) repository project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedli, E.A.; Herborn, D.I.; Taylor, C.D.; Tomlinson, K.M.

    1988-03-01

    This monitoring report has been prepared to show compliance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) and to provide local and state government agencies with information concerning the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP). This report contains data for the time period May 26, 1986 to February 1988. The data include employment figures, salaries, project purchases, taxes and fees paid, worker survey results, and project closedown personal interview summaries. This information has become particularly important since the decision in December 1987 to stop all BWIP activities except those for site reclamation. The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 requires nonreclamation work at the Hanford Site to stop as of March 22, 1988. 7 refs., 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

  9. Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculational Analysis for Fissile Mass Limits and Spacing Requirements for 55 - Gallon Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Thomas C. [Battelle; Hesse, David J. [Battelle; Tayloe, Jr., Robert W.

    1994-05-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis was performed to determine the fissile mass limits and spacing requirements for the storage of 55-gallon waste drums at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS).

  10. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  11. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  12. Geologic isolation of nuclear waste at high latitudes: the role of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; McIntosh, J.; Iverson, N.; Neuzil, C.E.; Bense, V.

    2012-01-01

    Geologic isolation of high-level nuclear waste from the biosphere requires special consideration in countries at high latitudes (>40°N) owing to the possibility of future episodes of continental glaciation (Talbot 1999). It is now widely recognized that Pleistocene continental glaciations have had a profound effect on rates of sediment erosion (Cuffey & Paterson 2010) and deformation including tectonic thrusting (Pedersen 2005) as well as groundwater flow (Person et al. 2007; Lemieux et al. 2008a,b,c). In addition, glacial mechanical loads may have generated anomalous, or fossil, pore pressures within certain clay-rich confining units (e.g. Vinard et al. 2001). Because high-level nuclear wastes must be isolated from the biosphere as long as 1 million years (McMurry et al. 2003), the likelihood of one or more continental ice sheets overrunning high-latitude sites must be considered.

  13. Isolation and characterization of human articular chondrocytes from surgical waste after total knee arthroplasty (TKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Naranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cartilage tissue engineering is a fast-evolving field of biomedical engineering, in which the chondrocytes represent the most commonly used cell type. Since research in tissue engineering always consumes a lot of cells, simple and cheap isolation methods could form a powerful basis to boost such studies and enable their faster progress to the clinics. Isolated chondrocytes can be used for autologous chondrocyte implantation in cartilage repair, and are the base for valuable models to investigate cartilage phenotype preservation, as well as enable studies of molecular features, nature and scales of cellular responses to alterations in the cartilage tissue. Methods Isolation and consequent cultivation of primary human adult articular chondrocytes from the surgical waste obtained during total knee arthroplasty (TKA was performed. To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of the isolated cells, gene expression of collagen type 2 (COL2, collagen 1 (COL1 and aggrecan (ACAN was evaluated. Immunocytochemical staining of all mentioned proteins was performed to evaluate chondrocyte specific production. Results Cartilage specific gene expression of COL2 and ACAN has been shown that the proposed protocol leads to isolation of cells with a high chondrogenic potential, possibly even specific phenotype preservation up to the second passage. COL1 expression has confirmed the tendency of the isolated cells dedifferentiation into a fibroblast-like phenotype already in the second passage, which confirms previous findings that higher passages should be used with care in cartilage tissue engineering. To evaluate the effectiveness of our approach, immunocytochemical staining of the evaluated chondrocyte specific products was performed as well. Discussion In this study, we developed a protocol for isolation and consequent cultivation of primary human adult articular chondrocytes with the desired phenotype from the surgical waste obtained during TKA. TKA is a

  14. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  15. Data used in preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Luzzolino, H. (Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sandha, J.S. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the data available as of August 1990 and used by the Performance Assessment Division of Sandia National Laboratories in its December 1990 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Parameter values are presented in table form for the geologic subsystem, engineered barriers, borehole flow properties, climate variability, and intrusion characteristics. Sources for the data and a brief discussion of each parameter are provided. 101 refs., 72 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety.

  17. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  18. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  19. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  1. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  2. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  3. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  4. The safety of non-incineration waste disposal devices in four hospitals of Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Aliasghar; Gholami, Hamid; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kermani, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The safe management of hospital waste is a challenge in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions and the microbial disinfectant safety in non-incineration waste disposal devices. VOC emissions and microbial infections were measured in four non-incineration waste disposal devices including: autoclave with and without a shredder, dry heat system, and hydroclave. Using NIOSH and US EPA-TO14 guidelines, the concentration and potential risk of VOCs in emitted gases from four devices were assessed. ProSpore2 biological indicators were used to assess the microbial analysis of waste residue. There was a significant difference in the type and concentration of VOCs and microbial infection of residues in the four devices. Emissions from the autoclave with a shredder had the highest concentration of benzene, ethyl benzene, xylene, and BTEX, and emissions from the hydroclave had the highest concentration of toluene. The highest level of microbial infection was observed in the residues of the autoclave without a shredder. There is an increased need for proper regulation and control of non-incinerator devices and for monitoring and proper handling of these devices in developing countries.

  5. Transuranic-contaminated solid waste Treatment Development Facility. Final safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, C.L. (comp.)

    1979-07-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Transuranic-Contaminated Solid-Waste Treatment Facility has been prepared in compliance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual Chapter 0531, Safety of Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities. The Treatment Development Facility (TDF) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is a research and development facility dedicated to the study of radioactive-waste-management processes. This analysis addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and the design and operating characteristics of the first study process, controlled air incineration and aqueous scrub off-gas treatment with respect to both normal and accident conditions. The credible accidents having potentially serious consequences relative to the operation of the facility and the first process have been analyzed and the consequences of each postulated credible accident are presented. Descriptions of the control systems, engineered safeguards, and administrative and operational features designed to prevent or mitigate the consequences of such accidents are presented. The essential features of the operating and emergency procedures, environmental protection and monitoring programs, as well as the health and safety, quality assurance, and employee training programs are described.

  6. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment [Poster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis; Herrick, Courtney G; Zeitler, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  7. Impact of Corrections to the Spallings Volume Calculation on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Laboratories., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface (i.e., spallings) as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion into the repository. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered and documented in a software problem report in accordance with the quality assurance procedure for software requirements. This paper describes the corrections to DRSPALL and documents the impact of the new spallings data from the modified DRSPALL on previous performance assessment calculations. Updated performance assessments result in more simulations with spallings, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases to the accessible environment. Total normalized radionuclide releases using the modified DRSPALL data were determined by forming the summation of releases across each potential release pathway, namely borehole cuttings and cavings releases, spallings releases, direct brine releases, and transport releases. Because spallings releases are not a major contributor to the total releases, the updated performance assessment calculations of overall mean complementary cumulative distribution functions for total releases are virtually unchanged. Therefore, the corrections to the spallings volume calculation did not impact Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment calculation results.

  8. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. Bioleaching of electronic waste using bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Enrique E; Mendes, Maria A; Nascimento, Claudio A O; Espinosa, Denise C R; Oliveira, Renato; Oliveira, Guilherme; Custodio, Marcio R

    2017-05-05

    The bacteria isolated from Hymeniacidon heliophila sponge cells showed bioleaching activity. The most active strain, Hyhel-1, identified as Bacillus sp., was selected for bioleaching tests under two different temperatures, 30°C and 40°C, showing rod-shaped cells and filamentous growth, respectively. At 30°C, the bacteria secreted substances which linked to the leached copper, and at 40°C metallic nanoparticles were produced inside the cells. In addition, infrared analysis detected COOH groups and linear peptides in the tested bacteria at both temperatures. The Hyhel-1 strain in presence of electronic waste (e-waste) induced the formation of crust, which could be observed due to bacteria growing on the e-waste fragment. SEM-EDS measurements showed that the bacterial net surface was composed mostly of iron (16.1% w/w), while a higher concentration of copper was observed in the supernatant (1.7% w/w) and in the precipitated (49.8% w/w). The substances linked to copper in the supernatant were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-ms/ms and identified as macrocyclic surfactin-like peptides, similar to the basic sequence of Iturin, a lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis. Finally, the results showed that Hyhel-1 is a bioleaching bacteria and cooper nanoparticles producer and that this bacteria could be used as a copper recovery tool from electronic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Site-Specific Health and Safety Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, N.C. Bechtel Jacobs

    2008-04-21

    The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) policy is to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The implementation of this policy requires that operations of the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF), located one-half mile west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex, be guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues. The BJC governing document for worker safety and health, BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', describes the key elements of the BJC Safety and Industrial Hygiene (IH) programs, which includes the requirement for development and implementation of a site-specific Health and Safety Plan (HASP) where required by regulation (refer also to BJC-EH-1012, 'Development and Approval of Safety and Health Plans'). BJC/OR-1745, 'Worker Safety and Health Program', implements the requirements for worker protection contained in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 851. The EMWMF site-specific HASP requirements identifies safe operating procedures, work controls, personal protective equipment, roles and responsibilities, potential site hazards and control measures, site access requirements, frequency and types of monitoring, site work areas, decontamination procedures, and outlines emergency response actions. This HASP will be available on site for use by all workers, management and supervisors, oversight personnel and visitors. All EMWMF assigned personnel will be briefed on the contents of this HASP and will be required to follow the procedures and protocols as specified. The policies and procedures referenced in this HASP apply to all EMWMF operations activities. In addition the HASP establishes ES&H criteria for the day-to-day activities to prevent or minimize any adverse effect on the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable

  11. Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes: Reactive Scavenging in Turbulent Thermal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Alan R. Kerstein; Alexander Scheeline; Arne Pearlstein; William Linak

    2003-08-06

    The Overall project demonstrated that toxic metals (cesium Cs and strontium Sr) in aqueous and organic wastes can be isolated from the environment through reaction with kaolinite based sorbent substrates in high temperature reactor environments. In addition, a state-of-the art laser diagnostic tool to measure droplet characteristic in practical 'dirty' laboratory environments was developed, and was featured on the cover of a recent edition of the scientific journal ''applied Spectroscopy''. Furthermore, great strides have been made in developing a theoretical model that has the potential to allow prediction of the position and life history of every particle of waste in a high temperature, turbulent flow field, a very challenging problem involving as it does, the fundamentals of two phase turbulence and of particle drag physics.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) monitors a comprehensive set of parameters in order to detect any potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future quantitative environmental impact evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, soil, and biotics are measured for background radiation. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include meteorological, air quality, soil properties, and the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the site with emphasis on the salt storage pile, whereas baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in a preoperational state, no waste has been received; therefore, certain elements required by Order DOE 5400.1 are not presented in this report. 15 figs. 19 tabs.

  13. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  14. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  15. Keratin Production by Decomposing Feather Waste Using Some Local Bacillus spp. Isolated from Poultry Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salouti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feather waste is generated in large amounts as a by-product of commercial poultry processing. The main component of feather is keratin. The main purpose of this study was to identify Bacillus spp. (the keratinolytic bacteria that are able to degrade the feather for producing keratin. Methods: Bacillus spp. Were isolated from the waste of poultries located in Miyaneh city. The bacteria were grown on basal medium containing 1% hen feather as the sole source of carbon ,nitrogen, sulfur and energy at 27ºC for 7 days. Then,the isolates capable of feather degrading were identified. The Bradford method was used to assay the production of keratin in the feather samples. Different pH and temperatures were studied to determine the best conditions for production of keratinase enzyme. Results: Seven Bacillus spp. including: B. pumilis, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. macerance, B. popilliae, B. lentimorbus and B. larvae were found to be able to degrade the feather with different abilities. Conclusion: B. subtilis was found to be most productive isolate for keratinase enzyme production.

  16. [Radiological and hygienic approaches to solving the problem of environmental safety of radioactive waste storages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart'ianov, V V; Korenkov, I P

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents general approaches to solving the problems associated with the radioecological safety of radioactive waste (RAW) storages. It considers the influence of climatic factors on the possible release of radionuclides into the environment. The authors have made as follows: analysis of the significance of main scenarios for radionuclide release into the environment and the natural and climatic conditions of the existing areas of near-surface RAW storages in the Russian Federation; conditional zoning of the Russian Federation according to the balance of atmospheric precipitation. The zoning of RAW storage locations is of importance for choosing the likely scenarios of radionuclide migrations.

  17. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Bacillus spp. isolated from steel plant waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chartone-Souza Edmar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular studies of Bacillus diversity in various environments have been reported. However, there have been few investigations concerning Bacillus in steel plant environments. In this study, genotypic and phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 40 bacterial isolates recovered from steel plant waste were investigated using classical and molecular methods. Results 16S rDNA partial sequencing assigned all the isolates to the Bacillus genus, with close genetic relatedness to the Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus groups, and to the species Bacillus sphaericus. tDNA-intergenic spacer length polymorphisms and the 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region failed to identify the isolates at the species level. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence based PCR using the primer sets ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus, (GTG5, and BOXAIR. Genotypic fingerprinting of the isolates reflected high intraspecies and interspecies diversity. Clustering of the isolates using ERIC-PCR fingerprinting was similar to that obtained from the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree, indicating the potential of the former technique as a simple and useful tool for examining relationships among unknown Bacillus spp. Physiological, biochemical and heavy metal susceptibility profiles also indicated considerable phenotypic diversity. Among the heavy metal compounds tested Zn, Pb and Cu were least toxic to the bacterial isolates, whereas Ag inhibited all isolates at 0.001 mM. Conclusion Isolates with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences had different genomic fingerprints and differed considerably in their physiological capabilities, so the high levels of phenotypic diversity found in this study are likely to have ecological relevance.

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  19. Microbiological Safety of Animal Wastes Processed by Physical Heat Treatment: An Alternative To Eliminate Human Pathogens in Biological Soil Amendments as Recommended by the Food Safety Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-03-01

    Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure. Physical heat treatments can be considered an effective method to inactivate pathogens in animal wastes. However, microbial inactivation in animal wastes can be affected by many factors, such as composition of animal wastes, type and physiological stage of the tested microorganism, and heat source. Following some current processing guidelines for physical heat treatments may not be adequate for completely eliminating pathogens from animal wastes. Therefore, this article primarily reviews the microbiological safety and economic value of physically heat-treated animal wastes as biological soil amendments.

  20. Condensed listing of surface boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project through 31 December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.R.; Aguilar, R.; Mercer, J.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newman, G. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains a condensed listing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project surface boreholes drilled for the purpose of site selection and characterization through 31 December 1995. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored the drilling activities, which were conducted primarily by Sandia National Laboratories. The listing provides physical attributes such as location (township, range, section, and state-plane coordinates), elevation, and total borehole depth, as well as the purpose for the borehole, drilling dates, and information about extracted cores. The report also presents the hole status (plugged, testing, monitoring, etc.) and includes salient findings and references. Maps with borehole locations and times-of-drilling charts are included.

  1. Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations (40 CFR Part 194)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for certifying that DOE’s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) remains in compliance with environmental standards for the disposal of transuranic waste. 40 CFR Part 194 specifies criteria for certification or recertification of WIPP.

  2. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  3. Biogeochemical Investigations to Evaluate the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, J. B.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy facility located in southeastern New Mexico, approximately 655 m (2150 ft.) below ground surface in a bedded salt, Permian evaporite formation. This mined geologic repository has been receiving transuranic (TRU) waste from defense-related and environmental-management activities since March 1999. TRU waste contains alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides with half-lives greater than twenty years at concentrations greater than 100 nCi/gram. These actinide-contaminated wastes were generated from nuclear-weapons production and related processing activities. They include various organics, adsorbed liquids, sludges, cellulosics, plastics, rubber, and a variety of metals and cemented materials. An extensive set of investigations were performed to establish the basis for TRU waste disposal at WIPP and to support initial certification from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A significant element of the conceptual geochemical model for WIPP is the microbiologically-driven reactions leading to biodegradation of organic constituents in TRU wastes, as well as interactions with actinides present in the waste. This presentation will discuss the biogeochemical investigations that were performed to evaluate microbiological activity at WIPP, including studies of gas generation due to biodegradation of cellulose, plastic, and rubber materials and actinide-microbe interactions leading to changes in actinide chemical speciation. Highlights of this work are discussed here. Cellulose biodegradation in salt-brine systems results in the generation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, and aqueous fermentation products (low molecular weight organic acids). Hypersaline brine can limit the range of microbial metabolic pathways, due to the energetic stresses of maintaining osmotic balance compatible with metabolic processes. Methanogenesis yields the lowest free energy per mole of carbon and as such is often not detected in

  4. DRSPALL :spallings model for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2004 recertification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, Amy P. (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Hansen, Clifford W.; Schatz, John F. (John F. Schatz Research & Consulting, Inc., Del Mar, CA); Rudeen, David Keith (GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Lord, David L.

    2006-02-01

    This report presents a model to estimate the spallings releases for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment (WIPP PA). A spallings release in the context of WIPP PA refers to a portion of the solid waste transported from the subsurface repository to the ground surface due to inadvertent oil or gas drilling into the WIPP repository at some time after site closure. Some solid waste will be removed by the action of the drillbit and drilling fluid; this waste is referred to as cuttings and cavings. If the repository is pressurized above hydrostatic at the time of intrusion, solid waste material local to the borehole may be subject to mechanical failure and entrainment in high-velocity gases as the repository pressure is released to the borehole. Solid material that fails and is transported into the wellbore and thus to the surface comprise the spallings releases. The spallings mechanism is analogous to a well blowout in the modern oil and gas drilling industry. The current spallings conceptual model and associated computer code, DRSPALL, were developed for the 2004 recertification because the prior spallings model used in the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA) was judged by an independent peer review panel as inadequate (DOE 1996, 9.3.1). The current conceptual model for spallings addresses processes that take place several minutes before and after a borehole intrusion of a WIPP waste room. The model couples a pipe-flow wellbore model with a porous flow repository model, allowing high-pressure gas to flow from the repository to the wellbore through a growing cavity region at the well bottom. An elastic stress model is applied to the porous solid domain that allows for mechanical failure of repository solids if local tensile stress exceeds the tensile strength of the waste. Tensile-failed solids may be entrained into the wellbore flow stream by a fluidized bed model, in which case they are ultimately transported to the land surface

  5. Isolation of cellulolytic mesophilic clostridia from a municipal solid waste digestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, L; Cailliez, C; Petitdemange, E; Gitton, J

    1992-06-01

    Ten obligately anaerobic, cellulolytic mesophilic bacteria were isolated from a municipal solid waste digestor used for biogas production. The isolates were rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria in anaerobic conditions, and stained Gram-positive in young cultures, and hence were identified asClostridium. Small regular translucent and unpigmented colonies were observed on cellulose plates. The strains were gelatinase-negative, hydrolyzed esculin and starch, and fermented xylose and arabinose. The lecithinase, lipase, and indole tests were negative. The major fermentation products from cellulose included ethanol and acetate. The morphological and other biochemical characteristics indicated that these clostridia did not correspond to any previously described species. All the strains produced high activities of extracellular cellulases in cellulose media and degraded paper.

  6. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  7. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  9. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  10. Seismic performance assessment of base-isolated safety-related nuclear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic or base isolation is a proven technology for reducing the effects of earthquake shaking on buildings, bridges and infrastructure. The benefit of base isolation has been presented in terms of reduced accelerations and drifts on superstructure components but never quantified in terms of either a percentage reduction in seismic loss (or percentage increase in safety) or the probability of an unacceptable performance. Herein, we quantify the benefits of base isolation in terms of increased safety (or smaller loss) by comparing the safety of a sample conventional and base-isolated nuclear power plant (NPP) located in the Eastern U.S. Scenario- and time-based assessments are performed using a new methodology. Three base isolation systems are considered, namely, (1) Friction Pendulum??? bearings, (2) lead-rubber bearings and (3) low-damping rubber bearings together with linear viscous dampers. Unacceptable performance is defined by the failure of key secondary systems because these systems represent much of the investment in a new build power plant and ensure the safe operation of the plant. For the scenario-based assessments, the probability of unacceptable performance is computed for an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.3 at a distance 7.5 km from the plant. For the time-based assessments, the annual frequency of unacceptable performance is computed considering all potential earthquakes that may occur. For both assessments, the implementation of base isolation reduces the probability of unacceptable performance by approximately four orders of magnitude for the same NPP superstructure and secondary systems. The increase in NPP construction cost associated with the installation of seismic isolators can be offset by substantially reducing the required seismic strength of secondary components and systems and potentially eliminating the need to seismically qualify many secondary components and systems. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Biotransformation and safety of cotton stalk alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste liquor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zongzheng; Wang, Mingyue; Ning, Liqun; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Jingguo

    2015-10-04

    We studied the conditions of culturing Bacillus subtilis SY1 to treat cotton stalk alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste water, and evaluated afterwards the safety of its release to plants and animals. The culture conditions were optimized through single factor tests, including temperature, initial pH, oxygen, and inoculation size. We used rats and big ear rabbits to test the safety of treated waste water. The optimal condition was as follows: initial pH7.0, hydraulic retention time 30 h, temperature 30 degrees C, filling rate of aeration 16 L/h, the dosage of Bacillus subtilis SY1 0.8 g a liter water, and the stuffing volume accounting for 30% of the effective volume of the reactor. Under these culture conditions, the live spore number of Bacillus subtilis SY1 reached 6.27 x 10(9) CFU/mL. The removal rate of COD reached 70.4%. Results of the acute dermal toxicity test, dermal irritation test, eye irritation test and skin sensitization test after treated by the fermentation showed no clinical signs or changes conditions, and no deaths during the test period of 21 days. Animal body weight had a tendency to increase and had no abnormalities in the major organs, the Lethal Dose 50 (Abbreviated LD50) values was equal or greater than 10.5 g/(kg body weight) in acute dermal toxicity experiments. LD50 values were equal or greater than 2500 mg/(kg body weight) in dermal irritation experiments. No rabbits exhibited chemosis eye at any time during the test period. The results of skin sensitization test showed no erythema or edema. The skin sensitization value was less than 0.5. Pulping waste water of APMP cotton stalk fermented by Bacillus subtilis SY1 had reduced COD and no obvious toxicity to animals.

  12. Progress report on safety research on radioactive waste management for the period April 1993 to March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Keiichi; Muraoka, Susumu; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities on radioactive waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Natural Barrier Laboratory and Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research during the fiscal years of 1993 and 1994 (April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1995). The topics are as follows: (1) As for waste forms and engineered barrier material, performance assessment studies were carried out on various waste forms, buffer materials and mortar. (2) In the safety evaluation study for shallow land disposal, migration behaviour of nuclides in the soil layer was studied. (3) In the safety evaluation study for geological disposal, chemical behaviour of radionuclides in water, nuclide migration in geosphere and groundwater flow system were studied. Migration of uranium series nuclides in uranium ore deposit was studied as a part of natural analogue study. (author).

  13. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  14. Selected, annotated bibliography of studies relevant to the isolation of nuclear wastes. [705 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyder, L.K.; Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Faust, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    This annotated bibliography of 705 references represents the first in a series to be published by the Ecological Sciences Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to nuclear waste isolation. Most references discuss deep geologic disposal, with fewer studies of deep seabed disposal; space disposal is also included. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1954 to 1980. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Envirnmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Repository Design and Engineering; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for author(s), keywords, subject category, title, geographic location, measured parameters, measured radionuclides, and publication description.

  15. Summary discussion of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BASABILVAZO,G.; JOW,HONG-NIAN; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-19

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for total radionuclide release from the WIPP to the accessible environment is described. The resultant CCDFs (1) combine releases due to cuttings and cavings, spallings, direct brine release, and long-term transport in flowing groundwater, (2) fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standard 40 CFR 191 for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste, and (3) constitute an important component of the DOE's successful Compliance Certification Application to the EPA for the WIPP. Insights and perspectives gained in the performance assessment (PA) that led to these CCDFs are described, including the importance of (1) an iterative approach to PA, (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, (3) a clear conceptual model for the analysis, (4) the separation of stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, (5) quality assurance procedures, (6) early involvement of peer reviewers, regulators, and stake holders, (7) avoidance of conservative assumptions, and (8) adequate documentation.

  16. Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N.; Marietta, M.G.

    1998-10-14

    The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.

  17. Genoprotective effects of lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Prashantha; Rozman, Hj Din; Bhat, Rajeev

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor waste (BLW), a major by-product of palm oil extraction process contains lignin as one of the constituents. Lignin isolated from BLW was evaluated for antioxidant and genoprotective properties and was compared with the commercial lignin for overall efficacy. Antioxidant compounds (phenolics and tannins) and antioxidant activities (phosphomolybdenum assay, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays) of lignin isolated from BLW were compared with commercial lignin. Bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test was employed for evaluating the dose-yield protective effect against cyclophosphamide (CP, 50mg/kg b.w.) induced genotoxicity in mouse. Results revealed isolated lignin to exhibit rich antioxidant activities. A decrease in MN frequency and recovery of P/N ratio (P: polychromatic erythrocytes, N: normochromatic erhythocytes) indicated protective effects of lignin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The efficacy of BLW-derived lignin as an antioxidant and genoprotective agent was comparable to commercial lignin. Results on lignin isolated from BLW are envisaged to find potential applications in food and/or pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction, isolation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from industrial kelp (Laminaria japonica) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenhua; Li, Xinping; Xie, Wei; Deng, Haoyuan

    2017-10-01

    Kelp (Laminaria japonica) is an economically important type of algae cultured in East Asia. Kelp waste is a by-product from the extraction of commercial alginate from kelp. This work reports the isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from the cellulose extracted from the kelp waste. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) show that the crystallinity index of the isolated kelp NCC was 69.4%, which was slightly higher than that of kelp cellulose as well as maintained the cellulose I crystalline form and typical cellulose chemical structure. In thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), kelp NCC showed decreased thermostability and a higher residual mass. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) confirmed the ordinary rod-like shape of the produced NCC with various dimensions. The kelp NCC aqueous dispersions displayed the expected characteristic optical and gel effects. Studies on the variables and the orthogonal experiment of NCC preparation contributed a maximum yield of 52.3%. The exploration on the preparation of kelp NCC in this study lays foundations for future applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under-predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under-predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  20. Reinvestigation into Closure Predictions of Room D at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Room D was an in-situ, isothermal, underground experiment conducted at theWaste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1984 and 1991. The room was carefully instrumented to measure the horizontal and vertical closure immediately upon excavation and for several years thereafter. Early finite element simulations of salt creep around Room D under predicted the vertical closure by 4.5×, causing investigators to explore a series of changes to the way Room D was modeled. Discrepancies between simulations and measurements were resolved through a series of adjustments to model parameters, which were openly acknowledged in published reports. Interest in Room D has been rekindled recently by the U.S./German Joint Project III and Project WEIMOS, which seek to improve the predictions of rock salt constitutive models. Joint Project participants calibrate their models solely against laboratory tests, and benchmark the models against underground experiments, such as room D. This report describes updating legacy Room D simulations to today’s computational standards by rectifying several numerical issues. Subsequently, the constitutive model used in previous modeling is recalibrated two different ways against a suite of new laboratory creep experiments on salt extracted from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Simulations with the new, laboratory-based, calibrations under predict Room D vertical closure by 3.1×. A list of potential improvements is discussed.

  1. Electromagnetic Processing as a Way of Increasing Microbiological Safety of Animal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, O. M.; Kolosova, M. M.; Filipovich, L. A.; Aksenov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The article shows the possibility of using the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (EMF UHF) for drying and disinfecting of such animal waste as pig manure and poultry droppings. The studied modes included the following options: processing exposure of 60, 90, 120 sec, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. The method of UHF processing of manure and poultry droppings is environmentally safe and effective in neutralizing the pathogenic microflora, as well as larvae and eggs of worms. The following processing mode of animal waste in the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency was recognized as optimal: exposure of 90 seconds, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. This option leads to the complete destruction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the eggs and larvae of worms. As a result of this processing, a high level of microbiological safety of pig manure and poultry droppings is achieved that allows using them as organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of some species of pathogenic fungi developing on the surface of the wheat grain are shown. Pre-processed animal waste (pig manure and and poultry droppings) were applied in experimental variants. Used organic fertilizers underwent electromagnetic processing of ultra-high frequency. The qualitative composition of the microflora on the surface of the grain depends on the type of animal waste (manure or droppings) and used dose. The safest part of the microflora of grain was marked with the application of the UHF-processed pig manure and poultry droppings in doses of 10 t/ha.

  2. Characterization of cultivated fungi isolated from grape marc wastes through the use of amplified rDNA restriction analysis and sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2010-06-01

    Microbial assessment of grape marc wastes, the residual solid by-product of the wine-industry, was performed by identifying phylogenetically the fungal culturable diversity in order to evaluate environmental and disposal safety issues and to discuss ecological considerations of applications on agricultural land. Fungal spores in grape marc were estimated to 4.7 x 10(6) per g dry weight. Fifty six fungal isolates were classified into eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) following amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and colony morphology. Based on 18S rRNA gene and 5.8S rRNA gene-ITS sequencing, the isolates representing OTUs #1, #2, #3, and #4, which comprised 44.6%, 26.8%, 12.5%, and 5.3%, respectively, of the number of the total isolates, were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Bionectria ochroleuca, Haematonectria haematococca, and Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans. The isolates of OTU#5 demonstrated high phylogenetic affinity with Penicillium spp., while members of OTUs #6 and #7 were closer linked with Geotrichum candidum var. citri-aurantii and Mycocladus corymbifer, respectively (95.4 and 97.9% similarities in respect to their 5.8S rRNA gene-ITS sequences). The OTU#8 with a single isolate was related with Aspergillus strains. It appears that most of the fungal isolates are associated with the initial raw material. Despite the fact that some of the species identified may potentially act as pathogens, measures such as the avoidance of maintaining large and unprocessed quantities of grape marc wastes in premises without adequate aeration, together with its suitable biological treatment (e.g., composting) prior to any agriculture-related application, could eliminate any pertinent health risks.

  3. Bioleaching of Gold and Silver from Waste Printed Circuit Boards by Pseudomonas balearica SAE1 Isolated from an e-Waste Recycling Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Saini, Harvinder Singh; Kumar, Sudhir

    2018-02-01

    Indigenous bacterial strain Pseudomonas balearica SAE1, tolerant to e-waste toxicity was isolated from an e-waste recycling facility Exigo Recycling Pvt. Ltd., India. Toxicity tolerance of bacterial strain was analyzed using crushed (particle size ≤150 µm) waste computer printed circuit boards (PCBs)/liter (L) of culture medium. The EC 50 value for SAE1 was 325.7 g/L of the e-waste pulp density. Two-step bioleaching was then applied to achieve the dissolution of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) from the e-waste. To maximize precious metal dissolution, factors including pulp density, glycine concentration, pH level, and temperature were optimized. The optimization resulted in 68.5 and 33.8% of Au and Ag dissolution, respectively, at a pH of 9.0, a pulp density of 10 g/L, a temperature of 30 °C, and a glycine concentration of 5 g/L. This is the first study of Au and Ag bioleaching using indigenous e-waste bacteria and its analysis to determine e-waste toxicity tolerance.

  4. A contribution from fundamental and applied technetium chemistry to the nuclear waste disposal safety case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totskiy, Yury; Yalcintas, Ezgi; Huber, Florian; Gaona, Xavier; Schaefer, Thorsten; Altmaier, Marcus; Geckeis, Horst [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal in deep geological formations such as crystalline (granite), sedimentary (claystone) or rock salt, is the favored option of the international nuclear waste disposal community. For the long-term safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, a reliable prediction of radionuclide migration behavior is required. A potentially relevant mobilization and migration mechanism is caused by water intrusion into the repository, leading to radionuclide release via transport pathways. In this case, detailed knowledge of key parameters controlling the retention and mobilization of radionuclides in solution, i.e. redox processes, solubility limits and sorption properties, is essential. Dedicated research is required in order to derive process understanding and develop accurate site-independent chemical and thermodynamic models, applicable for all considered host rock formations and scenarios. Technetium-99 is a β-emitting fission product highly relevant for the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories due to its significant content in radioactive waste (fission yield >6%), long half-life (t{sub 1/2} ∼ 2.1.10{sup 5} a) and redox sensitivity. The mobility of Tc in the environment strongly depends on its oxidation state. Tc(VII) exists as highly soluble and mobile TcO{sub 4-} pertechnetate anion under sub-oxic and oxidizing conditions, whereas Tc(IV) forms sparingly soluble hydrous oxide (TcO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O) solid phases under reducing conditions. In the first part of this study focusing on fundamental Tc chemistry, the redox behavior of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) was investigated in dilute to concentrated solutions. The results are systematized according to Pourbaix diagrams calculated with the NEA.TDB data selection for Tc to assess the effect of homogeneous and heterogeneous reducing systems and ionic strength on Tc redox behaviour. Investigations focusing on the solubility and speciation of TcO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O(s) were performed in dilute to

  5. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  6. Efficacy and safety of circumferential pulmonary vein isolation using a novel cryothermal balloon ablation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabanda, Alvaro V; Bunch, T Jared; Johnson, Susan B; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Milton, Mark A; Leite, Luiz R; Bruce, G Keith; Packer, Douglas L

    2005-11-15

    We sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel cryothermal balloon ablation system in creating pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. Pulmonary vein isolation using standard radiofrequency ablation techniques is limited by procedure-related complications, such as thrombus formation and PV stenosis. Cryothermal ablation may reduce the risk of such complications. Eight dogs underwent circumferential ablation of both superior PVs for either 4 or 8 min using a cryothermal balloon catheter (CryoCath Technologies Inc., Kirkland, Canada). Both fluoroscopy and intracardiac ultrasound (ICE)-guided balloon and Lasso catheter positioning at the PV ostia assessed short-term PV integrity. In six additional dogs, long-term PV integrity was assessed by computed tomography at 16 weeks after ablation. Successful electrical isolation was achieved acutely in 14 of 16 (87.5%) PVs and was confirmed in one-week survival studies in 10 of 12 (83%) PVs. Successful isolation was higher in the absence of any peri-balloon flow leak as seen by ICE (p = 0.015), and with balloon temperatures ablation system is effective for isolating PVs, but injury to the right phrenic nerve was noted in this early experience. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique.

  7. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 7. Baseline rock properties-basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/7 Baseline Rock Properties--Basalt, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This report contains an evaluation of the results of a literature survey to define the rock mass properties of a generic basalt, which could be considered as a geological medium for storing radioactive waste. The general formation and structure of basaltic rocks is described. This is followed by specific descriptions and rock property data for the Dresser Basalt, the Amchitka Island Basalt, the Nevada Test Site Basalt and the Columbia River Group Basalt. Engineering judgment has been used to derive the rock mass properties of a typical basalt from the relevant intact rock property data and the geological information pertaining to structural defects, such as joints and faults.

  8. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Research is reported on: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, TRU waste immobilization and decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, /sup 129/I fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation, waste management system and safety studies, effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, backfill material, spent fuel storage (criticality), barrier sealing and liners for U mill tailings, and revegetation of inactive U tailings sites. (DLC)

  9. Bacillus niabensis sp. nov., isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Byung-Yong; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Jung-Bong; Go, Seung-Joo; Lee, Gil-Bok

    2007-08-01

    A group of five bacilli, designated strains 4T12, 4T19(T), 5M45, 5M53 and 5T52, isolated from cotton-waste composts for mushroom cultivation, were examined. These strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, spore-forming rods. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus, showing the highest levels of similarity (approx. 96.6-96.9 %) with respect to Bacillus herbersteinensis DSM 16534(T). The values for DNA-DNA hybridization (approx. 85-96 %) among these five strains revealed that they belong to the same species. The major menaquinone present was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (approx. 24.5-33.9 %) and C(16 : 0) (approx. 15.1-34.1 %). The DNA G+C contents were 37.7-40.9 mol%. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and comparative genomic analyses, the five isolates represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus niabensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 4T19(T) (=KACC 11279(T) =DSM 17723(T)).

  10. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  11. Influence of climate on landscape characteristics in safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J K; Lindborg, T; Thorne, M C

    2014-12-01

    In safety assessments of repositories for radioactive wastes, large spatial and temporal scales have to be considered when developing an approach to risk calculations. A wide range of different types of information may be required. Local to the site of interest, temperature and precipitation data may be used to determine the erosional regime (which may also be conditioned by the vegetation characteristics adopted, based both on climatic and other considerations). However, geomorphological changes may be governed by regional rather than local considerations, e.g. alteration of river base levels, river capture and drainage network reorganisation, or the progression of an ice sheet or valley glacier across the site. The regional climate is in turn governed by the global climate. In this work, a commentary is presented on the types of climate models that can be used to develop projections of climate change for use in post-closure radiological impact assessments of geological repositories for radioactive wastes. These models include both Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models and Earth Models of Intermediate Complexity. The relevant outputs available from these models are identified and consideration is given to how these outputs may be used to inform projections of landscape development. Issues of spatial and temporal downscaling of climate model outputs to meet the requirements of local-scale landscape development modelling are also addressed. An example is given of how climate change and landscape development influence the radiological impact of radionuclides potentially released from the deep geological disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel that SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) proposes to construct at Forsmark, Sweden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Challenge problem and milestones for : Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Howard, Robert; McNeish, Jerry A.; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the specification of a challenge problem and associated challenge milestones for the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The NEAMS challenge problems are designed to demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards IPSC goals. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. To demonstrate proof of concept and progress towards these goals and requirements, a Waste IPSC challenge problem is specified that includes coupled thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes that describe (1) the degradation of a borosilicate glass waste form and the corresponding mobilization of radionuclides (i.e., the processes that produce the radionuclide source term), (2) the associated near-field physical and chemical environment for waste emplacement within a salt formation, and (3) radionuclide transport in the near field (i.e., through the engineered components - waste form, waste package, and backfill - and the immediately adjacent salt). The initial details of a set of challenge milestones that collectively comprise the full challenge problem are also specified.

  13. Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability. OECD Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Special Issue of Bioresource Technology is dedicated to selected contributions presented at the international Workshop: “Livestock waste treatment systems of the future: A challenge to environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability,” held 2-4 April, 2008, in Florence, South Carolina (US...

  14. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  15. Chromium(VI)-resistant yeast isolated from a sewage treatment plant receiving tannery wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, F; Vaughan, A M; Olson, G J

    1990-01-01

    A Cr(VI)-resistant yeast, designated strain DBVPG 6502, was isolated from a sewage treatment plant receiving wastes from tannery industries in Italy. The strain was tentatively identified as a species of Candida based on morphological and physiological analyses. This strain was highly resistant to Cr(VI) when compared with eight other yeast species, growing at Cr(VI) concentrations of up to 500 micrograms/ml (10 mM). This resistance was constitutive. The Cr(VI)-resistant yeast did not reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) species under aerobic conditions. The yeast showed very little accumulation of Cr(VI). Consequently, the mechanism of resistance of the yeast to Cr(VI) appears to involve reduced accumulation of Cr, as has been shown in Cr(VI)-resistant bacteria. Images PMID:2339879

  16. Isolation of Paenibacillus glucanolyticus from pulp mill sources with potential to deconstruct pulping waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Stephanie L; Pawlak, Joel J; Grunden, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    Black liquor is a pulping waste generated by the kraft process that has potential for downstream bioconversion. A microorganism was isolated from a black liquor sample collected from the Department of Forest Biomaterials at North Carolina State University. The organism was identified as Paenibacillus glucanolyticus using 16S rRNA sequence analysis and was shown to be capable of growth on black liquor as the sole carbon source based on minimal media growth studies. Minimal media growth curves demonstrated that this facultative anaerobic microorganism can degrade black liquor as well as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify products generated by P. glucanolyticus when it was grown anaerobically on black liquor. Fermentation products which could be converted into high-value chemicals such as succinic, propanoic, lactic, and malonic acids were detected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase supplemental environmental impact statement. Implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Implementation Plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Phase Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) has two primary purposes: (1) To report on the results of the scoping process (2) To provide guidance for preparing SEIS-II SEIS-II will be the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review for WIPP`s disposal phase. Chapter 1 of this plan provides background on WIPP and this NEPA review. Chapter 2 describes the purpose and need for action by the Department of Energy (hereafter DOE or the Department), as well as a description of the Proposed Action and alternatives being considered. Chapter 3 describes the work plan, including the schedule, responsibilities, and planned consultations with other agencies and organizations. Chapter 4 describes the scoping process, presents major issues identified during the scoping process, and briefly indicates how issues will be addressed in SEIS-II.

  18. Complex formation of U(VI) with Bacillus-isolates from a uranium mining waste pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panak, P.J.; Nitsche, H. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Center; Raff, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie

    2000-07-01

    Accumulation studies with vegetative cells and spores of three Bacillus isolates (JG-A 30, JG-A 12, JG-A 22, classified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus megaterium) from a uranium mining waste pile (Johanngeorgenstadt, Saxony) and their corresponding reference strains have shown that Bacilli accumulate high amounts of U(VI) in the concentration range examined (11-214 mg/L). Information on the binding strength and the reversibility were obtained from extraction studies with different extractants. With 0.01 M EDTA solution the uranium bound to the biomass was released almost quantitatively. The characterization of the bacterial-UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}-complexes by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) showed the formation of inner-sphere complexes with phosphate groups of the biomass. The results lead to the conclusion that the cell wall components with phosphate residues e.g., polysaccharides, teichoic and teichuroic acids or phospholipide layers of the membranes are responsible for the uranium binding. The spectroscopic studies of the U(VI)-complexes with isolated bacterial cell walls and isolated surface-layer proteins of the strain Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602 after cell fractionation have shown that the complexation of U(VI) with intact cells (vegetative cells or spores) is different from the coordination with isolated cell wall components, especially with the S-layer proteins. For all Bacillus strains studied in this work, a significant contribution of the S-layer proteins to the binding of uranyl to living cells can be excluded. (orig.)

  19. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). WIPP Performance Assessments Departments; Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant annual site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Operational Environmental Monitoring Plan (OEMP) defined a comprehensive set of parameters which are monitored to detect potential environmental impacts and establish baselines for future environmental evaluations. Surface water and groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radioactivity levels. Nonradiological environmental monitoring activities include air, water quality, soil properties, meteorological measurements and determination of the status of the local biological community. Ecological studies focus on the immediate area surrounding the WIPP site with emphasis on the salt storage pile. The baseline radiological surveillance covers a broader geographic area including nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Since the WIPP is still in its preoperational phase (i.e., no waste has been received) certain operational requirements of DOE Orders 5400.1, 5400.5, and the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T) are not relevant. Therefore, this report does not discuss items such as radionuclide emissions and effluents and subsequent doses to the public.

  1. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  2. Biosorption of Cadmium and Manganese Using Free Cells of Klebsiella sp. Isolated from Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yunnan; Cheng, Keke; Li, Zehua; Ma, Xiaohui; Wei, Yahong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yao

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated a bacterium that was isolated from waste water for its ability to take up cadmium and manganese. The strain, identified both biochemically and by its 16S rRNA gene sequence as Klebsiella, was named Yangling I2 and was found to be highly resistant to heavy metals. Surface characterization of the bacterium via SEM revealed gross morphological changes, with cells appearing as biconcave discs after metal exposure rather than their typical rod shape. The effects of pH, temperature, heavy metal concentration, agitation and biomass concentration on the uptake of Cd(II) and Mn(II) was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the biosorption was most affected by pH and incubation temperature, being maximized at pH 5.0 and 30°C, with absorption capacities of 170.4 and 114.1 mg/g for Cd(II) and Mn(II), respectively. Two models were investigated to compare the cells’ capacity for the biosorption of Cd and Mn, and the Langmuir model based on fuzzy linear regression was found to be close to the observed absorption curves and yield binding constants of 0.98 and 0.86 for Cd and Mn, respectively. This strain of Klebsiella has approximately ten times the absorption capacity reported for other strains and is promising for the removal of heavy metals from waste water. PMID:26505890

  3. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 21. Ground water movement and nuclide transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    This volume, TM-36/21 Ground Water Movement and Nuclide Transport, is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-36'' which supplements a ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations, Y/OWI/TM-44.'' The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. The studies presented in this volume consider the effect of the construction of the repository and the consequent heat generation on the ground water movement. Additionally, the source concentrations and leach rates of selected radionuclides were studied in relation to the estimated ground water inflow rates. Studies were also performed to evaluate the long term migration of radionuclides as affected by the ground water flow. In all these studies, three geologic environments are considered; granite, shale and basalt.

  5. CHANDA and ERINDA: Joint European programs for research on safety of nuclear facilities and waste reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Roland; Hannaske, Roland; Koegler, Toni [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz Zentrum DD-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Grosse, Eckart [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, TU Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Junghans, Arnd R. [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz Zentrum DD-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    In spite of the planned termination of the German nuclear power program neutron beam facilities in Germany can contribute considerably to research studies on the reduction of hazards due to nuclear waste. Transnational research programs support EU groups who want to carry out projects at the new tof set-up nELBE at HZDR, the calibrated n-flux at PTB and the FRANZ accelerator under construction at Frankfurt. Vice versa various facilities in the EU offer beams for transmutation and safety related studies with neutrons to German scientists under support by ERINDA (2011-2013) and CHANDA (2014-2017; solving challenges in nuclear data for the safety of European nuclear facilities). For work in that field scientific visits are also fostered to improve the exchange of experience between the partners (13 and in future about 35 from 18 countries). Plans for new projects as well as results obtained so far are discussed, and special emphasis is given to the present research performed at nELBE on neutron scattering and absorption.

  6. Progress report on safety research on radioactive waste management for the period April 1996 to March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Muraoka, Susumu; Banba, Tsunetaka [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities on radioactive waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Natural Barrier Laboratory and Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1996 and 1997 (April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1998). The topics are as follows: (1) In the research and development of waste forms and engineered barrier, studies on development of ceramic waste forms, the leaching behaviors from glass waste at reduced condition and sorption behaviors on backfill materials have been carried out. (2) In studies on shallow land disposal, studies on the migration behaviors of radionuclides in the presence of humic acid have been carried out. (3) In the studies on geological disposal, the studies on diffusivity in rock formation, in-situ migration and diffusion experiments, sorption mechanism, fixation mechanism, natural analogue study and geochronology have been carried out. (author)

  7. Draft forecast of the final report for the comparison to 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Anderson, D.R.; Gomez, L.S.; Rechard, R.P. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes, which have been generated by defense programs, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The WIPP Project will assess compliance with the requirements of the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This report forecasts the planned 1992 document, Comparison to 40 CFR, Part 191, Subpart B, for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 130 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of probiotic characteristics of siderophoregenic Bacillus spp. isolated from dairy waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anil K; Ahire, Jayesh J; Pawar, Shrikant P; Chaudhari, Bhushan L; Shouche, Yogesh S; Chincholkar, Sudhir Bhaskarrao

    2010-01-01

    Siderophoregenic Bacillus strain DET9 has been selectively isolated from dairy waste. It was evaluated for probiotic characteristics and susceptibility pattern against antibiotics. Its spores showed excellent tolerance to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions and exhibited antimicrobial activity against organisms such as Escherichia coli, Micrococcus flavus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Its susceptibility to antibiotics reduces the prospect to donate resistance determinants if administered in the form of probiotic preparations. It was observed to produce approximately 60 mg/l catecholate type of siderophore under iron stressed conditions, identified as a 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectral analysis. Partial 16S-rRNA gene sequencing analysis shows that the isolate exhibited homology with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis, whereas biochemical characterization revealed its novelty. DET9 exhibited no mortality of fishes in a 60-day trial, when fishes (surfi tetra) were challenged up to 100 ppm cell concentration, with their daily diet.

  9. Genetic diversity, safety and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal Pico cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos-Lopes, M F P; Stanton, C; Ross, P R; Dapkevicius, M L E; Silva, C C G

    2017-05-01

    A total of 114 lactic acid bacteria were isolated at one and 21 days of ripening from a traditional raw cow's milk cheese without the addition of starter culture, produced by three artisanal cheese-makers in Azores Island (Pico, Portugal). Identification to species and strain level was accomplished by16S rRNA gene and PFGE analysis. Carbohydrate utilization profiles were obtained with the relevant API kits. Isolates were evaluated according to safety and technological criteria. The most frequently observed genus identified by 16S rRNA sequencing analysis was Enterococcus, whereas API system mostly identified Lactobacillus. The highest percentages of antibiotic resistance were to nalidixic acid (95%), and aminoglycosides (64-87%). All isolates were sensitive to several beta-lactam antibiotics and negative for histamine and DNase production. Gelatinase activity was detected in 49.1% of isolates, 43% were able to degrade casein and 93% were α-hemolytic. Most enterococci presented virulence genes, such as gelE, asaI, ace. Diacetyl production was found to be species dependent and one strain (Leu. citreum) produced exopolysaccharides. Selected strains were further studied for technological application and were found to be slow acid producers in milk and experimental cheeses, a desirable trait for adjunct cultures. Two strains were selected on the basis of technological and safety application as adjunct cultures in cheese production and presented the best cheese aroma and flavor in consumer preference tests. This is the first effort to characterize Pico cheese LAB isolates for potential application as adjunct cultures; the results suggest the potential of two strains to improve the quality of this traditional raw milk product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 72612 - Criteria for the Certification and Recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... waste characterization activities at DOE WIPP waste generator sites, and offer more direct public input...\\ Conditions 2 and 3 of the final certification decision apply to activities conducted at waste generator sites... protect site workers from a hypothetical methane or hydrogen explosion inside a filled waste panel. These...

  11. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. A brief description of the three-dimensional finite element ground-water flow model adapted for waste isolation safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.R.; Gupta, S.K.

    1979-08-01

    Four levels of hydrologic models have been categorized to handle varying complexities and degrees of available input parameters. The first level is for the simplest one-dimensional models having analytical solutions; the second level includes idealized analytic or hybrid analytic models for single aquifer systems with scanty input data; the third level deals with more complex single or quasi-multilayered systems; and the fourth level is for complex multilayered systems. The three-dimensional finite element ground-water model described in this report falls under the fourth level of hydrologic models. This model is capable of simulating single-layered systems having variable thickness or multilayered systems where not only thickness can be varied, but the number of layers can be changed to agree with the vertical geologic section. Supporting programs have been developed to plot grid values, contour maps and three-dimensional graphics of the input data used in simulation as well as the results obtained. At present, the model considers only confined aquifers. The capabilities of the model were demonstrated by using a test case consisting of the multilayered ground-water system beneath Long Island, New York.

  12. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) verification and validation plan. version 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Urbina, Angel; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Howard, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); McCornack, Marjorie Turner

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. To meet this objective, NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities will be applied to challenging spatial domains, temporal domains, multiphysics couplings, and multiscale couplings. A strategic verification and validation (V&V) goal is to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities. Because it is economically impractical to apply the maximum V&V rigor to each and every M&S capability, M&S capabilities will be ranked for their impact on the performance assessments of various components of the repository systems. Those M&S capabilities with greater impact will require a greater level of confidence and a correspondingly greater investment in V&V. This report includes five major components: (1) a background summary of the NEAMS Waste IPSC to emphasize M&S challenges; (2) the conceptual foundation for verification, validation, and confidence assessment of NEAMS Waste IPSC M&S capabilities; (3) specifications for the planned verification, validation, and confidence-assessment practices; (4) specifications for the planned evidence information management system; and (5) a path forward for the incremental implementation of this V&V plan.

  13. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  14. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  15. Reuse of red seaweed waste by a novel bacterium, Bacillus sp. SYR4 isolated from a sandbar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soyeon; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    A potent bacterial strain was isolated from a sandbar and identified as Bacillus sp. SYR4 for the reuse of red seaweed waste. The isolate possessed both agarase and carrageenase activities. The optimal pH and temperature for the degradation of both agar and carrageenan by the isolate were found to be pH 7.5 and 30 °C, respectively. The effects of cations on cell growth and degradation ability of the isolate were significant in comparison with controls. The isolate produced 0.27 and 0.29 g l(-1) of reducing sugars from 1 g l(-1) of agar and carrageenan, respectively. When the isolate was cultivated in red seaweed powder medium for 10 days, the yield of reducing sugars was 24 %. As a result, the eco-friendly reuse of red seaweed waste by this isolate appears to be feasible for the production of reducing sugars and could be a valuable resource. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to directly demonstrate the ability of Bacillus sp. SYR4 to degrade both agar and carrageenan.

  16. The role of quantitative uncertainty in the safety analysis of flammable gas accidents in Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, D.R.

    1998-05-18

    Following a 1990 investigation into flammable gas generation, retention, and release mechanisms within the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks, personnel concluded that the existing Authorization Basis documentation did not adequately evaluate flammable gas hazards. The US Department of Energy Headquarters subsequently declared the flammable gas hazard as an unresolved safety issue. Although work scope has been focused on resolution of the issue, it has yet to be resolved due to considerable uncertainty regarding essential technical parameters and associated risk. Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue will include the identification of a set of controls for the Authorization Basis for the tanks which will require a safety analysis of flammable gas accidents. A traditional nuclear facility safety analysis is based primarily on the analysis of a set of bounding accidents to represent the risks of the possible accidents and hazardous conditions at a facility. While this approach may provide some indication of the bounding consequences of accidents for facilities, it does not provide a satisfactory basis for identification of facility risk or safety controls when there is considerable uncertainty associated with accident phenomena and/or data as is the case with potential flammable gas accidents at the Hanford Site. This is due to the difficulties in identifying the bounding case and reaching consensus among safety analysts, facility operations and engineering, and the regulator on the implications of the safety analysis results. In addition, the bounding cases are frequently based on simplifying assumptions that make the analysis results insensitive to variations among facilities or the impact of alternative safety control strategies. The existing safety analysis of flammable gas accidents for the Tank Waste Remediation system (TWRS) at the Hanford Site has these difficulties. However, Hanford Site personnel are developing a refined safety analysis approach

  17. Organic Cultivation of Tomato in India with Recycled Slaughterhouse Wastes: Evaluation of Fertilizer and Fruit Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malancha Roy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and health safety of recycled slaughterhouse wastes-derived fertilizer and the produce obtained through its application is not well understood. Waste bovine blood and rumen digesta were mixed, cooked and sun-dried to obtain bovine-blood-and-rumen-digesta-mixture (BBRDM, NPK 30.36:1:5.75. 1.26 ± 0.18 log CFU mL−1 fecal coliforms were recovered in BBRDM. E. coli O157:H7, Mycobacteria, Clostridium sp., Salmonella sp., Bacillus sp. and Brucella sp. were absent. No re-growth of pathogens was observed after 60 days storage in sealed bags and in the open. However, prions and viruses were not evaluated. Heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Mn concentrations in BBRDM were within internationally permissible limits. BBRDM was applied for field cultivation of tomato during 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. Lycopene and nitrate contents of BBRDM-grown tomatoes were higher than Diammonium phosphate (DAP + potash-grown tomatoes because BBRDM supplied 2.5 times more the amount of nitrogen than DAP (NPK 18:46:0 + potash (NPK 0:0:44. Heavy metals and nitrate/nitrite concentrations in tomatoes were within internationally acceptable limits. BBRDM-grown tomatoes showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Sub-acute toxicity tests on Wistar rats fed with BBRDM-grown tomatoes did not show adverse clinical picture. Thus, no immediate environmental or health risks associated with BBRDM and the tomatoes produced were identified.

  18. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  19. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  20. Conceptualization and software development of a simulation environment for probalistic safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghofrani, Javad

    2016-05-26

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of complex simulation models are prominent issues, both in scientific research and education. ReSUS (Repository Simulation, Uncertainty propagation and Sensitivity analysis) is an integrated platform to perform such analysis with numerical models that simulate the THMC (Thermal Hydraulical Mechanical and Chemical) coupled processes via different programs, in particular in the context of safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. This thesis presents the idea behind the software platform ReSUS and its working mechanisms. Apart from the idea and the working mechanisms, the thesis describes applications related to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In this thesis, previous simulation tools (including the preceding version of ReSUS) are analyzed in order to provide a comprehensive view of the state of the art. In comparison to this state, a more sophisticated software tool is developed here, which provides features which are not offered by previous simulation tools. To achieve this objective, the software platform ReSUS provides a framework for handling probabilistic data uncertainties using deterministic external simulation tools, thus enhancing uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. This platform performs probabilistic simulations of various models, in particular THMC coupled processes, using stand-alone deterministic simulation software tools. The complete software development process of the ReSUS Platform is discussed in this thesis. ReSUS components are developed as libraries, which are capable of being linked to other code implementations. In addition, ASCII template files are used as means for uncertainty propagation into the input files of deterministic simulation tools. The embedded input sampler and analysis tools allow for sensitivity analysis in several kinds of simulation designs. The novelty of the ReSUS platform consists in the flexibility to assign external stand-alone software

  1. Krypton-81 in groundwater of the Culebra Dolomite near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturchio, Neil C; Kuhlman, Kristopher L; Yokochi, Reika; Probst, Peter C; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Yang, Guo-Min

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico is the first geologic repository for disposal of transuranic nuclear waste from defense-related programs of the US Department of Energy. It is constructed within halite beds of the Permian-age Salado Formation. The Culebra Dolomite, confined within Rustler Formation evaporites overlying the Salado Formation, is a potential pathway for radionuclide transport from the repository to the accessible environment in the human-disturbed repository scenario. Although extensive subsurface characterization and numerical flow modeling of groundwater has been done in the vicinity of the WIPP, few studies have used natural isotopic tracers to validate the flow models and to better understand solute transport at this site. The advent of Atom-Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) has enabled routine measurement of cosmogenic (81)Kr (half-life 229,000 yr), a near-ideal tracer for long-term groundwater transport. We measured (81)Kr in saline groundwater sampled from two Culebra Dolomite monitoring wells near the WIPP site, and compared (81)Kr model ages with reverse particle-tracking results of well-calibrated flow models. The (81)Kr model ages are ~130,000 and ~330,000 yr for high-transmissivity and low-transmissivity portions of the formation, respectively. Compared with flow model results which indicate a relatively young mean hydraulic age (~32,000 yr), the (81)Kr model ages imply substantial physical attenuation of conservative solutes in the Culebra Dolomite and provide limits on the effective diffusivity of contaminants into the confining aquitards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

  3. Annual water quality data report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, M.L. (International Technology Corp., Torrance, CA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    This is the fourth Annual Water Quality Data Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP project is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic radioactive wastes generated by the defense activities of the United States Government. This report presents water quality data collected from January 1988 through December 1988 from 16 designated pre-operational (WIPP facility) monitoring wells, two additional wells, and 10 privately-owned wells in the vicinity of the WIPP. Additionally, water samples were collected from the Air Intake Shaft during shaft construction activities at the WIPP. This report lists pertinent information regarding the monitoring wells sampled, sampling zone, dates pumped, and types of samples collected during 1988. Comparative data from previous samplings of all wells can be found in Uhland and Randall (1986), Uhland et al. (1987), Randall et al. (1988), as well as in this report. The data reported by the Water Quality Sampling Program in this and previous reports indicate that serial sampling is a very useful tool in determining sample representativeness from wells in the WIPP vicinity. Serial sample field chemistry data are demonstrated to be highly accurate and precise as indicated by the excellent overall average percent spike recovery values and low RPD values reported for the sampling events. Serial sample field chemistry data and laboratory water quality parameter analyses gathered by the WQSP since January 1985 are the foundation for a pre-operational water quality baseline at the WIPP. 32 refs., 66 figs., 96 tabs.

  4. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  6. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes.

  7. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of four material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base and Ti-base (alternative packaging) materials, and Al-base (simulated waste) materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments consisted primarily of anoxic brine with overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}. Limited tests of low-carbon steel were also performed in simulated-backfill environments and in brine environments with pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H{sub 2} on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO{sub 2} caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO{sub 2}-induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO{sub 2} were present in sufficient quantities. Addition of H{sub 2}S to a CO{sub 2}-passivated system caused reversal of the passivation. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H{sub 2}S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of FeS. Addition of CO{sub 2} to an H{sub 2}S-passivated system did not reverse the passivation. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H{sub 2}S. The Al-base materials reacted at approximately the same rate as low-carbon steel when immersed in anoxic Brine A; considerably more rapidly in the presence of CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S; and much more rapidly when iron was present in the system as a brine contaminant. High-purity Al was much more susceptible to corrosion than the 6061 alloy. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures.

  8. Water-level data from wells in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored water levels in wells in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a storage facility constructed in bedded salts in which defense-associated transuranic wastes will be deposited, in southeastern New Mexico during 1977 to 1985. A variety of methods was used to measure water levels. The particular method utilized at a given time depended on several factors, including the amount of condensation in the well, well-head configuration, depth to water, rate of water level change, and availability of equipment. The five methods utilized were: air line, Lynes pressure sentry system, M-scope, steel tape, and winch. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  10. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-11-07

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  11. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  12. Composting of food and yard wastes by locally isolated fungal strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC2094), Lentinus tigrinus M609RQY, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. were used as inocula in source separated organics (food and yard trimmings) from solid waste (SW) to produce biofertilizer and stabilize waste constituents. The results ...

  13. Characteristics of spent fuel, high-level waste, and other radioactive wastes which may require long-term isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this report, and the information contained in the associated computerized data bases, is to establish the DOE/OCRWM reference characteristics of the radioactive waste materials that may be accepted by DOE for emplacement in the mined geologic disposal system as developed under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This report provides relevant technical data for use by DOE and its supporting contractors and is not intended to be a policy document. This document is backed up by five PC-compatible data bases, written in a user-oriented, menu-driven format, which were developed for this purpose.

  14. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Mark L.; Eriksson, Leif G.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the URL and the repository are situated approximately 650 meters (m) below the ground surface in a 250-million-year-old, 600-m-thick, undisturbed, bedded salt formation, and they have been in operation since 1982 and 1999, respectively. Founded on long-standing CBFO collaborations with international and national radioactive waste management organizations, since 2001, WIPP serves as the Center of Excellence in Rock Salt for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Network of Centers on ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities'' (the IAEA Network). The primary objective for the IAEA Network is to foster collaborative projects among IAEA Member States that: supplement national efforts and promote public confidence in waste disposal schemes; contribute to the resolution of key technical issues; and encourage the transfer and preservation of knowledge and technologies.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment: Radionuclide Release Sensitivity to Diminished Brine and Gas Flows to/from Transuranic Waste Disposal Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A. Day

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  16. Waste isolation pilot plant performance assessment: Radionuclide release sensitivity to diminished brine and gas flows to/from transuranic waste disposal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Brad A.; Camphouse, R. C.; Zeitler, Todd R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository releases are evaluated through the application of modified parameters to simulate accelerated creep closure, include capillary pressure effects on relative permeability, and increase brine and gas saturation in the operations and experimental (OPS/EXP) areas. The modifications to the repository model result in increased pressures and decreased brine saturations in waste areas and increased pressures and brine saturations in the OPS/EXP areas. Brine flows up the borehole during a hypothetical drilling intrusion are nearly identical and brine flows up the shaft are decreased. The modified parameters essentially halt the flow of gas from the southern waste areas to the northern nonwaste areas, except as transported through the marker beds and anhydrite layers. The combination of slightly increased waste region pressures and very slightly decreased brine saturations result in a modest increase in spallings and no significant effect on direct brine releases, with total releases from the Culebra and cutting and caving releases unaffected. Overall, the effects on total high-probability mean releases from the repository are insignificant, with total low-probability mean releases minimally increased. It is concluded that the modified OPS/EXP area parameters have an insignificant effect on the prediction of total releases.

  17. Community interviews task report: Working draft: BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Project) Repository Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, P.A.

    1987-11-01

    The socioeconomic program for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) requires the collection of information about economic, social and cultural conditions, demographic, housing and settlement patterns, and the provision of public services and facilities in order to monitor and assess the impacts of the project on the study area. Much of the information needed by the socioeconomic program is compiled, maintained, and used by officials or staff members of local, regional, state, or tribal agencies or organizations. Because much of this information is prepared for internal use, the documents are often not published or advertised and it can be difficult for researchers to identify many obscure, yet useful, sources of information. In order to identify and gain access to this information, it is often most efficient to talk directly with officials and staff members of pertinent agencies or organizations who may have knowledge of these documents or who may have useful information themselves. Consequently, interviews in the study communities with persons knowledgeable about the socioeconomic or sociocultural characteristics of the area constitute an important source of data for the socioeconomic program. In addition to identifying various data sources, these interviews provide a mechanism for understanding and interpreting those data. Knowledge of specific local conditions is often necessary to correctly interpret quantitative data. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the objectives of the community interviews task and the general methods that will be used in conducting the community interviews. 3 refs.

  18. Actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP): FY94 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, C.F. [ed.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains six reports on actinide chemistry research supporting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These reports, completed in FY94, are relevant to the estimation of the potential dissolved actinide concentrations in WIPP brines under repository breach scenarios. Estimates of potential dissolved actinide concentrations are necessary for WIPP performance assessment calculations. The specific topics covered within this document are: the complexation of oxalate with Th(IV) and U(VI); the stability of Pu(VI) in one WIPP-specific brine environment both with and without carbonate present; the solubility of Nd(III) in a WIPP Salado brine surrogate as a function of hydrogen ion concentration; the steady-state dissolved plutonium concentrations in a synthetic WIPP Culebra brine surrogate; the development of a model for Nd(III) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions; and the development of a model for Np(V) solubility and speciation in dilute to concentrated sodium Perchlorate, sodium carbonate, and sodium chloride media.

  19. Surface complexation modeling of uranyl adsorption on corrensite from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang-Won; Leckie, J.O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Siegel, M.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Corrensite is the dominant clay mineral in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The surface characteristics of corrensite, a mixed chlorite/smectite clay mineral, have been studied. Zeta potential measurements and titration experiments suggest that the corrensite surface contains a mixture of permanent charge sites on the basal plane and SiOH and AlOH sites with a net pH-dependent charge at the edge of the clay platelets. Triple-layer model parameters were determined by the double extrapolation technique for use in chemical speciation calculations of adsorption reactions using the computer program HYDRAQL. Batch adsorption studies showed that corrensite is an effective adsorbent for uranyl. The pH-dependent adsorption behavior indicates that adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Adsorption studies were also conducted in the presence of competing cations and complexing ligands. The cations did not affect uranyl adsorption in the range studied. This observation lends support to the hypothesis that uranyl adsorption occurs at the edge sites. Uranyl adsorption was significantly hindered by carbonate. It is proposed that the formation of carbonate uranyl complexes inhibits uranyl adsorption and that only the carbonate-free species adsorb to the corrensite surface. The presence of the organic complexing agents EDTA and oxine also inhibits uranyl sorption.

  20. Basic data report for drillholes at the H-11 complex (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Snyder, R.P. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Drillholes H-11b1, H-11b2, and H-11b3 were drilled from August to December 1983 for site characterization and hydrologic studies of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Upper Permian Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. In October 1984, the three wells were subjected to a series of pumping tests designed to develop the wells, provide information on hydraulic communication between the wells, provide hydraulic properties information, and to obtain water samples for quality of water measurements. Based on these tests, it was determined that this location would provide an excellent pad to conduct a convergent-flow non-sorbing tracer test in the Culebra dolomite. In 1988, a fourth hole (H-11b4) was drilled at this complex to provide a tracer-injection hole for the H-11 convergent-flow tracer test and to provide an additional point at which the hydraulic response of the Culebra H-11 multipad pumping test could be monitored. A suite of geophysical logs was run on the drillholes and was used to identify different lithologies and aided in interpretation of the hydraulic tests. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Conceptual structure of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HELTON,JON CRAIG; ANDERSON,D. RICHARD; BASABILVAZO,G.; JOW,HONG-NIAN; MARIETTA,MELVIN G.

    2000-05-18

    The conceptual structure of the 1996 performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. This structure involves three basic entities (EN1, EN2, EN3): (1) EN1, a probabilistic characterization of the likelihood of different futures occurring at the WIPP site over the next 10,000 yr, (2) EN2, a procedure for estimating the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment associated with each of the possible futures that could occur at the WIPP site over the next 10,000 yr, and (3) EN3, a probabilistic characterization of the uncertainty in the parameters used in the definition of EN1 and EN2. In the formal development of the 1996 WIPP PA, EN1 is characterized by a probability space (S{sub st}, P{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainly; EN2 is characterized by a function {line_integral} that corresponds to the models and associated computer programs used to estimate radionuclide releases; and EN3 is characterized by a probability space (S{sub su}, P{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty. A high-level overview of the 1996 WIPP PA and references to additional sources of information are given in the context of (S{sub st}, P{sub st}, p{sub st}), {line_integral} and (S{sub su}, P{sub su}, p{sub su}).

  2. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of the February 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Piggott, Tom [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lobaugh, Megan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, Lydia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, Kristen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-22

    This report presents the results of a simulation of the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radioactivity released from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in New Mexico in February 2014. These simulations were made by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and supersede NARAC simulation results published in a previous WIPP report (WIPP, 2014). The results presented in this report use additional, more detailed data from WIPP on the specific radionuclides released, radioactivity release amounts and release times. Compared to the previous NARAC simulations, the new simulation results in this report are based on more detailed modeling of the winds, turbulence, and particle dry deposition. In addition, the initial plume rise from the exhaust vent was considered in the new simulations, but not in the previous NARAC simulations. The new model results show some small differences compared to previous results, but do not change the conclusions in the WIPP (2014) report. Presented are the data and assumptions used in these model simulations, as well as the model-predicted dose and deposition on and near the WIPP site. A comparison of predicted and measured radionuclide-specific air concentrations is also presented.

  3. Test Results and Comparison of Triaxial Strength Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Clean Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Stuart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This memorandum documents laboratory thermomechanical triaxial strength testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) clean salt. The limited study completed independent, adjunct laboratory tests in the United States to assist in validating similar testing results being provided by the German facilities. The testing protocol consisted of completing confined triaxial, constant strain rate strength tests of intact WIPP clean salt at temperatures of 25°C and 100°C and at multiple confining pressures. The stratigraphy at WIPP also includes salt that has been labeled “argillaceous.” The much larger test matrix conducted in Germany included both the so-called clean and argillaceous salts. When combined, the total database of laboratory results will be used to develop input parameters for models, assess adequacy of existing models, and predict material behavior. These laboratory studies are also consistent with the goals of the international salt repository research program. The goal of this study was to complete a subset of a test matrix on clean salt from the WIPP undertaken by German research groups. The work was performed at RESPEC in Rapid City, South Dakota. A rigorous Quality Assurance protocol was applied, such that corroboration provides the potential of qualifying all of the test data gathered by German research groups.

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report, for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires DOE facilities, that conduct environmental protection programs, to annually prepare a Site Environmental Report (SER). The purpose of the SER is to provide an abstract of environmental assessments conducted in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit. The content of this SER is not restricted to a synopsis of the required data, in addition, information pertaining to new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1995 calendar year are also included. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP). The EMP provides inclusive guidelines implemented to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater. air, soil, and biotic matrices are monitored for an array of radiological and nonradiological factors. The baseline radiological surveillance program encompasses a broader geographic area that includes nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Most elements of nonradiological assessments are conducted within the geographic vicinity of the WIPP site.

  5. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE facility that conducts significant environmental protection programs to prepare an Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER). The purpose of the ASER is to summarize environmental data in order to characterize site environmental management performance, to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts. This ASER not only documents the required data, it also documents new and continued monitoring and compliance activities during the 1994 calendar year. Data contained in this report are derived from those monitoring programs directed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) (DOE/WIPP 94-024). The EMP defines a comprehensive set of parameters that must be monitored to detect potential impacts to the environment and to establish baseline measurements for future environmental evaluations. Surface water, groundwater, air, soil, and biotics are monitored for radiological and nonradiological activity levels. The baseline radiological surveillance program covers the broader geographic area that encompasses nearby ranches, villages, and cities. Nonradiological studies focus on the area immediately surrounding the WIPP site.

  6. Enumeration, identification and safety proprieties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from pork sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Dias

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are indigenous microorganisms occurring in pork sausages. The utilization of selected autochthonous LAB may improve the safety of meat products. This study aims to enumerate and identify LAB in pork sausage and to characterize their safety properties, such as antimicrobial susceptibility and antibacterial activity. A total of 189 sealed packages of pork sausages were collected in seven municipalities (27 samples in each city of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbiological analyses were performed to enumerate LAB. Two pre-selection criteria were applied to 567 isolates of LAB: catalase activity and tolerance to pH 2. A total of 32 strains of UFLA SAU were selected, characterized phenotypically and identified through 16S rDNA region sequencing. The susceptibility to antimicrobial and antibacterial activities of isolates was evaluated. The LAB count ranged from 3.079 to 8.987 log10 CFU/g. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei were identified in the samples. UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131 and 258 showed a profile of susceptibility to four antimicrobials: erythromycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and gentamycin. In the antibacterial activity test, with exception of UFLA SAU 1, all other strains showed efficiency in inhibiting Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhiand Listeria monocytogenes. In the statistical analysis there was interaction among strains of Lactobacillus against the pathogens tested. L. monocytogenes (P=0.05 was more sensitive to Lactobacillus strains and the highest inhibitory activity against this pathogen was achieved by strains UFLA SAU 135, 226, 238 and 258. Thus, UFLA SAU 11, 20, 34, 86, 131, 135, 226, 238 and 258 possess safety characteristics for application in meat products.

  7. Geother evaluation and improvement: A progress report including test cases for two-dimensional BWIP (Basalt Waste Isolation Project) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, S.H.; Budden, M.J.; Bartley, C.L.; Yung, S.C.

    1988-03-01

    The objective of the work is to evaluate the GEOTHER code and peform necessary improvements to make it specifically suitable for predicting the environmental conditions of the waste package for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP); and to perform resaturation analyses, that is, the analyses of steam formation and condensation, for the repository and waste package using the improved GEOTHER code. This is a progress report to BWIP documenting the status of GEOTHER code testing, evaluation, and improvements. The computational results documented in this report reflect the current condition of the code and the condition before code improvements. The test cases used are intended for examining the code features in sufficient detail and are not intended to be taken as final conclusions for BWIP applications.

  8. GEOSAF Part II. Demonstration of the operational and long-term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. IAEA international intercomparison and harmonization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Bruno, Gerard [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Vienna International Centre; Tichauer, Michael [IRSN, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Hedberg, Bengt [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    International intercomparison and harmonization projects are one of the mechanisms developed by the IAEA for examining the application and use of safety standards, with a view to ensuring their effectiveness and working towards harmonization of approaches to the safety of radioactive waste management. The IAEA has organized a number of international projects on the safety of radioactive waste management; in particular on the issues related to safety demonstration for radioactive waste management facilities. In 2008, GEOSAF, Demonstration of The Operational and Long-Term Safety of Geological Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, project was initiated. This project was completed in 2011 by delivering a project report focusing on the safety case for geological disposal facilities, a concept that has gained in recent years considerable prominence in the waste management area and is addressed in several international safety standards. During the course of the project, it was recognized that little work was undertaken internationally to develop a common view on the safety approach related to the operational phase of a geological disposal although long-term safety of disposal facility has been discussed for several decades. Upon completion of the first part of the GEOSAF project, it was decided to commence a follow-up project aiming at harmonizing approaches on the safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste through the development of an integrated safety case covering both operational and long-term safety. The new project was named as GEOSAF Part II, which was initiated in 2012 initially as 2-year project, involving regulators and operators. GEOSAF Part II provides a forum to exchange ideas and experience on the development and review of an integrated operational and post-closure safety case for geological disposal facilities. It also aims at providing a platform for knowledge transfer. The project is of particular interest to regulatory

  9. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: Part B, Permit application [for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 1, Revison 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information related to the permit application for the WIPP facility. Information is presented on solid waste management; personnel safety; emergency plans; site characterization; applicable regulations; decommissioning; and ground water monitoring requirements.

  10. Improving safety of salami by application of bacteriocins produced by an autochthonous Lactobacillus curvatus isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Barbosa, Matheus; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Ivanova, Iskra; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate LAB with anti-Listeria activity from salami samples, characterize the bacteriocin/s produced by selected isolates, semi-purify them and evaluate their effectiveness for the control of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacturing of salami in a pilot scale. Two isolates (differentiated by RAPD-PCR) presented activity against 22 out of 23 L. monocytogenes strains for bacteriocin MBSa2, while the bacteriocin MBSa3 inhibited all 23 strains in addition to several other Gram-positive bacteria for both antimicrobials and were identified as Lactobacillus curvatus based on 16S rRNA sequencing. A three-step purification procedure indicated that both strains produced the same two active peptides (4457.9 Da and 4360.1 Da), homlogous to sakacins P and X, respectively. Addition of the semi-purified bacteriocins produced by Lb. curvatus MBSa2 to the batter for production of salami, experimentally contaminated with L. monocytogenes (10(4)-10(5) CFU/g), caused 2 log and 1.5 log reductions in the counts of the pathogen in the product after 10 and 20 days respectively, highlighting the interest for application of these bacteriocins to improve safety of salami during its manufacture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production and Optimization of Physicochemical Parameters of Cellulase Using Untreated Orange Waste by Newly Isolated Emericella variecolor NS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Srivastava, Manish; Manikanta, Ambepu; Singh, Pardeep; Ramteke, P W; Mishra, P K; Malhotra, Bansi D

    2017-10-01

    Cellulase enzymes have versatile industrial applications. This study was directed towards the isolation, production, and characterization of cellulase enzyme system. Among the five isolated fungal cultures, Emericella variecolor NS3 showed maximum cellulase production using untreated orange peel waste as substrate using solid-state fermentation (SSF). Maximum enzyme production of 31 IU/gds (per gram of dry substrate) was noticed at 6.0 g concentration of orange peel. Further, 50 °C was recorded as the optimum temperature for cellulase activity and the thermal stability for 240 min was observed at this temperature. In addition, the crude enzyme was stable at pH 5.0 and held its complete relative activity in presence of Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ . This study explored the production of crude enzyme system using biological waste with future potential for research and industrial applications.

  12. Screening of Lactobacillus isolated from pork sausages for potential probiotic use and evaluation of the microbiological safety of fermented products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Francesca Silva; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Santos, Marianna Rabelo Rios Martins; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to select strains of Lactobacillus isolated from pork sausage for use as probiotics. Lactobacillus isolates were evaluated in tests based on probiotic characteristics and microbiological safety. The UFLA SAU 14, 52, and 91 isolates were differentiated by coaggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, production of lactic acid, and survival at pH 2. UFLA SAU 172 and 187 isolates had high levels of coaggregation with Salmonella Typhi and Escherichia coli, tolerance to pancreatic fluid, and adhesion to chloroform. UFLA SAU 20 and 34 isolates were characterized by exopolysaccharide production, autoaggregation, and resistance to simulated intestinal fluid. UFLA SAU 185, 238, and 258 isolates exhibited resistance to bile and adhesion to xylene. A cocktail of these 10 Lactobacillus isolates with potential probiotic properties was inoculated into pork sausage and inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Geologic and hydrologic data for the Rustler Formation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Steven F.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the geohydrology in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. Data presented were compiled in support of a regional groundwater flow model. The data include water level measurements obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey 's Groundwater Site-Inventory and OMNIANA data bases and stratigraphic information interpreted from commercial geophysical logs. (USGS)

  14. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1979-01-01

    Research on the following is reported: decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues; monitoring methods for particulate and gaseous effluents from waste solidification processes; TRU waste immobilization; krypton solidification; /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; waste isolation safety assessment; well logging instrumentation for shallow land burial; monitoring and physical characteriztion of unsaturated zone transport; detection and characterization of mobile organic complexes of fission products; and electropolishing for surface decontamination of metals. 21 figures, 17 tables.

  15. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  16. Integration of PFLOTRAN into Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment and Human Borehole Intrusion Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the deep geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations estimate the probability and consequence of potential radionuclide releases from the repository to the accessible environment arising from events and processes that could occur over the 10,000 year regulatory period. The conceptual model estimates three possible cases and the combinations of these cases: 1) undisturbed condition of the repository, 2) human borehole intrusion condition that penetrates the repository, and 3) human borehole intrusion that penetrates pressurized brine underlying the repository. This presentation demonstrates a simple proof-of-concept model for human borehole intrusion scenarios in fully saturated domain using PFLOTRAN. One simulation demonstrates a near hydrostatic condition of pressurized brine below the repository releasing pressure due to borehole intrusion and the other illustrates a lithostatic condition of pressurized brine. The result of these simulations are completely irrelevant to the real repository simulation; however, it shows the possibility to apply on a true-scale repository simulations. Not only these simulations are important for PA results, but PFLOTRAN also must be integrated with the rest of PA system. WIPP PA mainly consists of ten codes and PFLOTRAN may replace up to the duties of five codes for flow and reactive transport calculations. This presentation illustrates the complexity and potentials of integrating PFLOTRAN into WIPP PA. For example, PFLOTRAN uses HDF5 binary files; thus, data transfer format must be changed from CAMDAT binary files which are used in current WIPP PA. Pre-process of simulations are being developed to retrieve parameters from WIPP databases, apply algebraic calculations to meet criteria of PFLOTRAN input, and populate related input files. Post

  17. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  18. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  19. A Study Identifying Causes of Construction Waste Production and Applying Safety Management on Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In a recent century, the amount of construction waste has increased significantly. Although the building industry has a considerable role in the development of a society, it is regarded as an environmentally destructive. Source reduction is the highest goal in the waste management hierarchy and is in priority. It also has economic benefits by reducing costs associated with transportation, disposal or recycling of wastes. The present study is aimed to identify activities generating the wastes in design, transportation and storage and procurement of building materials. Materials and Methods: This was questionnaire survey. A total of 94 professionals in the construction industry were attended in this study. To determine the validity and reliability of the instrument, content validity method and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79 were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were determined in this research. Results: The results showed that handling and storage have been chosen as the most causative factor of waste production in construction activity. Improper material storage was identified major factor in producing waste in handling and storage phase. Usage of low-quality material in design stage and material price changes in procurement were recognized as major causes of waste production in these stages. Conclusion: All studied phases in this research were identified as causative factors in producing of waste. Identifying causes of construction waste production will help us decide better how to control this sort of wastes.

  20. Proposals of new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste and of new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor based on these basic concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Masuro, E-mail: ogawa.masuro@jaea.go.jp

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The author proposed new basic concepts on safety and radioactive waste. • A principle of ‘continue confining’ to realize the basic concept on safety is also proposed. • It is indicated that only a HTGR can attain the conditions required from the principle. • Technologies to realize the basic concept on radioactive waste are also discussed. • A New HTGR system based on the new basic concepts is proposed. - Abstract: A new basic concept on safety of ‘Not causing any serious catastrophe by any means’ and a new basic concept on radioactive waste of ‘Not returning any waste that possibly affects the environment’ are proposed in the present study, aiming at nuclear power plants which everybody can accept, in consideration of the serious catastrophe that happened at Fukushima Japan in 2011. These new basic concepts can be found to be valid in comparison with basic concepts on safety and waste in other industries. The principle to realize the new basic concept on safety is, as known well as the inherent safety, to use physical phenomena such as Doppler Effect and so on which never fail to work even if all equipment and facilities for safety lose their functions. In the present study, physical phenomena are used to ‘continue confining’, rather than ‘confine’, because the consequence of emission of radioactive substances to the environment cannot be mitigated. To ‘continue confining’ is meant to apply natural correction to fulfill inherent safety function. Fission products must be detoxified to realize the new basic concept on radioactive waste, aiming at the final processing and disposal of radioactive wastes as same as that in the other wastes such as PCB, together with much efforts not to produce radioactive wastes and to reduce their volume nevertheless if they are emitted. Technology development on the detoxification is one of the most important subjects. A new High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor, namely the New HTGR

  1. Health and Safety Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Manis, L.W.; Barre, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S&H) issues. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water This plan explains additional site-specific health and safety requirements such as Site Specific Hazards Evaluation Addendums (SSHEAs) to the Site Safety and Health Plan which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  2. Evaluation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Public Outreach Program during the Certification Process at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) contracted with Phoenix Environmental and EnviroIssues to evaluate the effectiveness of its public outreach program during its certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM.

  3. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  4. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

  5. Elk and deer studies related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; McCorquodale, S.M.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    A study of elk (Cervus elaphus) and deer (Odocoileus hemionus) was conducted in the vicinity of planned site characterization activities for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). Both species are known to be sensitive to disturbance and are considered important species because they are recreationally and/or commercially valuable. The principal objectives of the study were to (1) estimate pre-activity (site characterization) recruitment of deer and elk, (2) characterize deer and elk use of limited habitats critical to their survival (e.g., riparian areas), (3) describe preferential habitat use by deer and elk during critical seasons (i.e., winter and summer), and (4) document pre-activity distributions of seasonal home range centers of deer and elk. Early termination of BWIP prevented some of the objectives from being fully addressed. Fifteen adult elk (11 females and 4 males) and 19 female deer equipped with radio transmitters were studied on the Arid Lands Ecology (ALE) Reserve from February through December 1987. More than 1800 relocations of the marked elk and deer were made during aerial and ground tracking sessions. Deer confined their activities to within 2 km of water sources. In contrast, elk used 6-12 times the average area used by deer. As with deer, female elk were closely associated with available water sources during the summer and fall, presumably because of the physiological demands of lactation. However, during the winter, female elk showed no preference for areas near water, as did male elk throughout the study. Riparian areas, which are scarce on the arid Hanford Site, are particularly valuable habitat to both elk and deer because they provide drinking water and succulent forage during the dry summer and early fall months.

  6. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Maria Olbrich dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens. Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC, glycocholic acid (GC, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC, although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT. When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  7. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results. PMID:26221113

  8. Safety, beneficial and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium isolated from Brazilian cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karina Maria Olbrich; Vieira, Antônio Diogo Silva; Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Oliveira, Jacqueline da Silva; Rocha, Cíntia Renata Costa; Borges, Maria de Fátima; Bruno, Laura Maria; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the safety and technological properties of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from Brazilian Coalho cheeses. High levels of co-aggregation were observed between Enterococcus faecium strains EM485 and EM925 and both Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens . Both strains presented low levels of hydrophobicity. E. faecium EM485 and EM925 were both able to grow in the presence of 0.5% of the sodium salts of taurocholic acid (TC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), glycocholic acid (GC), and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDC), although they showed the ability to deconjugate only GDC and TDC. Both strains showed good survival when exposed to conditions simulating the gastro intestinal tract (GIT). When tested for the presence of virulence genes, only tyrosine decarboxylase and vancomycin B generated positive PCR results.

  9. ISOLATION OF ENT-KAUR-16-EN-19-OIC AND ENT-TRACHILOBAN-19-OIC ACIDS FROM THE SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.DRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicon Ungur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple method for isolation of the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (1 and ent-trachiloban-19-oic (2 acids from dry waste of sunflower processing has been elaborated, and it has been shown that the waste can serve as an accessible source of ent-kauranic and ent-trachilobanic diterpenoids.

  10. An introduction to the mechanics of performance assessment using examples of calculations done for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant between 1990 and 1992. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1996-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the processes used to access the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The quantitative metrics used in the performance-assessment (PA) process are those put forward in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, HIgh-LEvel and transuranic radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191).

  11. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-09-01

    The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

  12. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  13. Safety characterization and antimicrobial properties of kefir-isolated Lactobacillus kefiri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasi, Paula; Díaz, Mariángeles; Racedo, Silvia M; De Antoni, Graciela; Urdaci, María C; Serradell, María de los Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+) and Gram(-) pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 10(8) CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  14. Safety Characterization and Antimicrobial Properties of Kefir-Isolated Lactobacillus kefiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli are generally regarded as safe; however, certain strains have been associated with cases of infection. Our workgroup has already assessed many functional properties of Lactobacillus kefiri, but parameters regarding safety must be studied before calling them probiotics. In this work, safety aspects and antimicrobial activity of L. kefiri strains were studied. None of the L. kefiri strains tested caused α- or β-hemolysis. All the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, clindamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin, erythromycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin; meanwhile, two strains were resistant to chloramphenicol. On the other hand, all L. kefiri strains were able to inhibit both Gram(+ and Gram(− pathogens. Regarding the in vitro results, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 was selected to perform in vivo studies. Mice treated daily with an oral dose of 108 CFU during 21 days showed no signs of pain, lethargy, dehydration, or diarrhea, and the histological studies were consistent with those findings. Moreover, no differences in proinflammatory cytokines secretion were observed between treated and control mice. No translocation of microorganisms to blood, spleen, or liver was observed. Regarding these findings, L. kefiri CIDCA 8348 is a microorganism isolated from a dairy product with a great potential as probiotic for human or animal use.

  15. Technology and safety assessment for lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Bulgarian fermented meat product "lukanka"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be included for selecting lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented meat. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian traditional fermented "lulanka" salami was studied regarding some positive technological parameters (growth at different temperature, pH, and proteolytic activity. The presence of genes related to the virulence factors, production of biogenic amines, and vancomycin resistance were presented in low frequency in the studied lactic acid bacteria. On the other hand, production of antimicrobial peptides and high spread of bacteriocin genes were broadly presented. Very strong activity against L. monocytogenes was detected in some of the studied lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the studied strains did not present any antimicrobial activity against tested closely related bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. or Pediococcus spp. To our knowledge this is the first study on the safety and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian lukanka obtained by spontaneous fermentation.

  16. Technology and safety assessment for lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Bulgarian fermented meat product "lukanka".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Stojanovski, Saso; Iliev, Ilia; Moncheva, Penka; Nero, Luis Augusto; Ivanova, Iskra Vitanova

    The present work discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be included for selecting lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented meat. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian traditional fermented "lulanka" salami was studied regarding some positive technological parameters (growth at different temperature, pH, and proteolytic activity). The presence of genes related to the virulence factors, production of biogenic amines, and vancomycin resistance were presented in low frequency in the studied lactic acid bacteria. On the other hand, production of antimicrobial peptides and high spread of bacteriocin genes were broadly presented. Very strong activity against L. monocytogenes was detected in some of the studied lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the studied strains did not present any antimicrobial activity against tested closely related bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. or Pediococcus spp. To our knowledge this is the first study on the safety and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian lukanka obtained by spontaneous fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoxic single-pass isolated hepatic perfusion of hypotonic Cisplatin: safety study in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Facy, Olivier; Consolo, David; Magnin, Guy; Tixier, Hervé; Simonet, Michel; Rat, Patrick; Chauffert, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) of chemotherapy has been proposed to deliver high doses of drug while avoiding systemic toxicity. Hypotonic cisplatin has a high in vitro activity on human colon cancer cells. We studied the safety of a 30-min hypoxic single-pass IHP with hypotonic cisplatin. A preliminary in vitro assay was performed to compare the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and oxaliplatin, in either a normotonic or hypotonic medium. Cisplatin in hypotonic medium was then chosen for the in vivo IHP. Eleven pigs underwent 30 min of IHP with 0, 50, 75, or 100 mg/L of cisplatin in a hypotonic solution under total vascular exclusion of the liver. Clinical and biological parameters were recorded for 30 days, and liver histology was performed at necropsy. The cytotoxic activity of the effluent against resistant human colon cancer cells was tested in vitro. No hepatic failure was recorded after IHP with cisplatin, but limited foci of necrosis were found at necropsy in animals receiving 75 or 100 mg/L of cisplatin. No clinical, biological, macroscopic, or microscopic toxicity was observed after IHP with 50 mg/L of hypotonic cisplatin. The liver effluent showed high in vitro cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells. A hypoxic single-pass isolated liver perfusion with hypotonic cisplatin is feasible and safe. Effluent from the liver is highly cytotoxic on cancer cells. A clinical study with 50 mg/L of hypotonic cisplatin is warranted in patients with unresectable liver metastases from colon cancer.

  18. Norwegian national report. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. [National report from Norway, fourth review meeting, 14-23 May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    This report contains the national report from Norway to the fourth review meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to be held 14 to 23 May 2012. (Author)

  19. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's draft report on an issues hierarchy and data needs for site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Fenster, D.F.; Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Rote, D.M.; Hambley, D.F.; Seitz, M.G.; Hull, A.B.

    1986-12-01

    At the request of the Salt Repository Project (SRPO), Argonne National Laboratory conducted an independent peer review of a report by the Battelle Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation entitled ''Salt Repository Project Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization (Draft).'' This report provided a logical structure for evaluating the outstanding questions (issues) related to selection and licensing of a site as a high-level waste repository. It also provided a first estimate of the information and data necessary to answer or resolve those questions. As such, this report is the first step in developing a strategy for site characterization. Microfiche copies of ''Draft Issues Hierarchy, Resolution Strategy, and Information Needs for Site Characterization and Environmental/Socioeconomic Evaluation - July, 1986'' and ''Issues Hierarchy and Data Needs for Site Characterization - February, 1985'' are included in the back pocket of this report.

  20. Prospecting Agro-waste Cocktail: Supplementation for Cellulase Production by a Newly Isolated Thermophilic B. licheniformis 2D55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeem, Muinat Olanike; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; AbdulRahman, Nor' Aini

    2017-08-01

    Bacteria isolated from thermophilic environment that can produce cellulase as well as utilise agro-waste biomass have a high potential for developing thermostable cellulase required in the biofuel industry. The cost for cellulase represents a significant challenge in converting lignocellulose to fermentable sugars for biofuel production. Among three potential bacteria examined, Bacillus licheniformis 2D55 (accession no. KT799651) was found to produce the highest cellulolytic activity (CMCase 0.33 U/mL and FPase 0.09 U/mL) at 18-24 h fermentation when grown on microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) as a carbon source in shake flask at 50 °C. Cellulase production process was further conducted on the untreated and NaOH pretreated rice straw (RS), rice husk (RH), sugarcane bagasse (BAG) and empty fruit bunch (EFB). Untreated BAG produced the highest FPase (0.160 U/mL), while the highest CMCase (0.150 U/mL) was supported on the pretreated RH. The mixture of untreated BAG and pretreated RH as agro-waste cocktail has remarkably improved CMCase (3.7- and 1.4-fold) and FPase (2.5- and 11.5-fold) compared to the untreated BAG and pretreated RH, respectively. The mechanism of cellulase production explored through SEM analysis and the location of cellulase enzymes of the isolate was also presented. Agro-waste cocktail supplementation provides an alternative method for an efficient production of cellulase.

  1. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baker, B.L. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. (New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Sch

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements ({section} 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements ({section} 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, May 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bean, J.E. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W.; Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schreiber, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P.N. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and examination of scatterplots are used in conjunction with the BRAGFLO model to examine two phase flow (i.e., gas and brine) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. The analyses consider either a single waste panel or the entire repository in conjunction with the following cases: (1) fully consolidated shaft, (2) system of shaft seals with panel seals, and (3) single shaft seal without panel seals. The purpose of this analysis is to develop insights on factors that are potentially important in showing compliance with applicable regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B; 40 CFR 268). The primary topics investigated are (1) gas production due to corrosion of steel, (2) gas production due to microbial degradation of cellulosics, (3) gas migration into anhydrite marker beds in the Salado Formation, (4) gas migration through a system of shaft seals to overlying strata, and (5) gas migration through a single shaft seal to overlying strata. Important variables identified in the analyses include initial brine saturation of the waste, stoichiometric terms for corrosion of steel and microbial degradation of cellulosics, gas barrier pressure in the anhydrite marker beds, shaft seal permeability, and panel seal permeability.

  3. The Bacteriological Quality, Safety, and Antibiogram of Salmonella Isolates from Fresh Meat in Retail Shops of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azage, Melkamnesh; Kibret, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    The habit of raw meat consumption in addition to the poor hygienic standards and lack of knowledge contribute to food-borne diseases outbreaks. The objective of this research was to assess the bacterial quality and safety of fresh meat from retail Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A total of 30 fresh meat samples were collected from butcher shops. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and enumerate bacteria. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates. The mean counts of AMB, TC, and S. aureus were log104.53, 3.97, and 3.88 log10cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 21 (70%) of the samples. Salmonella isolates in this study were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, and norfloxacin while they were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. High rate of multiple drug resistance was also noticed in Salmonella isolates. The microbial loads of meat were above the recommended microbial safety limits. Besides this, the isolation rate of Salmonella was high and high levels of drug resistance were documented for Salmonella isolates. Measures on handling and appropriate personal hygiene practices of workers in the retail shops are recommended to reduce the change of forborne disease outbreaks.

  4. The Bacteriological Quality, Safety, and Antibiogram of Salmonella Isolates from Fresh Meat in Retail Shops of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkamnesh Azage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The habit of raw meat consumption in addition to the poor hygienic standards and lack of knowledge contribute to food-borne diseases outbreaks. The objective of this research was to assess the bacterial quality and safety of fresh meat from retail Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A total of 30 fresh meat samples were collected from butcher shops. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and enumerate bacteria. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates. The mean counts of AMB, TC, and S. aureus were log104.53, 3.97, and 3.88 log10cfu/g, respectively. Salmonella was isolated from 21 (70% of the samples. Salmonella isolates in this study were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, and norfloxacin while they were resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline. High rate of multiple drug resistance was also noticed in Salmonella isolates. The microbial loads of meat were above the recommended microbial safety limits. Besides this, the isolation rate of Salmonella was high and high levels of drug resistance were documented for Salmonella isolates. Measures on handling and appropriate personal hygiene practices of workers in the retail shops are recommended to reduce the change of forborne disease outbreaks.

  5. Basic Data Report for Drillholes on the H-19 Hydropad (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant--WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercer, J.W.; Cole, D.L.; Holt, R.M.

    1998-10-09

    Seven holes were drilled and wells (H-19b0, H-19b2, H-19b3, H-19b4, H-19b5, H-19b6, and H-19b7) were constructed on the H-19 hydropad to conduct field activities in support of the Culebra Transport Program. These wells were drilled and completed on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site during February to September 1995. An eighth hole, H-19b1, was drilled but had to be abandoned before the target depth was reached because of adverse hole conditions. The geologic units penetrated at the H-19 location include surficial deposits of Holocene age, rocks from the Dockum Group of Upper Triassic age, the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and Rustler Formation of the Permian age. The Rustler Formation has been further divided into five informal members which include the Forty-niner Member, Magenta Member, Tamarisk Member, Culebra Dolomite Member, and an unnamed lower member. The Rustler Formation, particularly the Culebra Dolomite Member, is considered critical for hydrologic site characterization. The Culebra is the most transmissive saturated unit above the WIPP repository and, as such, is considered to be the most likely pathway for radionuclide transport to the accessible environment in the unlikely event the repository is breached. Seven cores from the Culebra were recovered during drilling activities at the H-19 hydropad and detailed descriptions of these cores were made. On the basis of geologic descriptions, four hydrostratigraphic units were identified in the Culebra cores and were correlated with the mapping units from the WFP air intake shaft. The entire length of H-19b1 was cored and was described in detail. During coring of H-19b1, moisture was encountered in the upper part of the Dewey Lake Redbeds. A 41-ft-thick section of this core was selected for detailed description to qualify the geologic conditions related to perched water in the upper Dewey Lake. In addition to cuttings and core, a suite of geophysical logs run on the drillholes was used to identify and

  6. Site-specific evaluation of safety issues for high-level waste disposal in crystalline rocks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, M. (ed.) [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    In the past, German research and development (R and D) activities regarding the disposal of radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, focused mainly on domal rock salt because rock salt was the preferred host rock formation. In addition, generic R and D work regarding alternative host rocks (crystalline rocks and claystones) had been performed as well for a long time but with lower intensity. Around the year 2000, as a consequence of the moratorium on the Gorleben site, the Federal Government decided to have argillaceous rocks and crystalline rocks investigated in more detail. As Germany does not have any underground research and host rock characterization facilities, international cooperation received a high priority in the German R and D programme for high-level waste (HLW) disposal in order to increase the knowledge regarding alternative host rocks. Major cornerstones of the cooperation are joint projects and experiments conducted especially in underground research laboratories (URL) in crystalline rocks at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland) and the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) Aespoe(Sweden) and in argillaceous rocks at the URL Mont Terri (Switzerland) and Bure (France). In 2001, the topic of radioactive waste disposal was integrated into the agreement between the former Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom, now Rosatom) and the German Ministry of Labor (BMWA), now Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), on cooperation regarding R and D on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power (agreement on ''Wirtschaftlich-Technische Zusammenarbeit'' WTZ). The intention was to have a new and interesting opportunity for international R and D cooperation regarding HLW disposal in crystalline rocks and the unique possibility to perform site-specific work, to test the safety demonstration tools available, and to expand the knowledge to all aspects specific to these host rocks. Another motivation for joining this cooperation was the

  7. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  8. Safety guidebook relative to the disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formation; Guide de surete relatif au stockage definitif des dechets radioactifs en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) initiated in 2003 a revision process of the objectives to be considered during the research and work steps of the implementation of a radioactive waste storage facility in deep geologic formations. The purpose of this document is to define the safety objectives that have to be retained at each step of this implementation, from the site characterization to the closure of the facility. This update takes into account the works carried out by the ANDRA (French national agency of radioactive wastes) in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991, and the advices of the permanent experts group about these works. It takes also into consideration the international research works in this domain and the choices defined in the program law no 2006-739 from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The main modifications concern: the notion of reversibility, the definition of the safety functions of disposal components, the safety goals and the design principles assigned to waste packages, the control of nuclear materials and the monitoring objectives of the facility. The documents treats of the following points: 1 - the objectives of public health and environment protection; 2 - the safety principles and the safety-related design bases of the facility; and 3 - the method used for demonstrating the disposal safety. (J.S.)

  9. Molecular Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum G30 Isolated from Vegetable Wastes in Imphal, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehamanjuri Laimayum SHARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of Fusarium oxysporum (Schl. emend. Synder & Hansen, viz. Fusarium oxysporum G30, is reported from seven different decomposing vegetable wastes and a mixture of the same in equal proportions, in Imphal, Northeast India. This strain was isolated by surface sterilization technique, followed by re-culturing till pure culture was obtained. The pure culture was characterised morphologically based on the colony features: colour, texture, colony diameter; conidial features: macro and microconidial shape, size, septation, presence of chlamydospores and foot-shaped basal cells. The strain was also identified at molecular level by partial sequencing using universal primers, ITS4 and ITS5. The ITS data reveals that isolated culture (F. oxysporum G30 match the existing isolates in Gen Bank (Gen Bank accession No. GQ497156.1 by 99% and it has got a code segment particular to this strain. This strain showed ubiquitous nature with mean percent frequency of occurrence ranging from 39.5 to 68% at various stages of decomposition of the selected vegetable wastes.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191...

  11. Rapid biodiesel synthesis from waste pepper seeds without lipid isolation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Kim, Jieun; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-09-01

    In situ transformation of lipid in waste pepper seeds into biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters: FAMEs) via thermally-induced transmethylation on silica was mainly investigated in this study. This study reported that waste pepper seeds contained 26.9wt% of lipid and that 94.1% of the total lipid in waste pepper seeds could be converted into biodiesel without lipid extraction step for only ∼1min reaction time. This study also suggested that the optimal temperature for in situ transmethylation was identified as 390°C. Moreover, comparison of in situ process via the conventional transmethylation catalyzed by H 2 SO 4 showed that the introduced biodiesel conversion in this study had a higher tolerance against impurities, thereby being technically feasible. The in situ biodiesel production from other oil-bearing food wastes can be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program. Task 4: contractor information meeting proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The predominant topic is radionuclide migration and absorption-desorption from a deep geological repository. Research programs and the development of experimental methods are described. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 15 technical reports which are included in full; there are also discussions of guest lectures, informal presentations, discussions, and a summary of the meeting. (DLC)

  13. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  14. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Savka Adamović; Miljana Prica; Jelena Radonić; Maja Turk Sekulić; Szabolcs Pap

    2015-01-01

    Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc), but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative...

  15. Extended storage for radioactive wastes: relevant aspects related to the safety; Almacenamiento prolongado de residuos radiactivos: algunos aspectos de interes a considerar para su seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Reinaldo G.; Peralta V, José L.P.; Estevez, Gema G. F., E-mail: gesr@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: peralta@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gema@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Agencia de Energía Nuclear y Tecnologías de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an issue of great relevance globally linked to the issue of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Among the steps in the management of this waste, the safe storage is one of the most important. Given the high costs and uncertainties existing among other aspects of the variants of disposal of radioactive waste, the prolonged storage of these wastes for periods exceeding 50 years is an option that different countries more and more value. One of the fundamental problems to take into account is the safety of the stores, so in this work are evaluated different safety components associated with these facilities through a safety analysis methodology. Elements such as human intrusion, the construction site, the design of the facility, among others are identified as some of the key aspects to take into account when evaluating the safety of these types of facilities. Periods of activities planned for a long-term storage of radioactive waste exceed, in general, the useful life of existing storage facilities. This work identified new challenges to overcome in order to meet the requirements for the achievement of a safe management of radioactive waste without negative impacts on the environment and man.

  16. Decreased Phototoxic Effects of TiO₂ Nanoparticles in Consortium of Bacterial Isolates from Domestic Waste Water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Mathur

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to explore the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles at low concentrations (0.25, 0.50 & 1.00 μg/ml; on five bacterial isolates and their consortium in waste water medium both in dark and UVA conditions. To critically examine the toxic effects of nanoparticles and the response mechanism(s offered by microbes, several aspects were monitored viz. cell viability, ROS generation, SOD activity, membrane permeability, EPS release and biofilm formation. A dose and time dependent loss in viability was observed for treated isolates and the consortium. At the highest dose, after 24h, oxidative stress was examined which conclusively showed more ROS generation & cell permeability and less SOD activity in single isolates as compared to the consortium. As a defense mechanism, EPS release was enhanced in case of the consortium against the single isolates, and was observed to be dose dependent. Similar results were noticed for biofilm formation, which substantially increased at highest dose of nanoparticle exposure. Concluding, the consortium showed more resistance against the toxic effects of the TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the individual isolates.

  17. Technological and safety properties of newly isolated GABA-producing Lactobacillus futsaii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchart, C; Rattanaporn, O; Haltrich, D; Phukpattaranont, P; Maneerat, S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the technological and safety properties of Lactobacillus futsaii CS3 and CS5 isolated from Thai fermented shrimp products (Kung-Som) in order to develop a valuable gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing starter culture. Both strains showed a high GABA-producing ability (>8 mg ml(-1) ) in MRS broth containing 20 mg ml(-1) monosodium glutamate (MSG) for 120 h. They also exhibited inhibitory activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Cell surface hydrophobicity and proteolytic activity were observed in both strains. Strain CS3 survived better under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions with only 1·5 log-units cell decrease over 8 h. Both strains showed the ability to deconjugate taurocholate and taurodeoxycholate acid. Neither virulence genes nor biogenic amine production was detected. Strain CS3 exhibited susceptibility to all tested antibiotics with the exception of vancomycin, while strain CS5 showed resistance to vancomycin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Based on the results obtained, Lact. futsaii CS3 is very promising as a GABA-producing and potentially probiotic starter culture strain for applications in functional fermented foods. This study focuses on the technological and safety characteristics of Lact. futsaii CS3 and CS5 including their high GABA-producing capacity for the first time. This provides a way of replacing chemical GABA by natural GABA using a GABA-producing starter culture candidate, at the same time offering the consumer new attractive food products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  19. Organic tanks safety program waste aging studies. Final report, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C. [and others

    1998-09-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive byproducts and contaminated process chemicals that are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of saltcakes, metal oxide sludges, and aqueous brine solutions. Tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes might be at risk for fuel-nitrate combustion accidents. This project started in fiscal year 1993 to provide information on the chemical fate of stored organic wastes. While historical records had identified the organic compounds originally purchased and potentially present in wastes, aging experiments were needed to identify the probable degradation products and evaluate the current hazard. The determination of the rates and pathways of degradation have facilitated prediction of how the hazard changes with time and altered storage conditions. Also, the work with aged simulated waste contributed to the development of analytical methods for characterizing actual wastes. Finally, the results for simulants provide a baseline for comparing and interpreting tank characterization data.

  20. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc, but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative influence on the environment. Because of that, the concentration levels of metals (zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the printed graphic product wastes have firstly been determined, and then the impact of those metals, through their migration from the printed graphic product wastes to the simulated environmental mediums with different pH values (acidic and neutral, has been estimated. Based on the experimentally obtained concentrations of metals that have migrated from the printed graphic product wastes to the neutral solution and based on the theoretical distribution coefficient, the concentration of metals in the soil of illegal and municipal landfills, which represents the contribution to the overall metal concentration in the soil due to the migration from the waste printed graphic materials, has been calculated. Also, a comparison between the experimentally obtained metal concentrations and the literature values has been conducted, and an evaluation of their influence on the quality of soil has been given.

  1. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  2. Report of biological investigations at the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area of New Mexico during FY 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, T.L.; Neuhauser, S. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is considering the construction of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Eddy County, NM. This location is approximately 40 km east of Carlsbad, NM. Biological studies during FY 1978 were concentrated within a 5-mi radius of drill hole ERDA 9. Additional study areas have been established at other sites in the vicinity, e.g., the Gnome site, the salt lakes and several stations along the Pecos River southward from Carlsbad, NM, to the dam at Red Bluff Reservoir in Texas. The precise locations of all study areas are presented and their biology discussed.

  3. Environmental baseline study of the Los Medanos Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project area of New Mexico: a progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, H.G. (ed.)

    1977-09-01

    Exploratory drilling operations are being conducted for a Waste Isolation Pilot Program in southeastern New Mexico. Prior to the establishment of such a program, an environmental study was initiated to serve as a baseline for evaluation of the impact of future activities in the Los Medanos area. Much of this area has been influenced by human activities over a long period, and hence the baseline data only reflects the present, relatively disturbed condition of the environment. The study covers air resources, soils, and biotic resources. 23 tables, 6 figs. (DLC)

  4. Left atrial appendage electrical isolation and concomitant device occlusion: A safety and feasibility study with histologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikker, Sandeep; Virmani, Renu; Sakakura, Kenichi; Kolodgie, Frank; Francis, Darrel P; Markides, Vias; Walcott, Greg; McElderry, H Tom; Wong, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) electrical isolation is reported to improve atrial fibrillation ablation outcomes. However, loss of mechanical function may increase thromboembolic risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LAA occlusion after electrical isolation in a canine model. Nine canines underwent LAA isolation with irrigated radiofrequency ablation after pulmonary vein (PV) isolation. Entrance and exit block were confirmed with intravenous adenosine after 30 minutes. The LAA was then occluded with a Watchman device. Device position was assessed at 10 days by using transthoracic echocardiography. At 45 days, LAA isolation was assessed epicardially. Hearts were then examined macroscopically and histologically. All 36 PVs and 8 of 9 LAAs (89%) were electrically isolated. Acute LAA reconnection occurred in 4 of 8 LAAs (50%). All were reisolated. The mean ablation time was 51 ± 19 minutes, including 24 ± 18 minutes for LAA isolation. LAA occlusion was successful in all cases. One animal died of a primary intracranial bleed due to anticoagulant hypersensitivity 36 hours after the procedure. Transthoracic echocardiography at 10 days confirmed satisfactory device positions and no pericardial effusion. At 45 days, 7 of 8 (88%) had persistent LAA electrical isolation. All devices were stable without evidence of erosion. Microscopy revealed complete device-tissue apposition and a mature connective tissue layer overlying the device surface in all cases. LAA electrical isolation and mechanical occlusion can be performed concomitantly in this animal model, with no displacement or mechanical erosion of the appendage at 45 days. This technique can potentially improve success rates and obviate the need for chronic anticoagulation. Future studies should address efficacy, safety, and feasibility in humans. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Coupled multiphase flow and closure analysis of repository response to waste-generated gas at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, G.A.; Larson, K.W. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Davies, P.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A long-term assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance must consider the impact of gas generation resulting from the corrosion and microbial degradation of the emplaced waste. A multiphase fluid flow code, TOUGH2/EOS8, was adapted to model the processes of gas generation, disposal room creep closure, and multiphase (brine and gas) fluid flow, as well as the coupling between the three processes. System response to gas generation was simulated with a single, isolated disposal room surrounded by homogeneous halite containing two anhydrite interbeds, one above and one below the room. The interbeds were assumed to have flow connections to the room through high-permeability, excavation-induced fractures. System behavior was evaluated by tracking four performance measures: (1) peak room pressure; (2) maximum brine volume in the room; (3) total mass of gas expelled from the room; and (4) the maximum gas migration distance in an interbed. Baseline simulations used current best estimates of system parameters, selected through an evaluation of available data, to predict system response to gas generation under best-estimate conditions. Sensitivity simulations quantified the effects of parameter uncertainty by evaluating the change in the performance measures in response to parameter variations. In the sensitivity simulations, a single parameter value was varied to its minimum and maximum values, representative of the extreme expected values, with all other parameters held at best-estimate values. Sensitivity simulations identified the following parameters as important to gas expulsion and migration away from a disposal room: interbed porosity; interbed permeability; gas-generation potential; halite permeability; and interbed threshold pressure. Simulations also showed that the inclusion of interbed fracturing and a disturbed rock zone had a significant impact on system performance.

  6. The Role of Temperature in the Safety Case for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: A Comparison of Design Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Heierli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep underground facilities requires a sparing use of spatial resources on the one side and favorable temperature conditions over the project lifetime on the other side. Under heat-sensitive conditions, these goals run in opposite directions and therefore a balance of some kind must be found. Often the elected strategy is to determine the size of the repository by capping the temperatures in the near-field, thus setting an upper limit to the deterioration of barrier materials. Alternatively, the spatial resources available in the siting area can be used to further reduce temperatures as long as supplementary benefits are returned from doing so. Using analytical modeling of the heat flow in the circumambient rock of a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel, this contribution examines possible obstacles in substantiating the safety case, namely the retrievability of waste during the operational lifetime of the facility, the representativeness of pilot disposal areas for monitoring, and the effect of thermal anomalies underground. The results indicate that there are, amongst the visited criteria, several benefits to the temperature-optimizing strategy over the prevailing space-optimizing concepts. The right balance between saving spatial resources and obtaining optimal temperature conditions is yet to be found.

  7. 76 FR 35861 - Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ..., Human Resources (HR) for URS was interested only in implementing management's demand that the employee... contractor management to implement their roles as advocates for a strong safety culture. The record shows... decision to allow management to be involved in the HSS investigation raises concerns about safety culture...

  8. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1979-09-01

    Progress is reported on: decontamination and densification of chop-leach cladding residues; monitoring methods for particulate and gaseous effluents from waste solidification process; TRU waste immobilization; krypton solidification; /sup 14/C and /sup 129/I fixation; waste management system and safety studies; waste isolation safety assessment; well logging instrumentation development for shallow land burial; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; detection and characterization of mobile organic complexes of fission products; and electropolishing for surface decontamination of metals. 9 figures, 14 tables. (DLC)

  9. Waste isolation and contaminant migration - Tools and techniques for monitoring the saturated zone-unsaturated zone-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Nicholson, T.J.; Arlt, H.D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began studies of unsaturated zone hydrology next to the Nation’s first commercial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) near Beatty, NV. Recognizing the need for long-term data collection, the USGS in 1983 established research management areas in the vicinity of the waste-burial facility through agreements with the Bureau of Land Management and the State of Nevada. Within this framework, the Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS; http://nevada.usgs.gov/adrs/) is serving as a field laboratory for the sustained study of water-, gas-, and contaminant-transport processes, and the development of models and methods to characterize flow and transport. The research is built on multiple lines of data that include: micrometeorology; evapotranspiration; plant metrics; soil and sediment properties; unsaturated-zone moisture, temperature, and gas composition; geology and geophysics; and groundwater. Contaminant data include tritium, radiocarbon, volatile-organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental mercury. Presented here is a summary of monitoring tools and techniques that are being applied in studies of waste isolation and contaminant migration.

  10. Towards spatial isolation design in a multi-core real-time kernel targeting safety-critical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Top, Søren

    2013-01-01

    In mixed-criticality systems, applications naturally have different safety criticality levels. Partitioning technology is usually used to enable the integration of such mixed criticality applications upon one platform, aiming at reducing hardware, power consumption and especially certification co...... and software can easily achieve this isolation. At last, the spatial isolation is evaluated using a statistical sampling method and its performance is tested in terms of task switch, system call and footprint........ According to formulated isolation requirements, a simple partitioning multi-core hardware architecture is proposed using SoC and memory protection units, and the kernel is extended to support spatial isolation between the kernel and applications as well as between applications. Combined design of hardware...

  11. 60-day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for TX-244 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-05

    Three grab samples (244-TX-96-1, 244-TX-96-2, and 244-TX-96-3) were taken from Riser 8 of Tank 241-TX-244 on October 18, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 18, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support ofthe Waste Compatibility Program. Notifications were made in accordance with TSAP for pH and OH- analyses. Upon further review, the pH notification was deemed unnecessary, as the notification limit did not apply to this tank.

  12. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  13. Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes: Reactive Scavenging by Sorbets in Turbulent Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Jost O.L.; Kerstein, Alan R.; Linak, William P.; Pearlstein, Arne J.; Scheeline, Alexander

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop the fundamental knowledge base for the design of a broad class of high-temperature reactive capture processes to treat metals-bearing liquid waste in the DOE inventory. The major thrust is devoted to understanding phenomena that govern process performance and are critical to achieving emission specifications.

  14. Bibliography of reports by US Geological Survey personnel pertaining to underground nuclear testing and radioactive waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site, and radioactive waste disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant site, New Mexico, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glanzman, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography lists reports released to the public between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1980, by personnel of the US Geological Survey. Reports include information on underground nuclear testing and waste management projects at the NTS (Nevada Test Site) and radioactive waste projects at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, New Mexico. The bibliography is divided into three categories: (1) reports regarding underground nuclear testing; (2) waste management projects at the NTS; and (3) waste management studies at the WIPP site. Reports are listed in each category by publication outlet.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and safety evaluation of Enterococcus faecium KQ 2.6 isolated from peacock feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Hui-Min; Li, Dan-Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Liang; Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E

    2015-05-12

    The objective of this paper was to study antimicrobial activity and safety of Enterococcus faecium KQ 2.6 (E. faecium KQ 2.6) isolated from peacock feces. Agar well diffusion method was adopted in antimicrobial activity assay. Disk diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance. The identification and virulence potential of E. faecium KQ 2.6 were investigated using PCR amplification. The results indicated that cell free supernatant (CFS) of the strain had the good antimicrobial activity against selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biochemical characteristics of antimicrobial substances were investigated. The results indicated that the antimicrobial substances were still active after treatment with catalase and proteinase, respectively. Moreover, the stability of antimicrobial substances did not change after heat treatment at 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80°C for 30 min, respectively. The activity of antimicrobial substances remained stable at 4 and -20°C after long time storage. The antimicrobial activity of CFS was compared with that of the buffer with similar strength and pH. The inhibitory zone of the buffer was apparently smaller than that of CFS, which meant that the acid in CFS was not the only factor that was contributed to antibacterial activity of CFS. The antibiotic resistance and virulence potential were evaluated using disk diffusion test and PCR amplification. The results showed that E. faecium KQ 2.6 did not harbor any tested virulence genes such as gelE, esp, asa1, cylA, efaA and hyl. It was susceptible to most of tested antibiotics except for vancomycin and polymyxin B. E. faecium KQ 2.6 may be used as bio-preservative cultures for the production of fermented foods.

  16. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1981-03-01

    Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  18. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  19. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant No-Migration Variance Petition. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Arlen

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of the WIPP No-Migration Variance Petition is to demonstrate, according to the requirements of RCRA {section}3004(d) and 40 CFR {section}268.6, that to a reasonable degree of certainty, there will be no migration of hazardous constituents from the facility for as long as the wastes remain hazardous. The DOE submitted the petition to the EPA in March 1989. Upon completion of its initial review, the EPA provided to DOE a Notice of Deficiencies (NOD). DOE responded to the EPA`s NOD and met with the EPA`s reviewers of the petition several times during 1989. In August 1989, EPA requested that DOE submit significant additional information addressing a variety of topics including: waste characterization, ground water hydrology, geology and dissolution features, monitoring programs, the gas generation test program, and other aspects of the project. This additional information was provided to EPA in January 1990 when DOE submitted Revision 1 of the Addendum to the petition. For clarity and ease of review, this document includes all of these submittals, and the information has been updated where appropriate. This document is divided into the following sections: Introduction, 1.0: Facility Description, 2.0: Waste Description, 3.0; Site Characterization, 4.0; Environmental Impact Analysis, 5.0; Prediction and Assessment of Infrequent Events, 6.0; and References, 7.0.

  1. Livestock waste treatment systems for environnemental quality, food safety, and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J.; Dabert, P.; Barrington, S.; Burton, C.

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of livestock operations has benefited production efficiency but has introduced major environmental issues, becoming a concern in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this paper is primarily to address the impact of the livestock sector on environmental pollution (ammonia, greenhouse gases and pathogens), evaluate the related health risks and, subsequently, assess the potential role of waste treatment systems in attenuating these environmental and health issu...

  2. Coupled Biological-Geomechanical-Geochemical Effects of the Disturbed Rock Zone on the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S. C.; Herrick, C. G.; Lee, M. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located at a depth of 655 m in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a deep underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) waste. The WIPP must comply with the EPA's environmental regulations that require a probabilistic risk analysis of releases of radionuclides due to inadvertent human intrusion into the repository at some time during the 10,000-year regulatory period. Sandia National Laboratories conducts performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP using a system of computer codes representing the evolution of underground repository and emplaced TRU waste in order to demonstrate compliance. One of the important features modeled in a PA is the disturbed rock zone (DRZ) surrounding the emplacement rooms in the repository. The extent and permeability of DRZ play a significant role in the potential radionuclide release scenarios. We evaluated the phenomena occurring in the repository that affect the DRZ and their potential effects on the extent and permeability of the DRZ. Furthermore, we examined the DRZ's role in determining the performance of the repository. Pressure in the completely sealed repository will be increased by creep closure of the salt and degradation of TRU waste contents by microbial activity in the repository. An increased pressure in the repository will reduce the extent and permeability of the DRZ. The reduced DRZ extent and permeability will decrease the amount of brine that is available to interact with the waste. Furthermore, the potential for radionuclide release from the repository is dependent on the amount of brine that enters the repository. As a result of these coupled biological-geomechanical-geochemical phenomena, the extent and permeability of the DRZ has a significant impact on the potential radionuclide releases from the repository and, in turn, the repository performance. Sandia is a multi program laboratory operated by Sandia

  3. Emplacement Guidance for Criticality Safety in Low-Level-Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-06-23

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) containing special nuclear material (SNM) presents some unusual challenges for LLW disposal site operators and regulators. Radiological concerns associated with the radioactive decay of the SNM are combined with concerns associated with the avoidance of a nuclear criticality both during handling and after disposal of the waste. Currently, there are three operating LLW disposal facilities: Envirocare, Barnwell, and Richland. All these facilities are located in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Agreement States and are regulated by their respective state: Utah, South Carolina, and Washington. As such, the amount of SNM that can be possessed by each of these facilities is limited to the 10 CFR Part 150 limits (i.e., 350 g of uranium-235, 200 g of uranium-233, and 200 g of Pu, with the sum-of-fractions rule applying), unless an exemption is issued. NRC has applied these SNM possession limits to above-ground possession. The purpose of this report is to provide data which could demonstrate that SNM waste at emplacement will not cause a nuclear criticality accident. Five different SNM isotopic compositions were studied: 100 wt% enriched uranium, 10 wt% enriched uranium, uranium-233, plutonium-239, and an isotopic mixture of plutonium (76 wt% plutonium-239, 12 wt% plutonium-240, and 12 wt% plutonium-241). Three different graded-approach methods are presented. The first graded-approach method is the most conservative and may be applicable to facilities that dispose of very low areal densities of SNM, or dispose of material with a low average enrichment. It relies on the calculation of average areal density or on the average enrichment of SNM. The area over which averaging may be performed is also specified, but the emplacement depth is not constrained. The second graded-approach method relies on limiting the average concentration by weight of SNM in the waste, and on limiting the depth of the emplacement. This method

  4. Computer-Based Simulation in Blended Learning Curriculum for Hazardous Waste Site Worker Health and Safety Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Cheryl; Slatin, Craig; Sanborn, Wayne; Volicer, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    Intended for the interest of individuals and organizations who provide adult/worker training and education, we present a discussion of a computer-based simulation training tool used as part of a hazardous waste site worker health and safety training curriculum. Our objective is to present the simulation's development, implementation, and assessment for learning utility from both trainee and trainer perspectives. The simulation is blended with other curriculum components of training courses and supports small group learning. Assessment included end-of-course trainee questionnaires and trainer focus groups to addressing simulation utility as a user-oriented learning tool. A majority of trainees reported simulation trainings as useful learning tools with numerous advantages that support a participatory, blended learning curriculum, and raise awareness of potential work site risks and hazards. Trainers reported that the simulation advanced training impact. Evaluation results indicate that the simulation successfully supports small group learning activities.

  5. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  6. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  7. Safety assessment for the transportation of NECSA's LILW to the Vaalputs waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H. [Nuclear Liabilities Management, NECSA, P O Box 582, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)

  8. Safety and efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation using a surround flow catheter with contact force measurement capabilities: A multicenter registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Giuseppe; Di Donna, Paolo; Schillaci, Vincenzo; Di Monaco, Antonio; Iuliano, Assunta; Caponi, Domenico; Urraro, Francesco; Solimene, Francesco; Grimaldi, Massimo; Scaglione, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation is the cornerstone of catheter ablation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Surround flow and contact force (CF) measurement capabilities might enhance procedure efficacy and safety. We report on the safety and midterm efficacy of a novel ablation catheter for PV isolation in patients with AF. Two hundred thirty-three consecutive patients (57 ± 11 years, 76% males, 51% with structural heart disease), referred for paroxysmal (157) or persistent (76) AF, underwent PV isolation by a surround flow catheter with CF measurement capability in four centers. Ablation was guided by electroanatomic mapping allowing radiofrequency (RF) energy delivery in the antral region aiming at PV isolation. Mean overall procedure time was 100 ± 42 minutes with a mean fluoroscopy time of 6 ± 5 minutes. Mean ablation time was 31±15 minutes; 99% of the targeted veins were isolated. The mean CF value during ablation was 13 ± 4 g. Intraprocedural early (30 minutes) PV reconnection occurred in 12% PVs, and all PVs were effectively reisolated. One pericardial effusion and five groin hematomas were reported. During a mean follow-up of 12 ± 6 months, 30 (12.9%) (10% paroxysmal AF vs. 18% persistent AF, P = 0.07) patients had an atrial arrhythmias recurrence. In this multicenter registry, RF ablation using a new surround flow catheter, with CF sensor, resulted as feasible, achieving a high rate of isolated PVs. Procedural and fluoroscopy times and success rates were comparable with other techniques with a low complication rate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Laymen's demand on an understandable safety analysis for a nuclear waste repository. A communication challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, T.L.; Thunberg, A.M. [KASAM - Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This paper is a summary in English of some impressions from a seminar 'Safety Analysis of the Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste. An issue for specialists only or for all of us?' The seminar was held in Swedish and was arranged by KASAM in Nykoeping, Sweden in November 1997. A report in Swedish from the seminar has been published. The seminar was arranged in response to a request from representatives from some of the municipalities concerned by the feasibility studies, which are part of the siting process. They had noticed that it is very hard for people without specialist competence to get an understanding of the safety issues based on the available information. There is a need for a presentation of the safety analysis, which is adopted not only for the need of the safety authorities, which have their own expertise, but also for the need of laymen who are involved in issues about the design, siting and safety of a final repository. Therefore, the seminar was mainly intended for representatives for the citizens (i.e. politicians) from the municipalities involved in the ongoing feasibility studies in Sweden. Some representatives from different environmental organisations opposing final disposal were also invited as well as representatives from the nuclear industry and from the concerned Swedish authorities. The seminar was structured in four sessions The handling of risk in the modern society - risk assessment and risk comparisons; The safety analysis and its role for the citizens; What can actually happen - in our own time and in the future?; Group discussions. In order to give a realistic picture of the intense debate, which at least in some of the municipalities had been very apparent, the organisers had chosen to make SKB and Greenpeace main actors at the seminar, such as they appeared in connection with campaign before the referendum at Malaa. Parts of the seminar were arranged like a hearing, led by a science journalist. The intention with this paper is

  10. Health and safety aspects of energy production from waste and biomass. A literature study; Arbo-aspecten van energiewinning uit afval en biomassa. Een literatuurstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbrink, J.J.; Kalf, M.C. [KEMA Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-01

    A literature study has been carried out to compile and list the safety risks and working conditions with respect to the use and processing of wastes and biomass for the production of energy. The results of the literature study are supplemented with results of experiments in the Netherlands and some other countries and interviews with experts in the field. 55 refs.

  11. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 7: Appendix GCR Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    This report contains the second part of the geological characterization report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Both hydrology and geochemistry are evaluated. The following aspects of hydrology are discussed: surface hydrology; ground water hydrology; and hydrology drilling and testing. Hydrologic studies at the site and adjacent site areas have concentrated on defining the hydrogeology and associated salt dissolution phenomena. The geochemical aspects include a description of chemical properties of geologic media presently found in the surface and subsurface environments of southeastern New Mexico in general, and of the proposed WIPP withdrawal area in particular. The characterization does not consider any aspect of artificially-introduced material, temperature, pressure, or any other physico-chemical condition not native to the rocks of southeastern New Mexico.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis M75, a biocontrol agent against fungal plant pathogens, isolated from cotton waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Lee, Sang Yeob; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Sang, Mee Kyung; Song, Jaekyeong

    2017-01-10

    Bacillus species have been widely used as biological control agents in agricultural fields due to their ability to suppress plant pathogens. Bacillus velezensis M75 was isolated from cotton waste used for mushroom cultivation in Korea, and was found to be antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the M75 strain, which has a 4,007,450-bp single circular chromosome with 3921 genes and a G+C content of 46.60%. The genome contained operons encoding various non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Our results will provide a better understanding of the genome of B. velezensis strains for their application as biocontrol agents against fungal plant pathogens in agricultural fields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.W. [Powers (Dennis W.), Anthony, TX (United States); Martin, M.L. [International Technology, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.

  14. Rhodosporidiobolus geoffroeae sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from the waste deposit of the attine ant Acromyrmex lundii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiulionis, Virginia E; Pagnocca, Fernando C

    2017-04-01

    A novel basidiomycetous yeast was isolated from the waste deposit of the attine ant Acromyrmex lundii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The field colony was located in Santurce town, Santa Fe province, Argentina. The description of the novel species was based on strain LLU043T. Analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences in GenBank demonstrated that strain LLU043T, belongs to the Rhodosporidiobolus clade and is closely related to Rhodosporidiobolus lusitaniae and Rhodosporidioboluscolostri with 97 % similarity to the two species. The novel species differs from R. lusitaniae and R. colostri in some physiological characteristics such as the lack of assimilation of cellobiose, salicin, succinate, citrate and ethylamine. The name Rhodosporidiobolus geoffroeae sp. nov. is proposed, with LLU043T (=CBS 12828T=CBMAI 1618T) as the type strain.

  15. Preliminary hydrologic data for wells tested in Nash Draw, near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic testing was conducted at wells WIPP-25, WIPP-26, WIPP-27, WIPP-28, WIPP-29, and WIPP-30 in Nash Draw near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in southeastern New Mexico. The three water-bearing zones tested were the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, and the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact zone. Inflatable packers were used in a variety of test configurations. Tests conducted include bailing, recovery after perforation, shut in, slug, flow, and pressure pulse. Water pressure response in the tested zone was monitored by a pressure-transducer system. Preliminary hydrologic-test data are tabulated in chronological order for each well. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Basic data report for drillhole ERDA 6 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    ERDA 6 was drilled in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, to investigate a candidate site for a nuclear waste repository. The site was subsequently rejected on the basis of geological data. ERDA 6 was drilled in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4, section 35, T21S,R31E. The borehole encountered, from top to bottom, 17 ft of Quaternary deposits, 55 ft of the Triassic Santa Rosa Sandstone, 466 ft of the Dewey Lake Red Beds, 273 ft of the Rustler Formation, 1785.5 ft of the Salado Formation and 374.5 ft of the upper Castile Formation, all of Permian age. Cores or drill cuttings were taken throughout the hole. A suite of wireline geophysical logs was run to a depth of 883 ft to facilitate the recognition and correlation of rock units, to assure identification of major lithologies and to provide depth determinations independent of drill-pipe measurements. The site at ERDA 6 was rejected because the structure of the lower Salado and the Castile is too severe to develop a repository along a single set of beds. The borehole also intersected a reservoir of pressurized brine and gas at about 2710'. The pore volume for the reservoir was estimated to be in the range from about 200,000 to about 2 million barrels. ERDA 6 was re-entered in 1981 by the Department of Energy (DOE) for the purpose of further testing the brine reservoir. Those tests are described in separate reports by the DOE and its contractors. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  17. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  18. Isolation of porcine circovirus-like viruses from pigs with a wasting disease in the USA and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G M; McNeilly, F; Kennedy, S; Daft, B; Clarke, E G; Ellis, J A; Haines, D M; Meehan, B M; Adair, B M

    1998-01-01

    Samples of lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen, and lymph node from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome from California (USA) and samples of mesenteric lymph nodes from similarly diseased pigs from Brittany (France) were examined by light microscopy, in situ hybridization (ISH), and/or virus isolation. Whole genomic probes for porcine circovirus (PCV) and chicken anemia virus (CAV) were used for ISH. Tissue homogenate supernatants were inoculated onto PK/15 cells for virus isolation, and the presence of viral antigen and viral particles was verified by indirect immunofluorescence, ISH, and electron microscopy. Histologic examination of lung from pigs from California revealed interstitial pneumonia, alveolar epithelial hyperplasia, and basophilic nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions in mononuclear cell infiltrates and various pulmonary epithelial cells. Granulomatous lymphadenitis with syncytial cells typified the lesions seen in the pigs from France. PCV-like nucleic acid was detected by ISH in lung, pancreas, lymph node, kidney, and liver in pigs from California. Positive signal was also obtained in lymph node sections from pigs from France. Probes for CAV were consistently negative. PK/15 cell cultures inoculated with lung preparations from diseased California pigs and mesenteric lymph node preparations from pigs from France had positive fluorescence by indirect staining for PCV using pooled polyclonal pig sera and hyperimmune rabbit serum and had variable staining with a panel of 7 monoclonal antibodies specific for cell culture contaminant PCV. PCV-like nucleic acid was also detected by ISH in cell cultures. Cytopathic effect was not observed. Electron microscopic examination of inoculated cell cultures revealed 17-nm viral particles morphologically consistent with PCV. No other virus particles were observed. Although genomic analysis for the definitive identification of these viral isolates remains to be done, the evidence provided strongly

  19. Computational environment and software configuration management of the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FROEHLICH,GARY K.; WILLIAMSON,CHARLES MICHAEL; OGDEN,HARVEY C.

    2000-05-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeast New Mexico, is a deep geologic repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by DOE defense-related activities. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), in its role as scientific advisor to the DOE, is responsible for evaluating the long-term performance of the WIPP. This risk-based Performance Assessment (PA) is accomplished in part through the use of numerous scientific modeling codes, which rely for some of their inputs on data gathered during characterization of the site. The PA is subject to formal requirements set forth in federal regulations. In particular, the components of the calculation fall under the configuration management and software quality assurance aegis of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) requirements. This paper describes SNL's implementation of the NQA requirements regarding configuration management. The complexity of the PA calculation is described, and the rationale for developing a flexible, robust run-control process is discussed. The run-control implementation is described, and its integration with the configuration-management system is then explained, to show how a calculation requiring 37,000 CPU-hours, and involving 225,000 output files totaling 95 Gigabytes, was accomplished in 5 months by 2 individuals, with full traceability and reproducibility.

  20. DRSPALL: Impact of the Modification of the Numerical Spallings Model on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicker, Dwayne Curtis [Stoller Newport News Nuclear, Inc., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Zeitler, Todd [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Malama, Bwalya [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Carlsbad, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, Amy P. [GRAM Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The numerical code DRSPALL (from direct release spallings) is written to calculate the volume of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) solid waste subject to material failure and transport to the surface as a result of a hypothetical future inadvertent drilling intrusion. An error in the implementation of the DRSPALL finite difference equations was discovered as documented in Software Problem Report (SPR) 13-001. The modifications to DRSPALL to correct the finite difference equations are detailed, and verification and validation testing has been completed for the modified DRSPALL code. The complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of spallings releases obtained using the modified DRSPALL is higher compared to that found in previous WIPP performance assessment (PA) calculations. Compared to previous PAs, there was an increase in the number of vectors that result in a nonzero spallings volume, which generally translates to an increase in spallings releases. The overall mean CCDFs for total releases using the modified DRSPALL are virtually unchanged, thus the modification to DRSPALL did not impact WIPP PA calculation results.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant shaft sealing system compliance submittal design report. Volume 2 of 2: Appendix E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  2. Instrumentation of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Div.; Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship, D.A.; DeYonge, W.F.; Schiermeister, D.M. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L.; Baird, G.T. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories had the responsibility for the experimental activities at the WIPP and fielded several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The instrumentation of these tests involved the placement of over 4,200 gages including room closure gages, borehole extensometers, stress gages, borehole inclinometers, fixed reference gages, borehole strain gages, thermocouples, thermal flux meters, heater power gages, environmental gages, and ventilation gages. Most of the gages were remotely read instruments that were monitored by an automated data acquisition system, but manually read instruments were also used to provide early deformation information and to provide a redundancy of measurement for the remote gages. Instruments were selected that could operate in the harsh environment of the test rooms and that could accommodate the ranges of test room responses predicted by pretest calculations. Instruments were tested in the field prior to installation at the WIPP site and were modified to improve their performance. Other modifications were made to gages as the TSI tests progressed using knowledge gained from test maintenance. Quality assurance procedures were developed for all aspects of instrumentation including calibration, installation, and maintenance. The instrumentation performed exceptionally well and has produced a large quantity of quality information.

  3. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading bacterium strain Bacillus thuringiensis J20 from olive waste in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir I; Abdelkader, Ahmad A; Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed F; Al-Jawabreh, Amer O; Zaid, Taher M; Letnik, Ilya; Abdeen, Ziad A

    2018-01-02

    This study aimed at isolation of phenol degrading bacteria from olive mill wastes in Palestine. The efficiency of phenol removal and factors affecting phenol degradation were investigated. A bacterial strain (J20) was isolated from solid olive mill waste and identified as Bacillus thuringiensis based on standard morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16SrRNA sequence analysis. The strain was able to grow in a phenol concentration of 700 mg/L as the sole carbon and energy source. The culture conditions showed a significant impact on the ability of these cells to remove phenol. This strain exhibited optimum phenol degradation performance at pH 6.57 and 30 °C . Under the optimized conditions, this strain could degrade 88.6% of phenol (700 mg/L) within 96 h when the initial cell density was OD600 0.2. However, the degradation efficiency could be improved from about 88% to nearly 99% by increasing the cell density. Immobilization of J20 was carried out using 4% sodium alginate. Phenol degradation efficiency of the immobilized cells of J20 was higher than that of the free cells, 100% versus 88.6% of 700 mg/L of phenol in 120 h, indicating the improved tolerance of the immobilized cells toward phenol toxicity. The J20 was used in detoxifying crude OMWW, phenolic compounds levels were reduced by 61% compared to untreated OMWW after five days of treatment. Hence, B. thuringiensis-J20 can be effectively used for bioremediation of phenol-contaminated sites in Palestine. These findings may lead to new biotechnological applications for the degradation of phenol, related to olive oil production.

  4. Uptake of inorganic and organic nutrient species during cultivation of a Chlorella isolate in anaerobically digested dairy waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahal, Shantanu; Viamajala, Sridhar

    2016-09-01

    A natural assemblage of microalgae from a facultative lagoon system treating municipal wastewater was enriched for growth in the effluents of an anaerobic digester processing dairy waste. A green microalga with close resemblance to Chlorella sp. was found to be dominant after multiple cycles of sub-culturing. Subsequently, the strain (designated as LLAI) was isolated and cultivated in 20× diluted digester effluents under various incident light intensities (255-1,100 µmoles m-2 s-1 ) to systematically assess growth and nutrient utilization. Our results showed that LLAI production increased with increasing incident light and a maximum productivity of 0.34 g L-1 d-1 was attained when the incident irradiance was 1,100 µmoles m-2 s-1 . Lack of growth in the absence of light indicated that the cultures did not grow heterotrophically on the organic compounds present in the medium. However, the cultures were able to uptake organic N and P under phototrophic conditions and our calculations suggest that the carbon associated with these organic nutrients contributed significantly to the production of biomass. Overall, under high light conditions, LLAI cultures utilized half of the soluble organic nitrogen and >90% of the ammonium, orthophosphate, and dissolved organic phosphorus present in the diluted waste. Strain LLAI was also found to accumulate triacylglycerides (TAG) even before the onset of nutrient limitation and a lipid productivity of 37 mg-TAG L-1 d-1 was measured in cultures incubated at an incident irradiance of 1,100 µmoles m-2 s-1 . The results of this study suggest that microalgae isolates from natural environments are well-suited for nutrient remediation and biomass production from wastewater containing diverse inorganic and organic nutrient species. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1336-1342, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Increasing the Safety in Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste by Using Supervised Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuritcyn, P.; Anding, K.; Linß, E.; Latyev, S. M.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of the optical identification of recycled aggregates of construction and demolition waste (CDW) using methods of image processing, spectral analysis and machine learning. The classification performances in colour images shown, that we have to use other added spectral information to solve the recognition task in a satisfactory manner. In addition to investigations on a large colour image dataset first investigations in visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) spectrum were done for analysing significant characteristics in spectrum, which are useful for classification the C&D aggregates.

  6. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Ham, Sang Won; Moon, Sang Kee [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In this study, contents and survey and supervision items in each part are selected to avoid overlap between different parts referring national lows, criterion, and guidance related to atomic energy. The items consist of climatology, hydrology, geology, seismology, engineering geology, geochemistry, and civil and social parts. Based on these items, general study and systematic control related to the stability of disposal sites os established and as specific region required with the properties that is similar to properties of radioactive waste disposal sites, Ulsan region equipped with LPG underground storage facility was selected and its datum were surveyed and inputted. So propriety of established database system was proved.

  7. Selection and characterization of biofuel-producing environmental bacteria isolated from vegetable oil-rich wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Niño, Almudena; Luna, Carlos; Luna, Diego; Marcos, Ana T; Cánovas, David; Mellado, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels are consumed so rapidly that it is expected that the planet resources will be soon exhausted. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative and inexpensive new technologies to produce sustainable fuels, for example biodiesel. In addition to hydrolytic and esterification reactions, lipases are capable of performing transesterification reactions useful for the production of biodiesel. However selection of the lipases capable of performing transesterification reactions is not easy and consequently very few biodiesel producing lipases are currently available. In this work we first isolated 1,016 lipolytic microorganisms by a qualitative plate assay. In a second step, lipolytic bacteria were analyzed using a colorimetric assay to detect the transesterification activity. Thirty of the initial lipolytic strains were selected for further characterization. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 23 of the bacterial isolates were Gram negative and 7 were Gram positive, belonging to different clades. Biofuel production was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and revealed that 5 of the isolates produced biofuel with yields higher than 80% at benchtop scale. Chemical and viscosity analysis of the produced biofuel revealed that it differed from biodiesel. This bacterial-derived biofuel does not require any further downstream processing and it can be used directly in engines. The freeze-dried bacterial culture supernatants could be used at least five times for biofuel production without diminishing their activity. Therefore, these 5 isolates represent excellent candidates for testing biofuel production at industrial scale.

  8. Basic data report for Drillhole WIPP 22 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 22 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between March 14 and 30, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1448 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (7'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (68'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (492'), the Rustler Formation (311'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (565'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of geophysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 22 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  9. Basic data report for drillhole WIPP 21 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    WIPP 21 is an exploratory borehole whose objective is to determine the nature of the near-surface formations after seismic information indicated a possible fault. The borehole is located in section 20, T.22S., R.31E., in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and was drilled between May 24 and 26, 1978. The hole was drilled to a depth of 1046 feet and encountered, from top to bottom, surficial Holocene deposits (6', including artificial fill for drill pad), the Mescalero caliche (6'), the Santa Rosa Sandstone (34'), the Dewey Lake Red Beds (487'), the Rustler Formation (308'), and the upper portion of the Salado Formation (178'). Cuttings were collected at 10-foot intervals. A suite of goephysical logs was run to measure acoustic velocities, density, and radioactivity. On the basis of comparison with other geologic sections drilled in the area, the WIPP 21 section is a normal stratigraphic sequence and it does not show structural disruption. The WIPP is to demonstrate (through limited operations) disposal technology for transuranic defense wastes. The WIPP will also provide facilities to research interactions between high-level waste and salt.

  10. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part B permit application [of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)]. Volume 11, Chapter D, Appendix D4--Chapter D, Appendix D17: Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This volume contains appendices D4 through D17 which cover the following: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site environmental report; ecological monitoring program at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; site characterization; regional and site geology and hydrology; general geology; dissolution features; ground water hydrology; typical carbon sorption bed efficiency; VOC monitoring plan for bin-room tests; chemical compatibility analysis of waste forms and container materials; probable maximum precipitation; WHIP supplementary roof support system room 1, panel 1; and corrosion risk assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant ``humid`` test bins.

  11. Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection, Emergency Preparedness, Reactor Safety and Nuclear Non-Proliferation in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, Lars van; Delalic, Zlatan; Ekblad, Christer; Keyser, Peter; Turner, Roland; Rosengaard, Ulf; German, Olga; Grapengiesser, Sten; Andersson, Sarmite; Sandberg, Viviana; Olsson, Kjell; Stenberg, Tor

    2009-10-15

    The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) is trusted with the task of implementing Sweden's bilateral assistance to Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus and Armenia in the fields of reactor safety, nuclear waste management, nuclear non-proliferation as well as radiation protection and emergency preparedness. In these fields, SSM also participates in various projects financed by the European Union. The purpose of this project-oriented report is to provide the Swedish Government and other funding agencies as well as other interested audiences in Sweden and abroad with an encompassing understanding of our work and in particular the work performed during 2008. the activities are divided into four subfields: Nuclear waste management; Reactor safety; Radiation safety and emergency preparedness; and, Nuclear non-proliferation. SSM implements projects in the field of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in Russia. The problems in this field also exist in other countries, yet the concentration of nuclear and radioactive materials are nowhere higher than in north-west Russia. And given the fact that most of these materials stem from the Cold War era and remain stored under conditions that vary from 'possibly acceptable' to 'wildly appalling' it is obvious that Sweden's first priority in the field of managing nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste lies in this part of Russia. The prioritisation and selection of projects in reactor safety are established following thorough discussions with the partners in Russia and Ukraine. For specific guidance on safety and recommended safety improvements at RBMK and VVER reactors, SSM relies on analyses and handbooks established by the IAEA in the 1990s. In 2008, there were 16 projects in reactor safety. SSM implements a large number of projects in the field of radiation protection and emergency preparedness. The activities are at a first glance at some distance from the activities covered and

  12. Radioactive waste study released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhaluk, Bohdan

    A National Research Council (NRC) panel has concluded that the technology for safely storing radioactive waste is ready for confirmation in a test facility. At the same time, the panel proposed safety standards that are more stringent than standards currently proposed by some government agencies. The report, Study of the Isolation System for the Geologic Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, was funded by the Department of Energy as part of its effort to comply with a Congressional mandate to open a national radioactive waste storage facility by the end of the century.The Waste Isolation Panel of the NRC's Board on Radioactive Waste Management did not choose a specific site for the first U.S. repository because the state of current technology does not allow the U.S. to design, construct, and safely operate a full-fledged site. However, the panel's chairman, Thomas H. Pigford, of the University of California at Berkeley, believes that the goal established by Congress can be met.

  13. Development of thermal conditioning technology for alpha-contaminated wastes: a study on leaching characteristics and long-term safety assessment of simulated waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yong Chil [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Jong Ik; Choi, Yong Cheol [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Radioactive wastes should be stabilized for safe management during several hundred years. To assess stability of solidified waste forms, mechanical properties and chemical durability of the waste forms should be analyzed. Chemical durability is one of the most important factors in the assessment of waste forms, which could be examined by leaching tests. Various methods in leaching test are suggested by different organizations, but a formal test method in Korea is not ready yet. Therefore, the leaching test method applicable to various constituents is necessary for the safe management of radioactive wastes In this study, leaching behavior and characteristics of components such as solidification materials, heavy metals and radioactive nuclids were analyzed for cement waste form and glassy waste form. 58 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  14. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1983-March 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables.

  15. Safety and technological characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates from traditional Korean fermented soybean foods for starter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Do-Won; Lee, Bitnara; Her, Jae-Young; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2016-11-07

    To select starters for the production of meju and doenjang, traditional Korean fermented soybean foods, we assessed the safety and technological properties of their predominant isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance, hemolysis and biofilm formation were strain-specific. None of the S. succinus isolates exhibited antibiotic resistance or hemolytic activities. Thirty-three selected strains, identified through safety assessments of 81 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates, produced cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine, but not histamine in the laboratory setting. The production of these three biogenic amines may, however, be insignificant considering the high levels of tyramine produced by the control, Enterococcus faecalis. The 33 CNS strains could grow on tryptic soy agar containing 21% NaCl (w/v), exhibited acid producing activity at 15% NaCl, and expressed strain-specific protease and lipase activities. S. succinus 14BME1, the selected starter candidate, produced significant amounts of benzeneacetic acid, 2,3-butanediol, trimethylpyrazine, and tetramethylpyrazine through soybean fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  17. Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia`s Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93.

  18. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Livestock waste treatment systems for environmental quality, food safety, and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, José; Dabert, Patrick; Barrington, Suzelle; Burton, Colin

    2009-11-01

    The intensification of livestock operations has benefited production efficiency but has introduced major environmental issues, becoming a concern in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this paper is primarily to address the impact of the livestock sector on environmental pollution (ammonia, greenhouse gases and pathogens), evaluate the related health risks and, subsequently, assess the potential role of waste treatment systems in attenuating these environmental and health issues. This paper is a collection of data pertaining to world trends in livestock production, since the mid 1990s and intensive livestock farming practices along with their impact on: water pollution by nitrates and through eutrophication; air pollution, particularly ammonia and greenhouse gases emissions, and soil pollution because of nutrient accumulation. Finally, this paper examines some of the benefits of treating livestock manures, issues related to the adoption of treatment systems by livestock operations and current as well as past technological developments.

  20. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with

  1. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-05-15

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO.

  2. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocin producing Lysinibacillus jx416856 against foodborne bacterial and fungal pathogens, isolated from fruits and vegetable waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Varish; Iqbal, A N Muhammad Zafar; Haseeb, Mohd; Khan, Mohd Sajid

    2014-06-01

    In this study, antimicrobial potential, some probiotics properties and bacteriocin nature of Lysinibacillus, isolated from fruits and vegetable waste were evaluated. For this, 125 Lactobacillus isolates were tested against foodborne bacterial and fungal pathogens. Among these, an isolated Bacillus spp. showed significant aggregation-co-aggregation probiotics properties and potentially inhibits the foodborne gram positive microbial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, (22 mm ZOI), Staphylococcus epedermidis and Bacillus cereus (18 mm). Phenotypically and molecularly it was identified as Lysinibacillus (NCBI accession no. JX416856) and it was found closest to Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus and Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus. Physico-biochemically, it was found to be negative for amylase, protease, gelatinase, nitrate reductase and urease while positive for catalase. The diagnostic fatty acid was 22;2 (3.51). The growth conditions and bacteriocin activity were found to be optimum with MRS media at pH 7-10, Temperature 35-40 °C and salt tolerance at 1-3%. Eventually its production was optimized with MRS broth at pH 7.6, 37 °C, for 36 h in shaking conditions at the rate of 100 rpm. Active bacteriocin was isolated at 60% ammonium sulfate precipitation. The molecular weight of given bacteriocin was found to be nearly 25-35 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Based on physico- biochemical properties, the isolated bacteriocin was to be categories in class II bacteriocin. The bacteriocin was found to be stable in the range of 4-80 °C temperature, 6-10 pH and even in the presence of surfactant (such as SDS and Tween 80). However, proteases like pepsin and trypsin were found to degrade the bacteriocin. Collectively, the broad spectrum inhibitory potential and physical stability offered the antimicrobial potential to Lysinibacillus, and its relevant bacteriocin might be used as an alternative food preservative or therapeutic agent to control spoilage of

  3. Viimsi water treatment plant for Ra removal: NORM residue/waste generation, radiation safety issues, and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiisk, M.; Suursoo, S.; Realo, E.; Jantsikene, A.; Lumiste, L.; Vaeaer, K.; Isakar, K.; Koch, R. [University of Tartu (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In early 2012, the first large-scale water treatment plant, specifically designed to remove Ra-isotopes from groundwater, was commissioned in Viimsi parish, North-Estonia. The plant serves approximately 15 000 consumers with maximum production capacity of 6000 m{sup 3}/d. The chosen water treatment technology is chemical free and is based on co-precipitation and adsorption with Fe(OH){sub 3} and MnO{sub 2} flocks, and adsorption of residual Ra onto zeolite sand. The chosen technology is a complex approach and is designed to reduce high Fe and Mn concentrations as well as dissolved gases along with Ra isotopes. It is proved to be well adapted with hydro-chemical conditions of the groundwater feeding the plant. As the novel technology has been applied for the first time on a large scale, the plant was taken under long-term investigation when commissioned. The latter focuses on three areas: Ra removal efficiency and its dynamics, build-up of radioactive waste, and radiation safety. The average Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations in raw water feeding the plant are approximately 0.5 Bq/L and 0.6 Bq/L, respectively, resulting in total indicative dose of 0.4 mSv/y. Operating conditions of the plant are restricted by the established indicative value of 0.1 mSv/y for drinking water, i.e. a minimum 75% removal efficiency for Ra is required. Results of the studies show that the plant operates at Ra-removal efficiency of 98% or higher without the need of regeneration or replacement of filtering materials within the first two years. Measurements confirm that ∼90% of Ra accumulates in the solid filter media, 8-9% is washed out by backwash system as liquid effluent and 1-2% is fed on to the consumer distribution network. It has been calculated that at the level of current production capacity (below 3000 m{sup 3}/d) the yearly accumulation rate in the plant is approximately 300 and 400 MBq/y for Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively. These values strongly exceed the exemption

  4. Health and Food Safety: Isolation and susceptible profile analysis of pathogenic bacteria of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Martins Volcão

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Currently there is a growing concern about the sanitary conditions of food products made available to population, as there is a wide range of pathogens associated with food contamination. The purpose of this study was to isolation and susceptibility profile analysis of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus positive coagulase from ground beef samples collected in commerce of Pelotas city, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: For bacterial isolation were utilized 20 samples of ground beef originating in local commerce, being performed the research for E. coli, Salmonella spp. and S. coagulase positive. Any bacterial strains isolated were submitted to analysis of the susceptibility profile, where ten different antibiotics have been tested. Results: The susceptibility profile ranging among isolates in Salmonella spp., we observed the higher rate multidrug resistance, 58% of these were resistant to multiple antibiotics. In isolates of Escherichia coli occurred 44.4% of multidrug resistance. Strains of Staphylococcus positive coagulase showed the lowest rate, 25% of these have been multiresistant, and all isolates were sensitive to oxacillin. Conclusions: The high contamination of samples of ground beef highlights the need for a good hygiene practices and transport animal products. Resistance and multiresistance levels to the antibiotics tested, may demonstrate a possible inappropriate use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine.

  5. Identification, technological and safety characterization of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus isolated from Argentinean anchovies (Engraulis anchoita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Carolina; Raya, Raúl R; Vignolo, Graciela M

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the identification and characterization of Lactobacillus previously isolated from fresh anchovies (Engraulis anchoita) are investigated. 16S rDNA partial sequencing assigned all the isolates to belong to the Lactobacillus sakei/curvatus group. Fourteen out of 15 isolates were identified as L. sakei by phenotypic traits: they exhibited catalase activity and fermented melibiose, although only 10 of them hydrolyzed arginine. These results were confirmed by multiplex PCR-based restriction enzyme analysis with HindIII and by restriction fragment length polymorphic (RFLP) analysis of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region with TaqI. Among identified isolates, four L. sakei strains and the sole L. curvatus strain showing sensitivity to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline and exhibiting high tolerance to NaCl (10-18%) were unable to produce neither dextran nor biogenic amines. Based on technological and safety features, L. sakei SACB704 and L. curvatus SACB03a naturally present in fresh anchovies may be promising strains for the development of a starter culture to accelerate and control the fermentation of salt fermented anchovy-based products.

  6. Saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from new isolated Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Jun; Xia, Jin-Lan; Nie, Zhen-Yuan; Shan, Yang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the saccharification of orange peel wastes with crude enzymes from Aspergillus japonicus PJ01. Pretreated orange peel powder was hydrolyzed by submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) crude enzymes, the results showed that 4 % (w/v) of solid loading, undiluted crude enzymes, and 45 °C were suitable saccharification conditions. The hydrolysis kinetics showed that the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant [Formula: see text] and maximal reaction rate [Formula: see text] were 73.32 g/L and 0.118 g/(L min) for SmF enzyme, and 41.45 g/L and 0.116 g/(L min) for SSF enzyme, respectively. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the saccharification yields were 58.5 and 78.7 %, the reducing sugar concentrations were 14.9 and 20.1 mg/mL by SmF and SSF enzymes. Material balance showed that the SmF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > arabinose > galactose > xylose, and the SSF enzymatic hydrolysate was enriched galacturonic acid > xylose > galactose > arabinose.

  7. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  8. Waste Tank Safety Program. Annual status report for FY 1993, Task 3: Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucke, R.B.; Clauss, T.T.W.; Hoheimer, R.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-02-01

    This task supports the tank-vapor project, mainly by providing organic analytical support and by analyzing Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) vapor-space samples, collected via SUMMA{trademark} canisters, by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS). In the absence of receiving tank-vapor samples, we have focused our efforts toward validating the normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) sampling and analysis methods and preparing the SUMMA{trademark} laboratory. All required milestones were met, including a report on the update of phase I sampling and analysis on August 15, 1993. This update described the work involved in preparing to analyze phase I samples (Appendix A). This report describes the analytical support provided by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL){sup (a)} to the Hanford Tank Safety Vapor Program.

  9. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O' Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide

  10. Isolation and purification of bromelain from waste peel of pineapple for therapeutic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Rocha Antunes Pereira Bresolin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate and purify bromelain extracted from the pineapple peel by ammonium sulfate precipitation (40-80%, followed by desalting and freeze-drying with a 75% activity recovery and 2.2 fold increased specific activity. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose was able to separate the polysaccharides from the enzyme, which was recovered in the elution step, maintaining its enzymatic activity. The batch adsorption of bromelain was evaluated in terms of total protein and enzymatic activity using Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich models. Results showed that the process could be suitable for the recovery and purification of the enzyme, maintaining its specific activity.

  11. High biohydrogen yielding Clostridium sp. DMHC-10 isolated from sludge of distillery waste treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalaskar, Leena B.; Dhakephalkar, P.K.; Meher, K.K.; Ranade, D.R. [Microbial Sciences Division, Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004 (India)

    2010-10-15

    A mesophilic high hydrogen producing strain DMHC-10 was isolated from a lab scale anaerobic reactor being operated on distillery wastewater for hydrogen production. DMHC-10 was identified as Clostridium sp. on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Various medium components (carbon and nitrogen sources) and environmental factors (initial pH, temperature of incubation) were optimized for hydrogen production by Clostridium sp. DMHC-10. The strain, in late exponential growth phase, showed maximum hydrogen production (3.35 mol-H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose utilized) at 37 C, pH 5.0 in a medium supplemented with organic nitrogen source. Butyric acid to acetic acid ratio was ca. 2.3. Hydrogen production declined when organic nitrogen was replaced with inorganic nitrogen. (author)

  12. METAL TOLERANCE ANALYSIS OF MICROFUNGI ISOLATED FROM METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathan Jayaraman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Cr6+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ on the development of 24 fungi was investigated for Metal Tolerance Index (MTI at 1mg ml-1 Cr6+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ concentrations and also for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. The MIC ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg ml-1 depending on the isolate Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium sp. were tested for their metal tolerance index. Out of these Aspergillus flavus (ED4 shows a better tolerance index of 0.80 Cr6+, 0.72 for Pb2+ , 0.63 for Cu2+, 0.58 for Ni2+, 0.46 for Zn2+ and 0.60 Cd2+ for MIC value for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil and wastewaters.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) conceptual design report. Part I: executive summary. Part II: facilities and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The pilot plant is developed for ERDA low-level contact-handled transuranic waste, ERDA remote-handled intermediate-level transuranic waste, and for high-level waste experiments. All wastes placed in the WIPP arrive at the site processed and packaged; no waste processing is done at the WIPP. All wastes placed into the WIPP are retrievable. The proposed site for WIPP lies 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This document includes the executive summary and a detailed description of the facilities and systems. (DLC)

  14. Percutaneous Isolated Hepatic Perfusion as a Treatment for Isolated Hepatic Metastases of Uveal Melanoma: Patient Outcome and Safety in a Multi-centre Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Koch, Silvia A., E-mail: silvia.koch@web.de [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lotz, Gösta, E-mail: goesta.lotz@kgu.de [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive-Care Medicine and Pain Therapy (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Campus Charité Mitte (Germany); Willinek, Winfried, E-mail: w.willinek@bk-trier.de [Brüderkrankenhaus Trier, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Engelke, Christoph, E-mail: engelke@ekweende.de [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Göttingen-Weende gGmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Brüning, Roland, E-mail: r.bruening@asklepios.com; Zeile, Martin, E-mail: m.zeile@asklepios.com [Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Wacker, Frank, E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Vogel, Arndt, E-mail: vogel.arndt@mh-hannover.de [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology (Germany); Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Scholtz, Jan-Erik, E-mail: janerikscholtz@gmail.com [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposePercutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion (PIHP) with Melphalan has been developed as a treatment for patients with isolated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma. We discuss patient outcome and safety in a retrospective multi-centre study.Materials and MethodsBetween 2012 and 2016 18 patients with un-resectable isolated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma received single or repeated PIHP with Melphalan (n = 35) at seven sites. Progression-free time, overall survival time (OS) and tumour response by means of RECIST 1.1 criteria were evaluated. Peri- and post-procedural adverse events (AE) were registered. Patients’ life quality was assessed using four-point scale questionnaires.ResultsOf 18 patients, initial PIHP treatment resulted in partial response (PR) in eight, stable disease (SD) in seven and progressive disease (PD) in three cases. Nine patients underwent second PIHP with PR in eight cases and PD in one case. Six patients were evaluated after third PIHP with PR in five patients and SD in one patient. Two patients received fourth PIHP with PD in both cases. Median OS was 9.6 months (range 1.6–41.0 months). Median progression-free survival time was 12.4 months (range 0.9–41.0 months) with 1-year survival of 44%. Most common post-procedural AE grade 3 and 4 were temporary leukopenia (n = 11) and thrombocytopenia (n = 8). Patients’ self-assessments showed good ratings for overall health and quality of life with only slight changes after PIHP, and a high degree of satisfaction with PIHP treatment.ConclusionPIHP with Melphalan proved to be a relatively safe, minimal-invasive and repeatable treatment for patients with non-resectable hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma.

  15. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan.

  16. Creating a proper safety culture at the Hanford Site low- and high-level waste vitrification plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baide, D.G.; Herborn, D.I.

    1994-05-01

    The United States has been engaged in defense nuclear activities at the Hanford Site for the past 50 years. To date, no high-level waste and only 3,800 m{sup 3} of low-level waste have been processed for final disposal. By the anticipated start of low-level waste processing operations in the year 2005, approximately 215,000 m{sup 3} of low-level waste will be in underground storage tanks (90% of the total tank waste in storage). Similarly, approximately 25,000 m{sup 3} of high-level waste will be in underground storage by the anticipated start of high-level waste processing operations in the year 2009 (10% of the total tank waste in storage).

  17. Biosorption of lead using Bacillus badius AK strain isolated from compost of green waste (water hyacinth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishan, Isha; Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar; Kalamdhad, Ajay

    2017-07-01

    The bacterial strain Bacillus badius AK isolated from water hyacinth compost was investigated for biosorption characteristics in Pb(II) removal. Batch mode experiments depicted the optimum conditions for biosorption as pH at 4, the temperature of 30°C, 150 rpm of the rotational speed at biomass concentration of 20 mL with 1.7 × 1016 colony forming unit per milliliter (CFU/mL) value, at 100-150 mg/L concentration of Pb(II). The bacterial biomass was used in its native and non-pretreated state, unlike the dried, freeze-dried or chemically treated biomass. The biosorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and isotherm fitted well to the Langmuir model. Maximum Pb(II) biosorption was observed at 1.7 × 1016 CFU/mL. Influence of Pb(II) on the growth of bacterial biomass was examined by fitting the monod's model. Specific growth rate and maximum specific growth rate of B. badius AK was observed as 0.05 and 2.54 h-1, respectively; biomass yield coefficient was 11.81. The results indicated that bacterial biomass was efficient, robust and cheaper biosorbent for removal of Pb(II).

  18. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  19. In vitro and in vivo safety analysis of Enterococcus faecium 2C isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, Soodabeh; Mojgani, Naheed

    2018-01-10

    Safety analysis of probiotic bacteria is an obligatory characteristic to be evaluated prior to application in food or pharmacological products. This study was designed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo safety parameters of Enterococcus faecium 2C strain, a probiotic candidate isolated from human breast milk. E.faecium 2C was studied for its hemolytic activity and phenotypic antibiotics resistance profile. In vivo safety of the mentioned Enterococcus strain was studied by determining acute oral toxicity in Wistar Male rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of 3 animals each. The test group animals were gavaged daily with bacterial dose of 1 × 10 11  CFU/kg of animal body weight for 21 consecutive days. The animals in control group received normal basal diet without any supplementations. Hematological and biochemical parameters, organ weight, body weight and common health features of the animals were recorded. E.faecium 2C appeared non-hemolytic and sensitive to the majority of the tested antibiotics. The Wistar male rats fed orally with the mentioned bacterial suspensions survived the test period, and showed normal growth and development. No adverse effects on the general health condition, behavior, and growth were seen in the treated animals compared to control group. Additionally, no significant changes in the hematological results, blood biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology of the rats in treatment groups were observed. None of the vital organs of the treated animals showed signs of bacteremia or infectivity. E.faecium 2C strain isolated from human breast milk might be considered safe for use in probiotic formulations intended for man and animals. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Safety and technological characterization of Staphylococcus equorum isolates from jeotgal, a Korean high-salt-fermented seafood, for starter development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Do-Won; Han, Seulhwa; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    To select starters for jeotgal, a traditional Korean high-salt-fermented seafood, the safety and technological properties of its predominant bacteria isolates, which were identified as Staphylococcus equorum, were assessed. Among the 185 S. equorum isolates from jeotgal, 126 ampicillin-sensitive strains were subjected to assessments for antibiotic susceptibility and safety hazards. Sixty-six out of the 126 S. equorum strains exhibited phenotypic resistances to at least one antibiotic, and their prevailing resistances were to penicillin G (34.1%), erythromycin (9.5%) and trimethoprim (9.5%). Twenty-four S. equorum strains expressed resistance to at least two antibiotics. The lnuA for lincomycin (four strains) and pbp for β-lactam (three strains) were amplified by PCR. α-Hemolytic activity was not detected from the 126 strains, and 87 strains presented δ-hemolytic activity. Among the 87 strains, three strains exhibited β-hemolytic activity. Thirty-seven strains formed a biofilm. A hemolysin gene homologous to that of Staphylococcus epidermidis was amplified from an S. equorum strain with β-hemolytic activity by PCR; however, no PCR product homologous to the previously known staphylococcal enterotoxin genes was amplified. Thirty-nine S. equorum strains cleared all of the tested safety hazards and were adopted for technological property assessments. Among these strains, 16 strains exhibited protease, lipase and nitrate reductase activities, and seven strains did not produce four types of biogenic amines. Five biogenic amine non-producers exhibited three enzyme activities. Most of the strains could grow on the agar with 20% NaCl, and 13 strains maintained growth at the 25% NaCl condition. S. equorum KS1039, which is the most applicable strain that covers the safety and technological requirements for jeotgal, can grow at the 25% NaCl condition. Through this research study, we reconfirmed the necessity of characterization in the functionality and safety of S. equorum

  1. Nuclear-waste disposal in geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isherwood, D.

    1982-08-02

    Deep geologic repositories are being widely studied as the most favored method of disposal of nuclear waste. Scientists search for repository sites in salt, basalt, tuff and granite that are geologically and hydrologically suitable. The systematic evaluation of the safety and reliability of deep geologic disposal centers around the concept of interacting multiple barriers. The simplest element to describe of the geologic barrier is the physical isolation of the waste in a remote region at some depth within the rock unit. Of greater complexity is the hydrologic barrier which is determined by the waste dilution factors and groundwater flow rates. The least understood is the geochemical barrier, identified as a series of waste/water/rock interactions involving sorption, membrane filtration, precipitation and complexing. In addition to the natural barriers are the engineered barriers, which include the waste form and waste package. The relative effectiveness of these barriers to provide long-term isolation of nuclear waste from the human environment is being assessed through the use of analytical and numerical models. The data used in the models is generally adequate for parameter sensitivity studies which bound the uncertainties in the release and transport predictions; however, much of the data comes from laboratory testing, and the problem of correlating laboratory and field measurements has not been resolved. Although safety assessments based on generic sites have been useful in the past for developing site selection criteria, site-specific studies are needed to judge the suitability of a particular host rock and its environment.

  2. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lattier, C. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information.

  3. Production of melanin by soil microbial isolate on fruit waste extract: two step optimization of key parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korumilli Tarangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimization of production parameters influencing melanin production in an economical fruit waste extract was attempted using a garden soil isolate (Bacillus safensis. Taguchi approach was adopted for screening of critical parameters and further optimization was done using a central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM. At optimum conditions (pH 6.84 and Temp 30.7 °C, a significant yield of ∼6.96 mg/mL was observed. Statistical analysis revealed that the experimental results fitted well to the statistical model with model R2 value 0.982. The optimization of process parameters using RSM reported a 15% increase in the pigment yield than average yield obtained from the studied model. The melanin produced was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy, FTIR and XRD analysis. Moreover melanin obtained has significant photoprotective, radical scavenging and metal chelating activity. Thus, B. safensis has the potential to be a new source for the production of melanin, which is of industrial interest.

  4. Production of melanin by soil microbial isolate on fruit waste extract: two step optimization of key parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarangini, Korumilli; Mishra, Susmita

    2014-12-01

    In this study, optimization of production parameters influencing melanin production in an economical fruit waste extract was attempted using a garden soil isolate ( Bacillus safensis ). Taguchi approach was adopted for screening of critical parameters and further optimization was done using a central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). At optimum conditions (pH 6.84 and Temp 30.7 °C), a significant yield of ∼6.96 mg/mL was observed. Statistical analysis revealed that the experimental results fitted well to the statistical model with model R 2 value 0.982. The optimization of process parameters using RSM reported a 15% increase in the pigment yield than average yield obtained from the studied model. The melanin produced was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and XRD analysis. Moreover melanin obtained has significant photoprotective, radical scavenging and metal chelating activity. Thus, B. safensis has the potential to be a new source for the production of melanin, which is of industrial interest.

  5. Investigating the Potential Barrier Function of Nanostructured Materials Formed in Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) Designed for Nuclear Waste Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Jaime; Ruiz, Ana Isabel; Fernández, Raúl

    2018-02-21

    Clay and cement are known nano-colloids originating from natural processes or traditional materials technology. Currently, they are used together as part of the engineered barrier system (EBS) to isolate high-level nuclear waste (HLW) metallic containers in deep geological repositories (DGR). The EBS should prevent radionuclide (RN) migration into the biosphere until the canisters fail, which is not expected for approximately 10 3  years. The interactions of cementitious materials with bentonite swelling clay have been the scope of our research team at the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) with participation in several European Union (EU) projects from 1998 up to now. Here, we describe the mineral and chemical nature and microstructure of the alteration rim generated by the contact between concrete and bentonite. Its ability to buffer the surrounding chemical environment may have potential for further protection against RN migration. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Stochastic analysis of radionuclides travel times at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP), in New Mexico (U. S. A. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capilla Roma, J. E.; Gomez-Hernandez, J. J.; Sahuquillo Herraiz, A. (Universidad Politecnia de Valencia (Spain))

    1999-12-15

    Multiple equally likely transmissivity fields that honor piezo metric head measurements are generated as input to a Monte-Carlo exercise, for the stochastic analysis of travel times in the Culebra dolomite overlaying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico, USA. Results of the analysis show the importance of modeling variable-density flow as accurately as possible, and of including as much information as possible in the simulations of alternative scenarios. Results also unveil a channel of high transmissivity when transmissivity fields are conditioned to piezo metric data. This channel leads to important reductions of travel time from the WIPP area to the south boundary. The uncertainty of the boundary conditions is analyzed searching for alternative boundary conditions can be obtained that improve the reproduction of piezo metric data and yield a reduction of the minimum travel times to the south boundary. Results of the Monte-Carlo exercise are compared with those from a deterministic analysis showing the limitations of the latter method when trying to estimate extreme values or characterizing the uncertainty of their predictions. The report ends with a brief study on the impact of the small transmissivity measurements at location P-18, showing that its value is not consistent with the model of spatial variability inferred from the data and that it has an important effect on model predictions. (Author)

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of esterase-producing Ureibacillus thermosphaericus isolated from an aerobic digestor of swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, A; Chicoine, M; Morin, A; Houde, A

    2001-10-01

    Eight closely related thermophilic strains were isolated from an aerobic and thermophilic treatment of swine wastes. The pleomorphic cells (short and long rods; cocci) showed peritrichous flagella, terminally swollen sporangium, and liberated spores exhibiting hairy appendages. The Gram reaction was negative for both young (4 h) and old (48 h) cultures. Several features, such as colonial morphology, growth between 35 degrees C and 65 degrees C, presence of catalase, presence of spores, and strictly aerobic metabolism (except for one strain), are similar to those found for the genus Bacillus. The inability of the strains to use sugars, except esculin, as source of carbon and energy and the whole cell fatty acid composition are similar to those found in Bacillus thermosphaericus DSM 10633. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed 99.8%-99.9% identity for seven of the thermophilic strains with this species. A new genus, Ureibacillus, was recently proposed for type strain B. thermosphaericus DSM 10633 The last strain exhibits 97.8% and 97.3% identity with Ureibacillus terrenus DSM12654 and Bacillus sp. TP-84, respectively. Esterase activities were detected for all strains, and assays on p-nitrophenyl butyrate and p-nitrophenyl caprylate revealed that strains were more active on the shorter substrate.

  8. Analysis of solutes in groundwaters from the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1986, groundwater samples from more than 60 locations in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site were collected and analyzed for a variety of major, minor, and trace solutes. Most of the samples were from the Rustler Formation (the Culebra Dolomite, the Magenta Dolomite, or the zone at the contact between the Rustler and underlying Salado Formations) or the Dewey Lake Red Beds. The analytical data from the laboratories are presented here with accompanying discussions of sample collection methods, supporting field measurements, and laboratory analytical methods. A comparison of four data sets and a preliminary evaluation of the data for the major solutes (Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Na, K, Ca, and Mg) shows that the data for samples analyzed by UNC/Bendix for SNL seem to be the most reliable, but that at some locations, samples representative of the native, unperturbed groundwater have not been collected. At other locations, the water chemistry has apparently changed between sampling episodes.

  9. Wellbore enlargement investigation: Potential analogs to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant during inadvertent intrusion of the repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, D.M.; Dotson, L.; Aguilar, R. [and others

    1997-01-01

    This study involved the evaluation and documentation of cases in which petroleum wellbores were enlarged beyond the nominal hole diameter as a consequence of erosion during exploratory drilling, particularly as a function of gas flow into the wellbore during blowout conditions. A primary objective was to identify analogs to potential wellbore enlargement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during inadvertent human intrusion. Secondary objectives were to identify drilling scenarios associated with enlargement, determine the physical extent of enlargement, and establish the physical properties of the formation in which the enlargement occurred. No analogs of sufficient quality to establish quantitative limits on wellbore enlargement at the WIPP disposal system were identified. However, some information was obtained regarding the frequency of petroleum well blowouts and the likelihood that such blowouts would bridge downhole, self-limiting the surface release of disposal-system material. Further work would be necessary, however, to determine the conditions under which bridging could occur and the extent to which the bridging might be applicable to WIPP. In addition, data on casing sizes of petroleum boreholes in the WIPP vicinity support the use of a 12-{1/4} inch borehole size in WIPP performance assessment calculations. Finally, although data are limited, there was no evidence of significant wellbore enlargement in any of three blowouts that occur-red in wellbores in the Delaware Basin (South Culebra Bluff Unit No. 1, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) 6, and WIPP 12).

  10. Permeability and hydraulic diffusivity of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository salt inferred from small-scale brine inflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTigue, D.F.

    1993-06-01

    Brine seepage to 17 boreholes in salt at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon has been monitored for several years. A simple model for one-dimensional, radial, darcy flow due to relaxation of ambient pore-water pressure is applied to analyze the field data. Fits of the model response to the data yield estimates of two parameters that characterize the magnitude of the flow and the time scale over which it evolves. With further assumptions, these parameters are related to the permeability and the hydraulic diffusivity of the salt. For those data that are consistent with the model prediction, estimated permeabilities are typically 10{sup {minus}22} to 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. The relatively small range of inferred permeabilities reflects the observation that the measured seepage fluxes are fairly consistent from hole to hole, of the order of 10{sup {minus}10} m/s. Estimated diffusivities are typically 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}8} m{sup 2}/s. The greater scatter in inferred hydraulic diffusivities is due to the difficulty of matching the idealized model history to the observed evolution of the flows. The data obtained from several of the monitored holes are not consistent with the simple model adopted here; material properties could not be inferred in these cases.

  11. Hydrogeochemical studies of the Rustler Formation and related rocks in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Area, Southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, M.D.; Lambert, S.J.; Robinson, K.L. (eds.)

    1991-08-01

    Chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and hydrological studies of the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler Formation and related rocks are used to delineate hydrochemical facies and form the basis for a conceptual model for post-Pleistocene groundwater flow and chemical evolution. Modern flow within the Culebra in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area appears to be largely north-to-south; however, these flow directions under confined conditions are not consistent with the salinity distribution in the region surrounding the WIPP Site. Isotopic, mineralogical, and hydrological data suggest that vertical recharge to the Culebra in the WIPP area and to the immediate east and south has not occurred for several thousand years. Eastward increasing {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios suggest recharge from a near-surface Pleistocene infiltration zone flowing from the west-northwest and imply a change in flow direction in the last 30,000 to 12,000 years. 49 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  13. Rhodococcus lactis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from sludge of a dairy waste treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradip Kumar; Kumari, Annu; Chawla, Niharika; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Korpole, Suresh

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile and aerobic bacterium, designated strain DW151BT, was isolated from a sludge sample of a dairy industry effluent treatment plant. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain DW151BT placed it within the genus Rhodococcus. It displayed significant similarity with recognized species of the genus: Rhodococcus pyridinivorans PDB9T (98.8 %), Rhodococcus gordoniae W 4937T (98.6 %), Rhodococcus rhodochrous DSM 43241T (98.5 %) and Rhodococcus artemisiae YIM 65754T (97.5 %). However, strain DW151BT differed from phylogenetically closely related species in various phenotypic properties. The cellular polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) as major lipids, MK-8(H2) was the major menaquinone and meso-diaminopimelic acid was the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The fatty acid profile consisted of C16 : 0, C18 : 1cis9 and C16 : 1cis9 as main components. The presence of C16 : 0 and diphosphatidylglycerol as major fatty acid and polar lipid, respectively, was in accordance with chemotaxonomic markers of the genus Rhodococcus. The DNA G+C content of strain DW151BT was 69.9 mol%, a value within the limits reported for the members of this genus. Furthermore, strain DW151BT showed low similarity at the whole genome level in DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with phylogenetically closely related strains. Considering the low similarity at the genome level and differences in phenotypic properties, strain DW151BT is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which the name Rhodococcus lactis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DW151BT ( = MTCC 12279T = DSM 45625T).

  14. Direct releases to the surface and associated complementary cumulative distribution functions in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Cuttings, cavings and spallings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGLUND,J.W.; GARNER,J.W.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; JOHNSON,J.D.; SMITH,L.N.; ANDERSON,R.P.

    2000-05-22

    The following topics related to the treatment of cuttings, cavings and spallings releases to the surface environment in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are presented: (1) mathematical description of models. (2) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results arising from subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty for individual releases, (3) construction of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) arising from stochastic (i.e., aleatory) uncertainty, and (4) uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results for CCDFs. The presented results indicate that direct releases due to cuttings, cavings and spallings do not constitute a serious threat to the effectiveness of the WIPP as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. Even when the effects of uncertain analysis inputs are taken into account, the CCDFs for cuttings, cavings and spallings releases fall substantially to the left of the boundary line specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, 40 CFR 194).

  15. Studies On Optimization Of Protease Production Using Bacterial Isolate Clri Strain 5468 And Its Application In Dehairing And Hydrolysis Of Tannery Fleshings Solid Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala Devi Seenivasagham

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The strain which produces protease was originally isolated characterized in Biotechnology laboratory at CLRI and was maintained. The microorganism was growned on several proteolytic media and the maximum activity was observed. The characterization of enzyme was analysed for different pH temperature size of inoculum inhibitors age of the culture. Then the enzyme was observed for the unhairing of skin and the disadvantage in chemical treatment was studied. The conformation of unhairing was studied using histology studies. The tannery waste solid fleshings as it is cannot be directly disposed off to the environment. It was treated with the microbial proteases. The hydrolysis of waste was done using proteases. The solid waste was converted to protien fat and the salt matter. Future work is to optimize the cheap media for the production of the enzyme for large scale applications in various industries.

  16. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: Peer review of the Golder Associates draft test plan for in situ testing in an exploratory shaft in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambley, D.F.; Mraz, D.Z.; Unterberter, R.R.; Stormont, J.C.; Neuman, S.P.; Russell, J.E.; Jacoby, C.H.; Hull, A.B.; Brady, B.H.G.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the peer review conducted by Argonne National Laboratory of a document entitled ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared for Battelle Memorial Institute's Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation by Golder Associates, Inc. In general, the peer review panelists found the test plan to be technically sound, although some deficiencies were identified. Recommendations for improving the test plan are presented in this review report. A microfiche copy of the following unpublished report is attached to the inside back cover of this report: ''Draft Test Plan for In Situ Testing in an Exploratory Shaft in Salt,'' prepared by Golder Associates, Inc., for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio (March 1985).

  17. Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with a hydrolytic profile with potential use in bioconversion of agroindustial by-products and waste

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Anabela Mazzucotelli; Alejandra Graciela Ponce; Catalina Elena Kotlar; María del Rosario Moreira

    2013-01-01

    There is a trend towards the use of novel technologies nowadays, mainly focused on biological processes, for recycling and the efficient utilization of organic residues that can be metabolized by different microorganisms as a source of energy. In the present study the isolation of bacterial strains from six different agro-industrial by-products and waste was performed with the objective of evaluating their hydrolytic capacities and suitability for use in bioconversion of specific substrates. ...

  18. Safety of Simultaneous Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and Carotid Endarterectomy Versus Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimar, Christian; Bilbilis, Konstantinos; Rekowski, Jan; Holst, Torulv; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Breuer, Martin; Dahm, Manfred; Diegeler, Anno; Kowalski, Arne; Martens, Sven; Mohr, Friedrich W; Ondrášek, Jiri; Reiter, Beate; Roth, Peter; Seipelt, Ralf; Siggelkow, Markus; Steinhoff, Gustav; Moritz, Anton; Wilhelmi, Mathias; Wimmer-Greinecker, Gerhard; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Jakob, Heinz; Ose, Claudia; Scherag, Andre; Knipp, Stephan C

    2017-10-01

    The optimal operative strategy in patients with severe carotid artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is unknown. We sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of synchronous combined carotid endarterectomy and CABG as compared with isolated CABG. Patients with asymptomatic high-grade carotid artery stenosis ≥80% according to ECST (European Carotid Surgery Trial) ultrasound criteria (corresponding to ≥70% NASCET [North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial]) who required CABG surgery were randomly assigned to synchronous carotid endarterectomy+CABG or isolated CABG. To avoid unbalanced prognostic factor distributions, randomization was stratified by center, age, sex, and modified Rankin Scale. The primary composite end point was the rate of stroke or death at 30 days. From 2010 to 2014, a total of 129 patients were enrolled at 17 centers in Germany and the Czech Republic. Because of withdrawal of funding after insufficient recruitment, enrolment was terminated early. At 30 days, the rate of any stroke or death in the intention-to-treat population was 12/65 (18.5%) in patients receiving synchronous carotid endarterectomy+CABG as compared with 6/62 (9.7%) in patients receiving isolated CABG (absolute risk reduction, 8.8%; 95% confidence interval, -3.2% to 20.8%; PWALD=0.12). Also for all secondary end points at 30 days and 1 year, there was no evidence for a significant treatment-group effect although patients undergoing isolated CABG tended to have better outcomes. Although our results cannot rule out a treatment-group effect because of lack of power, a superiority of the synchronous combined carotid endarterectomy+CABG approach seems unlikely. Five-year follow-up of patients is still ongoing. URL: https://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN13486906. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. An exoproteome approach to monitor safety of a cheese-isolated Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Majumder, Avishek

    2013-01-01

    isomerase were abundant in the L. lactis 11D exoproteome. These proteins play a role in bacterial aggregation and in bacteria–fungi interactions, therefore their presence may indicate a good competition potential of the strain against other microorganisms in both food and the gastrointestinal habitat....... A DIGE comparative exoproteomic analysis was performed on the L. lactis 11D strain grown on glucose and the disaccharide trehalose, examined here due to its common use as lyophilization stabilizer, respectively. The experiment showed that chitinase biosynthesis was enhanced in presence of trehalose....... This is to our knowledge the first extracellular proteomic mapping of L. lactis with relevance for bacterial strain-typing in food safety....

  20. Twenty-Two Years of U.S. Meat and Poultry Product Recalls: Implications for Food Safety and Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Acton; Stasiewicz, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service maintains a recall case archive of meat and poultry product recalls from 1994 to the present. In this study, we collected all recall records from 1994 to 2015 and extracted the recall date, meat or poultry species implicated, reason for recall, recall class, and pounds of product recalled and recovered. Of a total of 1,515 records analyzed, the top three reasons for recall were contamination with Listeria, undeclared allergens, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli . Class I recalls (due to a hazard with a reasonable probability of causing adverse health consequences or death) represented 71% (1,075 of 1,515) of the total recalls. The amounts of product recalled and recovered per event were approximately lognormally distributed. The mean amount of product recalled and recovered was 6,800 and 1,000 lb (3,087 and 454 kg), respectively (standard deviation, 1.23 and 1.56 log lb, respectively). The total amount of product recalled in the 22-year evaluation period was 690 million lb (313 million kg), and the largest single recall involved 140 million lb (64 million kg) (21% of the total). In every data category subset, the largest recall represented >10% of the total product recalled in the set. The amount of product recovered was known for only 944 recalls. In 12% of those recalls (110 of 944), no product was recovered. In the remaining recalls, the median recovery was 29% of the product. The number of recalls per year was 24 to 150. Recall counts and amounts of product recalled over the 22-year evaluation period did not regularly increase by year, in contrast to the regular increase in U.S. meat and poultry production over the same time period. Overall, these data suggest that (i) meat and poultry recalls were heavily skewed toward class I recalls, suggesting recalls were focused on improving food safety, (ii) numbers of products and amounts of each product recalled were highly variable but did

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  2. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  3. Simulating Earthquake Rupture and Off-Fault Fracture Response: Application to the Safety Assessment of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Repository

    KAUST Repository

    Falth, B.

    2014-12-09

    To assess the long-term safety of a deep repository of spent nuclear fuel, upper bound estimates of seismically induced secondary fracture shear displacements are needed. For this purpose, we analyze a model including an earthquake fault, which is surrounded by a number of smaller discontinuities representing fractures on which secondary displacements may be induced. Initial stresses are applied and a rupture is initiated at a predefined hypocenter and propagated at a specified rupture speed. During rupture we monitor shear displacements taking place on the nearby fracture planes in response to static as well as dynamic effects. As a numerical tool, we use the 3Dimensional Distinct Element Code (3DEC) because it has the capability to handle numerous discontinuities with different orientations and at different locations simultaneously. In tests performed to benchmark the capability of our method to generate and propagate seismic waves, 3DEC generates results in good agreement with results from both Stokes solution and the Compsyn code package. In a preliminary application of our method to the nuclear waste repository site at Forsmark, southern Sweden, we assume end-glacial stress conditions and rupture on a shallow, gently dipping, highly prestressed fault with low residual strength. The rupture generates nearly complete stress drop and an M-w 5.6 event on the 12 km(2) rupture area. Of the 1584 secondary fractures (150 m radius), with a wide range of orientations and locations relative to the fault, a majority move less than 5 mm. The maximum shear displacement is some tens of millimeters at 200 m fault-fracture distance.

  4. Isolation, characterization and the potential use of starch from jackfruit seed wastes as a coagulant aid for treatment of turbid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Yang, Bao; Phang, Siew-Moi; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2017-01-01

    Fruit wastes constituting up to half of total fruit weight represent a large pool of untapped resources for isolation of starch with diverse applications. In this work, the possibility of isolating starch from tropical fruit wastes and its extended application as a natural coagulant was elucidated. Amongst the 12 various parts of fruit wastes selected, only jackfruit seeds contained more than 50% of total starch content. Using alkaline extraction procedures, starch has been successfully isolated from local jackfruit seeds with a yield of approximately 18%. Bell-shaped starch granules were observed under SEM with a granule size ranging from 1.1 to 41.6 μm. Detailed starch characteristics were performed to provide a comparison between the isolated seed starch and also conventional starches. Among them, chemical properties such as the content of starch, amylose, amylopectin and the corresponding molecular weights are some of the key characteristics which governed their performance as natural coagulants. The potential use of isolated seed starch as an aid was then demonstrated in both suspensions of kaolin (model synthetic system) and Chlorella sp. microalga (real-time application) with plausible outcomes. At optimized starch dosage of 60 mg/L, the overall turbidity removal in kaolin was enhanced by at least 25% at a fixed alum dosage of 2.1 mg/L. Positive turbidity and COD removals were also observed in the treatment of Chlorella suspensions. Starches which served as bridging agents aided in the linkage of neighbouring microflocs and subsequently, forming macroflocs through a secondary coagulation mechanism: adsorption and bridging.

  5. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 4: Appendix BIR Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    This report consists of the waste stream profile for the WIPP transuranic waste baseline inventory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The following assumptions/modifications were made by the WTWBIR team in developing the LL waste stream profiles: since only current volumes were provided by LL, the final form volumes were assumed to be the same as the current volumes; the WTWBIR team had to assign identification numbers (IDs) to those LL waste streams not given an identifier by the site, the assigned identification numbers are consistent with the site reported numbers; LL Final Waste Form Groups were modified to be consistent with the nomenclature used in the WTWBID, these changes included word and spelling changes, the assigned Final Waste Form Groups are consistent with the information provided by LL; the volumes for the year 1993 were changed from an annual rate of generation (m{sup 3}/year) to a cumulative value (m{sup 3}).

  6. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Culebra dolomite near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M.D.; Anderholm, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, a thin (10 m) fractured dolomite aquifer, lies approximately 450 m above the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico, USA. Salinities of water in the Culebra range roughly from 10,000 to 200,000 mg/L within the WIPP site. A proposed model for the post-Pleistocene hydrochemical evolution of the Culebra tentatively identifies the major sources and sinks for many of the groundwater solutes. Reaction-path simulations with the PHRQPITZ code suggest that the Culebra dolomite is a partial chemical equilibrium system whose composition is controlled by an irreversible process (dissolution of evaporites) and equilibrium with gypsum and calcite. Net geochemical reactions along postulated modern flow paths, calculated with the NETPATH code, include dissolution of halite, carbonate and evaporite salts, and ion exchange. R-mode principal component analysis revealed correlations among the concentrations of Si, Mg, pH, Li, and B that are consistent with several clay-water reactions. The results of the geochemical calculations and mineralogical data are consistent with the following hydrochemical model: 1. (1) solutes are added to the Culebra by dissolution of evaporite minerals 2. (2) the solubilities of gypsum and calcite increase as the salinity increases; these minerals dissolve as chemical equilibrium is maintained between them and the groundwater 3. (3) equilibrium is not maintained between the waters and dolomite; sufficient Mg is added to the waters by dissolution of accessory carnallite or polyhalite such that the degree of dolomite supersaturation increases with ionic strength 4. (4) clays within the fractures and rock matrix exert some control on the distribution of Li, B, Mg, and Si via sorption, ion exchange, and dissolution. ?? 1994.

  7. Studies of the suitability of salt domes in east Texas basin for geologic isolation of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitler, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    The suitability of salt domes in the east Texas basin (Tyler basin), Texas, for long-term isolation of nulear wastes is being evaluated. The major issues concern hydrogeologic and tectonic stability of the domes and potential natural resources in the basin. These issues are being approached by integration of dome-specific and regional hydrogeolgic, geologic, geomorphic, and remote-sensing investigations. Hydrogeologic studies are evaluating basinal hydrogeology and ground-water flow around the domes in order to determine the degree to which salt domes may be dissolving, their rates of solution, and the orientation of saline plumes in the fresh-water aquifers. Subsurface geologic studies are being conducted: (1) to determine the size and shape of specific salt domes, the geology of the strata immediately surrounding the domes, and the regional geology of the east Texas basin; (2) to understand the geologic history of dome growth and basin infilling; and (3) to evaluate potential natural resources. Geomorphic and surficial geology studies are determining whether there has been any dome growth or tectonic movement in the basin during the Quaternary. Remote-sensing studies are being conducted to determine: (1) if dome uplift has altered regional lineation patterns in Quaternary sediments; and (2) whether drainage density indicates Quaternary structural movement. On the basis of the screening criteria of Brunton et al (1978), Oakwood and Keechi domes have been chosen as possible candidate domes. Twenty-three domes have been eliminated because of insufficient size, too great a depth to salt, major hydrocarbon production, or previous use (such as liquid propane storage or salt mining or brining). Detailed geologic, hydrogeologic, and geomorphic investigations are now being conducted around Oakwood and Keechi salt domes. (JMT)

  8. Production and assay of cellulolytic enzyme activity of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya abbatoir, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Lokapirnasari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to produce and assay cellulolytic enzyme activity (endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-Dglucanase, and β-glucosidase, at optimum temperature and optimum pH of Enterobacter cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste of Surabaya Abbatoir, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: To produce enzyme from a single colony of E. cloacae WPL 214, 98 × 1010 CFU/ml of isolates was put into 20 ml of liquid medium and incubated in a shaker incubator for 16 h at 35°C in accordance with growth time and optimum temperature of E. cloacae WPL 214. Further on, culture was centrifuged at 6000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Pellet was discarded while supernatant containing cellulose enzyme activity was withdrawn to assay endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, and β-glucosidase. Results: Cellulase enzyme of E. cloacae WPL 214 isolates had endoglucanase activity of 0.09 U/ml, exoglucanase of 0.13 U/ml, and cellobiase of 0.10 U/ml at optimum temperature 35°C and optimum pH 5. Conclusion: E. cloacae WPL 214 isolated from bovine rumen fluid waste produced cellulose enzyme with activity as cellulolytic enzyme of endo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase, exo-(1,4-β-D-glucanase and β-glucosidase.

  9. Revalorization of selected municipal solid wastes as new precursors of "green" nanocellulose via a novel one-pot isolation system: A source perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Wei; Lee, Hwei Voon

    2017-08-30

    In the present work, four types of newly chosen municipal solid wastes (Panax ginseng, spent tea residue, waste cotton cloth, and old corrugated cardboard) were studied as the promising sources for nanocellulose, which has efficiently re-engineered the structure of waste products into highly valuable nanocellulose materials. The nanocellulose was produced directly via a facile one-pot oxidative hydrolysis process by using H2O2/Cr(NO3)3 solution as the bleaching agent and hydrolysis medium under acidic condition. The isolated nanocellulose products were well-characterized in terms of chemical composition, product yield, morphological structure and thermal properties. The study has found that the crystallinity index of the obtained nanocellulose products were significantly higher (62.2-83.6%) than that of its starting material due to the successive elimination of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous regions of cellulose, which were in good agreement with the FTIR analysis. The evidence of the successful production of nanocellulose was given by TEM observation which has revealed the fibril widths were ranging from 15.6 to 46.2nm, with high cellulose content (>90%), depending on the cellulosic origin. The physicochemical properties of processed samples have confirmed that the isolation of high purity nanocellulose materials from different daily spent products is possible. The comparative study can help to provide a deep insight on the possibility of revalorizing the municipal solid wastes into nanocellulose via the simple and versatile one-pot isolation system, which has high potential to be used in commercial applications for sustainable development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on Developing Safety Infrastructure for Mineral Processing Waste (NORM Waste) and Contamination Monitoring at the TINT Rare Earth Research & Development Center, Khlong 5, Pathumthani, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaanant, N.; Kasemtanasak, V.; Pattanasub, A.; O-manee, A.; Khaweerat, S.; Pruantonsai, P.; Akharawutchayanon, T.; Nuanjan, P.; Punbut, S.; Srimork, P.; Prasertchiewchan, N.

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to prepare all technical and administrative actions leading to the release of the disused radiological facilities from regulatory control and safe management of radioactive waste. In the first phase, the study covers: the preliminary site characterization, waste characterization, the preparation for authorization of the foreseen strategy and activities. The first phase study shows that several areas of the TINT’s Rare Earth Research & Development Center are contaminated, such as the U/Th extraction, monazite processing and NORM residues storage.

  11. Sweden's second national report under the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Swedish implementation of the obligations of the Joint Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-01

    Article 32 of the Joint Convention calls for a self-assessment by each Contracting Party regarding compliance with the obligations of the Convention. Sweden's self-assessment has demonstrated compliance with all the obligations of the Convention, as shown in detail in sections B to K of this report. Having taken a very active part in the creation of the Joint Convention, Sweden wishes to emphasise the incentive character of the Convention. In Sweden's opinion, the Convention implies a commitment to continuous improvement of safety whenever operating experience, safety research or technical development indicates that there is room for such improvement. Continuous learning from experience and a proactive approach to safety are in fact corner stones of the current Swedish nuclear and radiation safety work, both for the industry and the regulatory bodies. Therefore, Sweden has found it important that its National Report highlights strong features in national practices, as well as areas in which improvements are justified. Implementation of such improvements should then be followed up in the National Reports to subsequent Review Meetings. The major events in the Swedish nuclear programme since the first report to the Convention was issued are: - The general safety regulations of SKI have been revised and issued as SKIFS 2004:1. - A commission of inquiry has been carried out in order to review and suggest improvements to the financing system. - The second unit of the twin nuclear power plant unit at Barsebaeck (Barsebaeck 2) was permanently shut down 31 May 2005. The first unit (Barsebaeck 1) was closed in 1999. - The research reactors R2 and R2-0 at the Studsvik site were permanently shut down 16 June 2005. - The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) has announced its decision to take over operation of the interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (Clab). The operation of Clab is currently contracted out to OKG, who operates the three

  12. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M. [comp.

    1992-04-01

    The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

  13. Safety assessment of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716, a probiotic strain isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Villoslada, Federico; Sierra, Saleta; Díaz-Ropero, María Paz; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Xaus, Jordi; Olivares, Mónica

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716, a probiotic strain isolated from human milk, was characterized in a previous study. The objective of this study was to evaluate its sensitivity to antibiotics and its potential toxicity and translocation ability after oral administration to mice. For this purpose, 40 Balb/C mice were divided in two groups (n=20 per group). One group was treated orally with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu)/mouse/day of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 during 28 d. The other group only received the excipient and was used as control. Food intake, body weight, bacterial translocation and different biochemical and haemato