WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste ink solution

  1. WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION OF SOY-BASED INK AT A SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Waste Reduction Innovative Technology Evaluation (WRITE) project quantifies and compares wastes generated from the use of soy-based and petroleum-based inks in sheet-fed offset printing. Data were collected in a full-scale print run on a Miller TP104 Plus 6-color press in Ju...

  2. INK AND CLEANER WASTE REDUCTION EVALUATION FOR FLEXOGRAPHIC PRINTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the technical and economic effects incurred by a flexographic label printer who changed the type of ink and cleaning agent used in its print shop. The changes were incurred as the best way to eliminate all hazardous materials. The company's corporate managem...

  3. Degradation of Highly Alloyed Metal Halide Perovskite Precursor Inks: Mechanism and Storage Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Benjia [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wheeler, Lance M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christians, Jeffrey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harvey, Steven P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Hest, Marinus F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barnes, Frank S. [University of Colorado; Shaheen, Sean E. [University of Colorado

    2018-03-02

    Whereas the promise of metal halide perovskite (MHP) photovoltaics (PV) is that they can combine high efficiency with solution-processability, the chemistry occurring in precursor inks is largely unexplored. Herein, we investigate the degradation of MHP solutions based on the most widely used solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). For the MHP inks studied, which contain formamidinium (FA+), methylammonium (MA+), cesium (Cs+), lead (Pb2+), bromide (Br-), and iodide (I-), dramatic compositional changes are observed following storage of the inks in nitrogen in the dark. We show that hydrolysis of DMF in the precursor solution forms dimethylammonium formate, which subsequently incorporates into the MHP film to compromise the ability of Cs+ and MA+ to stabilize FA+-based MHP. The changes in solution chemistry lead to a modification of the perovskite film stoichiometry, band gap, and structure. The solid precursor salts are stable when ball-milled into a powder, allowing for the storage of large quantities of stoichiometric precursor materials.

  4. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  5. Line printing solution-processable small molecules with uniform surface profile via ink-jet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Xu, Wei; Tan, Wanyi; Zhu, Xuhui; Wang, Jian; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Line printing offers a feasible approach to remove the pixel well structure which is widely used to confine the ink-jet printed solution. In the study, a uniform line is printed by an ink-jet printer. To achieve a uniform surface profile of the printed line, 10vol% low-volatile solvent DMA (3,4-Dimethylanisole) is mixed with high-volatile solvent Pxy (p-xylene) as the solvent. After a solution-processable small molecule is dissolved, the surface tension of DMA solution becomes lower than that of Pxy solution, which creates an inward Marangoni flow during the solvent evaporation. The inward Marangoni flow balances out the outward capillary flow, thereby forming a flat film surface. The line width of the printed line depends on the contact angle of the solution on the hole injection layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impacts and resource losses of incinerating misplaced household special wastes (WEEE, batteries, ink cartridges and cables)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigum, Marianne Kristine Kjærgaard; Damgaard, Anders; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of misplaced special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges and cables) to environmental impacts from incineration of residual household waste was quantified through life cycle assessment (LCA)-modelling. Misplaced special waste was quantified to constitute less than 1...... and batteries. However as shown by sensitivity analysis, lack of good data on the transfer of rare and hazardous metals to the flue gas in the incineration process should receive further investigation before the environmental impacts from misplaced incinerated special waste can fully be concluded upon. Although...... special waste (sWEEE, lamps, CRT, batteries, ink cartridges, and cables)....

  7. Evaporation of a non-ideal solution and its application to writing ink aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Antonio A

    2015-02-01

    The evaporation of a solution consisting of a non-volatile solute dissolved in a volatile solvent has been previously treated using a simple model called the beaker model. This model considers the solution to be in a non-porous container that has vertical walls like a glass beaker and assumes the solution is an ideal solution so that Raoult's law is obeyed. A particular novel finding was that under a certain condition, the evaporation or aging curve of the solution has a point of maximum acceleration. Prior to this point, the solution is in its fast drying mode and after this point, it is in its slow drying mode. This phenomenon is observed in the drying of many writing inks. In this work this model is modified to consider the evaporation of (a) a non-ideal solution, (b) a solution that become saturated, (c) a solution on a glass slide, and (d) a solution on a porous substrate. In each of these cases, the existence and location of the point of maximum acceleration of the drying process are examined. These modifications lead to a description of the dying process of a solution that is remarkably similar to that of writing inks but obtained via an entirely different physical model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of calcium carbonate particles from eggshell waste as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sukjoon; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Zou, Peter; Kokoszka, John

    2009-12-01

    The effective treatment and utilization of biowaste have been emphasized in our society for environmental and economic concerns. Recently, the eggshell waste in the poultry industry has been highlighted because of its reclamation potential. This study presents an economical treatment process to recover useful bioproducts from eggshell waste and their utilization in commercial products. We developed the dissolved air floatation (DAF) separation unit, which successfully recovered 96% of eggshell membrane and 99% of eggshell calcium carbonate (ECC) particles from eggshell waste within 2 h of operation. The recovered ECC particles were utilized as coating pigments for ink-jet printing paper and their impact on the ink density and paper gloss were investigated. The addition of the ECC particles as coating pigments enhances the optical density of cyan, magenta and yellow inks while decreasing the black ink density and the gloss of the coated paper.

  9. Nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  10. Solutions for Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    To safely and securely dispose of highlevel and long-lived radioactive waste, this material needs to be stored for a period of time that is very long compared to our everyday experience. Underground disposal facilities need to be designed and constructed in suitable geological conditions that can be confidently demonstrated to contain and isolate the hazardous waste from our environment for hundreds of thousands of years. Over this period of time, during which the safety of an underground waste repository system must be assured, the waste's radioactivity will decay to a level that cannot pose a danger to people or the environment. The archaeological record can help in visualizing such a long period of time. Climates change, oceans rise and vanish, and species evolve in the course of a one hundred millennia. Rocks bear witness to all of these changes. Geologists in their search for safe repositories for the long-term disposal of high level radioactive waste have identified rock formations that have proven stable for millions of years. These geological formations are expected to remain stable for millions of years and can serve as host formations for waste repositories.

  11. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.

  12. On quantification of residual ink content and deinking efficiency in recycling of mixed office waste paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo Li; Gaosheng Wang; Kefu Chen; David W. Vahey; Junyong Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Although (flotation) deinking has been a common industry practice for several decades, true residual ink content and deinking efficiency have never been quantified. Paper brightness and ERIC (Effective Residual Ink Concentration), based on measurements of the absorption coefficient of deinked pulp, have been used to determine performance of flotation deinking processes...

  13. A study of the evaporation of a solvent from a solution--application to writing ink aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantú, Antonio A

    2012-06-10

    When writing ink is placed on a substrate, a drying process begins. This process is dependent on the composition of the ink and of the substrate. Lociciro et al. provide an equation that describes the drying process based on models developed by earlier investigators. The work given here develops an equation for the drying process that is based on a different and rather simple model. This model considers the evaporation of a solution in an opened vertical container (e.g., a beaker) and consists of a volatile, non-hygroscopic solvent with a non-volatile solute dissolved in it. Three assumptions are made: (a) the rate of evaporation is proportional to the vapor pressure of the solution and to the solution's exposed surface area, (b) this solution vapor pressure is proportional to the solvent vapor pressure with the proportionality constant being the solvent mole fraction (Raoult's law), and (c) a small fraction of the solvent remains trapped in the solute after evaporation ceases. What results is a differential equation, which, when solved, gives the solvent weight W(t) as an implicit function. What emerges naturally from this treatment is the fact that the function W(t) can have a point of maximum acceleration. Prior to this point the drying process is fast and after this point, the drying process is slow. An approximation to W(t) is taken to be the sum of two exponential functions, one describing the fast drying region and the second describing the subsequent slow drying region. Upon including an additive constant, this approximation turns out to be similar to, but not the same as that provided by Lociciro et al. However, their equivalence is shown and then tested using the two inks examined by Lociciro et al. (the drying of a Bic and a Staedtler blue ballpoint ink). The examples of (solvent+solute) systems ("inks") given here consist of the solvent (2-phenoxyethanol) and a solute such as a dye (crystal violet) or a polymer resin such as synthetic resin SK or

  14. Conditioning of radioactive waste solutions by cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelka, P.; Rudolph, G.; Kluger, W.; Koester, R.

    1992-02-01

    For the cementation of the low and intermediate level evaporator concentrates resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel numerous experiments were performed to optimize the waste form composition and to characterize the final waste form. Concerning the cementation process, properties of the waste/cement suspension were investigated. These investigations include the dependence of viscosity, bleeding, setting time and hydration heat from the waste cement slurry composition. For the characterization of the waste forms, the mechanical, thermal and chemical stability were determined. For special cases detailed investigations were performed to determine the activity release from waste packages under defined mechanical and thermal stresses. The investigations of the interaction of the waste forms with aqueous solutions include the determination of the Cs/Sr release, the corrosion resistance and the release of actinides. The Cs/Sr release was determined in dependence of the cement type, additives, setting time and sample size. (orig./DG) [de

  15. Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process.

  16. Waste processing of chemical cleaning solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes that are difficult to reduce in volume using existing technology. Current methods for evaporating low-level radiative waste solutions often use high maintenance evaporators that can be costly and inefficient. The heat transfer surfaces of these evaporators are easily fouled, and their maintenance requires a significant labor investment. To address the volume reduction of spent, low-level radioactive, chelating-based chemical cleaning solutions, ECOSAFE Liquid Volume Reduction System (LVRS) has been developed. The LVRS is based on submerged combustion evaporator technology that was modified for treatment of low-level radiative liquid wastes. This system was developed in 1988 and was used to process 180,000 gallons of waste at Oconee Nuclear Station

  17. Radioactive wastes. The groundwork of current solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevoz, A.; Boullis, B.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Butez, M.; Bordier, G.; Vitart, X.; Hablot, I.; Chastagnet, F.

    2005-01-01

    Today the groundwork laid down by research has made processes available for the durable treatment and conditioning of all types of radioactive waste. This document illustrates the today situations in five presentations. Now standing as a national reference, the french inventory of radioactive waste, drawn up by ANDRA, has not only expanded to cover recoverable material but also features predictions of waste arisings for 2010 and 2020, including waste from the decommissioning of current installations. The current process used for spent fuel reprocessing allows extraction for recycling purpose, of uranium and plutonium, with very high recovery and purification rates. Advances in characterization and decontamination allow improvements in sorting and retrieval and conditioning to be considered for older wastes. The french National radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) is already providing optimum industrial solutions for all short-lived, low and very low level waste on its Soulaines and Morvillers sites. For several decades, Areva has been reprocessing spent fuel and conditioning ultimate waste in its La Hague plants. (A.L.B.)

  18. Radioactive waste management turning options into solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2000-10-01

    Most of the statements from representatives of different countries and institutions focused on the status of high level radioactive waste management, including spent fuel repositories. Speakers dealing with such topics were representatives from countries applying nuclear power for electricity production. They all reported about there national programs on technical and safety aspects of radioactive waste management. The panel discussion extended to questions on political sensitivities and public acceptance; in this respect, interesting developments are taking place in Finland and Sweden. It is expected that Finland will operate a final repository for spent fuel in 10 - 15 years from now, followed close by Sweden. Other countries, however, face decisions by policy makers and elected officials to postpone dealing with waste disposal concerns. In this connection there is relevant experience in our country, too - even in the absence of spent fuel or other high level waste to be dealt with. During personal discussions with representatives of other countries not using nuclear power it was confirmed that there are similar or shared experiences. Development of publicly -accepted solutions to radioactive waste management remains an important issue. Independent of the amount or the activity of radioactive waste, the public at large remains skeptical despite the agreement among experts that disposal can be safe, technically feasible and environmentally sound. In countries not using nuclear power there are only small quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Therefore, international co-operation among such countries should be an option. There was common understanding by representatives from Norway, Italy and Austria that international co-operation should be developed for treatment and disposal of such waste. For the moment however it has to be accepted that, for political reasons, it is not possible. Forced to deal with the lack of near-term solutions, the

  19. Rapid wasted-free microfluidic fabrication based on ink-jet approach for microfluidic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Amarit, Rattasart; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2016-11-01

    Realizing that current microfluidic chip fabrication techniques are time consuming and labor intensive as well as always have material leftover after chip fabrication, this research work proposes an innovative approach for rapid microfluidic chip production. The key idea relies on a combination of a widely-used inkjet printing method and a heat-based polymer curing technique with an electronic-mechanical control, thus eliminating the need of masking and molds compared to typical microfluidic fabrication processes. In addition, as the appropriate amount of polymer is utilized during printing, there is much less amount of material wasted. Our inkjet-based microfluidic printer can print out the desired microfluidic chip pattern directly onto a heated glass surface, where the printed polymer is suddenly cured. Our proof-of-concept demonstration for widely-used single-flow channel, Y-junction, and T-junction microfluidic chips shows that the whole microfluidic chip fabrication process requires only 3 steps with a fabrication time of 6 minutes.

  20. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, L.A.; Allen, R.P.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Hooper, J.L.

    1979-09-01

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  1. Recovery of uranium from analytical waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Anitha, M.; Singh, D.K.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion fuels are considered as advance fuel for the nuclear reactor. Liquid waste containing significant quantity of uranium gets generated during chemical characterization of dispersion fuel. The present paper highlights the effort in devising a counter current solvent extraction process based on the synergistic mixture of D2EHPA and Cyanex 923 to recover uranium from such waste solutions. A typical analytical waste solution was found to have the following composition: U 3 O 8 (∼3 g/L), Al: 0.3 g/L, V: 15 ppm, Phosphoric acid: 3M, sulphuric acid : 1M and nitric acid : 1M. The aqueous solution is composed of mixture of either 3M phosphoric acid and 1M sulphuric acid or 1M sulphuric acid and 1M nitric acid, keeping metallic concentrations in the above mentioned range. Different organic solvents were tested. Based on the higher extraction of uranium with synergistic mixture of 0.5M D2EHPA + 0.125M Cyanex 923, it was selected for further investigation in the present work

  2. Treatment for hydrazine-containing waste water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yade, N.

    1986-01-01

    The treatment for waste solutions containing hydrazine is presented. The invention attempts oxidation and decomposition of hydrazine in waste water in a simple and effective processing. The method adds activated charcoal to waste solutions containing hydrazine while maintaining a pH value higher than 8, and adding iron salts if necessary. Then, the solution is aerated.

  3. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-01

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the amount

  4. Nanoclays for polymer nanocomposites, paints, inks, greases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... rheological modifier for paints, inks and greases, drug delivery vehicle for controlled release of therapeutic agents, and nanoclays for industrial waste water as well as potable water treatment to make further step into green environment. A little amount of nanoclay can alter the entire properties of polymers, paints, inks and ...

  5. Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this publication are to identify and critically review the criteria to be considered while selecting waste management technologies; summarize, evaluate, rank and compare the different technical solutions; and offer a systematic approach for selecting the best matching solution. This publication covers the management of radioactive waste from all nuclear operations, including waste generated from research reactors, power reactors, and nuclear fuel cycle activities including high level waste (HLW) arising from reprocessing and spent nuclear fuel declared as waste (SFW), as well as low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) arising from the production and use of radionuclides in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research.

  6. Graphene Ink Laminate Structures on Poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) for Pyroelectric Thermal Energy Harvesting and Waste Heat Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabek, Daniel; Seunarine, Kris; Spacie, Chris; Bowen, Chris

    2017-03-15

    Thermal energy can be effectively converted into electricity using pyroelectrics, which act as small scale power generator and energy harvesters providing nanowatts to milliwatts of electrical power. In this paper, a novel pyroelectric harvester based on free-standing poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVDF) was manufactured that exploits the high thermal radiation absorbance of a screen printed graphene ink electrode structure to facilitate the conversion of the available thermal radiation energy into electrical energy. The use of interconnected graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) as an electrode enable high thermal radiation absorbance and high electrical conductivity along with the ease of deposition using a screen print technique. For the asymmetric structure, the pyroelectric open-circuit voltage and closed-circuit current were measured, and the harvested electrical energy was stored in an external capacitor. For the graphene ink/PVDF/aluminum system the closed circuit pyroelectric current improves by 7.5 times, the open circuit voltage by 3.4 times, and the harvested energy by 25 times compared to a standard aluminum/PVDF/aluminum system electrode design, with a peak energy density of 1.13 μJ/cm 3 . For the pyroelectric device employed in this work, a complete manufacturing process and device characterization of these structures are reported along with the thermal conductivity of the graphene ink. The material combination presented here provides a new approach for delivering smart materials and structures, wireless technologies, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  7. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  8. The different solutions for the waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillion, E.

    2001-01-01

    Created in 1979, the National agency for the management of radioactive waste (A.N.D.R.A.) is a public establishment in charge of the management of radioactive waste produced in France. It is independent from waste producers and watches over the long term protection of man and his environment, at any step of radioactive waste management. It has for mission to check the waste quality and to conceive, to establish, to build and to manage storage centers where waste are stored according their characteristics. (N.C.)

  9. Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carbon Market and Integrated Waste Solutions : a Case Study of Indonesia ... dual purpose of helping developing countries achieve sustainable development ... with a view to devising integrated waste management solutions in urban centres ... and disseminate them through national, regional and international networks.

  10. Treatment of organic waste solutions containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    The two processes developed in the laboratory for treating waste solutions containing TBP, namely TBP separation with phosphoric acid and saponification were tested on a semi-industrial scale. A waste solution from the first phase of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant was used

  11. Energy from waste: a wholly acceptable waste-management solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porteous, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the 'waste management hierarchy' and why it should be treated as a checklist and not a piece of unquestioning dogma. The role of energy from waste (EfW) is examined in depth to show that it is a rigorous and environmentally sound waste-management option which complements other components of the waste-management hierarchy and assists resource conservation. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  13. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Armstrong, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  14. Waste management outlook for mountain regions: Sources and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semernya, Larisa; Ramola, Aditi; Alfthan, Björn; Giacovelli, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Following the release of the global waste management outlook in 2015, the United Nations Environment Programme (UN Environment), through its International Environmental Technology Centre, is elaborating a series of region-specific and thematic waste management outlooks that provide policy recommendations and solutions based on current practices in developing and developed countries. The Waste Management Outlook for Mountain Regions is the first report in this series. Mountain regions present unique challenges to waste management; while remoteness is often associated with costly and difficult transport of waste, the potential impact of waste pollutants is higher owing to the steep terrain and rivers transporting waste downstream. The Outlook shows that waste management in mountain regions is a cross-sectoral issue of global concern that deserves immediate attention. Noting that there is no 'one solution fits all', there is a need for a more landscape-type specific and regional research on waste management, the enhancement of policy and regulatory frameworks, and increased stakeholder engagement and awareness to achieve sustainable waste management in mountain areas. This short communication provides an overview of the key findings of the Outlook and highlights aspects that need further research. These are grouped per source of waste: Mountain communities, tourism, and mining. Issues such as waste crime, plastic pollution, and the linkages between exposure to natural disasters and waste are also presented.

  15. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D.

    1992-01-01

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F - ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions

  16. The best solution to our Nation's waste management problem: Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) being the best solution today to the Nation's problem of permanent storage of transuranic radioactive waste produced by the defense industry, WIPP is also involved in finding the solution for another national problem: the education of our youth. The youth of America have grown up thinking that science and math are too hard, or not interesting. We, the parents of our Nation's leaders of tomorrow, must find a solution to this dilemma. It is the mission of the Waste Isolation Division Educational Programs to create programs to promote quality education in the classroom and to enhance each student's interest in mathematics and the sciences

  17. Importance of waste composition for Life Cycle Assessment of waste management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina; Götze, Ramona; Conradsen, Knut

    2017-01-01

    The composition of waste materials has fundamental influence on environmental emissions associated with waste treatment, recycling and disposal, and may play an important role also for the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of waste management solutions. However, very few assessments include effects...... of the waste composition and waste LCAs often rely on poorly justified data from secondary sources. This study systematically quantifiesy the influence and uncertainty on LCA results associated with selection of waste composition data. Three archetypal waste management scenarios were modelled with the waste...... LCA model EASETECH based on detailed waste composition data from the literature. The influence from waste composition data on the LCA results was quantified with a step-wise Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) approach involving contribution, sensitivity, uncertainty and discernibility analyses...

  18. Technical solutions for waste treatment in the Belene project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, K.; Eichhorn, H.

    2011-01-01

    Outline: In June 2010 NUKEM Technologies GmbH was awarded a contract from ATOMSTROYEXPORT JSC to perform the complete work package related to designing and completion of the equipment for treatment of radioactive waste on the turn-key basis for Belene NPP. Technical Solutions: Waste Streams and Technologies at UKC and UKS; Concentration Plant; Thermal Treatment of Resins Sorting Facility; Biological Waste Water Treatment; Conditioning – Cementation • Sorting of Radwaste; Plasma Facility; Grouting; Filter Press; Monitoring and Tracking

  19. Electrochemical processing of low-level waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Ebra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of treating low-level Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste solutions by an electrolytic process has been demonstrated. Although the economics of the process are marginal at the current densities investigated at the laboratory scale, there are a number of positive environmental benefits. These benefits include: (1) reduction in the levels of nitrate and nitrite in the waste, (2) further decontamination of 99 Tc and 106 Ru, and (3) reduction in the volume of waste

  20. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  1. Environment friendly solutions of plastics waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirzada, F.N.; Riffat, T.; Pirzada, M.D.S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of plastics is growing worldwide. Consequently, the volume of plastic waste is also increasing. Presently, more than 100 million tons per year of plastic is being produced globally. In U.S. alone more than 10 million tons of plastic is being dumped in landfills as waste, where it can persist for decades. This has resulted in exhausting old landfills. Public awareness on environment is also making it difficult to find new sites for landfills. This has led to increased emphasis on treatment and recycling of plastic wastes. Volume reduction of plastic waste has some unique problems. They arise from the intrinsic chemical inertness of polymeric materials and toxic nature of their degradation byproducts. The paper reviews the present state of plastic waste management including land filling, incineration and recycling technologies. The technical problems associated with each of these processes have been discussed. There is also brief description of ongoing R and D for finding improved methods of plastic waste handling with their promises and problems. The role of tougher legislation in developing better recycling methods and degradable plastics has also been evaluated. The claims made by the proponents of degradable polymers have also been critically reviewed. (authors)

  2. Engineering solutions to the management of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste, its safe handling and ultimate disposal, is of vital concern to engineers in the nuclear industry. The international conference 'Engineering Solutions to the Management of Solid Radioactive Waste', organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and held in Manchester in November 1991, provided a forum for the discussion and comparison of the different methods of waste management used in Europe and America. Papers presented and discussed included: the interaction between the design of containers for low level radioactive waste and the design of a deep repository, commercial low level waste disposal sites in the United States, and the development of radioactive waste monitoring systems at the Sellafield reprocessing complex. This volume is a collection of 22 papers presented at the conference. All are indexed separately. (author)

  3. Development of iron phosphate ceramic waste form to immobilize radioactive waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongkwon [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Um, Wooyong, E-mail: wooyong.um@pnnl.gov [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Choung, Sungwook [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an iron phosphate ceramic (IPC) waste form using converter slag obtained as a by-product of the steel industry as a source of iron instead of conventional iron oxide. Both synthetic off-gas scrubber solution containing technetium-99 (or Re as a surrogate) and LiCl–KCl eutectic salt, a final waste solution from pyrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel, were used as radioactive waste streams. The IPC waste form was characterized for compressive strength, reduction capacity, chemical durability, and contaminant leachability. Compressive strengths of the IPC waste form prepared with different types of waste solutions were 16 MPa and 19 MPa for LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and the off-gas scrubber simulant, respectively, which meet the minimum compressive strength of 3.45 MPa (500 psi) for waste forms to be accepted into the radioactive waste repository. The reduction capacity of converter slag, a main dry ingredient used to prepare the IPC waste form, was 4136 meq/kg by the Ce(IV) method, which is much higher than those of the conventional Fe oxides used for the IPC waste form and the blast furnace slag materials. Average leachability indexes of Tc, Li, and K for the IPC waste form were higher than 6.0, and the IPC waste form demonstrated stable durability even after 63-day leaching. In addition, the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure measurements of converter slag and the IPC waste form with LiCl–KCl eutectic salt met the universal treatment standard of the leachability limit for metals regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This study confirms the possibility of development of the IPC waste form using converter slag, showing its immobilization capability for radionuclides in both LiCl–KCl eutectic salt and off-gas scrubber solutions with significant cost savings.

  4. Sustainable solutions for solid waste management in Southeast Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyen Nguyen Ngoc; Schnitzer, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Human activities generate waste and the amounts tend to increase as the demand for quality of life increases. Today's rate in the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEANs) is alarming, posing a challenge to governments regarding environmental pollution in the recent years. The expectation is that eventually waste treatment and waste prevention approaches will develop towards sustainable waste management solutions. This expectation is for instance reflected in the term 'zero emission systems'. The concept of zero emissions can be applied successfully with today's technical possibilities in the agro-based processing industry. First, the state-of-the-art of waste management in Southeast Asian countries will be outlined in this paper, followed by waste generation rates, sources, and composition, as well as future trends of waste. Further on, solutions for solid waste management will be reviewed in the discussions of sustainable waste management. The paper emphasizes the concept of waste prevention through utilization of all wastes as process inputs, leading to the possibility of creating an ecosystem in a loop of materials. Also, a case study, focusing on the citrus processing industry, is displayed to illustrate the application of the aggregated material input-output model in a widespread processing industry in ASEAN. The model can be shown as a closed cluster, which permits an identification of opportunities for reducing environmental impacts at the process level in the food processing industry. Throughout the discussion in this paper, the utilization of renewable energy and economic aspects are considered to adapt to environmental and economic issues and the aim of eco-efficiency. Additionally, the opportunities and constraints of waste management will be discussed.

  5. Recovery of fission products from acidic waste solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, W.W.; Darlington, W.B.; Dubois, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Fission products, e.g., palladium, ruthenium and technetium, are removed from aqueous, acidic waste solutions thereof. The acidic waste solution is electrolyzed in an electrolytic cell under controlled cathodic potential conditions and technetium, ruthenium, palladium and rhodium are deposited on the cathode. Metal deposit is removed from the cathode and dissolved in acid. Acid insoluble rhodium metal is recovered, dissolved by alkali metal bisulfate fusion and purified by electrolysis. In one embodiment, the solution formed by acid dissolution of the cathode metal deposit is treated with a strong oxidizing agent and distilled to separate technetium and ruthenium (as a distillate) from palladium. Technetium is separated from ruthenium by organic solvent extraction and then recovered, e.g., as an ammonium salt. Ruthenium is disposed of as waste by-product. Palladium is recovered by electrolysis of an acid solution thereof under controlled cathodic potential conditions. Further embodiments wherein alternate metal recovery sequences are used are described. (U.S.)

  6. Overview on the Multinational Collaborative Waste Storage and Disposal Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARGEANU, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main drivers for a Safe, Secure and Global Energy future become clear and unequivocal: Security of supply for energy sources, Low-carbon electricity generation and Extended nuclear power assuring economic nuclear energy production, safe nuclear facilities and materials, safe and secure radioactive waste management and public acceptance. Responsible use of nuclear power requires that – in addition to safety, security and environmental protection associated with NPPs operation – credible solutions to be developed for dealing with the radioactive waste produced and especially for a responsible long term radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the existing multinational initiative in nuclear fuel cycle and the technical documents sustaining the multinational/regional disposal approach. Meantime, the paper far-reaching goal is to highlight on: What is offering the multinational waste storage and disposal solutions in terms of improved nuclear security ‽

  7. Photochemical oxidation: A solution for the mixed waste dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prellberg, J.W.; Thornton, L.M.; Cheuvront, D.A. [Vulcan Peroxidation Systems, Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Numerous technologies are available to remove organic contamination from water or wastewater. A variety of techniques also exist that are used to neutralize radioactive waste. However, few technologies can satisfactorily address the treatment of mixed organic/radioactive waste without creating unacceptable secondary waste products or resulting in extremely high treatment costs. An innovative solution to the mixed waste problem is on-site photochemical oxidation. Liquid-phase photochemical oxidation has a long- standing history of successful application to the destruction of organic compounds. By using photochemical oxidation, the organic contaminants are destroyed on-site leaving the water, with radionuclides, that can be reused or disposed of as appropriate. This technology offers advantages that include zero air emissions, no solid or liquid waste formation, and relatively low treatment cost. Discussion of the photochemical process will be described, and several case histories from recent design testing, including cost analyses for the resulting full-scale installations, will be presented as examples.

  8. Removal of radioactive materials from waste solutions via magnetic ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Price, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Ferrite waste treatment was found to be effective in removing actinides from simulated Rocky Flats process waste solutions. With a one-stage ferrite treatment, plutonium concentrations were consistently reduced from 10 -4 g/l to less than 10 -8 g/l, and americium concentrations were lowered from 10 -7 g/l to below 10 -10 g/l. In addition, siginficantly less solid was produced as compared with the flocculant precipitation technique now employed at Rocky Flats. Aging of ferrite solids and elevated beryllium and phosphate concentrations were identified as interferences in the ferrite treatment of process waste, but neither appeeared serious enough to prevent implementation in plant operations

  9. Methods for removing transuranic elements from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Connor, C.; Sedlet, J.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-11-01

    This report outlines a treatment scheme for separating and concentrating the transuranic (TRU) elements present in aqueous waste solutions stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The treatment method selected is carrier precipitation. Potential carriers will be evaluated in future laboratory work, beginning with ferric hydroxide and magnetite. The process will result in a supernatant with alpha activity low enough that it can be treated in the existing evaporator/concentrator at ANL. The separated TRU waste will be packaged for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

  10. China's Scientific Investigation for Liquid Waste Treatment Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liangjin, B.; Meiqiong, L.; Kelley, D.

    2006-01-01

    Post World War II created the nuclear age with several countries developing nuclear technology for power, defense, space and medical applications. China began its nuclear research and development programs in 1950 with the establishment of the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) located near Beijing. CIAE has been China's leader in nuclear science and technical development with its efforts to create advanced reactor technology and upgrade reprocessing technology. In addition, with China's new emphasis on environmental safety, CIAE is focusing on waste treatment options and new technologies that may provide solutions to legacy waste and newly generated waste from the full nuclear cycle. Radioactive liquid waste can pose significant challenges for clean up with various treatment options including encapsulation (cement), vitrification, solidification and incineration. Most, if not all, nuclear nations have found the treatment of liquids to be difficult, due in large part to the high economic costs associated with treatment and disposal and the failure of some methods to safely contain or eliminate the liquid. With new environmental regulations in place, Chinese nuclear institutes and waste generators are beginning to seek new technologies that can be used to treat the more complex liquid waste streams in a form that is safe for transport and for long-term storage or final disposal. [1] In 2004, CIAE and Pacific Nuclear Solutions, a division of Pacific World Trade, USA, began discussions about absorbent technology and applications for its use. Preliminary tests were conducted at CIAE's Department of Radiochemistry using generic solutions, such as lubricating oil, with absorbent polymers for solidification. Based on further discussions between both parties, it was decided to proceed with a more formal test program in April, 2005, and additional tests in October, 2005. The overall objective of the test program was to apply absorbent polymers to various waste streams

  11. Radiation curable inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolon, D.A.; Lucas, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation curable ink is provided which is convertible to a conductive coating when cured on the surface of a substrate. When used as a printing ink, improved results are achieved if a minor amount of a blend of paraffin waxes is employed to control solvent evaporation

  12. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  13. Radioactive Waste...The Problem and Some Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear safety is a highly technical and controversial subject that has caused much heated debate and political concern. This article examines the problems involved in managing radioactive wastes and the techniques now used. Potential solutions are suggested and the need for international cooperation is stressed. (Author/MA)

  14. Food waste in Central Europe – challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    den Boer Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  15. Food waste in Central Europe - challenges and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, Jan; Kobel, Przemysław; Dyjakon, Arkadiusz; Urbańska, Klaudia; Obersteiner, Gudrun; Hrad, Marlies; Schmied, Elisabeth; den Boer, Emilia

    2017-11-01

    Food waste is an important issue in the global economy. In the EU many activities aimed at this topic are carried out, however in Central Europe is still quite pristine. There is lack of reliable data on food waste quantities in this region, and not many preventive actions are taken. To improve this situation the STREFOWA (Strategies to Reduce and Manage Food Waste in Central Europe) was initiated. It is an international project (Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland), founded by the Interreg Central Europe programme, running from July 2016 to June 2019. Its main purpose is to provide solutions to prevent and manage food waste throughout the entire food supply chain. The results of STREFOWA will have positive economical, social and environmental impacts.

  16. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), enthalpy (ΔH o ), and entropy (ΔS o ) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  17. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  18. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  19. Mixed waste: An alternative solution. The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seizert, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of mixed waste is one of significant interest to the utility industry. The interest is focused on the current regulatory scheme of dual regulation. A fundamental concern of the commercial nuclear utilities resulting from dual regulation is that there are currently no facilities in the US to dispose of mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. The lack of available sites renders mixed waste an orphan, requiring generators of such material to store the waste on-site. This in turn causes commercial nuclear power plants to be subjected to the full gamut of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation in addition to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Superimposing dual regulatory schemes will have impacts which extend far beyond the mere management of mixed waste. Certainly the burdens, complexities and costs of complying with the overlapping regulatory schemes will not have a commensurate increase in protection from the real risks being addressed. For these reasons, the commercial nuclear utility industry is working toward an alternative solution which will protect the public health and the environment from all hazards of mixed waste and will minimize the impacts on both the regulators and the regulated community

  20. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-06-14

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements. Copyright © 2014 McAllister, Magee. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  1. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  2. Distillation as a pretreatment process of waste scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, J.C.

    1988-05-01

    A process to pretreat scintillation solutions composed basically of PPO, POPOP, TOLUENE and ANTAROX, utilized by radioimmunoassay laboratories, is described. The technique employed is distillation which permits a waste reduction to about 40% of the initial volume with the recovery of the solvent (toluene). The recovered toluene can be resued for the same purpose, since it is free of radioactive material as assured by quality control procedures. (author) [pt

  3. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitrates and actinides with simultaneous separation of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is intended to reduce the acid and nitrate content of nitrate waste solutions, to reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, to remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation, without any danger of violent reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig./PW) [de

  4. Water-washable ink system reduces printers' hazardous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratch, K.

    1994-08-01

    Printing industry solvents contain large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a major contributor to air pollution in that industry. Because most printing inks contain non-water-soluble petroleum, organic solvents have been necessary to clean presses using those inks. However, under proposed control technique guidelines for lithographic printers issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), printing-press wash solutions could contain no more than 30% VOCs. Deluxe Corp., a St. Paul, Minn.-based lithographic printer, recognized that stiffer emissions rules could mean harsh penalties for non-compliance and, in 1990, began developing a water-based press wash that would meet the guidelines. Deluxe last year introduced a 100% vegetable oil-based ink that becomes water-washable when exposed to the company's water-based press-wash solution. The solvent-free system eliminates VOCs and hazardous wastes associated with printing, contains no chemicals considered hazardous by EPA, uses no non-renewable resources, and works with existing printing equipment and processes. The system also eliminates water and soil contamination risks associated with laundering or landfilling solvent-saturated shop towels, saves money by eliminating the need to pay for hazardous waste disposal and provides relief to employees who complain about the strong odors of traditional press-wash solvents.

  5. Decontamination of waste radioactive polluted solutions in radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simova, G.; Boyadzhiev, A.; Mikhajlov, M.G.; Shopov, N.

    1979-01-01

    The decontamination capacity of solutions of the trivial cleaning Bulgarian preparations ''Mipro'', ''Sana'', ''Synthek'' and ''Univer'' for different surfaces (steel, glass, PVC and linoleum) contaminated with cesium-134, strontium-85 or cerium-144 chlorides, was studied. Concentrations from 5 to 15 g/l of the solutions used in this study displayed a degree of cleaning over 90%. Higher concentration of the solution does not improve its cleaning capacity. For evaluation of foam formation by the solutions, the so called ''foam column stability coefficient'' has been adopted. This coefficient represents the ratio between the height of the foam column and the time of its half life, referred to the time for the foam column formation when blown through with a constant air current. On the basis of this index, solutions of the preparation ''Mipro'' proved to be the best ones for decontamination - in the whole investigated concentration span, the foam column stability coefficient for the solutions of this preparation is with two orders lower than the respective coefficient of the other preparations. It was experimentally established that radiation treatment of radio-contaminated solutions reduces the foam column stability coefficient. Radiation treatment should be carried out in a gamma field, realizing at least one megarad within an acceptable for the liquid wastes time period. (A.B.)

  6. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Solidification of radioactive waste solutions by pelletization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, A.H.; Koester, R.; Rudolph, G.

    1980-04-01

    A possible way of performing the cement fixation of radioactive wastes is the incorporation into cement pellets on a pan pelletizer, followed by embedding the pellets into an inactive cement matrix. This procedure is suitable for various types of waste, particularly for medium level liquid wastes, and can be used both at drum disposal and at in-situ solidification. This report describes some initial studies on the pelletization technique using a laboratory pelletizer. Formation and size of the pellets have been found to be determined by speed, angle, and load of the pan, ratio and mode of addition of the liquid and solid components, ect. Pellets in various compositions have been produced from cement and water or simulated waste solution, in some cases with the addition of bentonite for improving cesium retention. Some mechanical properties of the pellets such as fall height of fresh pellets, development of hardness (crush test), impact and abrasion resistance, have been determined. Some preliminary experiments were done on backfilling the void space between the pellets - about 40 per cent of the bulk volume - with cement grouts of appropriate compositions. (orig.) [de

  8. The waste management program VUB-AZ: An integrated solution for nuclear biomedical waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covens, P.; Sonck, M.; Eggermont, G.; Meert, D.

    2001-01-01

    unit will be compared with the MDA obtained by different handheld monitors. All results will be finally correlated to the different proposed clearance levels. These clearance levels can easily be met through on-site storage for radionuclides with half-life less than 1 year. For a waste stream of 1000 packages or more a year, a management software is indispensable. The software 'WasteMan' was developed on-site. This user-friendly software takes care of the entire storage procedure and allows a complete bookkeeping of the daily nuclear waste streams. Based on the sophisticated waste collection procedure, the WasteMan software allows both a complete inventory of the storage facility and a full traceability of all waste packages from production to either clearance or disposal. At the same time all necessary documents for either clearance or disposal are generated automatically. The data-exchange between several interfaces enables timesaving administration. In addition to these technical aspects a general analysis of the economic impact of such an on- site decay program will be made for a medium sized university with hospital, yielding a serious reduction of waste handling costs. This waste storage program, including the complete measurement set-up and the necessary management software, was recently installed in a second university, proving the general applicability of the whole concept for biomedical nuclear waste. Many hospitals and other biomedical centres however produce small quantities of nuclear waste for which investments, like measurement equipment and decay rooms, are not cost-effective. The installation of a regional centre for nuclear biomedical waste will be presented here as an alternative solution for this problem

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Zaharah, M.Y.; Rabeta, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Economic development in Malaysia has led to increasing quantity and complexity of generated waste or by-product. The main objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder. The squid ink was collected from fresh squid and dried using freeze dryer before it was ground into powder. The yield of squid ink was 22.82% after freeze-drying which was 69.37g in amount. Proximate composition analysis as well as two total antioxidant activity assa...

  10. Measurement of Solute Diffusion Behavior in Fractured Waste Glass Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through fractured media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminants transport at many hazardous waste disposal sites. No methods for earlier measurements are available for the characterization of diffusion in fractured glass blocks. We report here the use of time-lag diffusion experimental method to assess the diffusion behavior of three different solutes (Cs, Sr and Pentafluoro Benzoic Acid or PFBA) in fractured, immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) glass forms. A fractured media time-lag diffusion experimental apparatus that allows the measurement of diffusion coefficients has been designed and built for this purpose. Use of time-lag diffusion method, a considerably easier experimental method than the other available methods, was not previously demonstrated for measuring diffusion in any fractured media. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and diffusion coefficients of a solute were experimentally measured in fractured glass blocks using this method for the first time. Results agree with the range of properties reported for similar rock media earlier, indicating that the time-lag experimental method can effectively characterize the diffusion coefficients of fractured ILAW glass media

  11. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congdon, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans, supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions, however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Cs separation from nitric acid solutions of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, K.; Pieronczyk, W.; Strnad, J.; Feldmaier, F.

    1989-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to selectively separate active caesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from acid radioactive waste solutions (especially MAW and HAWC). The following 'strategy' was designed for a separation process: synthesis of reagents which are acid-resistant and selective for caesium; precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by filtration or centrifugation or precipitation of Cs + and separation of the precipitates by flotation; caesium separation by liquid-liquid extraction. As precipitating agents, sodium tetraphenylborate (kalignost) and several of its fluorine derivatives were examined. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Radioactive waste and special waste disposal in salt domes - phoney waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmel, E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper tries to make aware of the fact that an indefinite safe disposal of anthropogeneous wastes in underground repositories is impossible. Suspicion is raised that the Gorleben-Rambow salt dome has never been studied for its suitability as a repository, but that it was simply taken for granted. Safety analyses are meant only to conceal uncertainty. It is demanded to immediately opt out of the ultimate disposal technique for radioactive and special wastes in salt caverns. (DG) [de

  14. Photometric estimation of plutonium in product solutions and acid waste solutions using flow injection analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhas, A.J.A.; Dharmapurikar, G.R.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Kapoor, S.C.; Ramanujam, A.

    1995-01-01

    Flow injection analysis technique is employed for the measurement of plutonium concentrations in product nitrate solutions by measuring the absorbance of Pu(III) at 565 nm and of Pu(IV) at 470 nm, using a Metrohm 662 photometer, with a pyrex glass tube of 2 nm (ID) inserted in the light path of the detector serving as a flow cell. The photometer detector never comes in contact with radioactive solution. In the case of acid waste solutions Pu is first purified by extraction chromatography with 2-ethyl hexyl hydrogen 2 ethyl hexyl phosphonate (KSM 17)- chromosorb and the Pu in the eluate in complexed with Arsenazo III followed by the measured of absorbance at 665 nm. Absorbance of reference solutions in the desired concentration ranges are measured to calibrate the system. The results obtained agree with the reference values within ±2.0%. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  15. Community Solutions to Solid Waste Pollution. Operation Waste Watch: The New Three Rs for Elementary School. Grade 6. [Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    This publication, the last in a series of seven for elementary schools, is an environmental education curriculum guide with a focus on waste management issues. It contains a unit of exercises selected for sixth grade students focusing on community solutions to solid waste pollution. Waste management activities included in this unit seek to…

  16. Method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Delphin, Walter H.

    1979-07-24

    A method for recovering palladium and technetium values from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions containing these and other values by contacting the waste solution with an extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert hydrocarbon diluent which extracts the palladium and technetium values from the waste solution. The palladium and technetium values are recovered from the extractant and from any other coextracted values with a strong nitric acid strip solution.

  17. Radiolytic gas formation in high-level liquid waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodda, B.-G.; Dix, Siegfried; Merz, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    High-level fission product waste solutions originating from the first-cycle raffinate stream of spent fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing have been investigated gas chromatographically for their radiolytic and chemical gas production. The solutions showed considerable formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide, whereas atmospheric oxygen was consumed completely within a short time. In particular, carbon dioxide resulted from the radiolytic degradation of entrained organic solvent. After nearly complete degradation of the organic solvent, the influence of hydrazine and nitrogen dioxide on hydrogen formation was investigated. Hydrazinium hydroxide led to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen. After 60 d, the concentration of dinitrogen oxide had reduced to zero, whereas the amount of nitrogen formed had reached a maximum. This may be explained by simultaneous chemical and radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of dinitrogen oxide and nitrogen and photolytic fission of dinitrogen oxide. Addition of sodium nitrite resulted in the rapid formation of dinitrogen oxide. The rate of hydrogen production was not changed significantly after the addition of hydrazine or nitrite. The results indicate that under normal operating conditions no dangerous hydrogen radiolysis yields should develop in the course of reprocessing and high-level liquid waste tank storage. Organic entrainment may lead to enhanced radiolytic decomposition and thus to considerable hydrogen production rates and pressure build-up in closed systems. (author)

  18. The Ink of Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2017-01-01

    Nations actively write themselves onto human bodies. They etch and scratch their borders onto human flesh with figurative, often contradictory, ink that delivers stark material impact. The impacts hold their greatest force in metering the hinged consequences of contingent citizenship for some and unfettered citizenship for a few others. In this…

  19. Process for denitrating waste solutions containing nitric acid actinides simultaneously separating the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.

    1984-01-01

    The invention should reduce the acid and nitrate content of waste solutions containing nitric acid as much as possible, should reduce the total salt content of the waste solution, remove the actinides contained in it by precipitation and reduce the α radio-activity in the remaining solution, without having to worry about strong reactions or an increase in the volume of the waste solution. The invention achieves this by mixing the waste solution with diethyl oxalate at room temperature and heating the mixture to at least 80 0 C. (orig.) [de

  20. Innovative waste management solutions: An outlook for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    At a conference on various aspects of waste management, papers were presented on the effects of landfills, plastic debris in the marine environment, skills development and training in the waste industry, composting, remediation of contaminated soils, disposal methods, sludge derived byproducts, recycling, waste management economics, municipal solid waste management, ship-generated waste, managing waste in national parks, and septic tank sludge treatment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for five papers from this conference.

  1. Recovery of fission products from waste solutions utilizing controlled cathodic potential electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, W.W.; Darlington, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Fission products, e.g., palladium, rhodium and technetium, are recovered from aqueous waste solutions thereof, e.g., aged Purex alkaline waste solutions. The metal values from the waste solutions are extracted by ion exchange techniques. The metals adsorbed by the ion exchange resin are eluted and selectively recovered by controlled cathodic potential electrolysis. The metal values deposited on the cathode are recovered and, if desired, further purified

  2. Synergistic extraction behaviour of americium from simulated acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, P.N.; Veeraraghavan, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction behaviour of americium has been investigated with mixtures of 3-phenyl-4-benzoyl-5-isoxazolone (PBI) and oxodonors viz. tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) and di-n-butyl octanamide (DBOA) using dodecane as the diluent from 1-6 M HNO 3 media. It is observed that D Am remains unaltered with PBI concentration (in the range 0.06-0.1 M) at 1.47 M TBP in the entire range of HNO 3 concentration. PBI and TBP in combination appears more promising compared to other synergistic systems. The possibility of using this mixture for americium removal from high level liquid waste solution has been explored. Extraction studies indicated that prior removal of uranium by 20% TBP in dodecane is helpful in the quantitative recovery of americium in three contacts. Effect of lanthanides on D Am is found to be marginal. (orig.)

  3. New sorbents and ion exchangers for nuclear waste solution remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearfield, A.; Peng, G.Z.; Cahill, R.A.; Bellinghausen, P.; Aly, H.I.; Scott, K.; Wang, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is now a concerted effort underway to clean up the accumulated nuclear wastes as the major sites around the country. Because of the complexity of the mixtures in the holding tanks highly specific exchangers are required to fulfill a multitude of desired tasks. These include removal of Cs + , Sr 2+ , Tc, Actinides and possible recovery of rare and precious metals. No one exchanger or sequestrant can accomplish these tasks and a variety of exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers in a multistep process will be required. The behavior of a number of inorganic ion exchangers and new organo-inorganic exchangers towards Cs + , Sr 2+ and rare-earth ions in acid and basic media will be described. Preliminary data on the effect of high levels of sodium nitrate on the uptake of these ions will also be presented, as well as the changes observed in selectivity in simulated waste solutions. A possible separation scheme based on these data will be described

  4. Ammonia nitrogen removal from aqueous solution by local agricultural wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azreen, I.; Lija, Y.; Zahrim, A. Y.

    2017-06-01

    Excess ammonia nitrogen in the waterways causes serious distortion to environment such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution was investigated by using 40 local agricultural wastes as potential low cost adsorbent. Some of the adsorbent were able to remove ammonia nitrogen with adsorption capacity ranging from 0.58 mg/g to 3.58 mg/g. The highest adsorption capacity was recorded by Langsat peels with 3.58 mg/g followed by Jackfruit seeds and Moringa peels with 3.37 mg/g and 2.64 mg/g respectively. This experimental results show that the agricultural wastes can be utilized as biosorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal. The effect of initial ammonia nitrogen concentration, pH and stirring rate on the adsorption process were studied in batch experiment. The adsorption capacity reached maximum value at pH 7 with initial concentration of 500 mg/L and the removal rate decreased as stirring rate was applied.

  5. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Rožić; Marina Vukoje; Kristinka Vinković; Nives Galić; Mirela Jukić

    2017-01-01

    The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US) and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP) that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2) which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was...

  6. Hazardous Waste Minimization Assessment: Fort Campbell, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    gal/h -- $8,250 (solvents: chlorinated and $8,600 fluorinated ) 114 Table 39 Aqueous Waste Volume Reduction Equipment Suppliers* Supplier Model Capacity...heavy chloride/hydrochloric acid metal solutions (chromium), nitric acid (zinc, magnesium) Printing (Ink) pigments, dyes, varnish , titanium oxide, iron...lacquers, epoxy. aLkyds. acrylics) :inshing Varnish . shellac, lacquer 13001 Waste flammable liquid. NOS Flammable liquid UN1993 Preserving Creosote

  7. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  8. Durability of ink jet prints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobric, E; Mirkovic, I Bolanca; Bolanca, Z

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the result presentation of some optical properties research for ink jet prints after: exposing the prints to the mixed daylight and artificial light, exposing of prints to the sun-light through the glass window, and exposing of prints to outdoor conditions during the summer months. The prints obtained by piezoelectric and thermal ink jet technologies were used in the researches. The dye-based inks and the pigmented inks based on water and the low solvent inks were used. The results of these researches, except the scientific contribution in the domain of understanding and explaining the environmental conditions on the gamut size, i.e. the range of color tonality, colorimetric stability and print quality, can be used by the ink and paper manufacturers in new formulations, offer data for the printer producers for further production and evaluation of the position of their products.

  9. Nucleophilic stabilization of water-based reactive ink for titania-based thin film inkjet printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadea, Christophe; Marani, Debora; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Drop on demand deposition (DoD) of titanium oxide thin films (<500 nm) is performed via a novel titanium-alkoxide-based solution that is tailored as a reactive ink for inkjet printing. The ink is developed as water-based solution by a combined use of titanium isopropoxide and n-methyldiethanolami...

  10. Effect of Hyperbranched Polymers on Curing Behavior of UV Curable Inks in Inkjet Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Jafarifard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high quality and high resolution printing can be rapidly created by inkjet printing technology. Inkjet printing is one of the most economic printing methods and ink waste in this technique is very low. Inkjet process provides printing on any type of substrates. The UV curable inks are special types of printing inks that have been widely used in the last decades. The use of UV curable inks is more attractive in inkjet printing technology in comparison to other methods of printing. The most important advantage of UV curable inks in this method is that they are VOC-free and compatible and have good adhesion on many types of substrates. In this research, the effect of hyperbranched polymers on the curing behavior of UV curable inks was investigated. Two types of hyperbranched polymers with hydroxyl and fatty acid chain terminal groups were used in ink formulations. The effect of hyperbranched polymers on the curing behavior of UV curable ink was investigated by real-time FTIR analysis. The results showed that the hyperbranched polymers could improve curing process by increasing the conversion rate of the third curing stage. All ink formulations containing hyperbranched polymers showed higher conversion than a neat sample. The highest conversion was 77 % for the blend containing a hyperbranched polymer with hydroxyl end groups while the neat sample showed a final conversion of 55%. UV curable inks in inkjet process containing hyperbranched polymers with hydroxyl end groups showed a higher final conversion than neat sample.

  11. Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1990-12-01

    Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)

  12. Removal of radioactive ions from nuclear waste solutions by electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Radia Industries Co. Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1978-10-01

    Removal of radioactive ions was studied from low and medium level radioactive waste solutions by electrodialysis using ion exchange membranes. The test solutions contained /sup 137/Cs/sup +/, /sup 106/Ru/sup 3 +/ or fission products (F.P.) as active ions and NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ as inactive coexisting salts. The decontamination factor of the active ions was in the order: /sup 137/Cs/sup +/ (greater than 99%) > /sup 90/Sr/sup 2 +/ > F.P. > /sup 106/Ru/sup 3 +/. The dialysis time required to attain the saturation was the shortest for monovalent cations K/sup +/, Cs/sup +/ and Na/sup +/, intermediate for divalent cation Sr/sup 2 +/, and the longest for trivalent cation Ru/sup 3 +/. The ratio of the decontamination factor of an active ion eta sub( a) to the desalination factor of an inactive ion eta sub( b) was nearly equal to unity for /sup 24/Na, /sup 42/K, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr. On the other hand, the apparent selective permeability of an active ion (A/sup +/) against Na/sup +/ ion, T sub(Na/sup +/) sup( a) was higher than unity for all the active ions tested, and was in the order of /sup 137/Cs > /sup 90/Sr > /sup 42/K > /sup 24/Na, where T sub(Na/sup +/) sup( a) is defined by the ratio of ..gamma..sub( a) to ..gamma..sub(Na/sup +/) with ..gamma..sub( a) being the ratio of dilution of A in the diluate the ..gamma..sub(Na/sup +/) being that of Na/sup +/ in the same diluate. The decontamination factor of the active ions did not depend significantly on the species and concentration of the coexistent salts or on the concentration of the active ions.

  13. Preliminary researches regarding edible jet printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtanu, M. R.; Brasoveanu, M.

    2002-01-01

    The automatic reproduction of images with edible materials is a new method used lately to decorate cakes. An important component of this technology is the ink. The paper presents the results obtained by using different physical methods for analysis of some jet printing inks types. The analysed inks were the Canon inks and edible inks from Thailand. The main considered methods were the spectrocolourymetrical, rheological, electrochemical. Choosing as a chromatic standard the Canon inks and for the physicochemical properties the edible inks from Thailand, it was prepared a yellow edible printing ink which was characterized by same methods

  14. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Zaharah, M.Y.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development in Malaysia has led to increasing quantity and complexity of generated waste or by-product. The main objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of squid ink powder. The squid ink was collected from fresh squid and dried using freeze dryer before it was ground into powder. The yield of squid ink was 22.82% after freeze-drying which was 69.37g in amount. Proximate composition analysis as well as two total antioxidant activity assays named 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay, and antimicrobial analysis were done on the powdered squid ink. The proximate results of squid ink powder were 4.43 ± 0.29% moisture, 62.46 ± 0.62% protein, 3.96 ± 0.08% fat, and 9.29 ± 0.05% ash. Results of DPPH assay showed that water extraction of squid ink powder has the highest 94.87 ± 4.87%, followed by ethanol 67.57 ± 7.55%, and hexane extract 2.10 ± 1.18%. FRAP assay result presented the same trend with water extraction had the highest value of 929.67 ± 2.31 μmol Fe (II / g of sample extract, followed by ethanol extract 201.00 ± 26.29 μmol Fe (II per gram sample and hexane 79.67 ± 12.66 μmol Fe (II / g of sample extract. Both water and ethanol extract showed antimicrobial properties with inhibition range of 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Fresh squid ink had 1.254 × 103 colony forming unit per gram of sample of microbial content. Squid ink powder had protein as major compound and microbial content was below from standard value of fisheries products as stated in Food Act 1983 and Regulation 1985.

  15. Ink for Ink-Jet Printing of Electrically Conductive Structures on Flexible Substrates with Low Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcki, A.; Smolarek-Nowak, A.; Felba, J.; Kinart, A.

    2017-07-01

    The development of new technologies in electronics related to flexible polymeric substrates forces the industry to introduce suitable tools (special type of dispensers) and modern conductive materials for printing electronic circuits. Moreover, due to the wide use of inexpensive polymeric foils (polyethene, PE, or poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET), there is a need to develop materials with the lowest possible processing temperatures. The present paper presents the selection criteria of suitable components and their preparation for obtaining electrically conductive ink with a special nanosilver base. In the case of the discussed solution, all components allow to make circuits in relatively low sintering temperature (even below 130°C). Additionally, the authors show the most significant ink parameters that should be taken into consideration during Research and Development (R&D) works with electrically conductive inks. Moreover, ink stability parameters are discussed and some examples of printed circuits are presented.

  16. ''FIXBOX'' - a new technique for the reliable conditioning of plutonium waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, H.; Sommer, E.; Steinemann, M.; Bart, G.

    1994-01-01

    ''FIXBOX'' - A new technique and facility for the conditioning of plutonium waste solutions has been developed and brought into operation in the Hot-laboratory at PSI, for the solidification of the waste from the research programmes. The facility is situated in glove-boxes for handling alpha activity and gamma-shielded for conditioning of fission product-containing waste. This report gives a brief description of the FIXBOX facility, the procedure and the first results of the cementation of plutonium waste solutions. As a result of this solidification, the actinide waste is homogeneous and strongly bound in the cement. The presence of gluconic acid and other complexing agents in the waste solution will not disturb this process. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  17. Chemical activation of tea waste and use for the removal of chromium (Vi) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Bhatti, I.; Ansari, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Tea waste is the residue left after the preparation of tea. At present the tea waste is regarded as a waste product having no use. In this study, tea waste is converted into an adsorbent. Tea waste is chemically activated with phosphoric acid at low temperature 450 degree C. This activated carbon is then utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. The various sorption parameters i.e pH, sorbent dose sorbate concentration, shaking time and shaking speed are first optimized. 75% of chromium from aqueous solution is effectively removed at pH 2. The best optimum conditions were obtained when 1 gm of sorbent was agitated at 100 rpm with 60 mg/l of sorbate for 50 minutes. Better results were obtained when low concentrations of sorbates were used. Hence tea waste could also be successfully used for the sorption of Chromium (VI), from industrial waste water. (author)

  18. Chemical and Nuclear Waste Disposal: Problems and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    James P. Murray; Joseph J. Harrington; Richard Wilson

    1982-01-01

    The problems of waste disposal have always been with us. In biblical times, the residents of Jerusalem always burnt their wastes inthehideousValeofGehenna.Thisgavewaytoburialofwasteor sometimes dumping it in shallow oceans. All too often the sewage pipes of the seaside towns did not even take the waste to the low tide mark; and the use of the deep oceans as a disposal site has been almost unknown...

  19. Municipal solid waste management. Strategies and technologies for sustainable solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, C.; Hellweg, S.; Stucki, S. (eds.)

    2002-10-01

    The way municipal solid waste is handled greatly determines its impact on the local as well as the global environment. New technologies habe emerged for the treatment of waste, for the recovery of raw materials and energy, and for safe final disposal. The environmental performance of technologies, their social acceptance and their economic viability are key issues to be considered in sustainable waste management. This book provides an overview of current practices in waste management and a synthesis of new developments achieved through interdisciplinary discussions of recent research results. (orig.)

  20. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  1. Recent studies of uranium and plutonium chemistry in alkaline radioactive waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, William D.; Wilmarth, William R.; Hobbs, David T.; Edwards, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    Solubility studies of uranium and plutonium in a caustic, radioactive Savannah River Site tank waste solution revealed the existence of uranium supersaturation in the as-received sample. Comparison of the results to predictions generated from previously published models for solubility in these waste types revealed that the U model poorly predicts solubility while Pu model predictions are quite consistent with experimental observations. Separate studies using simulated Savannah River Site evaporator feed solution revealed that the known formation of sodium aluminosilicate solids in waste evaporators can promote rapid precipitation of uranium from supersaturated solutions

  2. Sorption Potentials of Waste Tyre for Some Heavy Metals (Pb Cd in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Kanayo ASIAGWU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the adsorption potential of activated and inactivated waste tyre powders for some heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+ in their aqueous solution has been studied. The result indicated that inactivated waste tyre is a good non-conventional adsorbent for the removal of Cd from aqueous solution. A total of 93.3% of Cadmium contents was removed. The inactivated waste type proved a good adsorbent for the removal of Pb2+ 5g of 500mm activated tyre removed over 86.66% of Pb2+ from solution.

  3. Alternative solutions for the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Besides outlining the possibility of dispatching concentrated highly radioactive waste by rockets into space, or of transmuting long-lived isotopes by nuclear reactions into short-lived ones, the author discusses further alternatives for the disposal of radioactive wastes, especially the storage in geologic formations. (HR/LN) [de

  4. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  5. Different types of inks having certain medicolegal importance: Deciphering the faded and physically erased handwriting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abd-ElAziz Abd-ElZaher

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disappearing ink is a type of ink which could be used to forge documents as it will fade away without any trace within 40–65 h. Erasable ink is another type of ink easily removed by certain rubbers incorporated in each pen. Both types of inks were applied separately on different types of papers (checks, standard white foolscap, and plain white A4 paper. For vanishing ink, it was observed visually in the first 6 h and then every 6 h. It was found that the vanishing ink disappeared completely within 2 h on checks, 36 h on standard white foolscap paper, and 40 h on plain white A4 paper. For erasable ink, the written strokes were manipulated manually using the incorporated eraser. Deciphering the faded writing failed by the conventional methods, but oblique light can reveal the indentation marks. The faded writing became visible when treated with weak alkaline (NaOH solutions. Erasable ink was deciphered with the aid of infra-red radiation combined with VSC-6000 as clear white traces against red fluorescence. It was concluded that the use of a weak (NaOH solution is an effective method for revealing the faded writing, and the infra-red illumination is also effective.

  6. Ink jet technology for large area organic light-emitting diode and organic photovoltaic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, M.; Gorter, H.; Michels, J.; Andriessen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its flexibility and ease of patterning, ink jet printing has become a popular technique for the noncontact deposition of liquids, solutions, and melts on a variety of substrates at lateral resolutions down to 10 μm. This article presents a study of ink jet printing of homogeneous layers of

  7. Potential use of maize waste for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Okonkwo, J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available batch adsorption procedures. The utilization of tassels for the removal of toxic heavy metals from effluent solutions would, however, attach some economic value to this waste material. Tassel flowers were collected just prior to harvest, dried under...

  8. Determination of plutonium 241 in solutions of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, A.; Bilcot, J.B.; Poletiko, C.

    1990-09-01

    Determination of plutonium 241 in nuclear wastes is important because of long period and high energy of some daughter products. In this report are presented two quantitative analysis methods using both scintillation techniques: A complete method, in any case, by selective extraction of plutonium on an anionic resin allowing simultaneous determination of Pu 241 and the sum of other plutonium isotopes; a simplified method when alpha activity is higher than beta/gamma activity by liquid extraction with TTA. These methods are applied for analysis of 4 waste types: cement encapsulated wastes, bitumen encapsulated wastes, incineration ashes, leaching of encapsulated incineration ashes. In these 4 examples, Pu 241 activity is equal or higher than the sum of alpha plutonium isotope activity. Separation efficiency, measured from Pu 239 or with Pu 236 as tracer, is between 90 and 99% [fr

  9. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2007-11-01

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution

  10. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2007-11-15

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution.

  11. Partitioning high-level waste from alkaline solution: A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1993-05-01

    Most chemical partitioning procedures are designed for acidic feed solutions. However, the high-level waste solutions in the underground storage tanks at US Department of Energy defense production sites are alkaline. Effective partitioning procedures for alkaline solutions could decrease the need to acidify these solutions and to dissolve the solids in acid, which would simplify subsequent processing and decrease the generation of secondary waste. The author compiles candidate technologies from his review of the chemical literature, experience, and personal contacts. Several of these are recommended for evaluation

  12. Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, J.; Harjula, R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry produces and stores large volumes of radioactive waste solutions. Removal of radionuclides from the solutions is an important and challenging task for two main reasons: reductions in the volumes of solidified waste, which have to be disposed of, and reductions in the radioactive discharges into the environment. Since the radioactive elements in most waste solutions are in trace concentrations and the waste solutions contain large excesses of inactive metal ions, highly selective separation methods are needed for the removal of radionuclides. A number of inorganic ion exchange materials are very selective to key radionuclides and they can play an important role in solving these problems. The spectrum of nuclear waste solutions is rather wide considering their radionuclide contents, concentrations of interfering salts and acidity/alkalinity. Therefore, several inorganic ions exchangers are needed for the removal of most harmful radionuclides from a variety of solutions. This paper discusses the use and requirements of inorganic ion exchange materials in nuclear waste management. Special attention is paid to the novel ion exchange materials developed in the Laboratory of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. (orig.)

  13. Development of integrated radioactive waste packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibley, Peter; Butter, Kevin; Zimmerman, Ian [EnergySolutions EU Ltd., Swindon, Wiltshire (United Kingdom); Viermann, Joerg [GNS Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Messer, Matthias [GNS Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In order to offer a more cost effective, safer and efficient Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) management service, EnergySolutions EU Ltd. and Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) have been engaged in the development of integrated radioactive waste retrieval, packaging and conditioning solutions in the UK. Recognising the challenges surrounding regulatory endorsement and on-site implementation in particular, this has resulted in an alternative approach to meeting customer, safety regulator and disposability requirements. By working closely with waste producers and the organisation(s) responsible for endorsing radioactive waste management operations in the UK, our proposed solutions are now being implemented. By combining GNS' off-the-shelf, proven Ductile Cast Iron Containers (DCICs) and water removal technologies, with EnergySolutions EU Ltd.'s experience and expertise in waste retrieval, safety case development and disposability submissions, a fully integrated service offering has been developed. This has involved significant effort to overcome technical challenges such as onsite equipment deployment, active commissioning, conditioning success criteria and disposability acceptance. Our experience in developing such integrated solutions has highlighted the importance of working in collaboration with all parties to achieve a successful and viable outcome. Ultimately, the goal is to ensure reliable, safe and effective delivery of waste management solutions. (authors)

  14. Clean thermal decomposition of tertiary-alkyl metal thiolates to metal sulfides: environmentally-benign, non-polar inks for solution-processed chalcopyrite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jungwoo; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Jeong, Jaeki; Yoon, Yung Jin; Seo, Jung Hwa; Walker, Bright; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-11-01

    We report the preparation of Cu2S, In2S3, CuInS2 and Cu(In,Ga)S2 semiconducting films via the spin coating and annealing of soluble tertiary-alkyl thiolate complexes. The thiolate compounds are readily prepared via the reaction of metal bases and tertiary-alkyl thiols. The thiolate complexes are soluble in common organic solvents and can be solution processed by spin coating to yield thin films. Upon thermal annealing in the range of 200-400 °C, the tertiary-alkyl thiolates decompose cleanly to yield volatile dialkyl sulfides and metal sulfide films which are free of organic residue. Analysis of the reaction byproducts strongly suggests that the decomposition proceeds via an SN1 mechanism. The composition of the films can be controlled by adjusting the amount of each metal thiolate used in the precursor solution yielding bandgaps in the range of 1.2 to 3.3 eV. The films form functioning p-n junctions when deposited in contact with CdS films prepared by the same method. Functioning solar cells are observed when such p-n junctions are prepared on transparent conducting substrates and finished by depositing electrodes with appropriate work functions. This method enables the fabrication of metal chalcogenide films on a large scale via a simple and chemically clear process.

  15. removal of hazardous pollutants from industrial waste solutions using membrane techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Y.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    the removal of hazardous pollutants from industrial waste solutions is of essential demand field for both scientific and industrial work. the present work includes detailed studies on the possible use of membrane technology especially liquid emulsion membrane for the removal of hazardous pollutants such as; cadmium , cobalt , lead, copper and uranium from different industrial waste solution . this research can be applied for mixed waste problems. the work carried out in this thesis is presented in three main chapters, namely introduction, experimental and results and discussion

  16. Removal of radionuclides from partitioning waste solutions by adsorption and catalytic oxidation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Isoo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kubota, Masumitsu [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology (RIST), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Adsorption of radionuclides with inorganic ion exchangers and catalytic oxidation of a complexant were studied for the decontamination of waste solutions generated in past partitioning tests with high-level liquid waste. Granulated ferrocyanide and titanic acid were used for adsorption of Cs and Sr, respectively, from an alkaline solution resulting from direct neutralization of an acidic waste solution. Both Na and Ba inhibited adsorption of Sr but Na did not that of Cs. These exchangers adsorbed Cs and Sr at low concentration with distribution coefficients of more than 10{sup 4}ml/g from 2M Na solution of pH11. Overall decontamination factors (DFs) of Cs and total {beta} nuclides exceeded 10{sup 5} and 10{sup 3}, respectively, at the neutralization-adsorption step of actual waste solutions free from a complexant. The DF of total {alpha} nuclides was less than 10{sup 3} for a waste solution containing diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). DTPA was rapidly oxidized by nitric acid in the presence of a platinum catalyst, and radionuclides were removed as precipitates by neutralization of the resultant solution. The DF of {alpha} nuclides increased to 8x10{sup 4} by addition of the oxidation step. The DFs of Sb and Co were quite low through the adsorption step. A synthesized Ti-base exchanger (PTC) could remove Sb with the DF of more than 4x10{sup 3}. (author)

  17. Chemical hazards from decontamination solutions in low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Miller, A.; Turney, J.; Naughton, M.; IMPELL Corp., Walnut Creek, CA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Recent regulations are focussing more attention on the non-radioactive matrix materials associated with radioactive wastes. Decontamination of operating facilities is becoming a more significant source of low-level waste. This study reviewed the chemical and biological hazards of over 50 decontamination processes. Seventeen of the most prominent hard and soft decontamination processes were examined in detail. The chemical and biological hazards of these seventeen are presented in this paper. These hazards influence the choice of radwaste processing and packaging operations and methods. Federal, state and local regulations further impact on operations and waste disposal. Hazards to personnel, in plant and off-site, resulting from the decontamination cycle are evaluated. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Waste-to-energy plants - a solution for a cleaner future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Waste-to-energy plants reduce the municipal solid waste volume by about 80% and convert it into residue. The residue quality naturally depends on the burned waste quality and also on the combustion parameters. Hence, tighter control of the plant can improve the residue quality. The generated combustion energy is regarded as renewable energy and is typically used to feed a turbine to generate electricity. Waste-to-energy furnaces react slowly on changing waste charge, so they are not used for peak load generation. The generated electrical power is a plant by product and is sold as base load generation. Usually the waste is burned on a grate which limits the plant size to about 160,000 tons of waste per year or 20 tons of waste per hour or about 28 MW. More recent technology utilizes fluidized bed combustion, which allows larger plant sizes up to 50 MW. Due to the unknown waste composition and stringent environmental standards involved, waste-to-energy plants employ sophisticated flue gas cleaning devices for emission control. ABB's Performance Monitoring continuously compares actual plant and equipment performance to expected performance. This includes the on-line calculation of the waste calorific heat allowing operator decision support and automated control system responses. Dedicated reports offer detailed data on operations, maintenance and emissions to plant management staff. ABB combustion optimization solutions use model based predictive control techniques to reliably find the most suitable set-points for improving the heat rate and reducing emissions like NO x . (author)

  19. Household Hazardous Waste: Everyone's Problem--Everyone's Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Linda

    1985-01-01

    Examines the household hazardous waste problem, addressing several areas related to regulation, disposal, and control. Also gives a list of safer alternatives for household cleaners/disinfectants, paint products, and pesticides. Indicates that individuals can collectively make a difference in public exposure by changing purchases and practices.…

  20. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, R.; Ferreira, V.M.; Machado, L.M.; Rodrigues, M.; Coelho, I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  2. Steel corrosion resistance in model solutions and reinforced mortar containing wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    This work reports on the corrosion resistance of steel in alkaline model solutions and in cement-based materials (mortar). The model solutions and the mortar specimens were Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) based. Further, hereby discussed is the implementation of an eco-friendly approach of waste

  3. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  4. Reductive photocatalysis and smart inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Wells, Nathan

    2015-05-21

    Semiconductor-sensitised photocatalysis is a well-established and growing area of research, innovation and commercialisation; the latter being mostly limited to the use of TiO2 as the semiconductor. Most of the work on semiconductor photocatalytic systems uses oxygen as the electron acceptor and explores a wide range of electron donors; such systems can be considered to be examples of oxidative photocatalysis, OP. OP underpins most current examples of commercial self-cleaning materials, such as: glass, tiles, concrete, paint and fabrics. OP, and its myriad of applications, have been reviewed extensively over the years both in this journal and elsewhere. However, the ability of TiO2, and other semiconductor sensitisers, to promote reductive photocatalysis, RP, especially of dyes, is significant and, although less well-known, is of growing importance. In such systems, the source of the electrons is some easily oxidised species, such as glycerol. One recent, significant example of a RP process is with respect to photocatalyst activity indicator inks. paiis, which provide a measure of the activity of a photocatalytic film under test via the rate of change of colour of the dye in the ink coating due to irreversible RP. In contrast, by incorporating the semiconductor sensitiser in the ink, rather than outside it, it is possible to create an effective UV dosimeter, based on RP, which can be used as a sun-burn warning indicator. In the above examples the dye is reduced irreversibly, but when the photocatalyst in an ink is used to reversibly photoreduce a dye, a novel, colourimetric oxygen-sensitive indicator ink can be created, which has commercial potential in the food packaging industry. Finally, if no dye is present in the ink, and the semiconductor photocatalyst-loaded ink film coats an easily reduced substrate, such as a metal oxide film, then it can be used to reduce the latter and so, for example, clean up tarnished steel. The above are examples of smart inks, i

  5. The incineration of solid radioactive waste: a centralized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernborg, G.; Broden, K.; Oehrn, G.

    1985-01-01

    Almost all the combustible low-level β- and γ-radioactive waste from Sweden, and even some waste from German nuclear power plants, is treated in an incineration plant at Studsvik. To date most of the ash has been put into 100-litre drums, which in turn have been put in 200-litre drums with concrete in between. Recently, methods have been developed and equipment installed for homogeneous solidification of the ash into concrete. Over the years since the start-up of the plant in 1976 the incinerator has worked with a high availability factor. Personnel doses and activity releases to the environment are well below limits set by regulatory authorities. (orig.)

  6. Reduction of waste solution volume generated on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam; Koo, Dae-Seo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Whan; Han, Gyu-Seong; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the reduction of volume of metal oxides generated in cathode chamber, the optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber were drawn out through several experiments with the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. Also, the required time to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal was estimated through experiments using the manufactured electrokinetic decontamination equipment. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out. The optimum pH of waste electrolyte in cathode chamber for the reduction of volume of metal oxides was below 2.35. Also, when the initial uranium concentration of the soils were 7-20 Bq/g, the required times to reach to below the clearance concentration level for self- disposal were 25-40 days. A diagram of soil decontamination process for the removal of uranium from contaminated soil was drawn out.

  7. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipit...

  8. Community Solutions for Solid Waste Pollution, Level 6. Teacher Guide. Operation Waste Watch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Waste Management, Richmond. Div. of Litter & Recycling.

    Operation Waste Watch is a series of seven sequential learning units which addresses the subject of litter control and solid waste management. Each unit may be used in a variety of ways, depending on the needs and schedules of individual schools, and may be incorporated into various social studies, science, language arts, health, mathematics, and…

  9. Cementation of the solid radioactive waste with polymer-cement solutions using the method of impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.

    2015-01-01

    Cementation of solid radioactive waste (SRW), i.e. inclusion of solid radioactive waste into cement matrix without cavities - is one of the main technological processes used for conditioning low and intermediate level radioactive waste. At FSUE 'Radon' the industrialized method of impregnation has been developed and since 2003 has been using for cementation of solid radioactive waste. The technology is that the polymer-cement solution, having high penetrating properties, is supplied under pressure through a tube to the bottom of the container in which solid radioactive waste has preliminarily been placed. The polymer-cement solution is evenly moving upwards through the channels between the particles of solid radioactive waste, fills the voids in the bulk volume of the waste and hardens, forming a cement compound, the amount of which is equal to the original volume. The aim of the investigation was a selection of a cement solution suitable for SRW impregnation (including fine particles) without solution depletion and bottom layers stuffing. It has been chosen a polymer: PHMG (polyhexamethylene-guanidine), which is a stabilizing and water-retaining component of the cement solution. The experiments confirm that the polymer increases the permeability of the cement solution by a 2-2.5 factor, the viscosity by a 1.2 factor, the stability of the consistency by a 1.5-1.7 factor, and extends the operating range of the W/C ratio to 0.5-1.1. So it is possible to penetrate a volume of SRW bigger by a 1.5-2.0 factor. It has been proved, that PHMG polymer increases strength and frost-resistance of the final compounds by a 1.8-2.7 factor, and contributes to fast strength development at the beginning of hardening and it decreases Cs-137 leashing rate by a 1.5-2 factor

  10. Laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from waste solutions of the PUREX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.; Eckert, B.; Riemenschneider, J.; Mallon, C.; Mann, D.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory plant for the separation of cesium from a fission product waste solution of the fuel reprocessing is described. The plant consists of two stages. In the first stage cesium is adsorbed on ammonium molybdatophosphate (AMP). Then the adsorbent is dissolved. From the solution cesium is adsorbed on a cationic ion exchanger in the second stage. Then AMP can be reproduced from this solution. For the elution of cesium in the second stage a NH 4 NO 3 solution (3 m) is used. Flow sheet, construction and the control device of the plant are described and the results of tests with a model solution are given. (author)

  11. A novel Canadian solution for processing and disposal of mixed liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A.; Husain, S.; Grey, M.; Elwood, C.; White, T.; Wigle, K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Bruce Power contracted with Kinectrics for the disposal of its accumulated mixed liquid waste (MLW) inventory. The waste consists of solvent, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous waste drums. The radioactivity in the wastes is principally due to cobalt-60, cesium-137 and tritium. Historically, MLW drums originating from Canadian utilities were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, restrictions now apply on importation of PCB containing wastes in to the US. Because of this, Kinectrics developed a wholly Canadian solution for the disposal of the MLW. Disposal of Bruce Power's MLW was conceived to be carried out in three phases. Phase 1: Develop an overall plan for disposal of the accumulated wastes, Phase 2: Dispose the PCB oil waste drums (highest priority), and Phase 3: Dispose all other waste drums. Phases 1 & 2 have been completed and Phase 3 is currently underway with 17 drums having been disposed so far. A description of the key activities undertaken to date are described in this paper. This work sets the stage for the future management of MLW based exclusively or largely on disposal within Canada. All key technical, regulatory and logistical issues pertaining to the receipt, handling, processing and shipment of the wastes were addressed. Equipment was installed for basic processing of the incoming wastes. Based on Pathways methodology, it was shown that the wastes can be shipped to unlicensed facilities within Canada without exceeding the 10 μSv per annum exposure to the critical individual. Despite this and for compliance with ALARA, wastes exceeding self-imposed threshold levels of radioactivity will be solidified and shipped for storage as radioactive waste. (author)

  12. A novel Canadian solution for processing and disposal of mixed liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryanarayan, S.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Husain, S.; Grey, M. [Candesco, Toronto, ON (Canada); Elwood, C.; White, T.; Wigle, K. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In 2009, Bruce Power contracted with Kinectrics for the disposal of its accumulated mixed liquid waste (MLW) inventory. The waste consists of solvent, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous waste drums. The radioactivity in the wastes is principally due to cobalt-60, cesium-137 and tritium. Historically, MLW drums originating from Canadian utilities were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, restrictions now apply on importation of PCB containing wastes in to the US. Because of this, Kinectrics developed a wholly Canadian solution for the disposal of the MLW. Disposal of Bruce Power's MLW was conceived to be carried out in three phases. Phase 1: Develop an overall plan for disposal of the accumulated wastes, Phase 2: Dispose the PCB oil waste drums (highest priority), and Phase 3: Dispose all other waste drums. Phases 1 & 2 have been completed and Phase 3 is currently underway with 17 drums having been disposed so far. A description of the key activities undertaken to date are described in this paper. This work sets the stage for the future management of MLW based exclusively or largely on disposal within Canada. All key technical, regulatory and logistical issues pertaining to the receipt, handling, processing and shipment of the wastes were addressed. Equipment was installed for basic processing of the incoming wastes. Based on Pathways methodology, it was shown that the wastes can be shipped to unlicensed facilities within Canada without exceeding the 10 μSv per annum exposure to the critical individual. Despite this and for compliance with ALARA, wastes exceeding self-imposed threshold levels of radioactivity will be solidified and shipped for storage as radioactive waste. (author)

  13. Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Think Before You Ink: Are Tattoos Safe? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... I be concerned about unsafe practices, or the tattoo ink itself? Both. While you can get serious ...

  14. Engineering solutions of environmental problems in organic waste handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A. Y.; Vasilev, E. V.; Shalavina, E. V.; Kucheruk, O. N.

    2017-10-01

    This study shows the urgent need to consider modernization of agricultural production in terms of sustainable development, which takes into account environmental implications of intensive technologies in livestock farming. Some science-based approaches are offered to address related environmental challenges. High-end technologies of organic livestock waste processing were substantiated by the feasibility study and nutrient balance calculation. The technologies were assessed on the basis of best available techniques criteria, including measures such as specific capital and operational costs associated with nutrient conservation and their delivery to the plants.

  15. Vitrification: a solution for the wastes of wastes; La vitrification: ca chauffe pour les ultimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guihard, B. [Europlasma, 33 - Saint Medard en Jalles (France)

    1997-07-01

    The incineration of wastes generates other wastes (fly ashes) that concentrate a large amount of polluting substances (heavy metals, salts..). French law requires a stabilization of this kind of wastes before their storage. Today vitrification can be considered as an alternative to the stabilization and storage way, the vitrified products could be seen as an interesting material in the building industry or in road works. A few years ago the municipality of Bordeaux decided to launch a demonstration program and a REFIOM (fly ashes) vitrification unit has been operating since 1997. (A.C.)

  16. Development of a freeze-drying process of waste-solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Isao; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    The waste solution treatment process in Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) consists of Evaporation-Condensation and Neutrazation-Agglometation-Precipitation process, which produces the distillate as recovered acid at first step and separates Pu-U element from condenced solution at second step. This process needs many stages to get high decontamination efficiency and then the Evaporator is in very corrosive state because the nitric acid solution is heated over 100 degrees C to be evaporated. So, in PCDF, it was started the development of Freeze-Drying process to waste solution treatment. This process is suitable for a little quantity of the solution including nitric acid as produced in the Microwave Heating method. Moreover the process has high decontamination efficiency and has good performance of equipment. The result of the cold test of Freeze-Drying process with nitric acid is discribed in this paper. (author)

  17. Determination of microamounts of uranium in waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birringer, K.J.; Netzer, S.; Kuhn, E.; Groll, P.

    1975-07-01

    A method for the determination of microamounts of uranium in presence of high amounts of fission and corrosion products is described. Uranium is separated by reversed-phase chromatography on a small column, packed with Voltalef micro and impregnated with TOPO. For the direct photometric determination uranium is eluted by TAM dissolved in ethanol/pyridine. The efficiency of the separation, using a suitable scrub-solution, was tested with solutions of simulated inactive fission and corrosion products. The reproducibility of the method, with 24 μg of uranium, is +- 2,5%. (orig.) [de

  18. Depleted Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Present a Safe and Practical Burial Solution for Graphite Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, L.

    2016-01-01

    A solution for graphite waste is proposed that combines reliance on thick impermeable host rock that is needed to confine the long-life radioactivity content of most irradiated graphite with low capitalistic and operational unit volume costs that are required to render this bulky waste form manageable. The solution, uniquely applicable to irradiated graphite due to its low dose rates, moderate mechanical strength and light density, consists in three steps: first, graphite is fine-crushed under water; second, it is made in an aqueous suspension; third, the suspension is injected into a deep, disused hydrocarbon reservoir. Each of these steps only involves well mastered techniques. Regulatory changes that may allow this solution to be added to the gamut of available waste routes, geochemical issues, availability of depleted reservoirs and cost projections are presented. (author)

  19. Processing of radioactive waste solutions in a vacuum evaporator-crystallizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, J.C.; Donovan, R.I.; Van der Cook, R.E.; Christensen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the first 18 months' operation of Hanford's vacuum evaporator-crystallizer are reported. This process reduces the volume of radioactive waste solutions and simultaneously converts the waste to a less mobile salt cake. The evaporator-crystallizer is operating at better than design production rates and has reduced the volume of radioactive wastes by more than 15 million gallons. A process description, plant performance data, mechanical difficulties, and future operating plans are discussed. Also discussed is a computer model of the evaporator-crystallizer process

  20. Precipitation-filtering technology for uranium waste solution generated on washing-electrokinetic decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gye-Nam, E-mail: kimsum@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Uk-Ryang; Kim, Seung-Soo; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: A recycling process diagram for the volume reduction of waste solution generated from washing-electrokinetic decontamination. - Highlights: • A process for recycling a waste solution generated was developed. • The total metal precipitation rate by NaOH in a supernatant after precipitation was the highest at pH 9. • The uranium radioactivity in the treated solution upon injection of 0.2 g of alum was lower. • After drying, the volume of sludge was reduced to 35% of the initial sludge volume. - Abstract: Large volumes of uranium waste solution are generated during the operation of washing-electrokinetic decontamination equipment used to remove uranium from radioactive soil. A treatment technology for uranium waste solution generated upon washing-electrokinetic decontamination for soil contaminated with uranium has been developed. The results of laboratory-size precipitation experiments were as follows. The total amount of metal precipitation by NaOH for waste solution was highest at pH 11. Ca(II), K(I), and Al(III) ions in the supernatant partially remained after precipitation, whereas the concentration of uranium in the supernatant was below 0.2 ppm. Also, when NaOH was used as a precipitant, the majority of the K(I) ions in the treated solution remained. The problem of CaO is to need a long dissolution time in the precipitation tank, while Ca(OH){sub 2} can save a dissolution time. However, the volume of the waste solution generated when using Ca(OH){sub 2} increased by 8 mL/100 mL (waste solution) compared to that generated when using CaO. NaOH precipitant required lower an injection volume lower than that required for Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO. When CaO was used as a precipitant, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution at pH 11 reached its lowest value, compared to values of uranium radioactivity at pH 9 and pH 5. Also, the uranium radioactivity in the treated solution upon injection of 0.2 g of alum with CaO or Ca(OH){sub 2} was

  1. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID number-sign 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 μ to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solut

  2. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2018-01-30

    The field of printed electronics is still in its infancy and most of the reported work is based on commercially available nanoparticle-based metallic inks. Although fully printed devices that employ dielectric/semiconductor inks have recently been reported, there is a dearth of functional inks that can demonstrate controllable devices. The lack of availability of functional inks is a barrier to the widespread use of fully printed devices. For radio-frequency electronics, magnetic materials have many uses in reconfigurable components but rely on expensive and rigid ferrite materials. A suitable magnetic ink can facilitate the realization of fully printed, magnetically controlled, tunable devices. This report presents the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. First, a tunable inductor is fully printed using iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid to make them compatible with a UV-curable SU8 solution. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna is demonstrated using the magnetic and in-house silver-organo-complex inks. This is a step toward low-cost, fully printed, controllable electronic components.

  3. A super ink jet printed zinc-silver 3D microbattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. C.; Murata, K.; Steingart, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Wright, P. K.

    2009-09-01

    A novel super ink jet printing (SIJP) system was used to fabricate 3D zinc-silver microbatteries directly on a substrate. The SIJP provides a simple and flexible method to deposit interesting 2D and 3D structures of varying morphologies without the waste and large energy inputs typical of standard microfabrication technologies. The system was used to print pairs of silver electrodes with arrays of pillars on glass substrates, and in the presence of an electrolyte, the battery self-assembled during the first charge. Using an aqueous electrolyte solution of KOH with dissolved ZnO, the SIJP printed structures showed similar electrochemical behavior to batteries composed of silver foil electrodes. For a sparse array of pillars (~2.5% footprint area of each electrode pad occupied by pillars), a capacity increase of 60% was achieved in comparison with a cell with planar electrodes.

  4. A super ink jet printed zinc–silver 3D microbattery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C C; Evans, J W; Murata, K; Steingart, D A; Wright, P K

    2009-01-01

    A novel super ink jet printing (SIJP) system was used to fabricate 3D zinc–silver microbatteries directly on a substrate. The SIJP provides a simple and flexible method to deposit interesting 2D and 3D structures of varying morphologies without the waste and large energy inputs typical of standard microfabrication technologies. The system was used to print pairs of silver electrodes with arrays of pillars on glass substrates, and in the presence of an electrolyte, the battery self-assembled during the first charge. Using an aqueous electrolyte solution of KOH with dissolved ZnO, the SIJP printed structures showed similar electrochemical behavior to batteries composed of silver foil electrodes. For a sparse array of pillars (∼2.5% footprint area of each electrode pad occupied by pillars), a capacity increase of 60% was achieved in comparison with a cell with planar electrodes

  5. Safety assessment driving radioactive waste management solutions (SADRWMS Methodology) implemented in a software tool (SAFRAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinker, M., E-mail: M.Kinker@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Avila, R.; Hofman, D., E-mail: rodolfo@facilia.se [FACILIA AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Jova Sed, L., E-mail: jovaluis@gmail.com [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Ledroit, F., E-mail: frederic.ledroit@irsn.fr [IRSN PSN-EXP/SSRD/BTE, (France)

    2013-07-01

    In 2004, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts which could be used to improve the mechanisms for applying safety assessment methodologies to predisposal management of radioactive waste. These flowcharts have since been incorporated into DS284 (General Safety Guide on the Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste), and were also considered during the early development stages of the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) Tool. In 2009 the IAEA presented DS284 to the IAEA Waste Safety Standards Committee, during which it was proposed that the graded approach to safety case and safety assessment be illustrated through the development of Safety Reports for representative predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities. To oversee the development of these reports, it was agreed to establish the International Project on Complementary Safety Reports: Development and Application to Waste Management Facilities (CRAFT). The goal of the CRAFT project is to develop complementary reports by 2014, which the IAEA could then publish as IAEA Safety Reports. The present work describes how the DS284 methodology and SAFRAN Tool can be applied in the development and review of the safety case and safety assessment to a range of predisposal waste management facilities or activities within the Region. (author)

  6. Management of radioactive waste in France-policy, issues, and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamborini, J.

    1996-01-01

    The French nuclear industry has conducted a study to define a policy and an organization to deal with the waste generated from nuclear power plants, the fuel cycle industries, and medicine, research, and other industrial nuclear applications. This has resulted in the introduction of an organization which, by appropriate and responsible management, can guarantee to protect people and the environment while ensuring industrial effectiveness. The body in charge of waste management in France is the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) created in 1979. The French policy is based on waste classification and the related solutions for the evacuation of these wastes. High-level and long-lived waste management is regulated by a law passed Dec 30, 1991. The law outlines the research program to be conducted. Three main research objectives are prescribed: 1. reduction of the waste volumes and toxicity (partitioning and transmutation); 2. assessment of the waste isolation properties of deep geologic formations by underground research laboratories; 3. development of solidification processes and storage techniques for long-term interim storage in near-surface facilities. This research will be implemented within a 15 yr period. At present, applications are submitted to the authorities for the construction of underground research laboratories. At the end of this period, reports will be submitted to parliament. It will have to choose among various options. The construction of a deep geologic repository, if this option is chosen, will need the passage of a new law

  7. Safety assessment driving radioactive waste management solutions (SADRWMS Methodology) implemented in a software tool (SAFRAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinker, M.; Avila, R.; Hofman, D.; Jova Sed, L.; Ledroit, F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) to examine international approaches to safety assessment for predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts which could be used to improve the mechanisms for applying safety assessment methodologies to predisposal management of radioactive waste. These flowcharts have since been incorporated into DS284 (General Safety Guide on the Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste), and were also considered during the early development stages of the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) Tool. In 2009 the IAEA presented DS284 to the IAEA Waste Safety Standards Committee, during which it was proposed that the graded approach to safety case and safety assessment be illustrated through the development of Safety Reports for representative predisposal radioactive waste management facilities and activities. To oversee the development of these reports, it was agreed to establish the International Project on Complementary Safety Reports: Development and Application to Waste Management Facilities (CRAFT). The goal of the CRAFT project is to develop complementary reports by 2014, which the IAEA could then publish as IAEA Safety Reports. The present work describes how the DS284 methodology and SAFRAN Tool can be applied in the development and review of the safety case and safety assessment to a range of predisposal waste management facilities or activities within the Region. (author)

  8. Catalytic microcontact printing without ink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Péter, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    A novel microcontact printing technique is described that does not require ink. Patterns were created by direct contact of oxidized PDMS stamps with silyl ether-derivatized, acid-labile SAMs on gold. The surface of the stamps was oxidized by oxygen plasma to give a layer of silicon oxide. These

  9. Surface Patterning Using Diazonium Ink Filled Nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Yun; Blanchard, Pierre-Yves; Mirkin, Michael V

    2015-11-03

    Molecular grafting of diazonium is a widely employed surface modification technique. Local electrografting of this species is a promising approach to surface doping and related properties tailoring. The instability of diazonium cation complicates this process, so that this species was generated in situ in many reported studies. In this Article, we report the egress transfer of aryl diazonium cation across the liquid/liquid interface supported at the nanopipette tip that can be used for controlled delivery this species to the external aqueous phase for local substrate patterning. An aryl diazonium salt was prepared with weakly coordinating and lipophilic tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate anion stable as a solid and soluble in low polarity media. The chemically stable solution of this salt in 1,2-dichloroethane can be used as "diazonium ink". The ink-filled nanopipette was employed as a tip in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) for surface patterning with the spatial resolution controlled by the pipette orifice radius and a few nanometers film thickness. The submicrometer-size grafted spots produced on the HOPG surface were located and imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  10. Potential agents for removal of actinides from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovski, V.V.; Whisenhunt, D.W.; Veeck, A.C.; Andersen, W.A.; Hoffman, D.C.; Jide, X.; White, D.; Raymond, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    The uptake of Th(IV) from nitric acid and hydrochloric acid solutions by chelating ion exchange resins containing catechol, 1,2- hydroxypyridinone (1,2-HOPO) and 3,4-hydroxypyridinone (3,4-HOPO) functional groups, has been investigated. These polystyrene based materials show excellent kinetics for uptake of Th(IV) and have a high loading capacity. Liquid/liquid extractants have also been synthesized by addition of lipophilic side chains to the chelating groups (1,2-HOPO; 3,4-HOPO; 3,2-HOPO; catecholamide; terephthalamide). The initial evaluation of the extraction properties has been carried out

  11. Porous materials based on foaming solutions obtained from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, I. V.; Antipova, A. N.; Ovcharova, I. V.; Starostina, Yu L.

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes foam concrete production efficiency. Research has shown the possibility of using a newly-designed protein-based foaming agent to produce porous materials using gypsum and cement binders. The protein foaming agent is obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of a raw mixture consisting of industrial waste in an electromagnetic field. The mixture consists of spent biomass of the Aspergillus niger fungus and dust from burning furnaces used in cement production. Varying the content of the foaming agent allows obtaining gypsum binder-based foam concretes with the density of 200-500 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 0.1-1.0 MPa, which can be used for thermal and sound insulation of building interiors. Cement binders were used to obtain structural and thermal insulation materials with the density of 300-950 kg/m3 and compressive strength of 0.9-9.0 MPa. The maximum operating temperature of cement-based foam concretes is 500°C because it provides the shrinkage of less than 2%.

  12. Volumetric determination of hydroxide, aluminate, and carbonate in alkaline solutions of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.W.

    1975-06-01

    An integrated procedure was developed for determining OH - , Al(OH) 4 - , and CO 3 2- in alkaline nuclear waste. The free alkali, the hydroxide released when Al(OH) 3 is complexed with oxalate, and the precipitated BaCO 3 were determined by acidimetric titration. With a 50-μl sample, the relative standard deviations were 1 to 2 percent for nonradioactive test solutions and 2 to 5 percent for radioactive process solutions. (U.S.)

  13. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  14. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mek Zah Salleh; Hilmi Mahmood

    2002-01-01

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  15. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: a potential solution for the disposal of transuranic waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... Isolation Pilot Plant Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the c...

  16. Nuclear waste disposal: Can there be a resolution? Past problems and future solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahearne, J [Scientific Research Society, Sigma Xi, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Why does the high level waste problem have to be solved now? There are perhaps three answers to that question. First, to have a recovery of nuclear power. But a lack of resolution of the high level waste problem is not the principal reason that nuclear power has foundered and, consequently, solving it will not automatically revive nuclear power. However, if the nuclear industry is adamantly convinced that this is the key to reviving nuclear power, then the nuclear industry should demonstrate its conviction by putting much greater effort into resolving the high level waste problem technically, not through public relations. For example, a substantial effort on the actinide burning approach might demonstrate, in the old American phrase, 'putting your money where your mouth is'. Second, the high level waste problem must be solved now because it is a devil's brew. However, chemical wastes last longer, as we all know, than do the radioactive wastes. As one expert has noted: 'There is real risk in nuclear power, just as there is real risk in coal power.... For some of [these risks], like the greenhouse effect, the potential damage is devastating. While for others, like nuclear accidents, the risk is limited, but imaginations are not. For still others, like the risk posed by a high-level waste repository, there is essentially nothing outside the imagination of the gullible.' Furthermore, any technical solution or any solution to a risky problem requires one to think carefully. It is often better to do it right than quickly. A third reason for requiring it to be solved right now is that HLW disposal is a major technical problem blocking a potentially valuable energy source. But we need a new solution. The current solutions are not working. I believe that we ought to recognize the failure of the geologic repository approach. I believe the federal government should identify, with industry's assistance, the best techniques for surface storage. Some federal locations should be

  17. Nuclear waste disposal: Can there be a resolution? Past problems and future solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahearne, J.

    1990-01-01

    Why does the high level waste problem have to be solved now? There are perhaps three answers to that question. First, to have a recovery of nuclear power. But a lack of resolution of the high level waste problem is not the principal reason that nuclear power has foundered and, consequently, solving it will not automatically revive nuclear power. However, if the nuclear industry is adamantly convinced that this is the key to reviving nuclear power, then the nuclear industry should demonstrate its conviction by putting much greater effort into resolving the high level waste problem technically, not through public relations. For example, a substantial effort on the actinide burning approach might demonstrate, in the old American phrase, 'putting your money where your mouth is'. Second, the high level waste problem must be solved now because it is a devil's brew. However, chemical wastes last longer, as we all know, than do the radioactive wastes. As one expert has noted: 'There is real risk in nuclear power, just as there is real risk in coal power.... For some of [these risks], like the greenhouse effect, the potential damage is devastating. While for others, like nuclear accidents, the risk is limited, but imaginations are not. For still others, like the risk posed by a high-level waste repository, there is essentially nothing outside the imagination of the gullible.' Furthermore, any technical solution or any solution to a risky problem requires one to think carefully. It is often better to do it right than quickly. A third reason for requiring it to be solved right now is that HLW disposal is a major technical problem blocking a potentially valuable energy source. But we need a new solution. The current solutions are not working. I believe that we ought to recognize the failure of the geologic repository approach. I believe the federal government should identify, with industry's assistance, the best techniques for surface storage. Some federal locations should be

  18. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.; Hamm, Luther; Aleman, Sebastian; Michael, Johnston

    2008-01-01

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system

  19. Selective Recovery Of Copper From Solutions After Bioleaching Electronic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willner Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on selective extraction of copper from solution after bioleaching grounded printed circuit boards (PCBs using LIX 860N-IC were conducted. The effect of LIX 860N-IC concentration, phase ratio and influence of initial pH value of aqueous phase on the extraction of copper and iron was examined. It was found that the extraction rate of copper increases with the LIX 860N-IC concentration. Best results of Cu extraction (98 % were achieved with extractant concentration of 5 % and pH 1.9. Higher pH value of aqueous phase (pH=2.4 is conducive to the simultaneous effect of Fe co-extraction.

  20. Malonamides as new extractants for nuclear waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.; Nigond, L.; Vitart, X.

    1989-01-01

    Substituted malonamides are able to extract α emitters from radioactive solutions in nitric acid, all the actinides (III, IV, VI) are well extracted and can be easily back extracted. Some problems remain with neptunium and technetium. These solvents are not expensive. For an industrial purpose, synthesis has been optimized, and a proper choice of commercial basic products can decrease the cost. The solvent obtained on a pilot scale (1 kg) was found to be pure enough, it didn't need any additional treatment. Degradation under hydrolysis or radiolysis is not important in the conditions of practical experiment (t 0 C). Degradation products can be washed with NaOH (carboxylic acids) they don't give precipitates or emulsions. Efficiency of the solvent is good compared to CMPO, taking into account the lack of extensive industrial development. Further researches are undertaken in two main directions: optimizing the synthesis and use of aliphatic diluents

  1. Treatment of nuclear waste solutions using a new class of extractants: pentaalkyl propane diamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuillerdier, C.; Musikas, C.; Hoel, P.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of bifunctional extractants pentaalkyl propane diamides is studied in order to extract trivalent cations (Am 3+ , Cm 3+ ...) and other actinides contained in waste solutions of nuclear industry. These solvents are completely incinerable and don't produce harmfull degradation products. Their main chemicals properties are reviewed. The results of a mixer-settler battery experiment are given

  2. Copper Nanowires as Conductive Ink for Low-Cost Draw-On Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Naveen Noah; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-08-05

    This work tackles the complicated problem of clump formation and entanglement of high aspect ratio copper nanowires, due to which a well dispersed solution for use as a true ink for drawable electronics has not been made until now. Through rheology studies even a hard to use material like copper nanowires was tailored to be made into a highly efficient conductive ink with only 2 vol % or 18.28 wt % loading which is far lower than existing nanoparticle based inks. This versatile ink can be applied onto various substrates such as paper, PET, PDMS and latex. By using the ink in a roller ball pen, a bending sensor device was simply drawn on paper, which demonstrated detection of various degrees of convex bending and was highly durable as shown in the 10,000 bending cycling test. A highly sensitive strain sensor which has a maximum gauge factor of 54.38 was also fabricated by simply painting the ink onto latex rubber strip using a paintbrush. Finally a complex conductive pattern depicting the Sydney Opera House was painted on paper to demonstrate the versatility and robustness of the ink. The use of Cu NWs is highly economical in terms of the conductive filler loading in the ink and the cost of copper itself as compared to other metal NPs, CNT, and graphene-based inks. The demonstrated e-ink, devices, and facile device fabrication methods push the field one step closer to truly creating cheap and highly reliable skin like devices "on the fly".

  3. Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration using kitchen waste saccharified solution as culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.; Juan, W.; Qunhui, W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Reduced sugar in saccharified solution from kitchen waste was used as the carbon source. Domesticated A. niger AS 3.879C , which can withstand 20% of kitchen waste, was used as the inoculum in the bioleaching process of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The effect of reduced sugar concentration, fly ash concentration, and medium volume on the heavy metal extraction and yield of fly ash as well as the optimum bioleaching conditions; the inoculation amount of AS 3 .879C 1% (v/v), reduced sugar concentration of 80 g/l, fly ash concentration of 20 g/l, medium volume of 200 ml, and the addition of fly ash (20 g/l) after culturing for 4 days at 30 degree C and 140 r/min were obtained. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield of the seven tested heavy metals are in the order of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Fe; the extraction yield of Cd and Zn reached 88.7% and 73.1% respectively. Fly ash satisfied the Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes (GB 18598-2001) after heavy metal extraction. (author)

  4. Recovery of cyanide in gold leach waste solution by volatilization and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, N; Kabasakal, O S; Ozdil, G

    2004-09-10

    In this study, the effects of pH, time and temperature in regeneration of cyanide in the leaching waste solution of gold production from disseminated gold ore by cyanidation process were investigated and the optimum conditions, consumptions and cyanide recovery values were determined. The sample of waste solution containing 156 mg/l free CN- and 358 mg/l total CN-, that was obtained from Gümüşhane-Mastra/Turkey disseminated gold ores by cyanidation and carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process under laboratory conditions was used in the experiments. Acidification with H2SO4, volatilization of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) with air stripping and absorption of HCN in a basic solution stages were applied and under optimum conditions, 100% of free cyanide and 48% of complex cyanide and consequently 70% of the total cyanide in the liquid phase of gold leach effluent are recovered.

  5. Hydrodynamics of writing with ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungchul; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Mahadevan, L; Kim, Ho-Young

    2011-12-23

    Writing with ink involves the supply of liquid from a pen onto a porous hydrophilic solid surface, paper. The resulting linewidth depends on the pen speed and the physicochemical properties of the ink and paper. Here we quantify the dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. Our experiments are carried out using a minimal pen, a long narrow tube that serves as a reservoir of liquid, which can write on a model of paper, a hydrophilic micropillar array. A minimal theory for the rate of wicking or spreading of the liquid is given by balancing the capillary force that drives the liquid flow and the resistance associated with flow through the porous substrate. This allows us to predict the shape of the front and the width of the line laid out by the pen, with results that are corroborated by our experiments.

  6. Investigating the effect of compression on solute transport through degrading municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodman, N.D., E-mail: n.d.woodman@soton.ac.uk; Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • The influence of compression on MSW flushing was evaluated using 13 tracer tests. • Compression has little effect on solute diffusion times in MSW. • Lithium tracer was conservative in non-degrading waste but not in degrading waste. • Bromide tracer was conservative, but deuterium was not. - Abstract: The effect of applied compression on the nature of liquid flow and hence the movement of contaminants within municipal solid waste was examined by means of thirteen tracer tests conducted on five separate waste samples. The conservative nature of bromide, lithium and deuterium tracers was evaluated and linked to the presence of degradation in the sample. Lithium and deuterium tracers were non-conservative in the presence of degradation, whereas the bromide remained effectively conservative under all conditions. Solute diffusion times into and out of less mobile blocks of waste were compared for each test under the assumption of dominantly dual-porosity flow. Despite the fact that hydraulic conductivity changed strongly with applied stress, the block diffusion times were found to be much less sensitive to compression. A simple conceptual model, whereby flow is dominated by sub-parallel low permeability obstructions which define predominantly horizontally aligned less mobile zones, is able to explain this result. Compression tends to narrow the gap between the obstructions, but not significantly alter the horizontal length scale. Irrespective of knowledge of the true flow pattern, these results show that simple models of solute flushing from landfill which do not include depth dependent changes in solute transport parameters are justified.

  7. Analytic solution for one-dimensional diffusion of radionuclides from a waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This work implements an analytical solution for diffusion of radionuclides from a cylindrical waste form through the packing material into the surrounding host rock. Recent interest in predicting the performance of a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste has led to the development of several computer programs to predict the performance of such a repository for the next several millenia. These numerical codes are generally designed to accommodate a broad spectrum of geometrical configurations and repository conditions in order to accurately predict the behavior of the radionuclides in the repository environment. Confidence in such general purpose codes is gained by verifying the numerical modeling and the software through comparison of the numerical predictions generated by these computer codes with analytical solutions to reasonably complex problems. The analysis discussed herein implements the analytic solution, proposed by J.C. Jaeger in 1941 for radial diffusion through two concentric circular cylinders. Jaeger's solution was applied to the problem of diffusional mass transfer from a long cylindrical waste form and subsequently into the surrounding geological formation. Analytic predictions of fractional release rates, including the effects of sorption, were generated

  8. Corrosivity of solutions from evaporation of radioactive liquid wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payer, H.; Kolic, E.S.; Boyd, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    New double-shell storage tanks are constructed with ASTM A-516 Grade 65 steel. This study had two main objectives: To characterize the corrosivity of synthetic nonradioactive terminal waste solutions to ASTM A-516 Grade 65 steel and to determine the severity of stress-corrosion cracking of carbon steel in terminal waste solutions. The information developed provides guidance in the characterization of the aggressiveness of actual terminal liquors and in the design and operation of fail-safe tanks. Corrosion behavior was measured over a range of oxidizing conditions by the potentiodynamic polarization technique. Oxidizing conditions in a solution likely to promote general corrosion, pitting or stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) were identified. Absolute stress-corrosion cracking susceptibility was determined by constant strain rate procedure for ASTM A-516 Grade 65 steel for conditions identified by polarization experiments as likely to promote SCC. Based on the results of this study, terminal waste storage tanks are safe from stress-corrosion cracking under freely corroding conditions. Corrosion potential of steel in solutions within anticipated compositions is at the positive end of the critical range for stress-corrosion cracking, and no conditions were observed which would lower the potential to more negative values within the cracking range under freely corroding conditions. Measurement of corrosion potential and hydroxide concentration provides a means to extend these results to compositions outside of the composition range studied

  9. An analytic solution for one-dimensional diffusion of radionuclides from a waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This work implements an analytical solution for diffusion of radionuclides from a cylindrical waste form through the packing material into the surrounding host rock. Recent interest in predicting the performance of a proposed geological repository for nuclear waste has led to the development of several computer programs to predict the performance of such a repository for the next several millenia. These numerical codes are generally designed to accommodate a broad spectrum of geometrical configurations and repository conditions in order to accurately predict the behavior of the radionuclides in the repository environment. Confidence in such general purpose codes is gained by verifying the numerical modeling and the software through comparison of the numerical predictions generated by these computer codes with analytical solutions to reasonably complex problems. The analysis discussed herein implements the analytic solution, proposed by J.C. Jaeger in 1941 for radial diffusion through two concentric circular cylinders. Jaeger's solution was applied to the problem of diffusional mass transfer from a long cylindrical waste form and subsequently into the surrounding geological formation. Analytic predictions of fractional release rates, including the effects of sorption, were generated. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Trace element ink spiking for signature authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzistavros, V.S.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Signature authentication is a critical question in forensic document examination. Last years the evolution of personal computers made signature copying a quite easy task, so the development of new ways for signature authentication is crucial. In the present work a commercial ink was spiked with many trace elements in various concentrations. Inorganic and organometallic ink soluble compounds were used as spiking agents, whilst ink retained its initial properties. The spiked inks were used for paper writing and the documents were analyzed by a non destructive method, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The thin target model was proved right for quantitative analysis and a very good linear relationship of the intensity (X-ray signal) against concentration was estimated for all used elements. Intensity ratios between different elements in the same ink gave very stable results, independent on the writing alterations. The impact of time both to written document and prepared inks was also investigated. (author)

  11. Properties of conductive thick-film inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Ten different conductive inks used in the fabrication of thick-film circuits were evaluated for their physical and handling properties. Viscosity, solid contents, and spectrographic analysis of the unfired inks were determined. Inks were screened on ceramic substrates and fired for varying times at specified temperatures. Selected substrates were given additional firings to simulate the heat exposure received if thick-film resistors were to be added to the same substrate. Data are presented covering the (1) printing characteristics, (2) solderability using Sn-63 and also a 4 percent silver solder, (3) leach resistance, (4) solder adhesion, and (5) wire bonding properties. Results obtained using different firing schedules were compared. A comparison was made between the various inks showing general results obtained for each ink. The changes in firing time or the application of a simulated resistor firing had little effect on the properties of most inks.

  12. Regulatory dilemmas of a trans-solutional problem: Spatial and temporal isolation of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsrud, J.H. [State College, PA (United States). Sierra Club National Nuclear Waste Task Force

    1999-04-01

    This paper explores the `trans-solutional` nature of nuclear waste control - that it is in essence beyond human solution. To protect present and future human health, radioactive wastes require effective isolation from the biosphere for the full hazardous life of the wastes. Waste sequestration is essential to protect human beings, other forms of life in the bio-system, and the environment from adverse mutational impacts of exposures to ionizing radiation experienced in excess of those received from naturally-occurring background sources. The linear hypothesis of dose-response describes the relationship of radiation exposures to health at least with respect to cancer induction and hereditary genetic effects. The issue of risks of low-level radiation effects remains in controversy, with pressures exerted on regulators to ignore or minimize those impacts. However, recent research indicates that chronic low-dose exposures via inhalation and ingestion pathways may also give rise to non-fatal non-cancer deleterious health effects. Fatal cancers, now the primary measure of radiation injury in setting standards, may be less significant to a population in the long run than more subtle low-level impacts affecting genetic material. The latter, hard to identify or measure, may reduce developmental and reproductive capability. Given the hazardous longevity of high-level wastes, it is imperative that both protective standards and waste regulation be framed within an ethic of species responsibility. In our half century we have generated vast amounts of long-lived waste, with more promised in the coming millennium. The regulatory obligation is to isolate all nuclear wastes to best prevent any releases to the biosphere now but also to assure future generations an equal opportunity when our `disposal` methods inevitably fail over future time, to be able to retrieve and continue to isolate the wastes that we have caused to be produced. lt follows that the standards must not calculate

  13. Regulatory dilemmas of a trans-solutional problem: Spatial and temporal isolation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsrud, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the 'trans-solutional' nature of nuclear waste control - that it is in essence beyond human solution. To protect present and future human health, radioactive wastes require effective isolation from the biosphere for the full hazardous life of the wastes. Waste sequestration is essential to protect human beings, other forms of life in the bio-system, and the environment from adverse mutational impacts of exposures to ionizing radiation experienced in excess of those received from naturally-occurring background sources. The linear hypothesis of dose-response describes the relationship of radiation exposures to health at least with respect to cancer induction and hereditary genetic effects. The issue of risks of low-level radiation effects remains in controversy, with pressures exerted on regulators to ignore or minimize those impacts. However, recent research indicates that chronic low-dose exposures via inhalation and ingestion pathways may also give rise to non-fatal non-cancer deleterious health effects. Fatal cancers, now the primary measure of radiation injury in setting standards, may be less significant to a population in the long run than more subtle low-level impacts affecting genetic material. The latter, hard to identify or measure, may reduce developmental and reproductive capability. Given the hazardous longevity of high-level wastes, it is imperative that both protective standards and waste regulation be framed within an ethic of species responsibility. In our half century we have generated vast amounts of long-lived waste, with more promised in the coming millennium. The regulatory obligation is to isolate all nuclear wastes to best prevent any releases to the biosphere now but also to assure future generations an equal opportunity when our 'disposal' methods inevitably fail over future time, to be able to retrieve and continue to isolate the wastes that we have caused to be produced. lt follows that the standards must not calculate

  14. Removal of fission products from waste solutions using 16 different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.A.; Hanif, J.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the nuclear sites use pits in the surrounding soils for the storage/disposal of low active waste (LAW) solutions. The characteristics of the soil if not suitable for the fixation or adsorption of the radioactive nuclides, may cause migration of these nuclides to hydrosphere. The phenomenon has the risk of radio toxic pollution for the living bodies therefore minerals composing the soil and their adsorption properties need to be investigated. For this purpose 16 different soil samples were collected from all over Pakistan. Mineralogical composition of the soils was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that most of the samples contained clay minerals, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. Studies for the removal of fission products like, /sup 137/Cs. /sup 60/Sr and activation product /sup 60/CO from solution were carried out on these samples. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive as tracers. Distribution co-efficient were determined by mixing he element solution at pH 3 with the soil at soil solution ratios of 1 to 20. It is revealed from the experimental data that efficient removal of fission products from solutions is achieved by soil samples containing clay mineral montmorillonite, followed by little and kaolinite. These soils thus can be effectively used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste solutions without causing any environmental hazard. (author)

  15. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY THE INTEGRATED STEELWORKS ACTIVITY AND SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara CIOCAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of steel industry is subject to solve major problems arising from industry-nature relationship, strictly targeted on pollution control and protection of natural resources and energy. In this paper we discussed about the management of solid waste generated by an integrated steelwork located near a major urban area and the adopted solutions for the reduction of environmental impact. There are summarized technical solutions that are currently applied and were proposed some solutions that can be applied in accordance with the environmental legislations. The new solutions are proposed for integrated management of solid wastes in accordance with: the exact quantification (quantitative, qualitative and the generation sources of emissions and solid wastes; controlled storage; minimization of the wastes and its harmfulness; transformation of the wastes into valuable by-products used directly by the company in a subsequent process, or by external down-stream user.

  16. Adsorption of Ag (I) from aqueous solution by waste yeast: kinetic, equilibrium and mechanism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Wang, Dongfang; Xie, Hezhen; Won, Sung Wook; Cui, Longzhe; Wu, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    One type of biosorbents, brewer fermentation industry waste yeast, was developed to adsorb the Ag (I) in aqueous solution. The result of FTIR analysis of waste yeast indicated that the ion exchange, chelating and reduction were the main binding mechanisms between the silver ions and the binding sites on the surface of the biomass. Furthermore, TEM, XRD and XPS results suggested that Ag(0) nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of yeast. The kinetic experiments revealed that sorption equilibrium could reach within 60 min, and the removal efficiency of Ag (I) could be still over 93 % when the initial concentration of Ag (I) was below 100 mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) identified that the adsorption was a spontaneous and exothermic process. The waste yeast, playing a significant role in the adsorption of the silver ions, is useful to fast adsorb Ag (I) from low concentration.

  17. A nuclear waste deposit in space - the ultimate solution for low-cost and safe disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppe, H.O.; Hayn, D.; Braitinger, M.; Schmucker, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear high-active waste (HAW) is representative for the problem of burdening the environment with highly active or toxic waste products at present and in the future. Safe disposal methods on Earth are technically very difficult to achieve and the costs of establishment and maintenance of such plants are extremely high. Furthermore the emotionally based rejection by a wide sector of the population gives sufficient reason to look for new solutions. Here, space technology can offer a real alternative - a waste deposit in space. With the Space Transportation System, which shall soon be operative, and the resulting high flight frequencies it will be possible to transport all future HAW into space at economical casts. (orig.) [de

  18. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste solution by natural clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; El-Massry, E.H.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Natural inorganic exchangers. Was used to remove caesium, cobalt and europium using zinc sulfate as coagulant also different clay minerals. These calys include, feldrspare, aswanly, bentionite, hematite, mud, calcite, basalt, magnetite, kaoline sand stone, limonite and sand. The factros affecting the removal process namely PH, particle size, temperature and weight of the clay have been studied. Highest removal for Cs-137, Co-60 and Eu-152 and 154 was achived by asswanly and bentonite. Sand stone is more effective than the other clays. Removal of Cs-137 from low level waste solution is in the order the sequence, aswanly (85.5%)> bentonite (82.2%)> sandstone (65.4%). Solidified cement products have been evaluated to determine optimum conditions of mixing most sludges contained clays by testing mechanical strength and leaching rates of the waste products. The solidified waste forms were found more acceptable for handing, storage and ultimate disposal

  19. Textile Dye Removal from Aqueous Solution using Modified Graphite Waste/Lanthanum/Chitosan Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, E.; Wicaksono, B.; Yulizar, Y.; Prasetyanto, EA; Gunawan, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated various pre-treatment processes of graphite waste using thermal, mechanical and chemical methods. The aim of this work is to study the performance of modified graphite waste/lanthanum/chitosan composite (MG) as adsorbent for textile dye removal from aqueous solution. Effect of graphite waste resources, adsorbent size and lanthanum concentration on the dye removal were studied in batch experiments. Selectivity of MG was also investigated. Pre-heated graphite waste (NMG) was conducted at 80°C for 1 h, followed by mechanical crushing of the resultant graphite to 75 μm particle size, giving adsorption performance of ˜58%, ˜67%, ˜93% and ˜98% of the model dye rhodamine B (concentration determined by UV-vis spectroscopy at 554 nm), methyl orange (464 nm), methylene blue (664 nm) and methyl violet (580 nm), respectively from aqueous solution. For this process, the system required less than ˜5 min for adsorbent material to be completely saturated with the adsorbate. Further chemical modification of the pre-treated graphite waste (MG) with lanthanum (0.01 – V 0.03 M) and chitosan (0.5% w/w) did not improve the performance of dye adsorption. Under comparable experimental conditions, as those of the ‘thermal-mechanical-pre-treated-only’ (NMG), modification of graphite waste (MG) with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan resulted in ˜14%, ˜47%, ˜72% and ˜85% adsorption of rhodamine B, methyl orange, methylene blue and methyl violet, respectively. Selective adsorption of methylene blue at most to ˜79%, followed by methyl orange, methyl violet and rhodamine B with adsorption efficiency ˜67, ˜38, and ˜9% sequentially using MG with 0.03 M lanthanum and 0.5% w/w chitosan.

  20. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  1. Long-term effects of waste solutions on concrete and reinforcing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, J.I.; Stark, D.C.; Kaar, P.H.

    1982-04-01

    This report has been prepared for the In Situ Waste Disposal Program Tank Assessment Task (WG-11) as part of an investigation to evaluate the long-term performance of waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This report, prepared by the Portland Cement Association, presents the results of four years of concrete degradation studies which exposed concrete and reinforcing steel, under load and at 180 0 F, to simulated double-shell slurry, simulated salt cake solution, and a control solution. Exposure length varied from 3 months to 36 months. In all cases, examination of the concrete and reinforcing steel at the end of the exposure indicated there was no attack, i.e., no evidence of rusting, cracking, disruption of mill scale or loss of strength

  2. Recovery of thorium along with uranium 233 from Thorex waste solution employing Chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priya, S.; Reghuram, D.; Kumaraguru, K.; Vijayan, K.; Jambunathan, U.

    2003-01-01

    The low level waste solution, generated from Thorex process during the processing of U 233 , contains thorium along with traces of Th 228 and U 233 . Chitosan, a natural bio-polymer derived from Chitin, was earlier used to recover the uranium and americium. The studies were extended to find out its thorium sorption characteristics. Chitosan exhibited very good absorption of thorium (350 mg/g). Chitosan was equilibrated directly with the low level waste solution at different pH after adjusting its pH, for 60 minutes with a Chitosan to aqueous ratio of 1:100 and the raffinates were filtered and analysed. The results showed more than 99% of thorium and U 233 could be recovered by Chitosan between pH 4 and 5. Loaded thorium and uranium could be eluted from the Chitosan by 1M HNO 3 quantitatively. (author)

  3. Evaluation of extractant-coated magnetic microparticles for the recovery of hazardous metals from waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, M. D.

    1998-01-01

    A magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process was developed earlier at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This compact process was designed for the separation of transuranics (TRU) and radionuclides from the liquid waste streams that exist at many DOE sites, with an overall reduction in waste volume requiring disposal. The MACS process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractant/ion exchange materials with magnetic separation to provide an efficient chemical separation. Recently, the MACS process has been evaluated with acidic organophosphorus extractants for hazardous metal recovery from waste solutions. Moreover, process scale-up design issues have been addressed with respect to particle filtration and recovery. Two acidic organophosphorus compounds have been investigated for hazardous metal recovery, bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanexreg-sign 272) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanexreg-sign 301). Coated onto magnetic microparticles, these extractants demonstrated superior recovery of hazardous metals from solution, relative to what was expected on the basis of results from solvent extraction experiments. The results illustrate the diverse applications of MACS technology for dilute waste streams. Preliminary process scale-up experiments with a high-gradient magnetic separator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have revealed that very low microparticle loss rates are possible

  4. Applying Lean Techniques to Reduce Intravenous Waste Through Premixed Solutions and Increasing Production Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex C; Penm, Jonathan; Ivey, Marianne F; Deng, Yihong; Commins, Monica

    This study aims to use lean techniques and evaluate the impact of increasing the use of premixed IV solutions and increased IV production frequency on IV waste. Study was conducted at a tertiary hospital pharmacy department in three phases. Phase I included evaluation of IV waste when IV production occurred three times a day and eight premixed IV products were used. Phase II increased the number of premixed IV products to 16. Phase III then increased IV production to five times a day. During Phase I, an estimate of 2,673 IV doses were wasted monthly, accounting for 6.14% of overall IV doses. This accounted for 688 L that cost $60,135. During Phase II, the average monthly IV wastage reduced significantly to 1,069 doses (2.84%), accounting for 447 L and $34,003. During Phase III, the average monthly IV wastage was further decreased to 675 doses (1.69%), accounting for 78 L and $3,431. Hence, a potential annual saving of $449,208 could result from these changes. IV waste was reduced through the increased use of premixed solutions and increasing IV production frequency.

  5. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m 3 (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml

  6. Removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solution : a laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were investigated in the laboratory for the removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plant origin. The methods included batch equilibration with different ion exchangers and sorbents, column testing and chemical precipitation. A column method using zinc-activated carbon mixture and a chemical precipitation method using ferrous salt along with sodium sulphite were found to be promising for plant scale application. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Pore solution chemistry of simulated low-level liquid waste incorporated in cement grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-12-01

    Expressed pore solutions from simulated low level liquid waste cement grouts cured at room temperature, 50 degree C and 90 degree C for various duration were analyzed by standard chemical methods and ion chromatography. The solid portions of the grouts were formulated with portland cement, fly ash, slag, and attapulgite clay in the ratios of 3:3:3:1. Two different solutions simulating off-gas condensates expected from vitrification of Hanford low level tank wastes were made. One is highly alkaline and contains the species Na + , P0 4 3- , N0 2 - , NO 3 - and OH - . The other is carbonated and contains the species, Na + , PO 4 3- , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , and CO 3 2- . In both cases phosphate rapidly disappeared from the pore solution, leaving behind sodium in the form of hydroxide. The carbonates were also removed from the pore solution to form calcium carbonate and possibly calcium monocarboaluminate. These reactions resulted in the increase of hydroxide ion concentration in the early period. Subsequently there was a significant reduction OH - and Na + ion concentrations. In contrast high concentration of N0 2 - and N0 3 - were retained in the pore solution indefinitely

  8. Copper-Sulfate Pentahydrate as a Product of the Waste Sulfuric Acid Solution Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Radmila; Stevanović, Jasmina; Avramović, Ljiljana; Nedeljković, Dragutin; Jugović, Branimir; Stajić-Trošić, Jasna; Gvozdenović, Milica

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is synthesis of copper-sulfate pentahydrate from the waste sulfuric acid solution-mother liquor generated during the regeneration process of copper bleed solution. Copper is removed from the mother liquor solution in the process of the electrolytic treatment using the insoluble lead anodes alloyed with 6 mass pct of antimony on the industrial-scale equipment. As the result of the decopperization process, copper is removed in the form of the cathode sludge and is precipitated at the bottom of the electrolytic cell. By this procedure, the content of copper could be reduced to the 20 mass pct of the initial value. Chemical characterization of the sludge has shown that it contains about 90 mass pct of copper. During the decopperization process, the very strong poison, arsine, can be formed, and the process is in that case terminated. The copper leaching degree of 82 mass pct is obtained using H2SO4 aqueous solution with the oxygen addition during the cathode sludge chemical treatment at 80 °C ± 5 °C. Obtained copper salt satisfies the requirements of the Serbian Standard for Pesticide, SRPS H.P1. 058. Therefore, the treatment of waste sulfuric acid solutions is of great economic and environmental interest.

  9. Use of almond endocarp shell in sorption of radioactive 152+154Europium from waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakroury, G.A.; Khalil, T.; Abou El-Nour, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    In an attempt to remove radioactive ( 152 + 154 )Eu from waste solutions, the present study was tried to explore the possibility of using a natural by-product. Almond endocarp (AEC) shell produced from Sinai (El-Arish area) was selected as agricultural by-product in treatment of waste solutions containing ( 152 + 154 )Eu through a batch technique. The different physico-chemical characteristics of AEC such as specific surface area, total pore volume, average pore diameter, apparent density, porosity and pore size distribution were calculated. The adsorption process was described by a Freundlich type isotherm. The uptake percent of the metal ion was determined for the sorbent material as a function of contact time, pH-value, mass of the sorbent material, metal ion concentration and the effect of competing ions on the sorption process. The obtained data were analyzed and showed that almond endocarp shell powder can be considered as an efficient natural material to be used for sorption of radioactive ( 152 + 154 )Eu from their radioactive waste solutions

  10. Solution exchange corrosion testing with the glass-zeolite ceramic waste form in demineralized water at 900C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    A ceramic waste form of glass-bonded zeolite is being developed for the long-term disposition of fission products and transuranic elements in wastes from the U.S. Department of Energy's spent nuclear fuel conditioning activities. Solution exchange corrosion tests were performed on the ceramic waste form and its potential base constituents of glass, zeolite 5A, and sodalite as part of an effort to qualify the ceramic waste form for acceptance into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. Solution exchange tests were performed at 90 C by replacing 80 to 90% of the leachate with fresh demineralized water after set time intervals. The results from these tests provide information about corrosion mechanisms and the ability of the ceramic waste form and its constituent materials to retain waste components. The results from solution exchange tests indicate that radionuclides will be preferentially retained in the zeolites without the glass matrix and in the ceramic waste form, with respect to cations like Li, K, and Na. Release results have been compared for simulated waste from candidate ceramic waste forms with zeolite 5A and its constituent materials to determine the corrosion behavior of each component

  11. Preoperational assessment of solute release from waste rock at proposed mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapakko, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modeling to estimate solute release from waste rock at proposed mines is described. • Components of the modeling process are identified and described. • Modeling inputs required are identified and described. • Examples of data generated and their application are presented. • Challenges inherent to environmental review are identified. - Abstract: Environmental assessments are conducted prior to mineral development at proposed mining operations. Among the objectives of these assessments is prediction of solute release from mine wastes projected to be generated by the proposed mining and associated operations. This paper provides guidance to those engaged in these assessments and, in more detail, provides insights on solid-phase characterization and application of kinetic test results for predicting solute release from waste rock. The logic guiding the process is consistent with general model construction practices and recent publications. Baseline conditions at the proposed site are determined and a detailed operational plan is developed and imposed upon the site. Block modeling of the mine geology is conducted to identify the mineral assemblages present, their masses and compositional variations. This information is used to select samples, representative of waste rock to be generated, that will be analyzed and tested to describe characteristics influencing waste rock drainage quality. The characterization results are used to select samples for laboratory dissolution testing (kinetic tests). These tests provide empirical data on dissolution of the various mineral assemblages present as waste rock. The data generated are used, in conjunction with environmental conditions, the proposed method of mine waste storage, and scientific and technical principles, to estimate solute release rates for the operational scale waste rock. Common concerns regarding waste rock are generation of acidic drainage and release of heavy metals and sulfate. Key solid

  12. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne

    2006-01-01

    With major projects ongoing or being planned, and also with the daily management of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, the role of transport and/or storage packaging has been often overlooked. Indeed, the packaging development process and transport solutions implemented are a key part of the waste management challenge: protection of people and environment. During over four decades, the AREVA Group has developed a complete and coherent system for the transport of waste produced by nuclear industries. The transport solutions integrate the factors to consider, as industrial transportation needs, various waste forms, associated hazards and current regulations. Thus, COGEMA LOGISTICS has designed, licensed and manufactured a large number of different transport, storage and dual purpose cask models for residues and all kinds of radioactive wastes. The present paper proposes to illustrate how a company acting both as a cask designer and a carrier is key to the waste management issue and how it can support the waste management policy of nuclear producers through their operational choices. We will focus on the COGEMA LOGISTICS technical solutions implemented to guarantee safe and secure transportation and storage solutions. We will describe different aspects of the cask design process, insisting on how it enables to fulfill both customer needs and regulation requirements. We will also mention the associated services developed by the AREVA Business Unit Logistics (COGEMA LOGISTICS, TRANSNUCLEAR, MAINCO, and LEMARECHAL CELESTIN) in order to manage transportation of liquid and solid waste towards interim or final storage sites. The paper has the following contents: About radioactive waste; - Radioactive waste classification; - High level activity waste and long-lived intermediate level waste; - Long-lived low level waste; - Short-lived low- and intermediate level waste; - Very low level waste; - The radioactive waste in nuclear fuel cycle; - Packaging design and

  13. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2009-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents theA non-aqueous inkjet ink comprises a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to

  14. N -Ink Printer Characterization With Barycentric Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Vahid; Hersch, Roger D

    2016-07-01

    Printing with a large number of inks, also called N -ink printing, is a challenging task. The challenges comprise spectral modeling of the printer, color separation, halftoning, and limitations of the amount of inks. Juxtaposed halftoning, a perfectly dot-off-dot halftoning method, has proved to be useful to address some of these challenges. However, for juxtaposed halftones, prediction of colors as a function of ink area coverages has not yet been fully investigated. The goal of this paper is to introduce a spectral prediction model for N -ink juxtaposed-halftone prints. As the area-coverage domain of juxtaposed inks forms a simplex, we propose a cellular subdivision of the area-coverage domain using the barycentric subdivision of simplexes. The barycentric subdivision provides algorithmically straightforward means to design and implement an N -ink color prediction model. Within the subdomain cells, the Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model is used for the spectral prediction. Our proposed model is highly accurate for prints with a large number of inks while requiring a relatively low number of calibration samples.

  15. Waste acid/metal solution reduction and recovery by vacuum distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Wilcox, W.A.; Johnson, N.T.; Bowdish, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    Processes involving distillation under reduced pressure were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory several years ago to recover spent acid solutions generated during the manufacture of nuclear fuel for the N-Reactor at the Hanford site. Following construction and testing of a pilot-plant, the technology was licensed to Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc. for commercialization. The technology developed included specialized distillation and rectification of volatile acids, removal of water and/or volatile acid from sulfuric acid, and precipitation of salts. A key feature of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) technology is the development and use of advanced thermoplastic and fluoropolymer materials of construction in all critical process equipment. The technology was then expanded to include crystallization to recover metal salts for possible reuse. Economic and environmental advantages of the procedures include recovery of acids for reuse, simplification or elimination of the disposal of waste solutions, and possible recovery of metals. Industries expected to benefit from such applications include galvanizing, electroplating, sand leaching and any where metals are cleaned in acid solutions. Currently a modular system has been assembled for recovery of several different spent acid solutions

  16. Powder ink coatings in nuclear medicine and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, S.; Schlautek, H.

    1996-01-01

    Powder ink coatings are being used more and more frequently to protect the surfaces of movable objects of metal, such as machines, equipment, furniture, shelves, because this solvent-free coating technique, which produces almost no residues, helps to keep the environment clean. The white and grey baking coatings so far tested for decontaminability are presented in the article. Powder ink coatings of different shades and with different binders were tested for their ability to meet future standards. All systems under examination demonstrated excellent decontaminability before and after gamma exposure to 0.3 MGy. The same performance was obtained also after exposure to 3 MGy (ten times the level required for coatings in nuclear installations according to DIN 55991 Part 1), with the exception of one polyester metallic coating. After having been exposed to chemicals and decontamination solutions, all specimens showed only permissible discoloration. (orig.) [de

  17. Chromatographic and electrophoretic approaches in ink analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, J A; Smith, F P

    1999-10-15

    Inks are manufactured from a wide variety of substances that exhibit very different chemical behaviors. Inks designed for use in different writing instruments or printing methods have quite dissimilar components. Since the 1950s chromatographic and electrophoretic methods have played important roles in the analysis of inks, where compositional information may have bearing on the investigation of counterfeiting, fraud, forgery, and other crimes. Techniques such as paper chromatography and electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, gel electrophoresis, and the relatively new technique of capillary electrophoresis have all been explored as possible avenues for the separation of components of inks. This paper reviews the components of different types of inks and applications of the above separation methods are reviewed.

  18. Recovery of gold from hydrometallurgical leaching solution of electronic waste via spontaneous reduction by polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhao Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study is primarily designed to develop an environmentally-benign approach for the recovery of precious metals, especially gold, from the ever increasingly-discarded electronic wastes (e-waste. By coupling the metal reduction process with an increase in the intrinsic oxidation state of the aniline polymers, and the subsequent re-protonation and reduction of the intrinsically oxidized polymer to the protonated emeraldine (EM salt, polyaniline (PANi films and polyaniline coated cotton fibers are able to recover metallic gold from acid/halide leaching solutions of electronic wastes spontaneously and sustainably. The current technique, which does not require the use of extensive extracting reagents or external energy input, can recover as much as 90% of gold from the leaching acidic solutions. The regeneration of polyaniline after gold recovery, as confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, promises the continuous operation using the current approach. The as-recovered elemental gold can be further concentrated and purified by incineration in air.

  19. Removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions using activated granular Carbon and activated vermiculite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezz El-Din, M.R.; Atta, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of both activated granular carbon (AGC) and activated vermiculite (AV) in removal of phenol from aqueous waste solutions is of great interest. The aim of the present study is to compare the absorbance capacities of both AGC and AV for the removal of phenol from radioactive waste solutions and to identify the factors affecting the sorption process. The experimental results were in the form of batch sorption measurements for the removal of phenol at ambient temperature (29 ± 1 degree C) and for times up to 40 min and 180 min for AGC and AV, respectively. The results indicated that activated carbon has good efficiency to adsorb phenol. Freundlich equation has been fitted to both AGC and AV for the contaminant removal. The adsorption capacities of both AGC and AV to phenol were 17.4 mg g-1 and 4.5 mg g-1, respectively. The maximum desorption percent of phenol from both loaded AGC and loaded AV were 9 % and 0 %, respectively, and it attained within about 200 min. accordingly, it is recommended that activated carbon is preferred in the applied field for removing phenol from radioactive aqueous wastes

  20. Treatment and Conditioning of Radioactive Waste Solution by Natural Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; Abdel-Raouf, M.W.; El-Massry, E.H.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical precipitation processes have been used for the treatment of radioactive elements from aqueous solution. The volume reduction is not very great and storage facilities are expensive. There are some radionuclides which are so difficult to be precipitated by this common method, so they may be precipitated by adding solid materials such as natural inorganic exchangers. In this woek, improvement the removal of caesium, cobalt and europium with zinc sulfate as coagulant and different clay minerals have been investigated. These include, Feldespare, Aswanly, Bentionite, Hematite, Mud, Calcite, Basalt, Magnetite, Kaoline, Sand stone, Limonite and Sand. The parameters affecting the precipitation process such as pH, particle size, temperature and weight of the clay have been studied. The results indicate that, the highest removal for Cs-137, Co-60 and Eu-152 and154 by Asswanly, Bentonite and Sand stone is more than the other clays. Removal of Cs-137 from low level waste solution with these three natural clays took the sequence, Aswanly (85.5%) > Bentonite (82.2%) > Sandstone (65.4%). Solidified cement products have been evaluated to determine mechanical strength and leaching rates of the waste products. The solidified waste forms were found more acceptable for handling ,storage and ultimate disposal

  1. Removal of actinides from nuclear fuel reprocessing waste solutions with bidentate organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1975-08-01

    The neutral bidentate organophosphorus reagents DBDECMP (dibutyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate) and its dihexyl analogue DHDECMP are candidate extractants for removal of actinides from certain acidic waste streams produced at the U. S. ERDA Hanford and Idaho Falls sites. Various chemical and physical properties including availability, cost, purification, alpha radiolysis, and aqueous phase solubility of DBDECMP and DHDECMP are reviewed. A conceptual flowsheet employing a 15 percent DBDECMP (or DHDECMP)--CCl 4 extractant for removal (and recovery) of Am and Pu from Hanford's Plutonium Reclamation Facility acid waste stream (CAW solution) was successfully demonstrated in laboratory-scale mixer-settler tests; this extraction scheme can be used to produce an actinide-free waste. A 30 percent DBDECMP-xylene flowsheet is being tested at the Idaho Falls site for removal of U, Np, Pu, and Am from Idaho Chemical Processing Plant first-cycle high-level raffinate to produce an actinide-free (less than 10 nCi alpha activity/gram) waste. (auth)

  2. [Bioregeneration of the solutions obtained during the leaching of nonferrous metals from waste slag by acidophilic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, N V; Murav'ev, M I; Kondrat'eva, T F

    2014-01-01

    The bioregeneration of the solutions obtained after the leaching of copper and zinc from waste slag by sulfuric solutions of ferric sulfate is examined. For bioregeneration, associations of mesophilic and moderately thermqophilic acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms were made. It has been shown that the complete oxidation of iron ions in solutions obtained after the leaching of nonferrous metals from waste slag is possible at a dilution of the pregnant solution with a nutrient medium. It has been found that the maximal rate of oxidation of iron ions is observed at the use of a mesophilic association of microorganisms at a threefold dilution of the pregnant solution with a nutrient medium. The application ofbioregeneration during the production of nonferrous metals from both waste and converter slags would make it possible to approach the technology of their processing using the closed cycle of workflows.

  3. Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenay, Piotr; Davey, John; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Thomas, Sharon C.

    2004-02-24

    Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

  4. Studies of Ink Trapping III Direct Detection of Small Air Bubbles in Ink Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuo Naito

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Ink trappings were studied by using polyethylene terephthalate (PET film with black inks for offset proofing and synthetic paper. By observing printed matter from reverse side through the PET film, we detected many air bubbles in the ink layer and between the ink layer and the PET film. They are classified roughly to two groups, small number of large ones (φ = 2 - 5 μm and many small ones (φ = 0.5 - 1.0 μm. The former ones were fixed air bubbles during the trapping. The latter ones decreased according to increase the amount of ink trapped (y. Because number of the air bubbles (Nair bubble increased with increasing the ink distribution time, they seemed to be yielded by suspension of air into the ink layer during ink distribution. By observing printed surface, we also detected many ink peaks (immediately after the trapping and pinholes (at 24 h. The numbers of the ink peaks and pinholes (Nink peak and Npinhole, respectively decreased also with increasing the y value and increased with increasing the ink distribution time. We studied effects of nip width on these values (distribution time = 2 min.; nip width = 2, 3 and 4 mm. The Nair bubble value decreased with increasing nip width contrary to increase the Nink peak and Npinhole values. The effects can be represented by differences in the values of 2 and 4 mm nip widths. At y = 2 gm-2, the difference in the Nair bubble value is about one third (synthetic paper ink or a half (offset proofing ink of the difference in the Nink peak values.

  5. Bioprecipitation of uranium from alkaline waste solutions using recombinant Deinococcus radiodurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Sayali; Ballal, Anand; Apte, Shree Kumar, E-mail: aptesk@barc.gov.in

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Deinococcus radiodurans was genetically engineered to overexpress alkaline phosphatase (PhoK). • Deino-PhoK bioprecipitated U efficiently over a wide range of input U concentration. • A maximal loading of 10.7 g U/g of biomass at 10 mM input U was observed. • Radioresistance and U precipitation by Deino-PhoK remained unaffected by γ radiation. • Immobilization of Deino-PhoK facilitated easy separation of precipitated U. -- Abstract: Bioremediation of uranium (U) from alkaline waste solutions remains inadequately explored. We engineered the phoK gene (encoding a novel alkaline phosphatase, PhoK) from Sphingomonas sp. for overexpression in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. The recombinant strain thus obtained (Deino-PhoK) exhibited remarkably high alkaline phosphatase activity as evidenced by zymographic and enzyme activity assays. Deino-PhoK cells could efficiently precipitate uranium over a wide range of input U concentrations. At low uranyl concentrations (1 mM), the strain precipitated >90% of uranium within 2 h while a high loading capacity of around 10.7 g U/g of dry weight of cells was achieved at 10 mM U concentration. Uranium bioprecipitation by Deino-PhoK cells was not affected in the presence of Cs and Sr, commonly present in intermediate and low level liquid radioactive waste, or after exposure to very high doses of ionizing radiation. Transmission electron micrographs revealed the extracellular nature of bioprecipitated U, while X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analysis identified the precipitated uranyl phosphate species as chernikovite. When immobilized into calcium alginate beads, Deino-PhoK cells efficiently removed uranium, which remained trapped in beads, thus accomplishing physical separation of precipitated uranyl phosphate from solutions. The data demonstrate superior ability of Deino-PhoK, over earlier reported strains, in removal of uranium from alkaline solutions and its potential use in

  6. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  7. Terahertz pulse generation from metal nanoparticle ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kosaku; Takano, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Phan, Thanh Nhat Khoa; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz pulse generation from metallic nanostructures irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses is of interest because the conversion efficiency from laser pulses to terahertz waves is increased by the local field enhancement resulting from the plasmon oscillation. In this talk we present our recent study on terahertz generation from metal nanoparticle ink. We baked a silver nanoparticle ink spin-coated onto a glass coverslip in various temperatures. On the surface of the baked ink, bumpy nanostructures are spontaneously formed, and the average size of bumps depends on the baking temperature. These structures are expected to lead to local field enhancement and then large nonlinear polarizations on the surface. The baked ink was irradiated by the output of regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at an incidence angle of 45°. Waveforms of generated terahertz pulses are detected by electro-optical sampling. The generation efficiency was high when the average diameter of bumps was around 100 nm, which is realized when the ink is baked in 205 to 235°C in our setup. One of our next research targets is terahertz wave generation from micro-patterned metallic nanoparticle ink. It is an advantage of the metal nanoparticle ink that by using inkjet printers one can fabricate various patterns with micrometer scales, in which terahertz waves have a resonance. Combination of microstructures made by a printer and nanostructure spontaneously formed in the baking process will provide us terahertz emitters with unique frequency characteristics.

  8. Engineering solution for the backfilling and sealing of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, M.; Gouvenot, D.; Bonne, A.; Lees, T.P.; Schmidt, M.

    1990-01-01

    To ensure the safety of radioactive waste deep disposal, backfilling and sealing materials (engineered barriers) have to be used to fill residual voids. For granite medium, stress is put on emplacement techniques for cement- and clay-based materials, including in-situ validation. For clay medium, mined repository and deep boreholes drilled from the surface are considered. In the case of the first solution, the thermomechanical behaviour of a clay backfill is studied. In the same way, backfill made of excavated crushed salt is considered and thermomechanical properties evaluated by means of laboratory tests and in-situ experiments. Finally, basic works on quality assurance procedures and historic concretes behaviour are reported

  9. Cyclohexanone solvent extraction of 99TcO4 from alkaline nuclear waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Although the 99 Tc cyclohexanone solvent extraction process is still in the bench-scale development stage, the process appears well suited for engineering-scale removal of 99 Tc from alkaline Hanford waste solutions. The most pressing process development need is to resolve the phase disengaging problems encountered during water stripping operations. Stripping tests in pulse columns and/or centrifugal contactors are particularly needed to determine the magnitude of the phase disengaging problem in engineering-scale equipment and to find suitable remedies. 5 figures, 7 tables

  10. New Engineering Solutions in Creation of Mini-BOF for Metallic Waste Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronko, S. P.; Gorbatyuk, S. M.; Oshovskaya, E. V.; Starodubtsev, B. I.

    2017-12-01

    New engineering solutions used in design of the mini melting unit capable of recycling industrial and domestic metallic waste with high content of harmful impurities are provided. High efficiency of the process technology implemented with its use is achieved due to the possibility of the heat and mass transfer intensification in the molten metal bath, controlled charge into it of large amounts of reagents in lumps and in fines, and cut-off of remaining process slag during metal tapping into the teeming ladle.

  11. Production of furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of hardwood over ZSM-5 zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongling; Liu, Haitang; Pang, Bo; Yu, Guang; Du, Jian; Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Haisong; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to produce furfural from waste aqueous hemicellulose solution of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production processing in a green method. The maximum furfural yield of 82.4% and the xylose conversion of 96.8% were achieved at 463K, 1.0g ZSM-5, 1.05g NaCl and organic solvent-to-aqueous phase ratio of 30:15 (V/V) for 3h. The furfural yield was just 51.5% when the same concentration of pure xylose solution was used. Under the optimized condition, furfural yield was still up to 67.1% even after the fifth reused of catalyst. Catalyst recycling study showed that ZSM-5 has a certain stability and can be efficiently reused. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Incorporation into Clay Ceramic: A Perfect Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Alline Sardinha Cordeiro; Vieira, Carlos Maurício Fontes; Rodriguez, Rubén Jesus Sanchez; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Candido, Veronica Scarpini; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz

    2016-09-01

    The mandatory use of fluorescent lamps as part of a Brazilian energy-saving program generates a huge number of spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). After operational life, SFLs cannot be disposed as common garbage owing to mercury and lead contamination. Recycling methods separate contaminated glass tubes and promote cleaning for reuse. In this work, glass from decontaminated SFLs was incorporated into clay ceramics, not only as an environmental solution for such glass wastes and clay mining reduction but also due to technical and economical advantages. Up to 30 wt.% of incorporation, a significant improvement in fired ceramic flexural strength and a decrease in water absorption was observed. A prospective analysis showed clay ceramic incorporation as an environmentally correct and technical alternative for recycling the enormous amount of SFLs disposed of in Brazil. This could also be a solution for other world clay ceramic producers, such as US, China and some European countries.

  13. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I 2 /KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I 2 /KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe 4 BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an

  14. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunsu, Cristian, E-mail: tunsu@chalmers.se; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A wet-based decontamination process for fluorescent lamp waste is proposed. • Mercury can be leached using iodine in potassium iodide solution. • The efficiency of the process increases with an increase in leachant concentration. • Selective leaching of mercury from rare earth elements is achieved. • Mercury is furthered recovered using ion exchange, reduction or solvent extraction. - Abstract: With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent’s concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I{sub 2}/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5 M I{sub 2}/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe{sub 4}BTBP showed good removal of mercury

  15. Investigations regarding the wet decontamination of fluorescent lamp waste using iodine in potassium iodide solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsu, Cristian; Ekberg, Christian; Foreman, Mark; Retegan, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    With the rising popularity of fluorescent lighting, simple and efficient methods for the decontamination of discarded lamps are needed. Due to their mercury content end-of-life fluorescent lamps are classified as hazardous waste, requiring special treatment for disposal. A simple wet-based decontamination process is required, especially for streams where thermal desorption, a commonly used but energy demanding method, cannot be applied. In this study the potential of a wet-based process using iodine in potassium iodide solution was studied for the recovery of mercury from fluorescent lamp waste. The influence of the leaching agent's concentration and solid/liquid ratio on the decontamination efficiency was investigated. The leaching behaviour of mercury was studied over time, as well as its recovery from the obtained leachates by means of anion exchange, reduction, and solvent extraction. Dissolution of more than 90% of the contained mercury was achieved using 0.025/0.05 M I2/KI solution at 21 °C for two hours. The efficiency of the process increased with an increase in leachant concentration. 97.3 ± 0.6% of the mercury contained was dissolved at 21 °C, in two hours, using a 0.25/0.5M I2/KI solution and a solid to liquid ratio of 10% w/v. Iodine and mercury can be efficiently removed from the leachates using Dowex 1X8 anion exchange resin or reducing agents such as sodium hydrosulphite, allowing the disposal of the obtained solution as non-hazardous industrial wastewater. The extractant CyMe4BTBP showed good removal of mercury, with an extraction efficiency of 97.5 ± 0.7% being achieved in a single stage. Better removal of mercury was achieved in a single stage using the extractants Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 923 in kerosene, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of cesium and strontium from low active waste solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Savita; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Ion exchange, crystallographic and thermal characteristics of sodium, cesium and strontium forms of locally available synthetic zeolites have been investigated. X-ray and differential thermal analyses have confirmed that the synthetic materials AR1 and 4A belonged to the mordenite and A type families of zeolites respectively. Equilibrium uptake of cesium and strontium ions by sodium forms of zeolite was studied as a function of time, pH and sodium concentration. It was found that the rate of sorption by AR1 was higher than that by 4A. In regard to pH, distribution of nuclides on zeolites was found to pass through maxima at a pH value of around 9. Sodium ion interfered with the sorption of cesium and strontium by zeolites. However, at sodium concentration ≤ 0.01 M, distribution coefficient values for these nuclides were sufficiently high to merit consideration of these zeolites for low level waste treatment. Lab-scale column runs using 5 ml beds of materials showed that the zeolites AR1 and 4A were very effective in removing cesium and strontium nuclides respectively from large volumes (a decontamination factor of 50 for a throughput of 6000 bed volumes) of actual low level waste solutions. Thus, the zeolite system has a potential future for large scale application in the treatment of low level wastes. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Uranium extraction from aqueous solution using dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaynab Aly

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes was investigated. The adsorption properties of the materials were characterized by measuring uranium uptake as a function of solution pH, kinetics and adsorption isotherms. pH profile of uranium adsorption where UO 2 2+ is expected to be the predominant species was measured between pH 0 and 4. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibria, and corresponding constants evaluated. Using the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of uranium by dried tea and coffee wastes was 59.5 and 34.8 mg/g, respectively at 291 K. Adsorption thermodynamic constants, ΔHdeg ΔSdeg and ΔGdeg were also calculated from adsorption data obtained at three different temperatures. Adsorption thermodynamics of uranyl ions on dried tea and coffee systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic processes. Additionally, a Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic experimental data for both adsorbents and the constants evaluated. Dried tea and coffee wastes proved to be effective adsorbents with high capacities and significant advantage of a very low cost. (author)

  18. Reuse of waste beer yeast sludge for biosorptive decolorization of reactive blue 49 from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoe; Guo, Xiu

    2011-06-01

    Reactive blue 49 was removed from aqueous solution by biosorption using powder waste sludge composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the beer-brewing industry. The effect of initial pH, temperature and the biosorption thermodynamics, equilibrium, kinetics was investigated in this study. It was found that the biosorption capacity was at maximum at initial pH 3, that the effect of temperature on biosorption of reactive blue 49 was only slight in relation to the large biosorption capacity (25°C, 361 mg g(-1)) according as the biosorption capacity decreased only 43 mg g(-1) at the temperature increased from 25 to 50°C. The biosorption was spontaneous, exothermic in nature and the dye molecules movements decreased slightly in random at the solid/liquid interface during the biosorption of dye on biosorbents. The biosorption equilibrium data could be described by Freundich isotherm model. The biosorption rates were found to be consistent with a pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The functional group interaction analysis between waste beer yeast sludge and reactive blue 49 by the aid of Fourier transform infrared (abbr. FTIR) spectroscopy indicated that amino components involved in protein participated in the biosorption process, which may be achieved by the mutual electrostatic adsorption process between the positively charged amino groups in waste beer yeast sludge with negatively charged sulfonic groups in reactive blue 49.

  19. A Study of the applicability of biomineralization process to the treatment of radioactive waste solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Choi, Kwang Soon; Kim, Yong Bok

    2004-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the removal of uranium and radionuclides like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 90}Sr from radioactive waste solutions using a bioreactor of Serratia sp.-biofilm which is capable of producing an acid type phosphatase enzyme that liberates HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from a suitable organic phosphate donor and of stoichiometrically forming precipitates of the metal ions (M{sup 2+}) such as insoluble MHPO{sub 4}(HUP) at the cell surface. Sorption behaviours of the Serratia sp.-biofilm for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} were investigated using synthetic radioactive waste solutions containing {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 85}Sr. Uranium was effectively removed as hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) in the presence of glycerol-2-phosphate. Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} were removed via an intercalation by either continuous co-crystal(precipitate) growth along with U or by a pre-formed HUP host crystal as an inorganic ion exchanger. Effect of sodium ion on the sorption behaviour of serratia sp.-HUP-bioreactor and its stability were investigated. In addition, Sorption behaviours of the serratia sp.-HUP-bioreactor were compared with those of Amberlite IRN 77,cation exchanger and ammoniumphosphotungstate/silical gel which shows selective sorption property for Cs{sup +}.

  20. A Study of the applicability of biomineralization process to the treatment of radioactive waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Choi, Kwang Soon; Kim, Yong Bok

    2004-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the removal of uranium and radionuclides like 137 Cs, 60 Co and 90 Sr from radioactive waste solutions using a bioreactor of Serratia sp.-biofilm which is capable of producing an acid type phosphatase enzyme that liberates HPO 4 2- from a suitable organic phosphate donor and of stoichiometrically forming precipitates of the metal ions (M 2+ ) such as insoluble MHPO 4 (HUP) at the cell surface. Sorption behaviours of the Serratia sp.-biofilm for UO 2 2+ , Cs + , Sr 2+ and Co 2+ were investigated using synthetic radioactive waste solutions containing 137 Cs, 60 Co and 85 Sr. Uranium was effectively removed as hydrogen uranyl phosphate (HUP) in the presence of glycerol-2-phosphate. Cs + , Sr 2+ and Co 2+ were removed via an intercalation by either continuous co-crystal(precipitate) growth along with U or by a pre-formed HUP host crystal as an inorganic ion exchanger. Effect of sodium ion on the sorption behaviour of serratia sp.-HUP-bioreactor and its stability were investigated. In addition, Sorption behaviours of the serratia sp.-HUP-bioreactor were compared with those of Amberlite IRN 77,cation exchanger and ammoniumphosphotungstate/silical gel which shows selective sorption property for Cs +

  1. Inorganic sorbents for radiostrontium removal from waste solutions: selectivity and role of calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Belikov, K.; Drapailo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in the remediation of 90 Sr-contaminated waters arises from the need to achieve very high removal efficiencies to meet discharge targets from waste effluents containing relatively high concentrations of non-radioactive cations. Low-cost natural zeolites are not selective for strontium over other divalent cations, notably such ions as calcium; and produce low 90 Sr removal performance, and large volumes of spent sorbent waste. The synthesis and use of selective, synthetic inorganic sorbents could prove to be a feasible approach for high 90 Sr removal efficiencies, and much smaller volumes of secondary solid waste generation. The essential advantages of inorganic sorbents include their stability and resistance to radiation, and the potential for producing stable waste forms such as vitrified glass or ceramics for disposal. However, the cost of strontium-specific sorbents is prohibitive for large-scale applications at present. This paper is a review of the reported information on removal mechanisms and performance of Sr-specific inorganic sorbents. The analysis has revealed promising performance, efficiency and selectivity for strontium removal from solutions containing low and high concentrations of salts. The leading sorbents are crystalline silicotitanate and oxides of metals such as titanium. An initial assessment has also been made of the performance of calixarene-based macrocyclic compounds. These are known for their selectivity for strontium in solvent extraction processes. From the initial strontium removal results in bench-scale tests using different solid substrates, impregnated with calixarene derivatives, only sodium-mordenite impregnated with calyx[8]arene octamide gave an overall strontium removal efficiency in the range of 90 to 95% in the presence of 3.5 ppm calcium. There was no improvement observed for strontium-removal efficiency or selectivity over calcium in the calixarene-impregnated inorganic sorbent matrix. In several tests, the

  2. An intelligence ink for photocatalytic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Wang, Jishun; Lee, Soo-Keun; Simonsen, Morten

    2005-06-07

    An ink is described which, when printed or coated onto a photocatalyst film, changes colour irreversibly and rapidly upon UV activation of the photocatalyst film and at a rate commensurate with its activity.

  3. The comparison of DYNA3D to approximate solutions for a partially- full waste storage tank subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical solutions to the problem consisting of a partially-full waste tank subjected to seismic loading, embedded in soil, is classically difficult in that one has to address: soil-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction, non-linear behavior of material, dynamic effects. Separating the problem and applying numerous assumptions will yield approximate solutions. This paper explores methods for generating these solutions accurately

  4. Specifications of the International Atomic Energy Agency's international project on safety assessment driven radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannadi, M.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Assadi, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste is produced in the generation of nuclear power and the production and use of radioactive materials in the industry, research, and medicine. The nuclear waste management facilities need to perform a safety assessment in order to ensure the safety of a facility. Nuclear safety assessment is a structured and systematic way of examining a proposed facility, process, operation and activity. In nuclear waste management point of view, safety assessment is a process which is used to evaluate the safety of radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. In this regard the International Atomic Energy Agency is planed to implement an international project with cooperation of some member states. The Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions Project is an international programme of work to examine international approaches to safety assessment in aspects of p redisposal r adioactive waste management, including waste conditioning and storage. This study is described the rationale, common aspects, scope, objectives, work plan and anticipated outcomes of the project with refer to International Atomic Energy Agency's documents, such as International Atomic Energy Agency's Safety Standards, as well as the Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions project reports

  5. Facile approach to prepare Pt decorated SWNT/graphene hybrid catalytic ink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayavan, Sundar, E-mail: sundarmayavan@cecri.res.in [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M. [Centre for Innovation in Energy Research, CSIR–Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006, Tamil Nadu (India); Sim, Jun-Bo [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Min, E-mail: sungmin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Pt NPs were in situ synthesized onto CNT–graphene support in aqueous solution. • The as-prepared material was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment. • Catalyst ink is active toward methanol oxidation. • This approach realizes both scalable and greener production of hybrid catalysts. - Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles were in situ synthesized onto hybrid support involving graphene and single walled carbon nanotube in aqueous solution. We investigate the reduction of graphene oxide, and platinum nanoparticle functionalization on hybrid support by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The as-prepared platinum on hybrid support was used directly as a catalyst ink without further treatment and is active toward methanol oxidation. This work realizes both scalable and greener production of highly efficient hybrid catalysts, and would be valuable for practical applications of graphene based fuel cell catalysts.

  6. Tattoo inks in general usage contain nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Löschner, Katrin; Löf, D

    2011-01-01

    the particle sizes in tattoo inks in general usage. Methods The particle size was measured by laser diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results The size of the pigments could be divided into three main classes. The black pigments were the smallest, the white pigments the largest...... in general usage is new and may contribute to the understanding of tattoo ink kinetics. How the body responds to NP tattoo pigments should be examined further....

  7. Electric treatment for hydrophilic ink deinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaotang; Hsieh, Jeffery S

    2017-09-01

    Hydrophilic inks have been widely used due to higher printing speed, competitive cost and being healthy non-organic solvents. However, they cause problems in both product quality and process runnability due to their hydrophilic surface wettability, strong negative surface charge and sub-micron size. Electric treatment was shown to be able to increase the ink sizes from 60 nm to 700 nm through electrocoagulation and electrophoresis. In addition, electric treatment assisted flotation could reduce effective residual ink concentration (ERIC) by 90 ppm, compared with only 20 ppm by traditional flotation. Furthermore, the effect of electric treatment alone on ink separation was investigated by two anode materials, graphite and stainless steel. Both of them could remove hydrophilic inks with less than 1% yield loss via electroflotation and electrophoresis. But graphite is a better material as the anode because graphite reduced ERIC by an additional 100 ppm. The yield loss of flotation following electric treatment was also lower by 17% if graphite was the anode material. The difference between the two electrode materials resulted from electrocoagulation and ink redeposition during electric treatment. An electric pretreatment-flotation-hyperwashing process was conducted to understand the deinking performance in conditions similar to a paper mill, and the ERIC was reduced from 950 ppm to less than 400 ppm.

  8. Equilibrium leach tests with cobalt in the system cemented waste form/container material/aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.; Lee, M. J.; Han, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium concentrations of Co in the system of cemented waste form/aqueous solutions were determined including the effect of the container material and its corrosion products under the respective conditions. The chemical conditions in the near field of the waste form were characterized by measurement of the pH and E h value. As disposal relevant solutions, saturated sodium chloride, Q-brine (main constituent MgCl 2 ) and a granitic type groundwater were used. For comparison, also experiments using deionized water were performed. In all systems investigated the cemented waste form itself has a strong influence on the chemical conditions in the near field. The pH and E h values are affected in all cases by the addition of the cemented waste form. There is no or only a slight difference between the E h values if iron powder or iron hydroxide is added to the cemented waste form/solution systems, but the E h is markedly decreased when iron powder is added to the solution free of cement. The Co concentration is decreased in all solutions by the addition of the cemented waste form, the largest effect is observed in Q-brine and this can be attributed either to the sorption of the Co-ions on the corrosion products of the cement or to the coprecipitation of Co-hydroxide and Mg-hydroxide. In the other solutions the Co concentration is decreased by precipitation of Co-hydroxide due to the high pH value of 12.5, and the concentrations are comparable for the different solutions

  9. Adsorption of lanthanides in aqueous solution aiming to study of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belline, Jean de Brito

    2009-01-01

    The problem of radioactive wastes is a concern of world-wide scope, a time that does not still have a defined local for the construction of a repository for radioactive wastes of high level. One of the preliminary stages for the choice of the place more appropriate is the geologic study associated to the experimental studies of adsorption of the involved chemical species in the process. In this work, a sample of basaltic rock was used, of the South Region of the Formation Serra Geral, collected in Frederico Westphalen Town (RS), that it will be probably a candidate to the rock hostess for location of radioactive wastes. Two experiments have been carried out through, namely: 'Test Batch' and Percolating, both under atmospheric pressure, at the ambient temperature of 25 deg C, with the purpose to study the capacity of sorption of the rare earth elements - REE. The REE are used in this work in function of its analogy with the actinides, aiming at to investigate the chemistry behavior and the speciation of the same in natural waters, searching the possibility of geologic storage of radioactive wastes, a time that the adsorption of the REE depends on variables of the environment as pH, ionic strength, temperature and presence of ligands, as carbonates and constituent of surfaces of minerals. Experiment of percolating of the REE was carried through, 100ppb, in the basalt (with 80 mesh) in solutions with ionic strength 1= 0,025 M and 1=0,5 M of NaCl. pH was controlled in a range of 5,6 the 7,6 with HNO 3 addition. The concentrations were analyzed by ICP-MS. The 'Batch Test' is an efficient form of studying sorption/desorption isotherms, beyond values of the reason between the distributions solid/solution and estimation of the solubility. The percolating experiment, was carried through under pH controlled around 6, and allowed to verify the behaviour of heavy REE in comparison with the light REE. (author)

  10. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Cr(VI) using Sakura waste from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Wenfang; Zhao, Yingxin; Zheng, Xinyi; Ji, Min; Zhang, Zhenya

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The main chemical components of Sakura leaves are cellulose 16.6%, hemicellulose 10.4%, lignin 18.3%, ash 11.4%, and others 43.3%. The adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto Sakura leaves can achieve 435.25 mg g"−"1, much higher than other similar agroforestry wastes. - Highlights: • Sakura leaves were prepared to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. • The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) reached 435.25 mg g"−"1. • Cr(VI) adsorption fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. • Isotherm models indicated Cr(VI) adsorption occurred on a monolayer surface. • The influence order of coexisting ions followed PO_4"3"− > SO_4"2"− > Cl"−. - Abstract: A forestall waste, Sakura leave, has been studied for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The materials before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To investigate the adsorption performance of Sakura waste, batch experiments were conducted under different adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration of Cr(VI), and co-existing ions. Results showed the data fitted pseudo-second-order better than pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data was analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherm models at temperature ranges from 25 °C to 45 °C. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model was 435.25 mg g"−"1 at pH 1.0. The presence of Cl"−, SO_4"2"− and PO_4"3"− would lead to an obvious negative effect on Cr(VI) adsorption, and their influence order follows PO_4"3"− > SO_4"2"− > Cl"−. The study developed a new way to reutilize wastes and showed a great potential for resource recycling.

  11. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Cr(VI) using Sakura waste from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wenfang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Yingxin, E-mail: yingxinzhao@tju.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Engineering Center of Urban River Eco-Purification Technology, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zheng, Xinyi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ji, Min [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Engineering Center of Urban River Eco-Purification Technology, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Zhenya [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 3058572 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The main chemical components of Sakura leaves are cellulose 16.6%, hemicellulose 10.4%, lignin 18.3%, ash 11.4%, and others 43.3%. The adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) onto Sakura leaves can achieve 435.25 mg g{sup −1}, much higher than other similar agroforestry wastes. - Highlights: • Sakura leaves were prepared to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. • The maximum adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) reached 435.25 mg g{sup −1}. • Cr(VI) adsorption fitted pseudo-second-order kinetic model. • Isotherm models indicated Cr(VI) adsorption occurred on a monolayer surface. • The influence order of coexisting ions followed PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: A forestall waste, Sakura leave, has been studied for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The materials before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To investigate the adsorption performance of Sakura waste, batch experiments were conducted under different adsorbent dosage, contact time, initial concentration of Cr(VI), and co-existing ions. Results showed the data fitted pseudo-second-order better than pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data was analyzed with Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherm models at temperature ranges from 25 °C to 45 °C. The maximum adsorption capacity from the Langmuir model was 435.25 mg g{sup −1} at pH 1.0. The presence of Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} would lead to an obvious negative effect on Cr(VI) adsorption, and their influence order follows PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > Cl{sup −}. The study developed a new way to reutilize wastes and showed a great potential for resource recycling.

  12. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  13. Thermoelastic analysis of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste repositories in salt. A semi-analytical solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, C.M.

    1977-04-01

    An underground repository containing heat generating, High Level Waste or Spent Unreprocessed Fuel may be approximated as a finite number of heat sources distributed across the plane of the repository. The resulting temperature, displacement and stress changes may be calculated using analytical solutions, providing linear thermoelasticity is assumed. This report documents a computer program based on this approach and gives results that form the basis for a comparison between the effects of disposing of High Level Waste and Spent Unreprocessed Fuel

  14. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  15. Research and demonstration results for a new "Double-Solution" technology for municipal solid waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erping, Li; Haoyun, Chen; Yanyang, Shang; Jun, Pan; Qing, Hu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the pyrolysis characteristics of six typical components in municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated through a TG-FTIR combined technique and it was concluded that the main pyrolysis process of the biomass components (including food residues, sawdust and paper) occurred at 150-600°C. The main volatiles were multi-component gas including H 2 O, CO 2 , and CO. The main pyrolysis temperatures of three artificial products (PP, PVC and leather) was ranged from 200to 500°C. The wavelength of small molecule gases (CH 4 , CO 2 and CO) and the the chemical bonds (CO and CC) were observed in the infrared spectrum Based on the pyrolysis temperature interval and volatile constituent, a new "double-solution" process of pyrolysis and oxygen-enrichment decomposition MSW was designed. To achieve this process, a double-solution project was built for the direct treatment of MSW (10t/d). The complete setup of equipment and analysis of the byproducts has been reported in this paper to indicate the performance of this process. Energy balance and economic benefits were analysed for the process supporting. It was successfully demonstrated that the double-solution process was the environmentally friendly alternative method for MSW treatment in Chinese rural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosorption of clofibric acid and carbamazepine in aqueous solution by agricultural waste rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanguang; Zhou, Xuefei; Chen, Xiaohua; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Yalei

    2013-12-01

    Due to their widespread use, clofibric acid (CA) and carbamazepine (CBZ) have been frequently detected simultaneously at relatively high concentrations in aquatic environments. In this study, agricultural waste rice straw was employed as a potentially low-cost, effective and easy-to-operate biosorbent (RSB) to remove CA and CBZ. The adsorption of both pharmaceuticals followed pseudo second-order kinetics, and intraparticle diffusion was an important rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherms of both drugs were fit well with Freundlich model. The adsorption of CA onto RSB was exothermic and was more likely to be dominated by physical processes, while the adsorption of CBZ was endothermic. Solution pH was determined to be the most important factor for CA adsorption, such that the adsorption capacity of CA onto RSB increased with the decline of solution pH. In the lower range of solution pH below 3.1, the CA removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of biosorbent dosage. The CBZ removal efficiency was enhanced with the increase of RSB dosage without pH control. The maximum adsorption capacities were 126.3 mg/g for CA and 40.0 mg/g for CBZ.

  17. Study on decontamination of radioactive ruthenium by steel wool in waste solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S; Sakaki, T [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1979-06-01

    Tracer experiments were done in order to establish a decontamination process of /sup 106/Ru in radioactive waste solution by column method paying special attention on the solution of nitrato-nitrosyl complex of Ru which is often encountered as a low level radioactive solution. It turned out that metallic iron was the most effective decontaminating agent among the several tens of materials tested. The decontamination factor (DF) of /sup 106/Ru increased in proportion to the total surface area of iron and it sensitively depended on the oxidation state of the surface as revealed by the batchwise and columnwise tests. Iron samples with high corrosiveness gave a much larger DF than those with low corrosiveness. The decontamination process proceeded as iron was being oxidized via Fe(metal) ..-->.. Fe(II) ..-->.. Fe(III). As the results, the DF initially increased after initiating the passage of water through the column but it then decreased as the oxidation process became inactive. An excellent durability up to 10000 bed volumes was demonstrated by the column method at a high average DF of 150.

  18. Colloid Genesis/Transport and Flow Pathway Alterations Resulting From Interactions of Reactive Waste Solutions and Hanford Vadose Zone Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

    2001-01-01

    Leakage of underground tanks containing high-level nuclear waste solutions has been identified at various DOE facilities. The Hanford Site is one the main facilities of concern, with about 2,300 to 3,400 m3 of leaked waste liquids. Radionuclides and other contaminants have been found in elevated concentrations in the vadose zone and groundwater underneath single shell tank farms. We do not currently know the mechanisms responsible for the unexpected deep migration of some contaminants through the vadose zone, and such understanding is urgently needed for planning remediation. Due to the extreme chemical conditions of the tank waste solutions (very high pH, aluminum concentration, and ionic strength), interactions between the highly reactive waste solutions and sediments underneath the tanks can result in dissolution of primary minerals of the sediments and precipitation of secondary phases including colloidal particles. Contaminants can sorb onto and/or co-precipitate with the secondary phases. Therefore transport of strongly associated contaminants on mobile colloids can be substantially greater than without colloids. The overall objective of this research is to improve our understanding on the effects of interactions between the tank waste solution and sediments on deep contaminant migration under Hanford Site conditions. This objective will be achieved through the following four tasks: (1) colloid generation and transport studies, (2) studies on sediment permeability and chemical composition alterations, (3) quantifying associations of contaminants with secondary colloids, and (4) studies on the combined effects of the aforementioned processes on deep contaminant migration

  19. Treatment of Simulated Soil Decontamination Waste Solution by Ferrocyanide-Anion Exchange Resin Beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Hui Jun; Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Gye Nam; Jung, Chung Hun; Park, Jin Ho; Oh, Won Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Preparation of ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin and adsorption test of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion were performed. Adsorption capability of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion in the simulated citric acid based soil decontamination waste solution was 4 times greater than that of the commercial cation exchange resin. Adsorption equilibrium of the prepared resin on the Cs{sup -} ion reached within 360 minutes. Adsorption capability on the Cs{sup -} ion became to decrease above the necessary Co{sup 2-} ion concentration in the experimental range. Recycling test of the spent ion exchange resin by the successive application of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine was also performed. It was found that desorption of Cs{sup -} ion from the resin occurred to satisfy the electroneutrality condition without any degradation of the resin.

  20. Preparation of porous carbon sphere from waste sugar solution for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wang, Xing-Yong; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Waste sugar solution (WSS), which contains abundant 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, is harmful to the environment if discharged directly. For value-added utilization of the waste resource, a novel process is developed for preparation of porous carbon spheres by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of WSS followed by KOH activation. Additionally, the possible preparation mechanism of carbon spheres is proposed. The effects of hydrothermal and activation parameters on the properties of the carbon sphere are also investigated. The carbon sphere is applied to electric double-layer capacitor and its electrochemical performance is studied. These results show that the carbon sphere obtained by HTC at 180 °C for 12 h with the WSS/deionized water volume ratio of 2/3 possess the highest specific capacitance under identical activation conditions. The specific capacitance of the carbon spheres can reach 296.1 F g-1 at a current density of 40 mA g-1. Besides, excellent cycle life and good capacitance retention (89.6%) are observed at 1.5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. This study not only provides a facile and potential method for the WSS treatment, but also achieves the high value-added recycling of WSS for the preparation of porous carbon spheres with superior electrochemical properties.

  1. Immobilization of zinc from metallurgical waste and water solutions using geopolymerization technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolići I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymeraization technology is recognized as a promising method for immobilization of heavy metals by the stabilization or solidification process. This process involves the chemical reaction of alumino-silicate oxides with highly alkaline activator yielding the new material with amorphous or semi-amorphous structure, called geopolymer. Fly ash and blast furnace slag were mainly used as a raw material for geopolymerization process. In this paper we have investigated the possibility of immobilization of Zn from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD through geopolymerization of fly ash and possibility of Zn2+ adsorption from waste waters using fly ash based geopolymers. Efficacy of Zn immobilization from electric arc furnace dust was evaluated by TCLP test while the immobilization of Zn2+ ions from the water solution was evaluated through the removal efficiency. The results have shown that geopolymerization process may successfully be used for immobilization of Zn by stabilization of EAFD and for production of low cost adsorbent for waste water treatment.

  2. Designing Business Solutions for Plastic Waste Management to Enhance Circular Transitions in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint Horvath

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Least-developed countries face many challenges regarding their plastic waste management systems. In 2017, Kenya imposed a selective ban targeting manufacturers and consumers of plastic carrier bags. However, this selectivity does not avoid the continuous use of other plastic products. The present paper states that circular priorities, which have been defined to advanced economies, would not be entirely valid for the rest of the world. While high-income countries face only the impacts of their own consumption, developing nations must endure the externalities of these developed economies. Thus, the focus of the least developed part of the world must not be on reducing its relatively normal (or even low consumption, but to manage its surplus material flow. According to the employed circular evaluation methodology (CEV—Circular Economic Value, the circularity level in Kenya’s plastic material flow stands on a rather low stage with 32.72%. This result outlines the linear deficiencies of the plastic waste management system and urges the prevention of further material leakage (such as energy use. Through the Business Model Canvas (BMC approach this study offers a holistic business solution which can improve the system’s sustainability.

  3. Carbonation of municipal solid waste incineration electrostatic precipitator fly ashes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boom, Aurore; Aubert, Jean-Emmanuel; Degrez, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Carbonation was applied to a Pb- and Zn-contaminated fraction of municipal solid waste incineration electrofilter fly ashes in order to reduce heavy metal leaching. Carbonation tests were performed in solution, by Na2CO3 addition or CO2 bubbling, and were compared with washing (with water only). The injection of CO2 during the washing did not modify the mineralogy, but the addition of Na2CO3 induced the reaction with anhydrite, forming calcite. Microprobe analyses showed that Pb and Zn contamination was rather diffuse and that the various treatments had no effect on Pb and Zn speciation in the residues. The leaching tests indicated that carbonation using Na2CO3 was successful because it gave a residue that could be considered as non-hazardous material. With CO2 bubbling, Pb and Zn leaching was strongly decreased compared with material washed with water alone, but the amount of chromium extracted became higher than the non-hazardous waste limits for landfilling.

  4. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, Allen J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Conner, Cliff [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  5. Tuning the viscosity of halogen free bulk heterojunction inks for inkjet printed organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, C.A.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Coenen, M.J.J.; Slaats, T.W.L.; Andriessen, R.; Groen, P.

    2015-01-01

    For the solution processing of organic photovoltaics on an industrial scale, the exclusion of halogenated solvents is a necessity. However, the limited solubility of most semiconducting polymer/fullerene blends in non-halogenated solvents results in ink formulations with low viscosities which poses

  6. Purification of inkjet ink from water using liquid phase, electric discharge polymerization and cellulosic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander T; Hsieh, Jeffery S; Lee, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    A method to separate inkjet ink from water was developed using a liquid phase, electric discharge process. The liquid phase, electric discharge process with filtration or sedimentation was shown to remove 97% of inkjet ink from solutions containing between 0.1-0.8 g/L and was consistent over a range of treatment conditions. Additionally, particle size analysis of treated allyl alcohol and treated propanol confirmed the electric discharge treatment has a polymerization mechanism, and small molecule analysis of treated methanol using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy confirmed the mechanism was free radical initiated polymerization.

  7. Directly deposited quantum dot solids using a colloidally stable nanoparticle ink

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Armin H.; Rollny, Lisa R.; Pan, Jun; Carey, Graham H.; Thon, Susanna; Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Zhitomirsky, David; Kim, Jinyoung; Bakr, Osman; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a photovoltaic colloidal quantum dot ink that allows for lossless, single-step coating of large areas in a manufacturing-compatible process. Our materials strategy involves a solution-phase ligand exchange to transport compatible linkers that yield 1-thioglycerol-capped PbS quantum dots in dimethyl sulfoxide with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 24%. A proof-of-principle solar cell made from the ink exhibits 2.1% power conversion efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Directly deposited quantum dot solids using a colloidally stable nanoparticle ink

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Armin H.

    2013-08-12

    We develop a photovoltaic colloidal quantum dot ink that allows for lossless, single-step coating of large areas in a manufacturing-compatible process. Our materials strategy involves a solution-phase ligand exchange to transport compatible linkers that yield 1-thioglycerol-capped PbS quantum dots in dimethyl sulfoxide with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 24%. A proof-of-principle solar cell made from the ink exhibits 2.1% power conversion efficiency. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INCIPIENT SLUDGE MIXING IN RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE STORAGE TANKS DURING SALT SOLUTION BLENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Lee, S.; Steeper, T.; Fowley, M.; Parkinson, K.

    2011-01-12

    This paper is the second in a series of four publications to document ongoing pilot scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of mixing processes in 85 foot diameter, 1.3 million gallon, radioactive liquid waste, storage tanks at Savannah River Site (SRS). Homogeneous blending of salt solutions is required in waste tanks. Settled solids (i.e., sludge) are required to remain undisturbed on the bottom of waste tanks during blending. Suspension of sludge during blending may potentially release radiolytically generated hydrogen trapped in the sludge, which is a safety concern. The first paper (Leishear, et. al. [1]) presented pilot scale blending experiments of miscible fluids to provide initial design requirements for a full scale blending pump. Scaling techniques for an 8 foot diameter pilot scale tank were also justified in that work. This second paper describes the overall reasons to perform tests, and documents pilot scale experiments performed to investigate disturbance of sludge, using non-radioactive sludge simulants. A third paper will document pilot scale CFD modeling for comparison to experimental pilot scale test results for both blending tests and sludge disturbance tests. That paper will also describe full scale CFD results. The final paper will document additional blending test results for stratified layers in salt solutions, scale up techniques, final full scale pump design recommendations, and operational recommendations. Specifically, this paper documents a series of pilot scale tests, where sludge simulant disturbance due to a blending pump or transfer pump are investigated. A principle design requirement for a blending pump is UoD, where Uo is the pump discharge nozzle velocity, and D is the nozzle diameter. Pilot scale test results showed that sludge was undisturbed below UoD = 0.47 ft{sup 2}/s, and that below UoD = 0.58 ft{sup 2}/s minimal sludge disturbance was observed. If sludge is minimally disturbed, hydrogen will not be

  10. Persimmon leaf bio-waste for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo-Yun; Choi, Hee-Jeong

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal removal using waste biomass adsorbent, persimmon leaves, in an aqueous solution. Persimmon leaves, which are biomaterials, have a large number of hydroxyl groups and are highly suitable for removal of heavy metals. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possibility of removal of Cu, Pb, and Cd in aqueous solution by using raw persimmon leaves (RPL) and dried persimmon leaves (DPL). Removal of heavy metals by RPL and DPL showed that DPL had a 10%-15% higher removal than RPL, and the order of removal efficiency was found to be Pb > Cu > Cd. The pseudo-second order model was a better fit to the heavy metal adsorption experiments using RPL and DPL than the pseudo-first order model. The adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Cd by DPL was more suitable with the Freundlich isothermal adsorption and showed an ion exchange reaction which occurred in the uneven adsorption surface layer. The maximum adsorption capacity of Cu, Pb, and Cd was determined to be 19.42 mg/g, 22.59 mg/g, and 18.26 mg/g, respectively. The result of the adsorption experiments showed that the n value was higher than 2 regardless of the dose, indicating that the heavy metal adsorption on DPL was easy. In the thermodynamic experiment, ΔG° was a negative value, and ΔH° and ΔS° were positive values. It can be seen that the heavy metal adsorption process using DPL was spontaneous in nature and was an endothermic process. Moreover, as the temperature increased, the adsorption increased, and the affinity of heavy metal adsorption to DPL was very good. This experiment, in which heavy metals are removed using the waste biomass of persimmon leaves is an eco-friendly new bioadsorbent method because it can remove heavy metals without using chemicals while utilizing waste recycling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  12. Parametric and kinetic study of adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solutions using an agriculture waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencheikh, imane; el hajjaji, souad; abourouh, imane; Kitane, Said; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; El M'Rabet, Mohammadine

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater treatment is the subject of several studies through decades. Interest is continuously oriented to provide cheaper and efficient methods of treatment. Several methods of treatment exit including coagulation flocculation, filtration, precipitation, ozonation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, advanced oxidation process. The use of these methods proved limited because of their high investment and operational cost. Adsorption can be an efficient low-cost process to remove pollutants from wastewater. This method of treatment calls for an solid adsorbent which constitutes the purification tool. Agricultural wastes have been widely exploited in this case .As we know the agricultural wastes are an important source of water pollution once discharged into the aquatic environment (river, sea ...). The valorization of such wastes and their use allows the prevention of this problem with an economic and environment benefits. In this context our study aimed testing the wastewater treatment capacity by adsorption onto holocellulose resulting from the valorization of an agriculture waste. In this study, methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) are selected as models pollutants for evaluating the holocellulose adsorbent capacity. The kinetics of adsorption is performed using UV-visible spectroscopy. In order to study the effect of the main parameters for the adsorption process and their mutual interaction, a full factorial design (type nk) has been used.23 full factorial design analysis was performed to screen the parameters affecting dye removal efficiency. Using the experimental results, a linear mathematical model representing the influence of the different parameters and their interactions was obtained. The parametric study showed that efficiency of the adsorption system (Dyes/ Holocellulose) is mainly linked to pH variation. The best yields were observed for MB at pH=10 and for MO at pH=2.The kinetic data was analyzed using different models , namely , the pseudo

  13. Solar Cells Based on Inks of n-Type Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun; Dong, Haopeng; Zhang, Qiong; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  14. Solar Cells Based on Inks of n-Type Colloidal Quantum Dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ning, Zhijun

    2014-10-28

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. New inorganic ligands including halide anions have significantly accelerated progress in colloidal quantum dot (CQD) photovoltaics in recent years. All such device reports to date have relied on halide treatment during solid-state ligand exchanges or on co-treatment of long-aliphatic-ligand-capped nanoparticles in the solution phase. Here we report solar cells based on a colloidal quantum dot ink that is capped using halide-based ligands alone. By judicious choice of solvents and ligands, we developed a CQD ink from which a homogeneous and thick colloidal quantum dot solid is applied in a single step. The resultant films display an n-type character, making it suitable as a key component in a solar-converting device. We demonstrate two types of quantum junction devices that exploit these iodide-ligand-based inks. We achieve solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% using this class of colloids.

  15. Removal of acid blue 062 on aqueous solution using calcinated colemanite ore waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Dumlupinar, Kuetahya (Turkey); Olgun, Asim [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Dumlupinar, Kuetahya (Turkey)]. E-mail: aolgun@dumlupinar.edu.tr

    2007-07-19

    Colemanite ore waste (CW) has been employed as adsorbent for the removal of acid blue 062 anionic dye (AB 062) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of AB 062 onto CW was examined with respect to contact time, calcination temperature, particle size, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The physical and chemical properties of the CW, such as particle sizes and calcinations temperature, play important roles in dye adsorption. The dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 1.Three simplified kinetics models, namely, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion models were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms. The kinetic adsorption of AB 062 on CW follows a pseudo-second order equation. The adsorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results indicate that the Langmuir model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Isotherms have also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the adsorption of dye onto CW.

  16. Removal of acid blue 062 on aqueous solution using calcinated colemanite ore waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Olgun, Asim

    2007-01-01

    Colemanite ore waste (CW) has been employed as adsorbent for the removal of acid blue 062 anionic dye (AB 062) from aqueous solution. The adsorption of AB 062 onto CW was examined with respect to contact time, calcination temperature, particle size, pH, adsorbent dosage and temperature. The physical and chemical properties of the CW, such as particle sizes and calcinations temperature, play important roles in dye adsorption. The dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 1.Three simplified kinetics models, namely, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion models were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms. The kinetic adsorption of AB 062 on CW follows a pseudo-second order equation. The adsorption data have been analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results indicate that the Langmuir model provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Isotherms have also been used to obtain the thermodynamic parameters such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the adsorption of dye onto CW

  17. Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from agricultural by-product/waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M Madhava; Reddy, D H K Kumar; Venkateswarlu, Padala; Seshaiah, K

    2009-01-01

    Removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using activated carbon prepared from Ceiba pentandra hulls, Phaseolus aureus hulls and Cicer arietinum waste was investigated. The influence of various parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dose for the removal of mercury was studied using a batch process. The experiments demonstrated that the adsorption process corresponds to the pseudo-second-order-kinetic models and the equilibrium adsorption data fit the Freundlich isotherm model well. The prepared adsorbents ACCPH, ACPAH and ACCAW had removal capacities of 25.88 mg/g, 23.66 mg/g and 22.88 mg/g, respectively, at an initial Hg(II) concentration of 40 mg/L. The order of Hg(II) removal capacities of these three adsorbents was ACCPH>ACPAH>ACCAW. The adsorption behavior of the activated carbon is explained on the basis of its chemical nature. The feasibility of regeneration of spent activated carbon adsorbents for recovery of Hg(II) and reuse of the adsorbent was determined using HCl solution.

  18. Isolating 241Am from waste solutions containing Al, Ca, Fe, and Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Burney, G.A.; King, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    About 2.4 kg of 241 Am contaminated with calcium and aluminum had been recovered from low-activity waste during recycle of 11% 240 Pu. A process was developed and demonstrated to purify the americium before shipment as 241 AmO 2 . The americium and some of the calcium were batch extracted into 50% TBP-n-paraffin from 2.2M Al(NO 3 ) 3 - 0.3M HNO 3 solution in a canyon tank. Pregnant solvent was scrubbed first with 2.1M Al 3+ -0.3M Li + -6.7M NO 3 - and then with 7M LiNO 3 to reduce the calcium content and to displace the aluminum. Americium was then stripped from the solvent with water and concentrated by evaporation. Before precipitating the americium with oxalic acid, the nitric acid was adjusted with NH 4 OH to yield a 1M NH 4 NO 3 solution. Recovery across the batch extraction step was 97.8%, while 93% of the calcium and >99% of the aluminum was rejected. Recovery across precipitation averaged >96% while producing a product which was >99.3% pure 241 AmO 2 . The major impurities were water, carbon, calcium, iron, and zinc

  19. Corrosion of carbon steel in saturated high-level waste salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    High level waste stored as crystallized salts is to be removed from carbon steel tanks by water dissolution. Dissolution of the saltcake must be performed in a manner which will not impact the integrity of the tank. Corrosion testing was performed to determine the amount of corrosion inhibitor that must be added to the dissolution water in order to ensure that the salt solution formed would not induce corrosion degradation of the tank materials. The corrosion testing performed included controlled potential slow strain rate, coupon immersion, and potentiodynamic polarization tests. These tests were utilized to investigate the susceptibility of the cooling coil material to stress corrosion cracking in the anticipated environments. No evidence of SCC was observed in any of the tests. Based on these results, the recommended corrosion requirements were that the temperature of the salt solution be less than 50 degrees C and that the minimum hydroxide concentration be 0.4 molar. It was also recommended that the hydroxide concentration not stay below 0.4 molar for longer than 45 days

  20. Preliminary results from uranium/americium affinity studies under experimental conditions for cesium removal from NPP ''Kozloduy'' simulated wastes solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforova, A.; Kinova, L.; Peneva, C.; Taskaeva, I.; Petrova, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use the approach described by Westinghouse Savannah River Company using ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) to remove elevated concentrations of radioactive cesium to facilitate handling waste samples from NPP K ozloduy . Preliminary series of tests were carried out to determine the exact conditions for sufficient cesium removal from five simulated waste solutions with concentrations of compounds, whose complexing power complicates any subsequent processing. Simulated wastes solutions contain high concentrations of nitrates, borates, H 2 C 2 O 4 , ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and Citric acid, according to the composition of the real waste from the NPP. On this basis a laboratory treatment protocol was created. This experiment is a preparation for the analysis of real waste samples. In this sense the results are preliminary. Unwanted removal of non-cesium radioactive species from simulated waste solutions was studied with gamma spectrometry with the aim to find a compromise between on the one hand the AMP effectiveness and on the other hand unwanted affinity to AMP of Uranium and Americium. Success for the treatment protocol is defined by proving minimal uptake of U and Am, while at the same time demonstrating good removal effectiveness through the use of AMP. Uptake of U and Am were determined as influenced by oxidizing agents at nitric acid concentrations, proposed by Savannah River National laboratory. It was found that AMP does not significantly remove U and Am when concentration of oxidizing agents is more than 0.1M for simulated waste solutions and for contact times inherent in laboratory treatment protocol. Uranium and Americium affinity under experimental conditions for cesium removal were evaluated from gamma spectrometric data. Results are given for the model experiment and an approach for the real waste analysis is chosen. Under our experimental conditions simulated wastes solutions showed minimal affinity to AMP when U and Am are most probably in

  1. Utilization of fermentation waste (Corynebacterium glutamicum) for biosorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2007-01-01

    A fermentation waste, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was successfully employed as a biosorbent for Reactive Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solution. This paper initially studied the effect of pretreatment on the biosorption capacity of C. glutamicum toward RB5, using several chemical agents, such as HCl, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , NaOH, Na 2 CO 3 , CaCl 2 and NaCl. Among these reagents, 0.1 M HNO 3 gave the maximum enhancement of the RB5 uptake, exhibiting 195 mg/g at pH 1 with an initial RB5 concentration of 500 mg/l. The solution pH and temperature were found to affect the biosorption capacity, and the biosorption isotherms derived at different pHs and temperatures revealed that a low pH (pH 1) and high temperature (35 deg. C) favored biosorption. The biosorption isotherm was well represented using three-parameter models (Redlich-Peterson and Sips) compared to two-parameter models (Langmuir and Freundlich models). As a result, high correlation coefficients and low average percentage error values were observed for three-parameter models. A maximum RB5 uptake of 419 mg/g was obtained at pH 1 and a temperature of 35 deg. C, according to the Langmuir model. The kinetics of the biosorption process with different initial concentrations (500-2000 mg/l) was also monitored, and the data were analyzed using pseudo-first and pseudo-second order models, with the latter describing the data well. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o , were calculated, indicating that the present system was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The use of a 0.1 M NaOH solution successfully desorbed almost all the dye molecules from dye-loaded C. glutamicum biomass at different solid-to-liquid ratios examined

  2. Ink-Jet Printer Forms Solar-Cell Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Paul, Jr.; Vest, R. W.; Binford, Don A.; Tweedell, Eric P.

    1988-01-01

    Contacts formed in controllable patterns with metal-based inks. System forms upper metal contact patterns on silicon photovoltaic cells. Uses metallo-organic ink, decomposes when heated, leaving behind metallic, electrically conductive residue in printed area.

  3. Improved verification methods for OVI security ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Paul G.; Markantes, Tom

    2000-04-01

    Together, OVP Security Pigment in OVI Security Ink, provide an excellent method of overt banknote protection. The effective use of overt security feature requires an educated public. The rapid rise in computer-generated counterfeits indicates that consumers are not as educate das to banknote security features as they should be. To counter the education issue, new methodologies have been developed to improve the validation of banknotes using the OVI ink feature itself. One of the new methods takes advantage of the overt nature of the product's optically variable effect. Another method utilizes the unique optical interference characteristics provided by the OVP platelets.

  4. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    OpenAIRE

    Rahela Kulcar; Marta Klanjsek Gunde; Nina Knesaurek

    2012-01-01

    Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric pr...

  5. Degradation of inkjet ink by greensand and ultrasonic sonification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Rožić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the degradation of inkjet ink at low frequency ultrasound (US and greensand to compare their reactivity. Environmental sonochemistry is a rapidly growing area and an example of the advanced oxidation process (AOP that deals with the destruction of organic species in aqueous solutions. Greensand is a granular material coated with a thin layer of manganese dioxide (MnO2 which is among the strongest natural oxidants. In our study magenta inkjet water-based printing ink was dissolved in distilled water and the solutions obtained after degradation were analysed in terms of total organic compound (TOC and absorption curves in the visible spectra. Also used for the process monitoring was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The efficiency of discoloration is significantly affected by the effluent pH. The efficiency of discolouration was higher when the pH of initial solution was 2 with respect to the initial solution pH of 5.5. In all solutions, irrespective of the initial pH value and the processing method the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols occurs. Although the decomposition is significant, surface peaks resulting from HPLC analysis are very small. Decolourization is closely related to the cleavage of the – C=C and -N=N- bonds, and oxidation of polyhydric alcohol to the formation of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids or other low molecular weight compounds with a lesser number of unsaturated double bonds. These compounds have low UV absorbance or they absorb below 200 nm and therefore their detection is impossible. Thus, the obtained total organic compound results indicate a small degree of mineralization. The effectiveness of the low-frequency ultrasound (20 kHz oxidation is similar to the effectiveness of oxidation by greendsand.

  6. GeoMel Technologies. Providing technology solutions to environmental hazardous waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    ,000 metric tons of contaminated materials on three continents. AMEC, under an exclusive agreement, is further developing the technologies and marketing and implementing them globally. GeoMelt offers significant advantages for site remediation and waste treatment: - Commercially proven at large scale; - Can treat mixed organic, inorganic and radioactive contaminants simultaneously; - Extremely high waste loadings; - Mobile for on-site or off-site use and can be performed in-situ or in a batch plant; - High tolerance for debris such as concrete, scrap metal, wood and plastic; - Treated mass is highly resistant to leaching and weathering; - Permitted by the U.S. EPA for the treatment of PCBs nation wide; - Selected in Australia as an alternative to incineration; - High degree of public and regulatory acceptance; - Treatment rates of up to 100 tons per day. In addition to GeoMelt, AMEC offers a complete range of other environmental and geotechnical services in North America and abroad from 90 Earth and Environmental offices. Globally, AMEC operates in 40 countries and is a leading provider of services and engineering solutions to the world's infrastructure, manufacturing and process industries. AMEC has been ranked as the leading international design firm by Engineering News- Record magazine. Learn more about GeoMelt at www.geomelt.com. For a list of office locations, company contacts and other services refer to: www.amec.com

  7. Optimization of Graphene Conductive Ink with 73 wt% Graphene Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Yan; Shi, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Lu; Wang, Xi; Wang, Xin-Yi; Li, Jian-Yu

    2018-06-01

    With the pace of development accelerating in printed electronics, the fabrication and application of conductive ink have been brought into sharp focus in recent years. The discovery of graphene also unfolded a vigorous research campaign. In this paper, we prepared graphene conductive ink and explored the feasibility of applying the ink to flexible paper-based circuit. Since experimental study concentrating upon ink formulation was insufficient, orthogonal test design was used in the optimization of preparation formula of conductive ink for the first time. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of constituent dosage on conductivity of graphene conductive ink, so as to obtain the optimized formula and prepare graphene conductive ink with good conductivity. Characterization of optimized graphene conductive ink we fabricated showed good adhesion to substrate and good resistance to acid and water. The graphene concentration of the optimized ink reached 73.17 wt% solid content. Particle size distribution of graphene conductive ink was uniform, which was about 1940 nm. Static surface tension was 28.9 mN/m and equilibrium contact angle was 23°, demonstrating that conductive ink had good wettability. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis was also investigated, moreover, the feasibility of lightening a light-emitting diode (LED) light was verified. The graphene conductive ink with optimized formula can be stored for almost eight months, which had potential applications in flexible paper-based circuit in the future.

  8. Dynamic Colour Possibilities and Functional Properties of Thermochromic Printing Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahela Kulcar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermochromic printing inks change their colour regarding the change in temperature and they are one of the major groups of colour-changing inks. One of the most frequently used thermochromic material in printing inks are leuco dyes. The colour of thermochromic prints is dynamic, it is not just temperature-dependent, but it also depends on thermal history. The effect is described by colour hysteresis. This paper aims at discussing general aspects of thermochromic inks, dynamic colorimetric properties of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, their stability and principle of variable-temperature colour measurement. Thermochromic material is protected in round-shaped capsules. They are much larger than pigments in conventional inks. The polymer envelopes of pigment capsules are more stable against oxidation than the binder. If these envelopes are damaged, the dynamic colour is irreversibly lost. Our aim is to analyse the colorimetric properties of several reversible screen-printed UV-curing leuco dye thermochromic inks with different activation temperatures printed on paper. A small analysis of irreversible thermochromic inks will be presented for comparison with reversible thermochromic inks. Moreover, so as to show interesting possibilities, a combination of different inks was made, an irreversible thermochromic ink was printed on top of the red and blue reversible thermochromic inks. Special attention was given to the characterization of colour hysteresis and the meaning of activation temperature.

  9. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Recovery of actinides is an integral part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Pyrometallurgical nuclear fuel recycling processes have been developed in the past for recovering actinides from spent metallic and nitride fuels. The process is essentially to dissolve the spent fuel in a molten salt and then extract just the actinides for reuse in a reactor. Extraction is typically done through electrorefining, which involves electrochemical reduction of the dissolved actinides and plating onto a cathode. Knowledge of a number of basic thermokinetic properties of salts and salt-fuel mixtures is necessary for optimizing present and developing new approaches for pyrometallurgical waste processing. The properties of salt-fuel mixtures are presently being studied, but there are so many solutes and varying concentrations that direct experimental investigation is prohibitively time consuming and expensive (particularly for radioactive elements like Pu). Therefore, there is a need to reduce the number of required experiments through modeling of salt and salt-fuel mixture properties. This project will develop first-principles-based molecular modeling and simulation approaches to predict fundamental thermokinetic properties of dissolved actinides and fission products in molten salts. The focus of the proposed work is on property changes with higher concentrations (up to 5 mol%) of dissolved fuel components, where there is still very limited experimental data. The properties predicted with the modeling will be density, which is used to assess the amount of dissolved material in the salt; diffusion coefficients, which can control rates of material transport during separation; and solute activity, which determines total solubility and reduction potentials used during electrorefining. The work will focus on La, Sr, and U, which are chosen to include the important distinct categories of lanthanides, alkali earths, and actinides, respectively. Studies will be performed using LiCl-KCl salt

  10. Planet Patrol. An Environmental Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This classroom unit was developed for use in grades 4-6 to help teach the concept of solid waste management. The teacher's guide provides an overview of the issue of solid waste disposal, a description of government, industry, and consumer roles in resolving the solid waste issue, and four lessons involving sanitary landfills, the reduction of…

  11. 78 FR 14774 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...--Universal Waste AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comment... or services relevant to management of universal waste. The Department of Commerce continues to..., Web site address, contact information, and universal waste management category of interest from the...

  12. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Medical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...--Medical Waste AGENCY: International Trade Administration, DOC. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comment... or services relevant to management of medical waste. The Department of Commerce continues to develop... encouraged to submit their company's name, Web site address, contact information, and medical waste...

  13. Efficiency Evaluation of Food Waste Materials for the Removal of Metals and Metalloids from Complex Multi-Element Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Antonella; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Congedo, Rossana; Masotti, Andrea; Canepari, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the potential of food waste materials as low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals and toxic elements from wastewater. However, the adsorption experiments have been performed in heterogeneous conditions, consequently it is difficult to compare the efficiency of the individual adsorbents. In this study, the adsorption capacities of 12 food waste materials were evaluated by comparing the adsorbents’ efficiency for the removal of 23 elements from complex multi-element solutions, maintaining homogeneous experimental conditions. The examined materials resulted to be extremely efficient for the adsorption of many elements from synthetic multi-element solutions as well as from a heavy metal wastewater. The 12 adsorbent surfaces were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and showed different types and amounts of functional groups, which demonstrated to act as adsorption active sites for various elements. By multivariate statistical computations of the obtained data, the 12 food waste materials were grouped in five clusters characterized by different elements’ removal efficiency which resulted to be in correlation with the specific adsorbents’ chemical structures. Banana peel, watermelon peel and grape waste resulted the least selective and the most efficient food waste materials for the removal of most of the elements. PMID:29495363

  14. Efficiency Evaluation of Food Waste Materials for the Removal of Metals and Metalloids from Complex Multi-Element Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimi, Lorenzo; Giuliano, Antonella; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Congedo, Rossana; Masotti, Andrea; Canepari, Silvia

    2018-02-26

    Recent studies have shown the potential of food waste materials as low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals and toxic elements from wastewater. However, the adsorption experiments have been performed in heterogeneous conditions, consequently it is difficult to compare the efficiency of the individual adsorbents. In this study, the adsorption capacities of 12 food waste materials were evaluated by comparing the adsorbents' efficiency for the removal of 23 elements from complex multi-element solutions, maintaining homogeneous experimental conditions. The examined materials resulted to be extremely efficient for the adsorption of many elements from synthetic multi-element solutions as well as from a heavy metal wastewater. The 12 adsorbent surfaces were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and showed different types and amounts of functional groups, which demonstrated to act as adsorption active sites for various elements. By multivariate statistical computations of the obtained data, the 12 food waste materials were grouped in five clusters characterized by different elements' removal efficiency which resulted to be in correlation with the specific adsorbents' chemical structures. Banana peel, watermelon peel and grape waste resulted the least selective and the most efficient food waste materials for the removal of most of the elements.

  15. Efficiency Evaluation of Food Waste Materials for the Removal of Metals and Metalloids from Complex Multi-Element Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Massimi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the potential of food waste materials as low cost adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals and toxic elements from wastewater. However, the adsorption experiments have been performed in heterogeneous conditions, consequently it is difficult to compare the efficiency of the individual adsorbents. In this study, the adsorption capacities of 12 food waste materials were evaluated by comparing the adsorbents’ efficiency for the removal of 23 elements from complex multi-element solutions, maintaining homogeneous experimental conditions. The examined materials resulted to be extremely efficient for the adsorption of many elements from synthetic multi-element solutions as well as from a heavy metal wastewater. The 12 adsorbent surfaces were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and showed different types and amounts of functional groups, which demonstrated to act as adsorption active sites for various elements. By multivariate statistical computations of the obtained data, the 12 food waste materials were grouped in five clusters characterized by different elements’ removal efficiency which resulted to be in correlation with the specific adsorbents’ chemical structures. Banana peel, watermelon peel and grape waste resulted the least selective and the most efficient food waste materials for the removal of most of the elements.

  16. Geologic disposal as optimal solution of managing the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Ionescu, A.; Deaconu, V.

    2002-01-01

    To date there exist three alternatives for the concept of geological disposal: 1. storing the high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on ground repositories; 2. solutions implying advanced separation processes including partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and eventual disposal in outer space; 3. geological disposal in repositories excavated in rocks. Ground storing seems to be advantageous as it ensures a secure sustainable storing system over many centuries (about 300 years). On the other hand ground storing would be only a postponement in decision making and will be eventually followed by geological disposal. Research in the P and T field is expected to entail a significant reduction of the amount of long-lived radioactive waste although the long term geological disposal will be not eliminated. Having in view the high cost, as well as the diversity of conditions in the countries owning power reactors it appears as a reasonable regional solution of HLW disposal that of sharing a common geological disposal. In Romania legislation concerning of radioactive waste is based on the Law concerning Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in View of Final Disposal. One admits at present that for Romania geological disposal is not yet a stressing issue and hence intermediate ground storing of SNF will allow time for finding a better final solution

  17. Towards conducting inks: polypyrrole-silver colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, N.; Kaplanová, M.; Syrový, T.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, 10 March (2014), s. 296-302 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting inks * polypyrrole * colloids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  18. Electron Beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, T.

    1984-01-01

    Press trials conducted by the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark in September 8-21, 1982, clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (EB) curing for web intaglio printing. These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting EB ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires EB inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with EB inks is being investigated

  19. Electron beam curing of intaglio inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, T.

    1985-01-01

    Press trials conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing at the National Bank of Denmark clearly indicated the feasibility of Electron Beam (E.B.) curing for web intaglio printing . These trials, some at continuous press runs of up to six hours, gave positive results for virtually all our requirements including: print quality, press speeds, ability to print both sides of the web on one pass through a press, acceptable ink curing at one megarad or less, and minimum substrate deterioration or loss of moisture. In addition, these trials demonstrated many advantages over thermal curing which is the only other alternative to two sided printing in one pass through the press. These advantages can be found in product quality, a cleaner environment, and in economics. This development program is still in progress with efforts now directed towards adapting E.B. ink technology to the latest developments in intaglio printing, i.e. aqueous cylinder wiping which requires E.B. inks to be water dispersable. Also the stability of materials in contact with E.B. inks is being investigated. (author)

  20. Soft and probe lithography without ink transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, Jurriaan; Li, X.; Péter, M.; Reinhoudt, David

    2004-01-01

    Microcontact printing (mCP) and dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) are versatile techniques for the creation of patterned surfaces. They commonly employ the transfer of an ink (e.g. a thiol) onto a surface (e.g. a gold-coated substrate) thus forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Resolution of these

  1. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnar, Milos [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: milos.budnar@ijs.si; Ursic, Mitja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, Jure [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolar, Jana [National University Library, Turjaska 1, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Selih, Vid Simon [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strlic, Matija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-02-15

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  2. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, Milos; Ursic, Mitja; Simcic, Jure; Pelicon, Primoz; Kolar, Jana; Selih, Vid Simon; Strlic, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents

  3. NON-AQUEOUS PIGMENTED INKJET INKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEROOVER, GEERT; Bernaerts, Katrien; HOOGMARTENS, IVAN

    2010-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink includes a benzimidazolone pigment and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  4. Non-aqueous pigmented inkjet inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOOGMARTENS, IVAN; Bernaerts, Katrien; DEROOVER, GEERT

    2008-01-01

    A non-aqueous inkjet ink comprising C.I. Pigment Yellow 150 and a polymeric dispersant according to Formula (I): wherein, T represents hydrogen or a polymerization terminating group; Z represents the residue of polyethyleneimine having a number-average molecular weight of at least 100; A represents

  5. Direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasibov, A S; Bagramov, V G; Berezhnoi, K V

    2006-01-01

    The results of experiments on direct laser printing using viscous printer's ink with the help of a copper vapour laser (CVL)-based device are presented. The highly reflecting CVL cavity mirror was replaced by a spatial mirror modulator (SMM). Viscous printer's ink was used for printing. A pressure pulse produced at the boundary (on which an intensified and diminished image of the SMM was projected) between the ink and a transparency was used for transferring the ink to the plastic card. It was shown that the use of a CVL allowed a maximum printing speed of ∼80 cm 2 s -1 , a resolution of 625 dpi and up to 15 gradations. The dependence of the emission intensity of the element being projected (pixel) on its diameter is studied. It is shown that an increase in the brightness of this element with decreasing its size is caused by the summation of the laser and amplified radiation. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Use of Agro-Residues (Rice Husk) in Removal of some Radioisotopes from their Waste Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Removal of some radioisotopes namely ( 152 + 154 )Eu and 60 Co from radioactive waste solutions by natural rice husk (NRh) and modified rice husk with different concentrations of citric acid (MCA) had been investigated. The obtained results indicated that the modification of rice husk using citric acid generated large population of surface acid sites and improved the adsorption characteristics of adsorbent. Characterization by infrared spectroscopy and surface area were carried out for both non-modified and modified rice husk samples. The influences of ph, contact time and initial metal ion concentration on sorption had been reported. Pseudo first-order and intra particle diffusion models were used to analyze the sorption rate data. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess the maximum sorption capacity of both studied radionuclides on rice husk and modified rice husk. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The tested models fit the data reasonably well in terms of regression coefficients. The maximum sorption capacity of modified rice husk was found to be greater than that of rice husk for both ions.

  7. Bioadsorption of a reactive dye from aqueous solution by municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Berrazoum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biosorbent was obtained from municipal solid waste (MSW of the Mostaganem city. Before use the MSW was dried in air for three days and washed several times. The sorption of yellow procion reactive dye MX-3R onto biomass from aqueous solution was investigated as function of pH, contact time and temperature. The adsorption capacity of MX-3R was 45.84 mg/g at pH 2–3 and room temperature. MX-3R adsorption decreases with increasing temperature. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir–Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the related isotherms. Langmuir–Freundlich equation has shown the best fitting with the experimental data. The pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic sorption. The results clearly showed that the adsorption of MX-3R onto biosorbent followed the pseudo second-order model. The enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibbs free energy (ΔG° changes of adsorption were calculated. The results indicated that the adsorption of MX-3R occurs spontaneously as an exothermic process.

  8. Production of ultrafine zinc powder from wastes containing zinc by electrowinning in alkaline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Youcai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of ultrafine zinc powder from industrial wastes by electrowinning in alkaline solution was studied. Stainless steel and magnesium electrodes were used as anode and cathode, respectively. Morphology, size distribution and composition of the Zn particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Laser Particle Size Analyzer, and Inductive Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. The required composition of the electrolyte for ultrafine particles was found to be 25-35 g/L Zn, 200-220 g/L NaOH and 20-40 mg/L Pb. The optimal conditions were a current density of 1000-1200 A/m² and an electrolyte temperature of 30-40 °C. The results indicated that the lead additive exerted a beneficial effect on the refining of the particles, by increasing the cathodic polarization. Through this study, ultrafine zinc powder with a size distribution of around 10 μm could be produced, and considerably high current efficiencies (97-99 % were obtained.

  9. recovery of enriched uranium from waste solution obtained from fuel fabrication laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, S.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    reversed-phase partition chromatography is shown to be a convenient and applicable method for the quantitative recovery of uranium (19.7% enriched with 235 U) from highly impure solution . the processing of uranium compounds for atomic energy project especially in FMPP(Egyptian fuel manufacture pilot plant) gives rise to a variety of wastes in which the uranium content is of considerable importance. the recovery of uranium from concentrated mother liquors produced from ADU (ammonium diuranate ) precipitation, as well as those due to ADU washing is studied in this work. column of poly-trifluoro-monochloro-ethilene (Kel-F) supporting tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) retains uranium .impurities are eluted with 6.5 M HCl, and the uranium is eluted with water and the recovery of uranium is better than 94%. A mathematical model was suggested to stimulate the sorption process of uranium ions (or any other ion ) by column of solvent impregnated resin containing organic extractant (the same as the previous column) . An excellent agreement was founded between the experimental results and the mathematical model

  10. Kinetics of adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from waste apricot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onal, Yunus

    2006-01-01

    Adsorbent (WA11Zn5) has been prepared from waste apricot by chemical activation with ZnCl 2 . Pore properties of the activated carbon such as BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and pore diameter were characterized by N 2 adsorption and DFT plus software. Adsorption of three dyes, namely, Methylene Blue (MB), Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV), onto activated carbon in aqueous solution was studied in a batch system with respect to contact time, temperature. The kinetics of adsorption of MB, MG and CV have been discussed using six kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the Elovich equation, the intraparticle diffusion model, the Bangham equation, the modified Freundlich equation. Kinetic parameters and correlation coefficients were determined. It was shown that the second-order kinetic equation could describe the adsorption kinetics for three dyes. The dyes uptake process was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at earlier stages (before 5 min) and by intraparticle diffusion at later stages (after 5 min). Thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG, ΔH and ΔS, have been calculated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficient obtained at different temperatures and concentrations. The thermodynamics of dyes-WA11Zn5 system indicates endothermic process

  11. Adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 from Aqueous Solution using Low Cost Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Solid Waste: Albizia amara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anitha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Reactive Blue 171 (Reactive Dye from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from Albizia amara pod shell waste as an adsorbent have been carried out. The experimental adsorption data fitted reasonably well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Kinetic parameters as a function of Initial dye concentration have been calculated and the kinetic data were substituted in Pseudo First Order, Elovich and Pseudo Second order equations. A probable explanation is offered to account for the results of kinetic study. The thermodynamic parameter enthalpy change (∆H suggests the exothermic nature of absorption of Reactive Blue 171 onto activated Albizia amara pod shell waste carbon.

  12. The waste management at research laboratories - problems and solutions; Gestao de rejeitos radioativos em laboratorios de pesquisa - problemas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Rejeitos Radioativos

    2011-10-26

    The radioactive management in radioactive installations must be planned and controlled. However, in the case of research laboratories, that management is compromised due to the common use of materials and installations, the lack of trained personnel and the nonexistence of clear and objective orientations by the regulator organism. Such failures cause an increasing of generated radioactive wastes and the imprecision or nonexistence of record of radioactive substances, occasioning a financial wastage, and the cancelling of licences for use of radioactive substances. This paper discusses and proposes solutions for the problems found at radioactive waste management in research laboratories

  13. A randomized control trial evaluating fluorescent ink versus dark ink tattoos for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, Steven J; Kirby, Anna M; Lee, Steven F; Bartlett, Freddie; Titmarsh, Kumud; Donovan, Ellen; Griffin, Clare L; Gothard, Lone; Locke, Imogen; McNair, Helen A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this UK study was to evaluate interfraction reproducibility and body image score when using ultraviolet (UV) tattoos (not visible in ambient lighting) for external references during breast/chest wall radiotherapy and compare with conventional dark ink. In this non-blinded, single-centre, parallel group, randomized control trial, patients were allocated to receive either conventional dark ink or UV ink tattoos using computer-generated random blocks. Participant assignment was not masked. Systematic (∑) and random (σ) setup errors were determined using electronic portal images. Body image questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, 1 month and 6 months to determine the impact of tattoo type on body image. The primary end point was to determine that UV tattoo random error (σ setup ) was no less accurate than with conventional dark ink tattoos, i.e. tattoos. 45 patients completed treatment (UV: n = 23, dark: n = 22). σ setup for the UV tattoo group was tattoo group compared with the dark ink group at 1 month [56% (13/23) vs 14% (3/22), respectively] and 6 months [52% (11/21) vs 38% (8/21), respectively]. UV tattoos were associated with interfraction setup reproducibility comparable with conventional dark ink. Patients reported a more favourable change in body image score up to 6 months following treatment. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to evaluate UV tattoo external references in a randomized control trial.

  14. Radioactive waste management in the Netherlands. A practical solution in full operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, H.D.K.

    2000-01-01

    All radioactive waste produced in the Netherlands is managed by COVRA, the central organization for radioactive waste. The Netherlands forms a good example of a country with a small and in the near future ending nuclear power programme. However, radioisotope production, nuclear research and other industrial activities will continue to produce radioactive waste. For the small volume, but broad spectrum of radioactive waste, the Netherlands has developed a management system based on the principles to isolate, to control and to monitor the waste. Long term storage is an important element in the management strategy that will ultimately result in final removal of the waste. Since the waste will remain retrievable for a long time, new technologies and new disposal options can be applied when available and feasible. (author)

  15. Work Function and Conductivity of Inkjet-Printed Silver Layers: Effect of Inks and Post-treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana; Mitra, Kalyan Yoti; Dzhagan, Volodymyr; Pillai, Nikhil; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2018-03-01

    The electronic properties of a printed layer are influenced by a number of factors, including the nature of the ink (nanoparticle- or solution-based), ink composition (solvents, additives, concentration), and post-treatment technologies, especially sintering. One of the major challenges in the field of printed electronics is achieving the desired performance, for example, in terms of conductivity, resistivity, or work function (WF). This work investigates the dependence of sheet resistance and WF on various sintering methodologies. Four different silver nanoparticle inks were inkjet-printed on a flexible polymeric foil and post-treated by thermal sintering (in an oven) or novel sintering processes using infrared or intense pulsed light. The surfaces of the printed and sintered layers were investigated optically, and various inhomogeneities in the layer surface were observed, varying from a smooth to a highly rough appearance with ring-shaped drying structures. An analysis of the sheet resistance revealed notable variation among the various inks and sintering methodologies used. Here, for the very first time, WF is measured and evaluated as a function of sintering methodology and silver ink, and the respective layer formation characteristics realized with the inkjet printing technology. The WF values obtained by ultraviolet photoemission show a similar spread and allow unambiguous trends to be tracked with respect to the type of ink and sintering method used. The values of the WF obtained range from 3.7 eV to 4.3 eV, approaching the reported bulk values of 4.3-4.7 eV. The various silver inks resulted in different WFs when the same sintering method was used, while the same silver ink resulted in different WFs when various sintering methods were applied. Therefore, it is believed that the WF can be tuned over a broad range in a controlled manner to satisfy electronic device requirements.

  16. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Colin A; Twigg, Peter C; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J

    2015-01-01

    Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.

  17. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M.T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers

  18. Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin A. Grant

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.

  19. WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT (WIPP): THE NATIONS' SOLUTION TO NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE AND DISPOSAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-17

    In the southeastern portion of my home state of New Mexico lies the Chihuahauan desert, where a transuranic (TRU), underground disposal site known as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) occupies 16 square miles. Full operation status began in March 1999, the year I graduated from Los Alamos High School, in Los Alamos, NM, the birthplace of the atomic bomb and one of the nation’s main TRU waste generator sites. During the time of its development and until recently, I did not have a full grasp on the role Los Alamos was playing in regards to WIPP. WIPP is used to store and dispose of TRU waste that has been generated since the 1940s because of nuclear weapons research and testing operations that have occurred in Los Alamos, NM and at other sites throughout the United States (U.S.). TRU waste consists of items that are contaminated with artificial, man-made radioactive elements that have atomic numbers greater than uranium, or are trans-uranic, on the periodic table of elements and it has longevity characteristics that may be hazardous to human health and the environment. Therefore, WIPP has underground rooms that have been carved out of 2,000 square foot thick salt formations approximately 2,150 feet underground so that the TRU waste can be isolated and disposed of. WIPP has operated safely and successfully until this year, when two unrelated events occurred in February 2014. With these events, the safety precautions and measures that have been operating at WIPP for the last 15 years are being revised and improved to ensure that other such events do not occur again.

  20. Storage of solid tritiated waste for which there is no management solution; L'entreposage des dechets solides trities sans filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromonot, C.; Rancher, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des applications militaires, 91 (France); Douche, Ch.; Guetat, Ph. [CEA Valduc, Dir. des applications militaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2011-02-15

    In France, radioactive waste that contains tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced by the CEA as part of its research and development activities, especially for military applications. There is currently no definitive disposal solution for this waste, so it is processed and packaged and then kept in interim storage at Valduc and Marcoule. Furthermore, industrial companies and medical and pharmaceutical research laboratories use tritium - or have done so in the past - for a number of applications which have led to the production of tritiated waste, a small amount of which is still awaiting a disposal solution. Lastly, beginning in the 2020 years, the ITER power plant will also generate tritiated waste and become the largest source of its production. 6 categories of tritiated waste have been defined. Only the very lowest concentrations of tritiated waste can be dealt with by the processing and disposal solutions currently available. This means CENTRACO, where very low-level tritiated waste can be incinerated or melted, and ANDRA repositories, where the acceptance criteria are very strict, making it very uncommon for them to be used for tritiated waste. This situation is a result of the characteristics of tritium and the history of the Aube repository. The proposed solution is based on a temporary storage (50 years) of tritiated waste near the production zone that will allow a natural diminution of the radioactivity and then the packages will be moved to future storing centers of ANDRA that will be built to receive tritiated wastes

  1. Influence of hydroxyl content of binders on rheological properties of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) screen printing inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Gadea, Christophe; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    vinyl resins) were selected and characterized in solution via viscosimetry method. A high degree of hyper-entanglement was observed for ethyl cellulose polymers, whereas a mitigated effect characterized the two vinyl resins. Cerium-gadolinium oxides (CGO)-based inks, prepared using the selected binders......The influence of hydroxyl content of binders on rheological properties of screen printing inks is investigated. The actual amount of hydroxyl groups is correlated to the level of hyper-entanglement that characterizes the binders in solution. Three of the most used binders (ethyl cellulose, and two...

  2. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  3. Air Emissions Sampling from Vacuum Thermal Desorption for Mixed Wastes Designated with a Combustion Treatment Code for the Energy Solutions LLC Mixed Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, M.E.; Willoughby, O.H.

    2009-01-01

    EnergySolutions LLC is permitted by the State of Utah to treat organically-contaminated Mixed Waste by a vacuum thermal desorption (VTD) treatment process at its Clive, Utah treatment, storage, and disposal facility. The VTD process separates organics from organically-contaminated waste by heating the material in an inert atmosphere, and captures them as concentrated liquid by condensation. The majority of the radioactive materials present in the feed to the VTD are retained with the treated solids; the recovered aqueous and organic condensates are not radioactive. This is generally true when the radioactivity is present in solid form such as inorganic salts, metals or metallic oxides. The exception is when volatile radioactive materials are present such as radon gas, tritium, or carbon-14 organic chemicals. Volatile radioactive materials are a small fraction of the feed material. On August 28, 2006, EnergySolutions submitted a request to the USEPA for a variance to the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) standards for wastes designated with the combustion treatment code (CMBST). The final rule granting a site specific treatment variance was effective June 13, 2008. This variance is an alternative treatment standard to treatment by CMBST required for these wastes under USEPA's rules. The State of Utah provides oversight of the VTD processing operations. A demonstration test for treating CMBST-coded wastes was performed on April 29, 2008 through May 1, 2008. Three separate process cycles were conducted during this test. Both solid/liquid samples and emission samples were collected each day during the demonstration test. To adequately challenge the unit, feed material was spiked with trichloroethylene, o-cresol, dibenzofuran, and coal tar. Emission testing was conducted by EnergySolutions' emissions test contractor and sampling for radioactivity within the off-gas was completed by EnergySolutions' Health Physics department. This report discusses the emission testing

  4. Partitioning of actinides from high active waste solution of Purex origin counter-current extraction studies using TBP and CMPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Gopalkrishnan, V.; Wattal, P.K.; Ramanujam, A.; Murali, M.S.; Mathur, J.N.; Bauri, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2000-10-01

    A solvent extraction scheme has been formulated for the partitioning of actinides from Purex high level waste (HLW). The scheme is based on the results of earlier studies carried out with simulated waste solutions. In the present studies, the scheme was tested with high active waste (HAW) solution generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel from research reactors using laboratory scale mixer-settlers. The proposed process involved two-step extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and octyl (phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamolylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In the first step, uranium, neptunium and plutonium were removed from the waste using TBP as extractant. The minor actinides left in the raffinate were extracted using a mixture of CMPO and TBP in the second step. The results showed complete extraction of actinides from the waste solution. Plutonium and neptunium extracted in TBP, were stripped together using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid in 2 M nitric acid medium, leaving uranium in the organic phase. Uranium can later be stripped using dilute nitric acid. Actinides extracted in CMPO-TBP phase were stripped using a mixture of formic acid, hydrazine, hydrate and citric acid. The stripping was quantitative in both the stripping runs. An additional extraction step for the preferential recovery of uranium, neptunium and plutonium from the waste solution using TBP is a modification over the conventional Truex process. Selective stripping of neptunium and plutonium from large quantities of uranium. The extraction of uranium using TBP eliminates the possibility of third phase and undesired loading of CMPO-TBP in the following step. Use of citrate-containing strippant allows the recovery of actinides from loaded CMPO-TBP mixture without causing any reflux of the actinides during stripping. The process has been developed with due consideration to minimising the generation of secondary wastes. The proposed strippants are effective even in presence of

  5. Comparison of international back-end solutions for low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the use of radioactivity in different applications demands maximum attention due to its potential risks, a unique assessment of the matter is impossible to reach. When compared to other hazardous waste categories or even domestic waste, the amount of radioactive waste generated is not significant. The objective of this work is to analyze the variation associated to the amount of radioactive waste storage in many places. The results showed that this amount is increasing, a fact coherent to the growth in the last years of both the nuclear energy applications and the share of nuclear energy in the global market. (author)

  6. Mixed waste: A proposed solution that focuses on the underlying problem rather than on its symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.J.; Goo, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Viewed critically, it is apparent that the current mixed waste stream is the result of conflicting regulatory regimes. The current mixed waste system is neither functional nor rational. Despite numerous and elaborate attempts by NRC, EPA, and DOE to minimize and avoid conflicts between the existing regulatory schemes for radioactive and hazardous waste, the fundamental conflict between Atomic Energy Act and Resource Conservative and Recovery Act requirements remains obvious and unabated. Regulatory paralysis is the result. In this article, the authors outline some of the key inconsistencies between hazardous and radioactive waste management and disposal requirements and trace the effect these conflicts have had on the existing mixed waste system. The authors argue that mixed waste is of two primary types: Waste that is either primarily radioactively hazardous or primarily chemically hazardous and that regulatory requirements should reflect this fact. Hence, where a mixed waste contains only low levels of radioactivity and is primarily chemically hazardous, RCRA controls should predominate. Where a mixed waste contains any significant amount of radioactivity, however, AEA requirements, not RCRA should control

  7. New solutions for waste management centers of new Russian-type nuclear power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    There has been a change of mind with respect to waste management among power plant operators in Russia and planners of the new VVER reactor line. Solid waste no longer is to be stored on the site of the power plant; instead, a functioning direct method of treatment of the different categories of waste arising in operation is favored. Waste conditioning and reduced storage volumes are indispensable arguments in selling reactor technology to markets outside Russia. Reference often is made to the internationally discussed volume of 50 m 3 of waste per reactor unit and year, which is then defined as a target. NUKEM Technologies verified existing technical concepts and worked out proposals of improved waste management. One project proposal accepted by ASE (Atomstroyexport) was elaborated to the Technical Project (corresponding to Basic Design) status. Specific management of materials flows, the use of processes tailored to the waste stream, and adaptation of the throughputs of these plants to the waste arisings actually expected are able to reduce clearly both the volume of conditioned waste to be stored and the capital costs. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of international back-end solutions for low and intermediate level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Bruna L.; Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: bla@ctdn.b, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In spite of the fact that the use of radioactivity in different applications demands maximum attention due to its potential risks, a unique assessment of the matter is impossible to reach. When compared to other hazardous waste categories or even domestic waste, the amount of radioactive waste generated is not significant. The objective of this work is to analyze the variation associated to the amount of radioactive waste storage in many places. The results showed that this amount is increasing, a fact coherent to the growth in the last years of both the nuclear energy applications and the share of nuclear energy in the global market. (author)

  9. Recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2Co3 scrub-waste solutions: the ARALEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Mason, G.W.; Leonard, R.A.; Ziegler, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na 2 CO 3 scrub-waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory-scale countercurrent extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, uses 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H 2 MBP) from acidified Na 2 CO 3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds, which also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H 2 MBP to complex actinides. Thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds (e.g., detergents) that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. 20 figures, 6 tables

  10. Detection of localized and general corrosion of mild steel in simulated defense nuclear waste solutions using electrochemical noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.; Ohl, P.C.; Bell, G.E.C.; Wilson, D.F.

    1995-12-01

    Underground waste tanks fabricated from mild steel store more than 60 million gallons of radioactive waste from 50 years of weapons production. Leaks are suspected in a significant number of tanks. The probable modes of corrosion failures are reported to be localized corrosion (e.g. nitrate stress corrosion cracking and pitting). The use of electrochemical noise (EN) for the monitoring and detection of localized corrosion processes has received considerable attention and application over the last several years. Proof of principle laboratory tests were conducted to verify the capability of EN evaluation to detect localized corrosion and to compare the predictions of general corrosion obtained from EN with those derived from other sources. Simple, pre-fabricated flat and U-bend specimens of steel alloys A516-Grade 60 (UNS K02100) and A537-CL 1 (UNS K02400) were immersed in temperature controlled simulated waste solutions. The simulated waste solution was either 5M NaNO 3 with 0.3M NaOH at 90 C or 11M NaNO 3 with 0.15M NaOH at 95 C. The electrochemical noise activity from the specimens was monitored and recorded for periods ranging between 140 and 240 hours. At the end of each test period, the specimens were metallographically examined to correlated EN data with corrosion damage

  11. Removal of Sr from radioactive waste solutions by polymer enhanced ultra filtration: study of selectivity and mechanism of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedari, C.S.; Yadav, J.S.; Gandhi, P.M.; Banerjee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of 90 Sr in liquid radioactive wastes is an important issue for waste disposal. Because of the physical and biological half-life of 90 Sr, it is one of the most hazardous radionuclides for internal exposure. Accumulation in bones tissues and high-energy beta particles from its daughter nuclide, 90 Y (half-life: 64.1 h), cause the damage to bone marrow. These characteristics are forcing the implementation of monitoring 90 Sr activities and its elimination from the industrial waste solutions. Filtration through semi permeable membrane with the potential of selective retention is a well-established commercial technique, which also has great applicability in nuclear waste processing. The UF based separation is a solute fractionation using appropriate pore size membrane as a sieve. The advantage of working with UF is: high throughput can be achieved as compared to RO while using low driving pressure and temperature. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of separation of divalent strontium by complexing with water soluble cation exchange polymer and its removal by ultra filtration

  12. Removal of thorium(IV) from aqueous solution by biosorption onto modified powdered waste sludge. Experimental design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus Pamukoglu, M.; Mustafa Senyurt; Bulent Kirkan

    2017-01-01

    The biosorption of radioactive Th(IV) ions in the aqueous solutions onto the modified powdered waste sludge (MPWS) has been examined. In this context, the parameters affecting biosorption of Th(IV) from aqueous solutions has been examined by using MPWS biosorbent in Box Behnken statistical experimental design. The structure of MPWS biosorbent was characterized by using SEM and BET techniques. According to the experimental design results, MPWS and Th(IV) concentrations should be kept high to achieve the maximum efficiency in Th(IV) biosorption. On the other hand, MPWS, which is also used as a biosorbent, is an economical, effective and natural biosorbent. (author)

  13. Green synthesis of graphene from recycled PET bottle wastes for use in the adsorption of dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Ali, Safa M; Farag, Hassan A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Hamad, Hesham A

    2017-11-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is an important component of post-consumer plastic waste. This study focuses on the potential of utilizing "waste-treats-waste" by synthesis of graphene using PET bottle waste as a source material. The synthesized graphene is characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, Raman, TGA, and FT-IR. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 25 (AB25) by graphene is studied and parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage were optimized. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to investigate the effect of three variables (dye concentration, time and temperature) and their interaction on the removal efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm are followed a pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that adsorption of dye is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The plastic waste can be used after transformation into valuable carbon-based nanomaterials for use in the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis membrane process for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    These wastes contain about 0.3 ∼ 0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40 ∼ 90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. As an emerging technology forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination because FO operates at low or no hydraulic pressures. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field easily. If Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are coated with highly soluble organic substances, thus they can be used as a draw solute by concurrently generating high osmotic pressure and easy separation. The carboxylated polyglycerol coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized. The nanoparticles were about 50 nm in diameter and showed the good colloidal stability in aqueous solution. The osmolality and osmotic pressure were enough high to be used as a draw solute in FO. For the future work, we will investigate the performance of our magnetic draw solute in FO to remove boron in the simulated liquid waste.

  15. Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis membrane process for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2013-01-01

    These wastes contain about 0.3 ∼ 0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40 ∼ 90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. As an emerging technology forward osmosis (FO) has attracted growing interest in wastewater treatment and desalination because FO operates at low or no hydraulic pressures. FO is a membrane process in which water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a feed solution of lower osmotic pressure to a draw solution of higher osmotic pressure. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field easily. If Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are coated with highly soluble organic substances, thus they can be used as a draw solute by concurrently generating high osmotic pressure and easy separation. The carboxylated polyglycerol coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized. The nanoparticles were about 50 nm in diameter and showed the good colloidal stability in aqueous solution. The osmolality and osmotic pressure were enough high to be used as a draw solute in FO. For the future work, we will investigate the performance of our magnetic draw solute in FO to remove boron in the simulated liquid waste

  16. Precipitation process for the removal of technetium values from nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.D.; Ebra, M.A.

    1985-11-21

    High efficiency removal of techetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  17. Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan; Sung, Hyung Jin; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.

  18. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  19. Plasmonic laser printing for ink-free color decoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Here we show a method of color printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces [1] using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures [2]. This leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted 20nm Al...... also be used on a larger scale to personify products such as mobile phones with unique decorations, names, etc‥ This laser technology may create environmentally sound color printing solutions and simplify the production for consumer products....... structures embedded in plastics. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different color appearances can be created. Color printing by this technology has several advantages over dye technology: ink/toner-free, sub...

  20. One-Bath Pretreatment for Enhanced Color Yield of Ink-Jet Prints Using Reactive Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilely increase the color yield of ink-jet prints using reactive inks, one-bath pretreatment of cotton fabrics with pretreatment formulation containing sodium alginate, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTA, sodium hydroxide, and urea is designed for realizing sizing and cationization at the same time. The pretreatment conditions, including the concentrations of GTA and alkali, baking temperature, and time are optimized based on the result of thecolor yield on cationic cotton for magenta ink. The mechanism for color yield enhancement on GTA-modified fabrics is discussed and the stability of GTA in the print paste is investigated. Scanning electron microscopey, tear strength, and thermogravimetric analysis of the modified and unmodified cotton are studied and compared. Using the optimal pretreatment conditions, color yield on the cationic cotton for magenta, cyan, yellow, and black reactive inks are increased by 128.7%, 142.5%, 71.0%, and 38.1%, respectively, compared with the corresponding color yield on the uncationized cotton. Much less wastewater is produced using this one-bath pretreatment method. Colorfastness of the reactive dyes on the modified and unmodified cotton is compared and boundary clarity between different colors is evaluated by ink-jet printing of colorful patterns.

  1. Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticle ink

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jin Sung; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Jongeun; Thomas Hahn, H.; Jang, Seonhee; Joung, Jae Woo

    2010-01-01

    Inkjet printing of electrode using copper nanoparticle ink is presented. Electrode was printed on a flexible glass epoxy composite substrate using drop on demand piezoelectric dispenser and was sintered at 200 °C of low temperature in N2 gas condition. The printed electrodes were made with various widths and thickness. In order to control the thickness of the printed electrode, number of printing was varied. Resistivity of printed electrode was calculated from the cross-sectional area measure...

  2. Highly water soluble nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Heeman; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sungchan; Seo, Bumkyoung; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we introduced highly water-soluble hyperbranched caroboxylated polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CPG-MNPs). It is known that the highly branched, globular architecture of PG significantly increase solubility compared to linear polymer and they are eco-friendly. The CPG-MNPs showed no aggregate of particles in water even after placing external magnet, and exhibited a high water flux in FO process. The CPG-MNPs are, therefore, potentially useful as a draw solute in FO processes. The operation of nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWRs) results in numerous radioactive waste streams which vary in radioactivity content. Most PWR stations have experienced leakages of boric acid into liquid radioactive waste systems. These wastes contain about 0.3∼0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40∼90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. Forward osmosis (FO), a low energy technique based on membrane technologies, has recently garnered attention for its utility in wastewater treatment and desalination applications. In the FO process, water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution with a low osmotic pressure (the feed solution) to a solution with a high osmotic pressure (the draw solution). The driving force in FO processes is provided by the osmotic gradient between the two solutions. Low energy costs and low degrees of membrane fouling are two of the advantages conveyed by FO processes over other processes, such as reverse osmosis processes that rely on a hydraulic pressure driving force. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field

  3. Highly water soluble nanoparticles as a draw solute in forward osmosis for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Heeman; Choi, Hye Min; Jang, Sungchan; Seo, Bumkyoung; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    . In this study, we introduced highly water-soluble hyperbranched caroboxylated polyglycerol-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CPG-MNPs). It is known that the highly branched, globular architecture of PG significantly increase solubility compared to linear polymer and they are eco-friendly. The CPG-MNPs showed no aggregate of particles in water even after placing external magnet, and exhibited a high water flux in FO process. The CPG-MNPs are, therefore, potentially useful as a draw solute in FO processes. The operation of nuclear pressurized water reactors (PWRs) results in numerous radioactive waste streams which vary in radioactivity content. Most PWR stations have experienced leakages of boric acid into liquid radioactive waste systems. These wastes contain about 0.3∼0.8 wt% of boric acid. It is known that reverse osmosis (RO) membrane can eliminate boron at high pH and boron of 40∼90% can be removed by RO membrane in pH condition. RO uses hydraulic pressure to oppose, and exceed, the osmotic pressure of an aqueous feed solution containing boric acid. Forward osmosis (FO), a low energy technique based on membrane technologies, has recently garnered attention for its utility in wastewater treatment and desalination applications. In the FO process, water flows across a semi-permeable membrane from a solution with a low osmotic pressure (the feed solution) to a solution with a high osmotic pressure (the draw solution). The driving force in FO processes is provided by the osmotic gradient between the two solutions. Low energy costs and low degrees of membrane fouling are two of the advantages conveyed by FO processes over other processes, such as reverse osmosis processes that rely on a hydraulic pressure driving force. However, the challenges of FO still lie in the fabrication of eligible FO membranes and the readily separable draw solutes of high osmotic pressures. Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles can be separated from water by an external magnet field

  4. Advanced verification methods for OVI security ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Paul G.; McCaffery, Shaun F.; Markantes, Tom

    2006-02-01

    OVI security ink +, incorporating OVP security pigment* microflakes, enjoys a history of effective document protection. This security feature provides not only first-line recognition by the person on the street, but also facilitates machine-readability. This paper explores the evolution of OVI reader technology from proof-of-concept to miniaturization. Three different instruments have been built to advance the technology of OVI machine verification. A bench-top unit has been constructed which allows users to automatically verify a multitude of different banknotes and OVI images. In addition, high speed modules were fabricated and tested in a state of the art banknote sorting machine. Both units demonstrate the ability of modern optical components to illuminate and collect light reflected from the interference platelets within OVI ink. Electronic hardware and software convert and process the optical information in milliseconds to accurately determine the authenticity of the security feature. Most recently, OVI ink verification hardware has been miniaturized and simplified providing yet another platform for counterfeit protection. These latest devices provide a tool for store clerks and bank tellers to unambiguously determine the validity of banknotes in the time period it takes the cash drawer to be opened.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticle (Fe3O4) impregnated onto tea waste for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panneerselvam, P.; Morad, Norhashimah; Tan, Kah Aik

    2011-01-01

    The removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution by magnetic nanoparticles prepared and impregnated onto tea waste (Fe 3 O 4 -TW) from agriculture biomass was investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 ) were prepared by chemical precipitation of a Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ salts from aqueous solution by ammonia solution. These magnetic nanoparticles of the adsorbent Fe 3 O 4 were characterized by surface area (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. The kinetics followed is first order in nature, and the value of rate constant was found to be 1.90 x 10 -2 min -1 at 100 mg L -1 and 303 K. Removal efficiency decreases from 99 to 87% by increasing the concentration of Ni(II) in solution from 50 to 100 mg L -1 . It was found that the adsorption of Ni(II) increases by increasing temperature from 303 to 323 K and the process is endothermic in nature. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equation, and the Langmuir adsorption capacity, Q o , was found to be (38.3) mg g -1 . The results also revealed that nanoparticle impregnated onto tea waste from agriculture biomass, can be an attractive option for metal removal from industrial effluent.

  6. Recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions using emulsion liquid membrane with LIX 7950 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with the guanidine extractant LIX 7950 as the mobile carrier for detoxifying copper-containing waste cyanide solutions has been determined. Relatively stable ELMs can be maintained under suitable stirring speed during mixing ELMs and the external solution. Effective extraction of copper cyanides by ELMs only occurs at pH below 11. High copper concentration in the external phase and high volume ratio of the external phase to ELMs result in high transport rates of copper and cyanide. High molar ratio of cyanide to copper tends to suppress copper extraction. The presence of thiocyanate ion significantly depresses the transport of copper and cyanide through the membrane while the thiosulfate ion produces less impact on copper removal by ELMs. Zinc and nickel cyanides can also be effectively extracted by ELMs. More than 90% copper and cyanide can be effectively removed from alkaline cyanide solutions by ELMs under suitable experimental conditions, indicating the effectiveness of using the designed ELM for recovering copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions.

  7. Solubility and speciation of actinides in salt solutions and migration experiments of intermediate level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study into the solubility of the actinides americium and plutonium in concentrated salt solutions, the release of radionuclides from various forms of conditioned ILW and the migration behaviour of these nuclides through geological material specific to the Gorleben site in Lower Saxony is described. A detailed investigation into the characterization of four highly concentrated salt solutions in terms of their pH, Eh, inorganic carbon contents and their densities is given and a series of experiments investigating the solubility of standard americium(III) and plutonium(IV) hydroxides in these solutions is described. Transuranic mobility studies for solutions derived from the standard hydroxides through salt and sand have shown the presence of at least two types of species present of widely differing mobility; one migrating with approximately the same velocity as the solvent front and the other strongly retarded. Actinide mobility data are presented and discussed for leachates derived from the simulated ILW in cement and data are also presented for the migration of the fission products in leachates derived from real waste solidified in cement and bitumen. Relatively high plutonium mobilities were observed in the case of the former and in the case of the real waste leachates, cesium was found to be the least retarded. The sorption of ruthenium was found to be largely associated with the insoluble residues of the natural rock salt rather than the halite itself. (orig./RB)

  8. Non-destructive study of iron gall inks in manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Jelena; Krstić, Dragica; Desnica, Vladan; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to establish an effective procedure of iron gall ink characterization using complementary non-destructive methods. By this, it is possible to better understand correlation of chemical composition of the inks and the state of preservation of iron gall ink manuscripts, as well as the effects of conservation treatment performed upon them. This study was undertaken on a bound 16th century manuscript comprised of different types of paper and ink from the National and University Library in Zagreb. Analytical methods used included Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Paper fibers were identified by optical microscopy and the degradation state, as well as ink differentiation, transit metal migrations and detection of stains, with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) photography. The techniques applied on original writing materials gave important information about paper and ink composition, its preservation state and efficiency of conservation treatment performed upon them.

  9. Graphene Ink Film Based Electrochemical Detector for Paracetamol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene ink is a commercialized product in the graphene industry with promising potential application in electronic device design. However, the limitation of the graphene ink is its low electronic performance due to the ink preparation protocol. In this work, we proposed a simple post-treatment of graphene ink coating via electrochemical oxidation. The electronic conductivity of the graphene ink coating was enhanced as expected after the treatment. The proposed electrochemical oxidation treatment also exposes the defects of graphene and triggered an electrocatalytic reaction during the sensing of paracetamol (PA. The overpotential of redox is much lower than conventional PA redox potential, which is favorable for avoiding the interference species. Under optimum conditions, the graphene ink-based electrochemical sensor could linearly detect PA from 10 to 500 micro molar (μM, with a limit of detection of 2.7 μM.

  10. Radioactive Waste: Meeting the Challenge - Science and Technology for Safe and Sustainable Solutions, 23 September 2014, Vienna, Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2014-01-01

    It is a well-established tradition at the IAEA to hold a Scientific Forum every year during the General Conference, devoted to a specific technical area of the Agency's work. In the last few years, we have focussed on nuclear techniques related to cancer, food, water, and the protection of the environment. It has been 14 years since the Scientific Forum last considered the management of radioactive waste. I thought it important to return to this subject because the peaceful use of nuclear science and technology has grown steadily in that time, as has the amount of radioactive material that needs to be managed safely. There is a widespread misperception about radioactive waste, which is that solutions for managing it safely and effectively simply do not exist. That is not correct. Well-established technologies do exist to address this issue. As I told the General Conference yesterday, radioactive waste is an issue for all countries, not just those which have nuclear power programmes. Radioactive sources are used to sterilize food and medical instruments, to diagnose and treat cancer patients, to develop crops that better resist disease, as well as in a wide range of industrial applications. Research reactors have uses that include production of radioisotopes for medical procedures. Many countries offer fuel cycle services, ranging from uranium mining to nuclear fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing. As with other industrial and technological processes, all of these activities produce waste. Waste may be radioactive for just a few hours, or a few days, or for hundreds of thousands of years. To ensure that waste poses no risk to people or the environment, now and in the future, all countries using nuclear technologies have the responsibility to manage it safely

  11. Preparation of SiO2-KCoFC composite ion-exchanger for removal of Cs in the soil decontamination waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Joon; Moon, Jei kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    The soil decontamination process has been developed for remediate the soil wastes excavated from the TRIGA research reactor sites. Even though the process was proven to be very effective for decontaminate the radioactive nuclides such as cesium and cobalt, the secondary spent solution should be treated with an appropriate method to minimize the waste volume. There are mainly two components in the spent decontamination solution of Cs and Co. The Co in the waste solution can be removed easily by precipitation under a basic condition. However, since the Cs is hardly removed by precipitation, an appropriate selective removal method should be employed. In this study, an inorganic composite ion exchanger of SiO 2 -KCoFC was prepared by sol-gel method for a removal of Cs in the decontamination waste solution. An optimum condition for a preparation of the composite ion exchanger and the adsorption performances of the prepared composite ion exchangers were evaluated

  12. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  13. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  14. Development of an Integrated Leachate Treatment Solution for the Port Granby Waste Management Facility - 12429

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Kevin W. [Golder Associates Inc., Lakewood, Colorado (United States); Vandergaast, Gerald [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Port Granby Project (the Project) is located near the north shore of Lake Ontario in the Municipality of Clarington, Ontario, Canada. The Project consists of relocating approximately 450,000 m{sup 3} of historic Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and contaminated soil from the existing Port Granby Waste Management Facility (WMF) to a proposed Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) located adjacent to the WMF. The LTWMF will include an engineered waste containment facility, a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP), and other ancillary facilities. A series of bench- and pilot-scale test programs have been conducted to identify preferred treatment processes to be incorporated into the WTP to treat wastewater generated during the construction, closure and post-closure periods at the WMF/LTWMF. (authors)

  15. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Yuspihana Fitrial; Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2017-01-01

    Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish) are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp.) with squid ink (Loligo sp.) against E. coli. Extraction and purificatio...

  17. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  18. The final disposal of radioactive wastes. Are we nearing a solution to a decade-old conflict?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    The present article describes how the recent decision to phase out nuclear energy has created an opportunity to gain public acceptance of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. Now that the phase-out has been finalised the amount of radioactive waste requiring disposal has become quantifiable. This has created clarity as to the magnitude of the environmental problem waiting to be solved. The longer it takes to get the final storage of radioactive wastes underway the greater will be the risk that in the end nobody is prepared to assume responsibility and the cheapest solution - in the literal sense of the word - is adopted, which is to export the wastes abroad. Since more than a year the political leadership has been struggling to work out the details of a law governing the search for a final repository. The recent approval given by the government of the federal state of Lower Saxony has come in time to throw the door wide open ahead of the federal elections for a procedure that can count on broad support among the political leadership. The chances are now good for a lasting resolution to a dispute that has been carried on in the German Federal Republic for decades, sometimes with ferocity, over the risks associated with the use of nuclear energy, and they must be grabbed.

  19. Properties of polyacrylic acid-coated silver nanoparticle ink for inkjet printing conductive tracks on paper with high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qijin; Shen, Wenfeng; Xu, Qingsong; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with triethanolamine in the presence of polyacrylic acid. Silver nanoparticle-based ink was prepared by dispersing silver nanoparticles into a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The mechanism for the dispersion and aggregation of silver nanoparticles in ink is discussed. The strong electrostatic repulsions of the carboxylate anions of the adsorbed polyacrylic acid molecules disturbed the aggregation of metal particles in solutions with a high pH value (pH > 5). An inkjet printer was used to deposit this silver nanoparticle-based ink to form silver patterns on photo paper. The actual printing qualities of the silver tracks were then analyzed by variation of printing passes, sintering temperature and time. The results showed that sintering temperature and time are associated strongly with the conductivity of the inkjet-printed conductive patterns. The conductivity of printed patterns sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10 7  S m −1 , which was approximately one third that of bulk silver. In addition, silver tracks on paper substrate also showed better electrical performance after folding. This study demonstrated that the resulting ink-jet printed patterns can be used as conductive tracks in flexible electronic devices. - Highlights: • An ink from silver nanoparticles coated with polyacrylic acid was prepared. • The ink was used for inkjet-printed tracks at varying printing parameters. • The conductivity of printed tracks sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10 7  S/m. • Mechanism for dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles in ink is discussed

  20. Properties of polyacrylic acid-coated silver nanoparticle ink for inkjet printing conductive tracks on paper with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qijin [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Shen, Wenfeng, E-mail: wfshen@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Xu, Qingsong [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Tan, Ruiqin [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Song, Weijie, E-mail: weijiesong@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with triethanolamine in the presence of polyacrylic acid. Silver nanoparticle-based ink was prepared by dispersing silver nanoparticles into a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The mechanism for the dispersion and aggregation of silver nanoparticles in ink is discussed. The strong electrostatic repulsions of the carboxylate anions of the adsorbed polyacrylic acid molecules disturbed the aggregation of metal particles in solutions with a high pH value (pH > 5). An inkjet printer was used to deposit this silver nanoparticle-based ink to form silver patterns on photo paper. The actual printing qualities of the silver tracks were then analyzed by variation of printing passes, sintering temperature and time. The results showed that sintering temperature and time are associated strongly with the conductivity of the inkjet-printed conductive patterns. The conductivity of printed patterns sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10{sup 7} S m{sup −1}, which was approximately one third that of bulk silver. In addition, silver tracks on paper substrate also showed better electrical performance after folding. This study demonstrated that the resulting ink-jet printed patterns can be used as conductive tracks in flexible electronic devices. - Highlights: • An ink from silver nanoparticles coated with polyacrylic acid was prepared. • The ink was used for inkjet-printed tracks at varying printing parameters. • The conductivity of printed tracks sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10{sup 7} S/m. • Mechanism for dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles in ink is discussed.

  1. Tintas Ink-Jet para Decoracion 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spain S.A., Ferro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new set of different ink-jet inks to be apply as a 3D object and extrafine layers to protect the decoration made by ink-jet technology. These new inks are obtained through the development of new frits based on monophasic crystal vitro structures that allows ceramic effects obtained via digital decoration. The new inks improve the ability of application by ink-jet heads in order to achieve aesthetics and decorative effects than those obtained with conventional decoration.

    Se han desarrollado un conjunto de diferentes tintas ink-jet, para aplicar como objeto 3D y capas extrafinas con el fin de proteger la decoración realizada mediante tecnología ink-jet. Estas nuevas tintas se obtienen a través del desarrollo de nuevas fritas basadas en estructuras vitro cristalinas monofásicas que permiten obtener efectos cerámicos mediante decoración digital. Las nuevas tintas mejoran la capacidad de aplicación mediante cabezales ink-jet con el fin de conseguir efectos estéticos y decorativos superiores a los obtenidos con la decoración convencional.

  2. Problems with ink skin markings for radiation field setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Masaru; Saeki, Mituaki; Ishida, Yusei

    1982-01-01

    Ink skin markings are used in radiation therapy to aid in reproduction of treatment field setups or to indelibly outline field markings or tumors. We reported two cases of indelible ink skin for radiation field septa with minimal discomfort and dermatitis have been experienced for 6 months and above since end of radiotherapy. These indelible ink skin markings look like tattoo that will be big problems in the case of young female. We improved these problems by using of 10 percent silver nitrate instead of habitual skin ink. (author)

  3. New Yellow Synergist for Stable Pigment Dispersion of Inkjet Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gihyun; Lee, Hayoon; Jung, Hyocheol; Kang, Seokwoo; Park, Jongwook

    2018-02-01

    Minimizing ink droplet and self-dispersed pigment mixture are becoming hot issues for high resolution of inkjet printing. New synergist including sulfonic acid group of PY-74 was suggested and synthesized. Pigment itself did not show water solubility but new synergist, SY-11 exhibited good solubility in water and organic solvents such as DMSO and DMF. When aqueous pigment ink was prepared with SY-11, storage stability of the ink has been remained for 7 days under periodically repeated heating and cooling conditions. Particle size of formulated ink was around 150 nm.

  4. Rapid laser sintering of metal nano-particles inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermak, Oleg; Zenou, Michael; Toker, Gil Bernstein; Ankri, Jonathan; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Kotler, Zvi

    2016-09-23

    Fast sintering is of importance in additive metallization processes and especially on sensitive substrates. This work explores the mechanisms which set limits to the laser sintering rate of metal nano-particle inks. A comparison of sintering behavior of three different ink compositions with laser exposure times from micro-seconds to seconds reveals the dominant factor to be the organic content (OC) in the ink. With a low OC silver ink, of 2% only, sintering time falls below 100 μs with resistivity <×4 bulk silver. Still shorter exposure times result in line delamination and deformation with a similar outcome when the OC is increased.

  5. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  6. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Sangita [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Maind, S.D. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sanjukta A. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, N. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 muL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}, mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1sigma) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  7. Removal of arsenic from aqueous solutions using waste iron columns inoculated with iron bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhdarpoor, Abooalfazl; Nikmanesh, Roya; Samaei, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of water resources is one of the serious risks threatening natural ecosystems and human health. This study investigates arsenic removal using a waste iron column with and without iron bacteria in continuous and batch phases. In batch experiments, the effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration of arsenic and adsorbent dose were investigated. Results indicated that the highest arsenate removal efficiency occurred at pH 7 (96.76%). On increasing the amount of waste iron from 0.25 to 1 g, the removal rate changed from about 42.37%-96.70%. The results of continuous experiments on the column containing waste iron showed that as the empty bed contact time increased from 5 to 60 min, the secondary arsenate concentration changed from 23 to 6 µg/l. In experiments involving a waste iron column with iron bacteria, an increase in residence time from 5 to 60 min decreased the secondary arsenate concentration from 14.97 to 4.86 µg/l. The results of this study showed that waste iron containing iron bacteria is a good adsorbent for removal of arsenic from contaminated water.

  8. Lixiviation of plutonium contaminated solid wastes by aqueous solution of electro-generated reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarande, Michelle

    1991-01-01

    This study concerns the development of the new concept for the decontamination of plutonium bearing solid wastes, based on the lixiviation of the wastes using electro-generated reducing agents. First, a comparative study of the kinetics of the dissolution of pure PuO 2 (prepared by calcination of Pu (IV) oxalate at 450 C) in sulfuric acid media, with different reducing agents, was realized. Qualitatively these reagents can be sorted in three groups: 1 / fast kinetics for Cr(II), V(II) and U(III); 2 / slow kinetics for Ti(III); 3 / very slow kinetics for V(III) and U(VI). In order to contribute to the design of an electrochemical reactor for the generation of the reducing agents usable for the lixiviation of plutonium bearing solid wastes, the study of the diffusion coefficients of both oxidized and reduced forms of different redox couples, at different temperatures, was undertaken. The results of this study also permits, from the knowledge of the diffusional activation energy of the ions, to conclude that the dissolution of pure plutonium dioxide under the action of these reducing agents is not diffusion limited. The feasibility of the plutonium decontamination treatment of synthetic or real solid wastes was then studied at laboratory scale using electro-generated V(II), which is with Cr(II) among the best reagents. The efficiency of the treatment was good, (80 pc Pu solubilisation yield), especially in the case of cellulosic or miscellaneous organic wastes. (author) [fr

  9. Influence of microstructure on stress corrosion cracking of mild steel in synthetic caustic-nitrate nuclear waste solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarafian, P.G.

    1975-12-01

    The influence of alloy microstructure on stress corrosion cracking of mild steel in caustic-nitrate synthetic nuclear waste solutions was studied. An evaluation was made of the effect of heat treatment on a representative material (ASTM A 516 Grade 70) used in the construction of high activity radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River Plant. Several different microstructures were tested for susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking. Precracked fracture specimens loaded in either constant load or constant crack opening displacement were exposed to a variety of caustic-nitrate and nitrate solutions. Results were correlated with the mechanical and corrosion properties of the microstructures. Crack velocity and crack arrest stress intensity were found to be related to the yield strength of the steel microstructures. Fractographic evidence indicated pH depletion and corrosive crack tip chemistry conditions even in highly caustic solutions. Experimental results were compatible with crack growth by a strain-assisted anodic dissolution mechanism; however, hydrogen embrittlement also was considered possible

  10. The disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Proposed solutions and uses in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, J.F.A.

    1992-06-01

    The characteristics of high level radioactive waste produced in nuclear plants similar to that used in Brazil is presented. Subsequently it is described the international experience, and the way to apply such knowledge to the Brazilian situation, defining the magnitude of the problem, applying a methodology to select sites, and choosing areas for the location of a repository. Once such areas are defined, it is presented the behaviour of rock mass, similar to those found in the brazilian territory, based on the requirements for a high radioactive waste repository site. Finally, two Projects are presented for countries with lithologies similar to that of Brazil. The first one is choosing sites for a high radioactive waste repository program, and the second is an investigation of rock mass responses program. (author)

  11. Technical solution for radioactive waste management resulting from the I-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez V, P.; Lopez F, Y.; Quevedo G, J.; Betancourt H, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses a system designed for the collection and storage of biological wastes arising from the therapy with l-131. This system is based on the use of either retention or septic tanks, in which the waste is stored or delayed until the activity decays to acceptable levels, in order to comply with authorized limits established by the Regulatory Authority for discharge to environment. A method for estimating waste activity concentration as a function of the number of patients, the activity delivered to each one of them, as well as other parameter related to the system design are discussed. The general requirements to be met by the system are also included. (authors). 4 refs., 4 figs

  12. Digital decoration by continuous ink jet system for ceramic products based in water inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colores Ceramicos, S. A.; Talleres Foro, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    A new continuous ink jet system for digital ceramic decoration using water based dispersed ceramic pigment has been developed, that increases drastically the sustainability of the process. During the development of this work, different equipment for any application and the consumables and design tools have been also developed. (Author)

  13. Steam jet mill-a prospective solution to industrial exhaust steam and solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingxing; Chen, Haiyan

    2018-04-20

    Bulk industrial solid wastes occupy a lot of our resources and release large amounts of toxic and hazardous substances to the surrounding environment, demanding innovative strategies for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling for economically ultrafine powder. A new technology for grinding, classification, collection, and recycling solid waste is proposed, using the superheated steam produced from the industrial exhaust steam to disperse, grind, classify, and collect the industrial solid waste. A large-scale steam jet mill was designed to operate at an inlet steam temperature 230-300 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.2-0.6 MPa. A kind of industrial solid waste fluidized-bed combustion ashes was used to grinding tests at different steam temperatures and inlet pressures. The total process for grinding, classification, and collection is drying. Two kinds of particle sizes are obtained. One particle size is d 50  = 4.785 μm, and another particle size is d 50  = 8.999 μm. For particle size d 50  = 8.999 μm, the inlet temperature is 296 °C and an inlet pressure is 0.54 MPa for the grinding chamber. The steam flow is 21.7 t/h. The yield of superfine powder is 73 t/h. The power consumption is 3.76 kW h/t. The obtained superfine powder meets the national standard S95 slag. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to solid waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, large-scale, low-cost, promising, and green method for both solid waste recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  14. Integrated Treatment and Storage Solutions for Solid Radioactive Waste at the Russian Shipyard Near Polyarny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, A.; Engoy, T.; Endregard, M.; Busmundrud, O.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.; Krumrine, P.; Backe, S.; Gorin, S.; Evans, B.

    2002-01-01

    Russian Navy Yard No. 10 (Shkval), near the city of Murmansk, has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) pretreatment and storage facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. This shipyard serves the Northern Fleet by servicing, repairing, and dismantling naval vessels. Specifically, seven nuclear submarines of the first and second generation and Victor class are laid up at this shipyard, awaiting defueling and dismantlement. One first generation nuclear submarine has already been dismantled there, but recently progress on dismantlement has slowed because all the available storage space is full. SRW has been placed in metal storage containers, which have been moved outside of the actual storage site, which increases the environmental risks. AMEC is a cooperative effort between the Russian Federation, Kingdom of Norway and the United States. AMEC Projects 1.3 and 1.4 specifically address waste treatment and storage issues. Various waste treatment options have been assessed, technologies selected, and now integrated facilities are being designed and constructed to address these problems. Treatment technologies that are being designed and constructed include a mobile pretreatment facility comprising waste assay, segregation, size reduction, compaction and repackaging operations. Waste storage technologies include metal and concrete containers, and lightweight modular storage buildings. This paper focuses on the problems and challenges that are and will be faced at the Polyarninsky Shipyard. Specifically, discussion of the waste quantities, types, and conditions and various site considerations versus the various technologies that are to be employed will be provided. A systems approach at the site is being proposed by the Russian partners, therefore integration with other ongoing and planned operations at the site will also be discussed

  15. Selective removal/recovery of RCRA metals from waste and process solutions using polymer filtration{trademark} technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals are found in a number of process and waste streams at many DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and industrial facilities. RCRA metals consist principally of chromium, mercury, cadmium, lead, and silver. Arsenic and selenium, which form oxyanions, are also considered RCRA elements. Discharge limits for each of these metals are based on toxicity and dictated by state and federal regulations (e.g., drinking water, RCRA, etc.). RCRA metals are used in many current operations, are generated in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) operations, and are also present in old process wastes that require treatment and stabilization. These metals can exist in solutions, as part of sludges, or as contaminants on soils or solid surfaces, as individual metals or as mixtures with other metals, mixtures with radioactive metals such as actinides (defined as mixed waste), or as mixtures with a variety of inert metals such as calcium and sodium. The authors have successfully completed a preliminary proof-of-principle evaluation of Polymer Filtration{trademark} (PF) technology for the dissolution of metallic mercury and have also shown that they can remove and concentrate RCRA metals from dilute solutions for a variety of aqueous solution types using PF technology. Another application successfully demonstrated is the dilute metal removal of americium and plutonium from process streams. This application was used to remove the total alpha contamination to below 30 pCi/L for the wastewater treatment plant at TA-50 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from nitric acid distillate in the acid recovery process at TA-55, the Plutonium Facility at LANL (ESP-CP TTP AL16C322). This project will develop and optimize the PF technology for specific DOE process streams containing RCRA metals and coordinate it with the needs of the commercial sector to ensure that technology transfer occurs.

  16. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D.

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO 3 , quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite

  17. Direct examination of cadmium bonding in rat tissues dosed with mine wastes and cadmium-containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diacomanolis, V.; Ng, J. C.; Sadler, R.; Harris, H. H.; Nomura, M.; Noller, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Direct examination by XANES and EXAFS of metal bonding in tissue can be demonstrated by examining cadmium uptake and bonding in animal tissue maintained at cryogenic temperatures. XANES at the K-edge of cadmium were collected at the Photon Factory Advanced Ring (PF-AR), NW10A beam line at KEK-Tsukuba-Japan. Rats fed with 1g mine waste containing 8-400 mg/kg cadmium per 200g body weight (b.w.) or dosed by oral gavage with either cadmium chloride solution alone (at 6 mg/kg b.w.) or in combination with other salts (As, Cu or Zn), 5 days/week for 6 weeks, had 0.1-7.5 and 8-86 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney, respectively. Rats given intraperitoneally (ip) or intravenously (iv) 1-4 times with 1 mg/kg b.w. cadmium solution had 30-120 mg/kg cadmium in the liver or kidney. Tissues from rats were kept and transferred at cryogenic temperature and XANES were recorded at 20 K. The spectra for rat liver samples suggested conjugation of cadmium with glutathione or association with the sulfide bond (Cd-S) of proteins and peptides. EXAFS of rat liver fed by Cd and Zn solutions showed that Cd was clearly bound to S ligands with an inter-atomic distance of 2.54 A ring for Cd-S that was similar to cadmium sulfide with an inter-atomic distance of 2.52 A ring for Cd-S. Liver or kidney of rats fed with mine wastes did not give an edge in the XANES spectra indicating little uptake of cadmium by the animals. Longer and higher dosing regimen may be required in order to observe the same Cd-S bond in the rat tissue from mine wastes, including confirmation by EXAFS.

  18. Selective removal/recovery of RCRA metals from waste and process solutions using polymer filtration trademark technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.

    1997-01-01

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals are found in a number of process and waste streams at many DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and industrial facilities. RCRA metals consist principally of chromium, mercury, cadmium, lead, and silver. Arsenic and selenium, which form oxyanions, are also considered RCRA elements. Discharge limits for each of these metals are based on toxicity and dictated by state and federal regulations (e.g., drinking water, RCRA, etc.). RCRA metals are used in many current operations, are generated in decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) operations, and are also present in old process wastes that require treatment and stabilization. These metals can exist in solutions, as part of sludges, or as contaminants on soils or solid surfaces, as individual metals or as mixtures with other metals, mixtures with radioactive metals such as actinides (defined as mixed waste), or as mixtures with a variety of inert metals such as calcium and sodium. The authors have successfully completed a preliminary proof-of-principle evaluation of Polymer Filtration trademark (PF) technology for the dissolution of metallic mercury and have also shown that they can remove and concentrate RCRA metals from dilute solutions for a variety of aqueous solution types using PF technology. Another application successfully demonstrated is the dilute metal removal of americium and plutonium from process streams. This application was used to remove the total alpha contamination to below 30 pCi/L for the wastewater treatment plant at TA-50 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and from nitric acid distillate in the acid recovery process at TA-55, the Plutonium Facility at LANL (ESP-CP TTP AL16C322). This project will develop and optimize the PF technology for specific DOE process streams containing RCRA metals and coordinate it with the needs of the commercial sector to ensure that technology transfer occurs

  19. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Jose; Van Luik, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located about 42 kilometers from the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. It is an operating deep geologic repository in bedded salt 657 meters below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert. Since its opening in March of 1999, it has received about 12,000 shipments totaling about 91,000 cubic meters of defense related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Twenty-two sites have been cleaned up of their defense-legacy TRU waste. The WIPP's shipping program has an untarnished safety record and its trucks and trailers have safely traveled the equivalent of about 60 round-trips to the Moon. WIPP received, and deserved, a variety of safety accolades over its nearly 15 year working life. In February of 2014, however, two incidents resulted in a major operational suspension and reevaluation of its safety systems, processes and equipment. The first incident was an underground mining truck fire, followed nine days later by an airborne radiation release incident. Accident Investigation Board (AIB) reports on both incidents point to failures of plans, procedures and persons. The AIB recommendations for recovery from both these incidents are numerous and are being carefully implemented. One major recommendation is to no longer have different maintenance and safety requirements for nuclear handling equipment and mining equipment. Maintenance and cleanliness of mining equipment was cited as a contributing cause to the underground fire, and the idea that there can be lesser rigor in taking care of mining equipment, when it is being operated in the same underground space as the waste handling equipment, is not tenable. At some point in the future, the changes made in response to these two incidents will be seen as a valuable lesson learned on behalf of future repository programs. WIPP will once again be seen as a ''pilot'' in the nautical sense, in terms of 'showing the way' - the way to a national and international radioactive waste

  20. The waste isolation pilot plant. Permanent isolation of defense transuranic waste in deep geologic salt. A national solution and international model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose; Van Luik, Abraham [US Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Carlsbad Field Office

    2015-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located about 42 kilometers from the city of Carlsbad, New Mexico. It is an operating deep geologic repository in bedded salt 657 meters below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert. Since its opening in March of 1999, it has received about 12,000 shipments totaling about 91,000 cubic meters of defense related transuranic (TRU) wastes. Twenty-two sites have been cleaned up of their defense-legacy TRU waste. The WIPP's shipping program has an untarnished safety record and its trucks and trailers have safely traveled the equivalent of about 60 round-trips to the Moon. WIPP received, and deserved, a variety of safety accolades over its nearly 15 year working life. In February of 2014, however, two incidents resulted in a major operational suspension and reevaluation of its safety systems, processes and equipment. The first incident was an underground mining truck fire, followed nine days later by an airborne radiation release incident. Accident Investigation Board (AIB) reports on both incidents point to failures of plans, procedures and persons. The AIB recommendations for recovery from both these incidents are numerous and are being carefully implemented. One major recommendation is to no longer have different maintenance and safety requirements for nuclear handling equipment and mining equipment. Maintenance and cleanliness of mining equipment was cited as a contributing cause to the underground fire, and the idea that there can be lesser rigor in taking care of mining equipment, when it is being operated in the same underground space as the waste handling equipment, is not tenable. At some point in the future, the changes made in response to these two incidents will be seen as a valuable lesson learned on behalf of future repository programs. WIPP will once again be seen as a ''pilot'' in the nautical sense, in terms of 'showing the way' - the way to a national and international radioactive waste

  1. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part IV: solution via symbolic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, R.M.; Mikhailov, M.D.; Ruperti Junior, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the automatic symbolic-numerical solution of the one-dimensional linearized Burgers equation with linear decay, which models the migration of radionuclides in porous media, by using the generalized integral transform technique and the Mathematic system. An example is considered to allow for comparison between the proposed hybrid numerical-analytical solution and the exact solution. Different filtering strategies are also investigated, in terms of the effects on convergence rates. (author)

  2. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils: solution via symbolic manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, R.M.; Mikhailov, M.D.; Ruperti, N.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A demonstration is made of the automatic symbolic-numerical solution of the one-dimensional linearized Burgers equation with linear decay, which models the migration of radionuclides in porous media, by using the generalized integral transform technique and the Mathematica software system. An example is considered to allow for comparisons between the proposed hybrid numerical-analytical solution and the exact solution. Different filtering strategies are also reviewed in terms of the effects on convergence rates. (author)

  3. Transport of Escherichia Coli and solutes during waste water infiltration in an urban alluvial aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.A.; van Herwerden, M.; Kebtie, M.; Noman, A.; Schrijven, J.F.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recharge of waste water in an unconsolidated poorly sorted alluvial aquifer is a complex process, both physically and hydrochemically. The aim of this paper is to analyse and conceptualise vertical transport mechanisms taking place in an urban area of extensive wastewater infiltration by analysing

  4. Waste sizing solution as co-substrate for anaerobic decolourisation of textile dyeing wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, I.; Santos, dos A.B.; Spanjers, H.

    2005-01-01

    Dyeing wastewaters and residual size are textile factory waste streams that can be treated anaerobically. For successful anaerobic treatment of dyeing effluents, a co-substrate has to be added because of their low concentration of easily biodegradable compounds. Starch-based size contains easily

  5. Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieva Aileen D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the adsorptive capacity of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in simulated wastewater onto three agricultural wastes The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ onto the agricultural wastes can be arranged as Litchi chinensis (4.30 mg of sorbate per g of sorbent (mg g-1, 85.68% adsorption > Bambusa vulgaris (3.83 mg g-1, 76.19% adsorption > Annona squamosa (2.70 mg g-1, 53.66% adsorption while the adsorption capacities of Cu2+ onto the same agricultural wastes can be arranged in the order: Bambusa vulgaris (3.86 mg g-1, 77.17% adsorption > Annona squamosal (3.58 mg g-1, 71.58% adsorption > Litchi chinensis (3.42 mg g-1, 68.32% adsorption. The biosorbents had relatively higher adsorptive capacities with Cu2+ as compared to that of Pb2+ except for Litchi chinensis. Although the results show lower adsorptive capacity as compared to a number of treated agricultural wastes showing 80% up to almost 100% adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+, the results show that Annona squamosa, Bamubusa vulgaris, and Litchi chinensis are potential biosorbents and promote sustainable treatment process.

  6. Supercritical Water Oxidation: A Solution for the Elimination of Back-End Organic Reprocessing Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Turc, H.A.; Fournel, B.

    2008-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a very efficient technique for total elimination of organic wastes from reprocessing activities on the way of 'zero wastes' facilities. This technology uses the properties of supercritical water (P > 221 bars and T > 647 K) to obtain a good mixing between oxygen (the oxidant) and the organic waste. Thereby, the oxidation reaction is fast and complete. Using the SCWO process, contamination contained in organic materials like spent solvents can be confined in a closed space, like a reactor in a glovebox. A new application is tested for the treatment of solid organic wastes like ion exchange resins (IER). Experiments are made with suspensions of IER in water and isopropyl-alcohol. A nuclear version of the process with the double shell reactor has been constructed and is being tested. The aim of this work is to obtain a treatment capacity of 1 kg/h for the nuclear version with the same global set-up, concept of process and security as well as contamination management as for a 200 g/h pilot. (authors)

  7. Supercritical Water Oxidation: A Solution for the Elimination of Back-End Organic Reprocessing Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leybros, A.; Roubaud, A.; Turc, H.A.; Fournel, B. [Supercritical fluids and membranes Laboratory, CEA Valrho, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a very efficient technique for total elimination of organic wastes from reprocessing activities on the way of 'zero wastes' facilities. This technology uses the properties of supercritical water (P > 221 bars and T > 647 K) to obtain a good mixing between oxygen (the oxidant) and the organic waste. Thereby, the oxidation reaction is fast and complete. Using the SCWO process, contamination contained in organic materials like spent solvents can be confined in a closed space, like a reactor in a glovebox. A new application is tested for the treatment of solid organic wastes like ion exchange resins (IER). Experiments are made with suspensions of IER in water and isopropyl-alcohol. A nuclear version of the process with the double shell reactor has been constructed and is being tested. The aim of this work is to obtain a treatment capacity of 1 kg/h for the nuclear version with the same global set-up, concept of process and security as well as contamination management as for a 200 g/h pilot. (authors)

  8. 3D printing of shape-conformable thermoelectric materials using all-inorganic Bi2Te3-based inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Fredrick; Kwon, Beomjin; Eom, Youngho; Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Sangmin; Jo, Seungki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bong-Seo; Im, Hye Jin; Lee, Min Ho; Min, Tae Sik; Kim, Kyung Tae; Chae, Han Gi; King, William P.; Son, Jae Sung

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric energy conversion offers a unique solution for generating electricity from waste heat. However, despite recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric materials, the widespread application of thermoelectric generators has been hampered by challenges in fabricating thermoelectric materials with appropriate dimensions to perfectly fit heat sources. Herein, we report an extrusion-based three-dimensional printing method to produce thermoelectric materials with geometries suitable for heat sources. All-inorganic viscoelastic inks were synthesized using Sb2Te3 chalcogenidometallate ions as inorganic binders for Bi2Te3-based particles. Three-dimensional printed materials with various geometries showed homogenous thermoelectric properties, and their dimensionless figure-of-merit values of 0.9 (p-type) and 0.6 (n-type) were comparable to the bulk values. Conformal cylindrical thermoelectric generators made of 3D-printed half rings mounted on an alumina pipe were studied both experimentally and computationally. Simulations show that the power output of the conformal, shape-optimized generator is higher than that of conventional planar generators.

  9. HANFORD CANYON DISPOSITION INITIATIVE (CDI). A BETTER SOLUTION TO AN EXPENSIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.J.; MacFarlan, G.M.; Jacques, I.D.; Goodenough, James D.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental cleanup that is occurring at most U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is going to be long and expensive. How expensive can really only be answered when cleanup paths forward have been identified, agreed to, and planned. In addition, all the major issues must have been identified. This also means being able to answer the question ''What about the waste?'' Where the waste goes and how it will be handled greatly affects the cost. However, within the mandatory safety and legal envelope, ingenuity can play a huge role in keeping the cost down, getting necessary decisions made earlier in the process, and being protective of the worker, public, and the environment. This paper examines how ingenuity addressed a cleanup action that had no agreed to and identified path forward and resulted in a decision made early that has spurred thinking on what to do with the other similar waste cleanup situations. The Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI) is an example of finding a better way to address a specific problem, getting agreement on a path forward, opening the options for waste disposal, and reducing the time line for final disposition. For the CDI, the challenge was whether an old inactive building designed for reprocessing and used for multiple missions during its lifetime could be economically and sufficiently characterized to satisfy and bring consensus among groups with vastly different view points. The CDI has actively involved members of various DOE offices (i.e., Waste Management, Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Facility Transition), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), and the three affected Tribal Nations. The ability to partner between these diverse groups has allowed the CDI to go from a concept, to a funded priority project, to a complete review of various alternatives, and finally to a proposed plan to demonstrate the wisdom of finding a

  10. PLASMA GASIFICATION – THE WASTE-to-ENERGY SOLUTION FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsan N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma WtE is currently subject of extensive research and a number of companies across the globe are trying to develop a suitable, eco-friendly and efficient WtE technology for the future. While all of these companies are still working on concept designs or small-scale prototypes, there is one company already building large industrial scale plasma gasifiers around the globe to treat MSW, Industrial and Toxic waste all together. In 1999 in Japan, Hitachi Metals and Westinghouse Plasma Corp (“WPC” built the World’s First commercial demonstration plasma WtE plant. Hitachi Metals operated the plant for one year on municipal solid waste and obtained a certification from the Japan Waste Research Foundation (JWRF. Subsequently, Hitachi Metals leveraged this success into the two commercial plants at Mihama-Mikata and Utashinai in Japan, both having at the very core the now proven Westinghouse Plasma gasification technology. For more than 20 years, Westinghouse Plasma Corp (WPC has been leading the technology platform for converting the world’s waste into clean energy for a healthier planet. The WPC technology makes landfills obsolete and replaces Incineration as the primary process for WtE. The WPC technology already operates in three reference plants around the world and other three new commercial plants are under construction (two plants of 1000 tons/day in UK and a 650 tons/day in China, all three designed to convert municipal solid waste to electricity and district heat, in the most efficient and environmental-friendly manner.

  11. Glasses used in the solidification of high level radioactive waste: their behaviour in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1983-02-01

    Because of their amorphous structure, glasses are particularly suitable matrixes for the solidification of the mixture of radionuclides included in the high level wastes from reactor fuel reprocessing. They are not sensitive to variations in the fractions present of different waste oxides and are resistent to the effects of irradiation. In particular, borosilicate glasses have been investigated for around 25 years and the vitrification techniques have been tested on the technological scale. The environmental conditions within a final waste repository are expected to be such that the chemical resistance of glasses to attack by groundwaters is of special interest. In the present report the corrosion behaviour is described, with emphasis being placed upon the most significant controlling parameters. Since experimental determination of corrosion rates must be done in relatively short-time experiments, the results of which can depend strongly upon the measurement methods employed, it is necessary to carry out a critical assessment of the techniques commonly used in laboratory work. Experimental results are illustrated by means of selected examples. Particular emphasis is placed upon the effects of increased temperatures and of irradiation. The models which have been proposed for the estimation of the long-term corrosion behaviour of glasses are not yet fully sufficient and improvements are required. Furthermore, the actual corrosion rates which are fed into such models must be replaced by values more appropriate for the actual environmental conditions to which the glasses are most likely to be exposed within high level waste repositories. It should be noted, however, that even with current conservative input data on corrosion rates, typical estimated lifetimes for vitrified waste blocks are of the order of 10 5 years. The report concludes with recommendations concerning the most useful areas for further investigations. (author)

  12. Equilibrium and Kinetic Sorption of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Waste Solutions Using p (AAc-HEMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, A.H.; Khalil, F.H.; Elnesr, E.; Mansour, T.; El-Gammal, B.; El -Sabbah, M.M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste solution using poly acrylic acid / 2-hydroxy ethyle methacrylate ( p-AAc/ HEMA) was investigated. Experiments were carried out as function of contact time, initial concentration, ph, particle size and temperature. Adsorption data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetics equations. It was shown that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics. The results indicated that poly acrylic acid / 2-hydroxy ethyle methacrylate (p-AAc/ HEMA) is suitable as adsorbent material for adsorption of Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Nd 3+ and Eu 3+ radio active nuclei from aqueous solutions.

  13. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Vaseem, Mohammad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers

  14. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  15. Analysis of Silver Ink Bow-Tie RFID Tag Antennas Printed on Paper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Merilampi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymeric silver inks, paper substrates, and screen printing were used to produce prototype Bow-Tie tags. Because of increasing interest in applying passive UHF-RFID systems in paper industry, the Bow-Tie antenna used in this study was designed to work through paper. The maximum reliable read ranges of the tags were measured thorough stacked paper and also in air. The analysis and functioning of the antenna design are also discussed. All inks and paper substrates were suitable as antenna material and the prototype tag antennas had good reading performance. The maximum reliable read ranges were quite the same as for copper and aluminum tags studied elsewhere. This means that printed UHF tags are competitive solutions for the identification of simple mass products.

  16. A magnetic nano-particle ink for tunable microwave applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2016-12-19

    Inkjet printing or printing for realization of inexpensive and large area electronics has unearthed as an attractive fabrication technique. Though at present, mostly the metallic inks are printed on regular microwave substrates. In this paper, a fully printed multilayer fabrication process is demonstrated where the substrate is also realized through printing. A novel Fe2O3 based magnetic ink is used as a substrate while an in-house silver organo complex (SOC) ink is developed for metallic layers. Complete magnetostatic and microwave characterization of the ink is presented. At the end, a tunable patch antenna is shown as an application using the magnetic ink as the substrate. The antenna shows a tuning range of 12.5 % for a magnetic field strength of 3 kOe.

  17. Nickel recovery from electronic waste II Electrodeposition of Ni and Ni–Fe alloys from diluted sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robotin, B. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ispas, A. [Fachgebiet Elektrochemie und Galvanotechnik II, Technische Universität Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Coman, V. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bund, A. [Fachgebiet Elektrochemie und Galvanotechnik II, Technische Universität Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Ilea, P., E-mail: pilea@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos Street, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Ni can be recovered from EG wastes as pure Ni or as Ni–Fe alloys. • The control of the experimental conditions gives a certain alloy composition. • Unusual deposits morphology shows different nucleation mechanisms for Ni vs Fe. • The nucleation mechanism was progressive for Ni and instantaneous for Fe and Ni–Fe. - Abstract: This study focuses on the electrodeposition of Ni and Ni–Fe alloys from synthetic solutions similar to those obtained by the dissolution of electron gun (an electrical component of cathode ray tubes) waste. The influence of various parameters (pH, electrolyte composition, Ni{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratio, current density) on the electrodeposition process was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) were used to provide information about the obtained deposits’ thickness, morphology, and elemental composition. By controlling the experimental parameters, the composition of the Ni–Fe alloys can be tailored towards specific applications. Complementarily, the differences in the nucleation mechanisms for Ni, Fe and Ni–Fe deposition from sulfate solutions have been evaluated and discussed using cyclic voltammetry and potential step chronoamperometry. The obtained results suggest a progressive nucleation mechanism for Ni, while for Fe and Ni–Fe, the obtained data points are best fitted to an instantaneous nucleation model.

  18. A market-based solution to the problem of nuclear and toxic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Siting new low-level and high-level nuclear waste sites and other hazardous facilities has been difficult, if not impossible, in recent years. Experts claim that the physical and biological risks associated with these sites are extremely low, but the public often does not believe these assertions. Psychological costs are high because large risks are perceived. Compensation methods for residents near a potential site have been suggested. However, when this technique has been attached to present programs for site selection, perspective site neighbors viewed it as coercive. A reverse Dutch auction would eliminate these objections and generate a volunteer political jurisdiction, removing the element of coercion. Residents of a volunteer area would set their own price for psychological compensation. The Dutch auction feature would set a limit on this price, however, The reverse Dutch auction in effect sets the true social cost of hazardous waste sites, but retains environmental safeguards

  19. Radioactive waste management - turning options into solutions. 3rd scientific forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    The objective of the Scientific Forum was to bring to the attention of senior governmental representatives present at the IAEA General Conference some of the important scientific and technical issues in the field of radioactive waste management and to promote awareness of the international dimension of current developments. The Forum was intended, in part, to disseminate and build upon the observations, conclusions and recommendations of the International Conference on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management organised by the IAEA, in co-operation with the European Commission, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Health Organisation, and hosted in Cordoba by the Government of Spain. This report presents an overview of the issues raised in the discussions

  20. Accelerator-driven transmutation technology: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses current technical and non-technical issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution of the current U.S. conceptual design is identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Although a number of key challenges are identified in this paper, the benefits of the research and development effort and the potential paradigm shift in attitude toward resource stewardship could greatly enhance public confidence in nuclear waste management that will have rapid positive repercussions on nuclear technology research and commercial applications. (author)

  1. Valorization of aquaculture waste in removal of cadmium from aqueous solution: optimization by kinetics and ANN analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Gautam; Hossain, Asif

    2018-05-01

    Cadmium is one of the most hazardous heavy metal concerning human health and aquatic pollution. The removal of cadmium through biosorption is a feasible option for restoration of the ecosystem health of the contaminated freshwater ecosystems. In compliance with this proposition and considering the efficiency of calcium carbonate as biosorbent, the shell dust of the economically important snail Bellamya bengalensis was tested for the removal of cadmium from aqueous medium. Following use of the flesh as a cheap source of protein, the shells of B. bengalensis made up of CaCO3 are discarded as aquaculture waste. The biosorption was assessed through batch sorption studies along with studies to characterize the morphology and surface structures of waste shell dust. The data on the biosorption were subjected to the artificial neural network (ANN) model for optimization of the process. The biosorption process changed as functions of pH of the solution, concentration of heavy metal, biomass of the adsorbent and time of exposure. The kinetic process was well represented by pseudo second order ( R 2 = 0.998), and Langmuir equilibrium ( R 2 = 0.995) had better fits in the equilibrium process with 30.33 mg g-1 of maximum sorption capacity. The regression equation ( R 2 = 0.948) in the ANN model supports predicted values of Cd removal satisfactorily. The normalized importance analysis in ANN predicts Cd2+ concentration, and pH has the most influence in removal than biomass dose and time. The SEM and EDX studies show clear peaks for Cd confirming the biosorption process while the FTIR study depicts the main functional groups (-OH, C-H, C=O, C=C) responsible for the biosorption process. The study indicated that the waste shell dust can be used as an efficient, low cost, environment friendly, sustainable adsorbent for the removal of cadmium from aqueous solution.

  2. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part IV: solution via symbolic manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, R.M.; Mikhailov, M.D. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Transmissao e Tecnologia do Calor; Ruperti Junior, N.J. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos Radioativos

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the automatic symbolic-numerical solution of the one-dimensional linearized Burgers equation with linear decay, which models the migration of radionuclides in porous media, by using the generalized integral transform technique and the Mathematic system. An example is considered to allow for comparison between the proposed hybrid numerical-analytical solution and the exact solution. Different filtering strategies are also investigated, in terms of the effects on convergence rates. (author) 6 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Progresses in Polystyrene Biodegradation and Prospects for Solutions to Plastic Waste Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. S.; Brandon, A. M.; Xing, D. F.; Yang, J.; Pang, J. W.; Criddle, C. S.; Ren, N. Q.; Wu, W. M.

    2018-05-01

    Petroleum-based plastic pollution has been a global environmental concern for decades. The obvious contrast between the remarkable durability of the plastics and their short service time leads to the increasing accumulation of plastic wastes in the environment. A cost-effective, sustainable strategy to solve the problem should focus on source control and clean up. Polystyrene (PS) wastes, a recalcitrant plastic polymer, are among the wide spread man-made plastic pollutants. Destruction of PS wastes can be achieved using various abiotic methods such as incineration but such methods release potential air pollution and generation of hazardous by-products. Biodegradation and bioremediation has been proposed for years. Since the 1970’s, the microbial biodegradation of plastics, including PS, has been evaluated with mixed and isolated cultures from different sources such as activated sludge, trash, soil, and manure. To date, PS biodegradation by these microbial cultures is still quite slow. Recently, the larvae of yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus) have demonstrated promising PS biodegradation performance. Mealworms have demonstrated the ability to chew and ingest PS foam as food and are capable of degrading and mineralizing PS into CO2 via microbe-dependent activities within the gut in less than the 12-15 hrs gut retention time. These research results have revealed a potential for microbial biodegradation and bioremediation of plastic pollutants.

  4. Vitrification of galvanic solid wastes: solutions for the east area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Cleiton dos Santos; Castanho, Sonia Regina Homem de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Galvanic solid waste have elevated levels of heavy metals and usually are stocked in the industry, creating a worrisome environmental liabilities. This disturbing fact is aggravated in areas densely populated as the area east of Sao Paulo, which has a pole of industrial electroplating of chrome. The present paper, we describe and provide a technological option for the disposal of waste generated by this activity using techniques that allow the incorporation of these in a glass matrix. The wastes were characterized by XRF, EDS, ICP-AES, AAS, DTA/TGA, XRD and SEM-FEG and embedded in glass and frits made from the system SiO_-CaO-Na_O, with additions of up to 30% by weight. The results of the analysis of residues showed the majority presence of Ni, Cr, B, Cu, Ca and S. The resulting glasses showed that heavy metals were incorporated into its structure and probably replacing the Ca and Na. In addition, the products showed specific colors indicating the possibility of use in some segments of manufacturing in ceramics with glazes, loading and pigments. (author)

  5. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Veolia ES Technical Solutions, L.L.C. in Middlesex, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veolia ES Technical Solutions is located at 125 Factory Lane in Middlesex, New Jersey. Veolia owns and operates a solvent-reprocessing facility that is located on a four-acre site in an industrial area of Middlesex Borough.

  6. Forensic examination of ink by high-performance thin layer chromatography--the United States Secret Service Digital Ink Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Ramotowski, Robert; Genessay, Thibault

    2011-05-13

    Forensic examinations of ink have been performed since the beginning of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, the International Ink Library, maintained by the United States Secret Service, has supported those analyses. Until 2009, the search and identification of inks were essentially performed manually. This paper describes the results of a project designed to improve ink samples' analytical and search processes. The project focused on the development of improved standardization procedures to ensure the best possible reproducibility between analyses run on different HPTLC plates. The successful implementation of this new calibration method enabled the development of mathematical algorithms and of a software package to complement the existing ink library. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-Microbial Activity and Spectro-Chemical Investigation of Ink Extracts of Sepiella inermis (Van Hasselt 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal VASANTHARAJA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crude petroleum ether and methanol ink extracts of Sepiella inermis were tested for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria by disc diffusion method. Spectral analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR, Raman IR and GC-MS. Of the two solvent extracts, only methanol extract was active and no activity was detected in petroleum ether extract. The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and bacterium Proteus vulgaris were found to be highly sensitive, with an inhibition zone of 20 and 19 mm respectively. GC-MS of methanol ink extract revealed sixteen compounds belonging to the derivatives of dihydroxy indole-2-carboxylic acid and dihydroxyindole. These investigations proved that methanol ink extract of Sepiella inermis possess significant antimicrobial property against both fungus and gram –ve bacteria. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as a waste material, studies focused on isolation and characterization of bioactive substances pave the way for new antimicrobial compounds.

  8. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated

  9. Integral solution of equiaxed solidification with an interface kinetics model for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naterer, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, a one-dimensional analysis of energy and species transport during binary dendritic solidification is presented and compared to experimental results. The paper's objective is a continuation of previous studies of solidification control for the waste management of nuclear materials in the underground disposal concept. In the present analysis, interface kinetics at the solid - liquid interface accounts for recalescent thermal behaviour during solidification. The theoretical results were compared to available experimental results and the agreement appears fair although some discrepancies have been attributed to uncertainties with thermophysical properties. (author)

  10. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  11. Development of biometric DNA ink for authentication security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, Masaki

    2004-10-01

    Among the various types of biometric personal identification systems, DNA provides the most reliable personal identification. It is intrinsically digital and unchangeable while the person is alive, and even after his/her death. Increasing the number of DNA loci examined can enhance the power of discrimination. This report describes the development of DNA ink, which contains synthetic DNA mixed with printing inks. Single-stranded DNA fragments encoding a personalized set of short tandem repeats (STR) were synthesized. The sequence was defined as follows. First, a decimal DNA personal identification (DNA-ID) was established based on the number of STRs in the locus. Next, this DNA-ID was encrypted using a binary, 160-bit algorithm, using a hashing function to protect privacy. Since this function is irreversible, no one can recover the original information from the encrypted code. Finally, the bit series generated above is transformed into base sequences, and double-stranded DNA fragments are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to protect against physical attacks. Synthesized DNA was detected successfully after samples printed in DNA ink were subjected to several resistance tests used to assess the stability of printing inks. Endurance test results showed that this DNA ink would be suitable for practical use as a printing ink and was resistant to 40 hours of ultraviolet exposure, performance commensurate with that of photogravure ink. Copyright 2004 Tohoku University Medical Press

  12. Electron beam hardening type copper plate printing ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Eiji; Inoue, Mitsuo; Kusaki, Satoichiro

    1989-01-01

    Copper plate printing is the printing method of filling ink in the parts of concave printing elements on a type area, and transferring the ink to a base, and it is the feature that the ink in the printing element parts of a print rises. Copper plate prints show profound feeling, in addition, its effect of preventing forgery is high. This method is generally called engraving printing, and is used frequently for printing various bills and artistic prints. The electron beam irradiation apparatus installed in the laboratory of the Printing Bureau, Ministry of Finance, is an experimental machine of area beam type, and is so constructed as to do batch conveyance and web conveyance. As the ink in printing element parts rises, the offset at the delivery part of a printing machine becomes a problem. Electron beam is superior in its transparency, and can dry instantaneously to the inside of opaque ink. At 200 kV of acceleration voltage, the ink of copper plate prints can be hardened by electron beam irradiation. The dilution monomers as the vehicle for ink were tested for their dilution capability and the effect of electron beam hardening. The problem in the utilization of electron beam is the deterioration of papers, and the counter-measures were tested. (K.I.)

  13. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  14. Equilibrium modeling of removal of drimarine yello HG-3GL dye from aqueous solutions by low cost agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.N.H.N.; Sadaf, S.; Sadaf, S.; Farrukh, Z.; Noreen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pollution control is one of the leading issues of society today. The present study was designed to remove the Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL dye from aqueous solutions through biosorption. Sugarcane bagasse was used as biosorbent in native, acetic acid treated and immobilized form. Batch study was conducted to optimize different system variables like pH of solution, medium temperature, biosorbent concentration, initial dye concentration and contact time. Maximum dye removal was observed at pH 2, biosorbent dose of 0.05 g/50 mL and 40 degree C temperature. The equilibrium was achieved in 45-90 min. Different kinetic and equilibrium models were applied to the experimental results. The biosorption kinetic data was found to follow the pseudo second order kinetic model. Freundlich adsorption isotherm model showed a better fitness to the equilibrium data. The value of Gibbs free energy revealed that biosorption of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL dye by native and pretreated sugarcane bagasse was a spontaneous process. Presence of salt and heavy metal ions in aqueous solution enhanced the biosorption capacity while presence of surfactants decreased the biosorption potential of biosorbent. Dye was desorbed by 1M NaOH solution. Fixed bed column study of Drimarine Yellow HF-3GL was carried out to optimize different parameters like bed height, flow rate and initial dye concentration. It was observed that biosorption capacity increases with increase in initial dye concentration and bed height but decreases with the increase in flow rate. The data of column study was explained very well by BDST model. FT-IR analysis confirmed the involvement of various functional groups, mainly hydroxyl, carboxyl and amine groups. The results proved that sugarcane bagasse waste biomass can be used as a favorable biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. (author)

  15. Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: Pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genaidy, A.M., E-mail: world_tek_inc@yahoo.com [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Sequeira, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Tolaymat, T. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States); Kohler, J. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington DC (United States); Rinder, M. [WorldTek Inc, Cincinnati (United States)

    2009-05-01

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO2 and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and

  16. Evidence-based integrated environmental solutions for secondary lead smelters: pollution prevention and waste minimization technologies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genaidy, A M; Sequeira, R; Tolaymat, T; Kohler, J; Rinder, M

    2009-05-01

    An evidence-based methodology was adopted in this research to establish strategies to increase lead recovery and recycling via a systematic review and critical appraisal of the published literature. In particular, the research examines pollution prevention and waste minimization practices and technologies that meet the following criteria: (a) reduce/recover/recycle the largest quantities of lead currently being disposed of as waste, (b) technically and economically viable, that is, ready to be diffused and easily transferable, and (c) strong industry interest (i.e., industry would consider implementing projects with higher payback periods). The following specific aims are designed to achieve the study objectives: Aim 1 - To describe the recycling process of recovering refined lead from scrap; Aim 2 - To document pollution prevention and waste management technologies and practices adopted by US stakeholders along the trajectory of LAB and lead product life cycle; Aim 3 - To explore improved practices and technologies which are employed by other organizations with an emphasis on the aforementioned criteria; Aim 4 - To demonstrate the economic and environmental costs and benefits of applying improved technologies and practices to existing US smelting operations; and Aim 5 - To evaluate improved environmental technologies and practices using an algorithm that integrates quantitative and qualitative criteria. The process of identifying relevant articles and reports was documented. The description of evidence was presented for current practices and technologies used by US smelters as well as improved practices and technologies. Options for integrated environmental solutions for secondary smelters were introduced and rank ordered on the basis of costs (i.e., capital investment) and benefits (i.e., production increases, energy and flux savings, and reduction of SO(2) and slag). An example was provided to demonstrate the utility of the algorithm by detailing the costs and

  17. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-02

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  18. Accelerator-driven transmutation: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses current technical and political issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution and improvements of the design technologies are identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Transmutation of waste has been historically viewed by nuclear engineers as one of those technologies that is too good to be true and probably too expensive to be feasible. The concept discussed in the present paper uses neutrons ( which result from protons accelerated into spallation targets)to transmute the major very long-lived hazardous materials such as the radioactive isotopes of technetium, iodine, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. Although not a new concept, accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) lead by a team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has made some significant advances which are discussed in the present paper. (authors)

  19. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsberg, T; Saunte, D M; Frimodt-Møller, N; Serup, J

    2013-01-01

    European Council resolutions on tattoo ink introduce sterility and preservation of inks to protect customers. Inks used in Denmark are typically purchased over the internet from international suppliers and manufacturers from the US and the UK. In Denmark tattoo inks are regulated and labelled according to REACH as if they were plain chemicals. The objective of this study was to check the microbial product safety of unopened and opened tattoo ink stock bottles. Packaging, labelling, preservation, sterility and contamination with micro-organisms were studied. Physical inspection and culture of bacteria and fungi. Six of 58 unopened stock bottles (10%) were contaminated with bacteria and one of six samples (17%) of previously used stock bottles was contaminated. The bacterial species represented bacteria considered pathogenic in humans as well as non-pathogenic environmental bacteria. Yeast or moulds were detected in none of the samples. A total of 31% of the manufacturers informed only about the brand name. No information about content, sterility, risks or expiry date was indicated on the label. A total of 42% claimed sterility of their inks. A total of 54% labelled a maximum period of durability of typically 2-3 years. The physical sealing was leaking in 28% of the products. The European Council resolutions regarding safety of tattoo inks are not effective. Stock bottles of tattoo ink may contain bacteria pathogenic to humans and environmental bacteria, and packaging, labelling and preservation of inks are of inadequate quality. Claim of sterility can be erroneous. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. 40 CFR 447.10 - Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-base solvent wash ink subcategory. 447.10 Section 447.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-Base Solvent Wash Ink Subcategory § 447.10 Applicability; description of the oil-base solvent wash ink...-base ink where the tank washing system uses solvents. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations...

  1. Waste disposal process on the basis of fission product solutions, and suitable plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, D.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrous fission product solution containing ruthenium is concentrated in a wiper blade evaporator. After intermediate drying the residue is vitrified adding vitrifying agents and NH4 in an amount of 20 to 300% referred to the nitrate content of the concentrated residue. (orig./PW)

  2. Assessment of Some Synthetic Polymers for the Removal of Pollutants from Waste Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, R.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ezz EL-Din, M.R.; Moussa, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    The sorption capacity of 134 Cs, 60 Co, 152+154 Eu and Cu (II) by three prepared has been studied using batch and column techniques. The three polymers are polyacrylic acid (PAA), polyacrylamide-acrylic acid (PAM-AA) and polyacrylamide-N-vinyl-2-pyrraldone (PAM-NVP). These polymers were prepared by gamma radiation initiated polymerization of their corresponding monomer solutions. The appropriate value for V/m ratio (volume of solution to mass of polymer) that can result in reasonably high distribution coefficient, Kd, was determined. The variation of the amount sorbed of the isotope per gram polymer (X/m) with concentration of the relevant element was found to follow a Frendlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient, Kd, of the studied element was found to be affected by the ph of the solution. The desorption of the investigated metal ions is also studied at different ph. For column studies, the percent removed of the radioisotopes 134 Cs, 60 Co, ( 152+154 )Eu in addition to some heavy metals ions such as Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu(II) was determined. More than 95% of these elements were removed when 3 beds column of PAA or PAM-AA was used. From the data obtained we can conclude that the polymer PAA or PAM-AA can considered as an efficient sorbent for metal cations from their aqueous solution

  3. Fabrication of an organic field effect transistor using nano imprinting of Ag inks and semiconducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, PingAn; Li, Kun; O'Neill, William; Chen, Weilin; Peng, Li; Chu, Daping

    2010-01-01

    A simple and cheap procedure for flexible electronics fabrication was demonstrated by imprinting metallic nanoparticles (NPs) on flexible substrates. Silver NPs with an average diameter of 10 nm were prepared via an improved chemical approach and Ag Np ink was produced in α-terpineol with a concentration up to 15%. Silver micro/nanostructures with a dimension varying from nanometres to microns were produced on a flexible substrate (polyimide) by imprinting the as-prepared silver ink. The fine fluidic properties of an Ag NP/α-terpineol solution and low melting temperatures of silver nanoparticles render a low pressure and low temperature procedure, which is well suited for flexible electronics fabrication. The effects of sintering and mechanical bending on the conductivity of imprinted silver contacts were also investigated. Large area organic field effect transistors (OFET) on flexible substrates were fabricated using an imprinted silver electrode and semiconducting polymer. The OFET with silver electrodes imprinted from our prepared oleic acid stabilized Ag nanoparticle ink show an ideal ohmic contact; therefore, the OFET exhibit high performance (I on /I off ratio: 1 × 10 3 ; mobility: 0.071 cm 2 V −1 s −1 ).

  4. Simple synthesis of three primary colour nanoparticle inks of Prussian blue and its analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Akihito; Uchida, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Manabu; Satoh, Tetsutaro; Kaga, Shinichi; Okamoto, Shusuke; Ohta, Masaki; Sakamoto, Masatomi; Kawamoto, Tohru; Tanaka, Hisashi; Tokumoto, Madoka; Hara, Shigeo; Shiozaki, Hirofumi; Yamada, Mami; Miyake, Mikio; Kurihara, Masato

    2007-01-01

    Historic Prussian blue (PB) pigment is easily obtained as an insoluble precipitate in quantitative yield from an aqueous mixture of Fe 3+ and [Fe II (CN) 6 ] 4- (Fe 2+ and [Fe III (CN) 6 ] 3- ). It has been found that the PB pigment is inherently an agglomerate of 10-20 nm nanoparticles, based on powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) line broadenings and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The PB pigment has been revived as both organic-solvent-soluble and water-soluble nanoparticle inks. Through crystal surface modification with aliphatic amines, the nanoparticles are stably dispersed from the insoluble agglomerate into usual organic solvents to afford a transparent blue solution. Identical modification with [Fe(CN) 6 ] 4- yields water-soluble PB nanoparticles. A similar ink preparation is applicable to Ni-PBA and Co-PBA (nickel and cobalt hexacyanoferrates). The PB (blue), Ni-PBA (yellow), and Co-PBA (red) nanoparticles function as three primary colour inks

  5. Evaluation of Loss Resources during Sugarcane Production Process and Provide Solutions to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zakidizaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction No use of advanced mechanization and weakness in post harvesting technology are the main reasons of agricultural losses. Some of these wastes (agricultural losses are related to crop growing conditions in field and the remaining to processing of sugar in mill. The most useful priority setting methods for agricultural projects are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. So, this study presents an introduction of application manner of the AHP as a mostly common method of setting agricultural projects priorities. The purpose of this work is studying the sugarcane loss during production process using AHP in Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods The resources of sugarcane waste have been defined based on expert’s opinions. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this research. The study was applied to a panel of qualified informants made up of thirty-two experts. Those interviewed were distributed in Sugarcane Development and By-products Company in 2015-2016. Then, with using the analytical hierarchy process, a questionnaire was designed for defining the weight and importance of parameters effecting on sugarcane waste. For this method of evaluation, three main criteria considered, were yield criteria, cost criteria and income criteria. Criteria and prioritizing of them was done by questionnaire and interview with sophisticated experts. This technique determined and ranked the importance of sugarcane waste resources based on attributing relative weights to factors with respect to comments provided in the questionnaires. Analytical Hierarchy Process was done by using of software (Expert choice and the inconsistency rate on expert judgments was investigated. Results and Discussion How to use agricultural implements and machinery during planting and harvesting of sugarcane, can increase or decrease the volume of waste. In planting period, the losses mainly consists of loss of setts during cutting them by machine

  6. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  7. Simulations of water and solute movement in the buried waste repository at Vaalputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A previous series of simulations examined the movement of water through trench cap configurations of several types. The objectives of this series are i) to extent the simulations from the surface to the bottom of the repository, accounting for the placement of drums, ii) to examine the magnitude and direction of water fluxes throughout this depth and iii) to simulate the movement of solutes, using various assumptions regarding solute adsorption. Two models were used. The first was an adaptation of a solute transport model which incorporates the transient water flow model used in previous simulations. This was used primarily to estimate the likely water fluxes in the drum placement region. Since it requires large amounts of computer time this model was used to simulate periods of one or two years only. The second model was a very simple steady state solute transport model which was used to simulate Cs distribution after a 100 year period, using flux data obtained from the transient model simulations. The most important conclusion reached from this series of simulations is that the movement of Cs in the soil under the likely water regime is extremely slow. 'Worst case' situations were simulated. Some of these situations are unlikely in reality but provide a useful indication of the rates of movement of solute under various conditions. For this reason it was assumed that plants were absent in cases when maximum percolation was simulated and present when maximum upward flow was simulated. In no case was a 'wick' (a textural barrier to unsaturated water flow) assumed to be present

  8. Analysis of Printing Substrate, Ink Age and Number of IR Drying Influence on Electrical Resistance of Conductive Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Jerić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of availability of new technologies, functional printing as a segment has become one of the most interesting directions of research and development in graphic technology. Conductive inks are not a novelty and they already have broad possibilities in production of everyday products. There is still a big market for the broadening of their use, as well as a possibility of further enhancing their properties. This paper analyzes the influence of printing substrate, age of ink and the number of IR drying on the electrical resistance of the conductive inks. In the paper, subject of analysis was the change of electrical resistance in the line that was 9 cm long and 10 typographic points wide. The semi-automated screen-printing machine was used for printing. Three types of printing substrates were used; uncoated, coated and recycled paper. Two types of inks were used; newly opened ink and ink that was out of date for half year. After the printing, prints were dried using the IR dryer. Prints were dried once, and then additional three times. After the first and last drying, multimeter was used to measure electrical resistance of the lines. Analysis of the data shows that the older ink produces prints with higher electrical resistance. There are also notable differences in the electrical resistance based on the printing substrate.

  9. Synthesis of IGZO ink and study of ink-jet printed IGZO thin films with different Ga concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. K.; Liu, Z.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. K.; Chen, Z. H.; Chen, T. P.; Zhang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    By dissolving gallium chloride (GaCl3), indium chloride (InCl3), zinc acetate dihydrate [Zn(OAc)2·2H2O] and monoethanolamine (MEA) into a solvent of 2-methoxyethanol, the IGZO ink was synthesized. Five types of IGZO ink were prepared with different molar ratios of In:Ga:Zn, which can be used for ink-jet printing process. The thermal behaviors of IGZO ink with different formulas were investigated and the ideal annealing temperature for film formation was found to be ∼450 °C. Based on the prepared ink, amorphous IGZO thin films were directly printed on the glass substrate with a FujiFilm Dimatix ink-jet printer, followed by a thermal annealing at 450 °C for 1 h. The surface morphology, crystal structure, optical transmittance, electron mobility and carrier concentration were characterized and investigated. The ink-jet printed amorphous IGZO thin films fabricated in this work can be used as switching medium in flexible resistive random access memory devices.

  10. Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) removal from aqueous solutions using rose waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, Abdur Rauf; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Nadeem, Razyia

    2009-01-01

    Distillation waste of rose petals was used to remove Cu(II) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. The results demonstrated the dependency of metal sorption on pH, sorbent dose, sorbent size, initial bulk concentration, time and temperature. A dosage of 1 g/L of rose waste biomass was found to be effective for maximum uptake of Cu(II) and Cr(III). Optimum sorption temperature and pH for Cu(II) and Cr(III) were 303 ± 1 K and 5, respectively. The Freundlich regression model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model were resulted in high correlation coefficients and described well the sorption of Cu(II) and Cr(III) on rose waste biomass. At equilibrium q max (mg/g) of Cu(II) and Cr(III) was 55.79 and 67.34, respectively. The free energy change (ΔG o ) for Cu(II) and Cr(III) sorption process was found to be -0.829 kJ/mol and -1.85 kJ/mol, respectively, which indicates the spontaneous nature of sorption process. Other thermodynamic parameters such as entropy change (ΔS o ), enthalpy (ΔH o )and activation energy (ΔE) were found to be 0.604 J mol -1 K -1 , -186.95 kJ/mol and 68.53 kJ/mol, respectively for Cu(II) and 0.397 J mol -1 K -1 , -119.79 kJ/mol and 114.45 kJ/mol, respectively for Cr(III). The main novelty of this work was the determination of shortest possible sorption time for Cu(II) and Cr(III) in comparison to earlier studies. Almost over 98% of Cu(II) and Cr(III) were removed in only first 20 min at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L

  11. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-01-01

    This report presents findings from tests investigating the dissolution of simulated and radioactive Savannah River Site sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acid previously recommended by a Russian team from the Khlopin Radium Institute and the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC). Testing also included characterization of the simulated and radioactive waste sludges. Testing results showed the following: Dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges with oxalic and citric acid mixtures at SRTC confirmed general trends reported previously by Russian testing. Unlike the previous Russian testing six sequential contacts of a mixture of oxalic acid citric acids at a 2:1 ratio (v/w) of acid to sludge did not produce complete dissolution of simulated HM and PUREX sludges. We observed that increased sludge dissolution occurred at a higher acid to sludge ratio, 50:1 (v/w), compared to the recommended ratio of 2:1 (v/w). We observed much lower dissolution of aluminum in a simulated HM sludge by sodium hydroxide leaching. We attribute the low aluminum dissolution in caustic to the high fraction of boehmite present in the simulated sludge. Dissolution of HLW sludges with 4 per cent oxalic acid and oxalic/citric acid followed general trends observed with simulated sludges. The limited testing suggests that a mixture of oxalic and citric acids is more efficient for dissolving HM and PUREX sludges and provides a more homogeneous dissolution of HM sludge than oxalic acid alone. Dissolution of HLW sludges in oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures produced residual sludge solids that measured at higher neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios than that in the untreated sludge solids. This finding suggests that residual solids do not present an increased nuclear criticality safety risk. Generally the neutron poison to equivalent 235U weight ratios of the acid solutions containing dissolved sludge components are lower than those in the untreated

  12. Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegle, U.

    1989-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Modeling long-term leaching experiments of full scale cemented wastes: effect of solution composition on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkel, C.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    The code PHREECQ V3.1 has been used to simulate leaching experiments performed with cemented simulated waste products in tap water for more than 30 years. In this work the main focus is related with the leaching of Cs explained by diffusion processes. A simplifying model using the code PHREECQ V3.1 was used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the release of Cs from the cement solid to the leaching solution. The model setup bases on four main assumptions: a) the solid as well as the distribution of Cs is homogeneous and of isotropic texture, b) there is no preferential direction regarding cement degradation or water intrusion into the solid, c) the pore space is entirely connected and d) Cs adsorption to the cement or container is negligible. In the modeling the constraint of charge balance was stressed. Effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) were obtained analytically and from modeling the diffusive release of Cs from cemented waste simulates. The obtained values D e for Cs leaching are in perfect agreement with the values published in literature. Contradictory results to diffusive release were obtained from XRD analysis of the solids, suggesting that water may not have penetrated the cement monoliths entirely, but only to some centimeters depth. XRD analysis have been done to determine the solid phases present in cement and are used to help outlining strength and weaknesses of the different models

  14. Fabrication of the novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk for removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongzhuo; Zhu, Baodong; Cao, Bo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-11-01

    The novel hydrogel based on waste corn stalk was synthetized by aqueous solution polymerization technique with functional monomers in the presence of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) under ultrasonic. In this study, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to research the effect of initial dye concentration, the dosage of hydrogel, stirring speed, contact time and temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) dye. The adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which confirmed that it should be a chemical process. Furthermore, we ascertained the rate controlling step by establishing the intraparticle diffusion model and the liquid film diffusion model. The adsorption and synthesis mechanisms were vividly depicted in our work as well. Structural and morphological characterizations by virtue of FTIR, FESEM, and Biomicroscope supported the relationship between the adsorption performance and material's microstructure. This research is a valuable contribution for the environmental protection, which not only converts waste corn stalks into functional materials, but improves the removal of organic dye from sewage water.

  15. Transport of a solute pulse through the bentonite barrier of deep geological high-level waste storage facilities in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormenzana Lopez, J.L.; Alonso Diaz-Teran, J.; Gonzalez- Herranz, E.

    1997-01-01

    Spain like Sweden, Finland, Canada and other countries has opted for an open nuclear fuel cycle, and to store the unreprocessed spent fuel in a stable geological formation. Sweden, Finland and Canada have chosen granite rock for their high-level waste storage facilities. Their Performance Assessment of disposal systems have all obtained to the same result. The greatest annual doses are caused by I 129 in the gap between the fuel rods and the cladding. The reference concept for the Spanish high-level waste storage facility in granite provides for final storage in a granite mass at a depth of 500 m in carbon steel capsules in horizontal tunnels surrounded by a bentonite buffer. It the capsule fails due to generalised corrosion, an not giving credit for the cladding, the I 129 and other radionuclides in the gap would pass immediately into the surrounding water. This paper describes the modelling of the transport of the solute through the bentonite around the capsule to determine the fraction that crosses the bentonite each year. It also analyses the sensitivity of the results to the boundary condition adopted and changes in the values of the relevant parameters. (Author)

  16. TiO2/bone composite materials for the separation of heavy metal impurities from waste water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakroury, G.; Labib, Sh.; Abou El-Nour, F. H.

    2012-09-01

    Pure bone material obtained from cow meat, as apatite-rich material, and TiO2-bone composite materials are prepared and studied to be used for heavy metal ions separation from waste water solutions. Meat wastes are chemically and thermally treated to control their microstructure in order to prepare the composite materials that fulfill all the requirements to be used as selective membranes with high performance, stability and mechanical strength. The prepared materials are analyzed using Hg-porosimetry for surface characterization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical composition investigation. Structural studies are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural properties are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area studies are performed using Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. XRD studies show that multiphase structures are obtained as a result of 1h sintering at 700-1200 °C for both pure bone and TiO2-bone composite materials. The factors affecting the transport of different heavy metal ions through the selected membranes are determined from permeation flux measurements. It is found that membrane pore size, membrane surface roughness and membrane surface charge are the key parameters that control the transport or rejection of heavy metal ions through the selected membranes.

  17. Peat-based organic growbags as a solution to the mineral wool waste problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grunert

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The vast amount of solid waste produced each year is one of the greatest problems associated with greenhouse horticulture in some European countries. In particular, the disposal of used growing media arising from the soil-less cultivation of vegetables in mineral wool creates serious difficulties. The non-biodegradability of these mainly inorganic substrates causes environmental concern and has prompted the search for alternative growing media such as cocos derivatives, perlite and resin foam (Fytocell®. Organic substrates in combination with biodegradable material such as plastic, rope and clippings have the advantage that re-use or recycling of the waste is easier, cheaper and more environmentally friendly than for mineral wool. However, the differing physical and chemical characteristics of the alternative substrates may affect yield significantly. Substrates based respectively on peat and peat with cocos derivatives were tested against a mineral wool control for the production of tomato in three consecutive years. Both organic substrates were placed in biodegradable plastic bags. Greenhouse experiments demonstrated that plants grown in the pure peat substrate rooted more easily than plants grown in the peat-cocos substrate or mineral wool, and that they developed less blossom-end rot in both peat substrates than in mineral wool. Due to the buffering capacity of the organic substrates, the electrical conductivity of the draining water appeared to be more stable during cultivation. The total yield of tomato fruits was similar for all substrates, and no differences between substrates could be observed in the quality of the fruits produced. On the other hand, flavour tests demonstrated that plants grown on peat substrate produced more tasty fruits under certain conditions. The results of this study show that organic growbags are promising and competitive alternatives to mineral wool.

  18. Ink dating part II: Interpretation of results in a legal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Agnès; Weyermann, Céline

    2018-01-01

    The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the tre...

  19. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- ) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO 4 2- concentrations increased proportionally with NO 3 - and Cl - to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO 3 - and Cl - concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO 4 2- due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Owen S; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M; Lee, Michael Z; Witchel, Emmett

    2013-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification , a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes.

  1. Versatile Molecular Silver Ink Platform for Printed Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Arnold J; Paquet, Chantal; Mozenson, Olga; Djavani-Tabrizi, Iden; Deore, Bhavana; Liu, Xiangyang; Lopinski, Gregory P; James, Robert; Hettak, Khelifa; Shaker, Jafar; Momciu, Adrian; Ferrigno, Julie; Ferrand, Olivier; Hu, Jian Xiong; Lafrenière, Sylvie; Malenfant, Patrick R L

    2017-05-24

    A silver molecular ink platform formulated for screen, inkjet, and aerosol jet printing is presented. A simple formulation comprising silver neodecanoate, ethyl cellulose, and solvent provides improved performance versus that of established inks, yet with improved economics. Thin, screen-printed traces with exceptional electrical (molecular ink platform enables an aerosol jet-compatible ink that yields conductive features on glass with 2× bulk resistivity and strong adhesion to various plastic substrates. An inkjet formulation is also used to print top source/drain contacts and demonstrate printed high-mobility thin film transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes. TFTs with mobility values of ∼25 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and current on/off ratios >10 4 were obtained, performance similar to that of evaporated metal contacts in analogous devices.

  2. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  3. Study of inks on paper engravings using portable EDXRF spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Roldan, C.; Juanes, D.; Carballo, J.; Pereira, J.; Ardid, M.; Lluch, J.L.; Vives, R.

    2004-01-01

    The prints are fragile and delicate art objects that need for its examination a suitable technique for 'in situ', non-destructive and rapid analyses. The energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry with portable instrumentation offers these analytical properties. In this work we present the EDXRF analyses of eight engravings elaborated with different techniques (etching and heliogravure) from the 17th to 20th centuries. The characterization of the paper is directly done from its EDXRF spectra, whereas the inks are characterized by the ink plus paper analysis after subtracting the background from the paper spectrum. Inorganic components of the paper engravings and inks have been identified from the EDXRF spectra and the results are discussed. Also, we present EDXRF analyses for the identification of inorganic components from six samples of modern inks

  4. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Owen S.; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  5. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Latin America and the Caribbean: Issues and Potential Solutions from the Governance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshan Hettiarachchi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Municipal Solid Waste (MSW management is an essential service for an urban population to maintain sanitation. Managing MSW is complex as the treatment/recovery options depend not only on the volume of waste, but also on the socioeconomic conditions of the population. This paper focusses on MSW management in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC countries. Dominance of uncontrolled disposal options of MSW in the region, such as open dumps, has an adverse influence on health and sanitation. Interest in source separation practices and recycling is low in the LAC region. Furthermore, economic matters such as poor financial planning and ineffective billing systems also hinder service sustainability. Rapid urbanization is another characteristic feature in the region. The large urban centres that accommodate over 80% of the region’s population pose their own challenges to MSW management. However, the same large volume of MSW generated can become a steady supply of resources, if recovery options are prioritized. Governance is one aspect that binds many activities and stakeholders involved in MSW management. This manuscript describes how we may look at MSW management in LAC from the governance perspective. The issues, as well as the best potential solutions, are both described within three categories of governance: bureaucratic, market, and network. The governance perspective can assist by explaining which stakeholders are involved and who should be responsible for what. Financial issues are the major setbacks observed in the bureaucratic governance institutions that can be reversed with better billing strategies. MSW is still not seen by the private sector as a place to make investments, perhaps due to the negative social attitude associated with waste. The market governance aspects may help increase the efficiency and profitability of the MSW market. Private sector initiatives such as cost-effective microenterprises should be encouraged and the

  6. Demonstration of innovative partitioning processes for minor actinide recycling from high active waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, G.; Wilden, A.; Geist, A.; Malmbeck, R.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of the minor actinides (MA) using the Partitioning and Transmutation strategy (P and T) could contribute significantly to reducing the volume of high level waste in a geological repository and to decreasing the waste's longterm hazards originating from the long half-life of the actinides. Several extraction processes have been developed worldwide for the separation and recovery of MA from highly active raffinates (HAR, e.g. the PUREX raffinate). A multi-cycle separation strategy has been developed within the framework of European collaborative projects. The multi-cycle processes, on the one hand, make use of different extractants for every single process. Within the recent FP7 European research project ACSEPT (Actinide reCycling by SEParation and Transmutation), the development of new innovative separation processes with a reduced number of cycles was envisaged. In the so-called 'innovative SANEX' concept, the trivalent actinides and lanthanides are co-extracted from the PUREX raffinate by a DIAMEX like process (e.g. TODGA). Then, the loaded solvent is subjected to several stripping steps. The first one concerns selectively stripping the actinides(III) with selective water-soluble ligands (SO3-Ph-BTB), followed by the subsequent stripping of trivalent lanthanides. A more challenging route studied also within our laboratories is the direct actinide(III) separation from a PUREX-type raffinate using a mixture of CyMe 4 BTBP and TODGA as extractants, the so-called One cycle SANEX process. A new approach, which was also studied within the ACSEPT project, is the GANEX (Grouped ActiNide EXtraction) concept addressing the simultaneous partitioning of all transuranium (TRU) elements for their homogeneous recycling in advanced generation IV reactor systems. Bulk uranium is removed in the GANEX 1st cycle, e.g. using a monoamide extractant and the GANEX 2nd cycle then separates the TRU. A solvent composed of TODGA + DMDOHEMA in kerosene has been shown to

  7. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  8. Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus. PMID:22330791

  9. Optically Variable Inks (OVI): versatility in formulation and usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degott, Pierre

    2000-04-01

    Optically Variable Inks (OVI) are printing inks containing high precision, multi-layer interference filters as their constituent pigment. They display a strong and unique color change form a normal to an angled viewing position. During the last 10 years OVI has gained wide acceptance as an overt protection for numerous value documents including banknotes and ID cards. Meanwhile, continuous improvement has taken place over the last two years in a variety of areas.

  10. Adsorption of Methylene Blue Malachite Green from aqueous solution on the surface of Wool Carbonizing Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. R.; Tahir, H.; Fahimuddin; Waqar, S. S.

    2005-01-01

    With ever increasing environmental pollution problems, the present day study was related to the removal of colorants. Synthetic colorants represented a relatively large group of organic chemicals. Such chemicals have undesirable effects not only on the environment but also on human beings. Present study is related with the removal of basic dyes methylene blue and malachite green using wool carbonizing waste materials as adsorbent. Adsorption of dyes is carried out as a function of temperature, amount of adsorbent, pH and duration. Spectrophotomeric technique was adopted for measuring the extent of adsorption. The data are fitted in Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations and their corresponding constants are calculated. Thermodynamic study is also carried out by calculating the values of thermodynamic parameters such as, enthalpy change (delta H), free energy change (delta G) and entropy change (delta S). The values of percent removal and KD for each dye system is also calculated at the range of temperatures ranging from 293-323K with the intervals of 10C+-0.2C. (author)

  11. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM AN AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY PRETREATED WASTE TEA FUNGAL BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mamisahebei , Gh. R. Jahed Khaniki, A. Torabian, S. Nasseri, K. Naddafi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination in water poses a serious threat on human health. The tea fungus known as Kombucha is a waste produced during black tea fermentation. The objective of this study was to examine the main aspect of a possible strategy for the removal of arsenates employing tea fungal biomass. The pretreatment of biomass with FeCl3 was found to improve the biosorption efficiency. Arsenics uptake was found to be rapid for all concentrations and reached to 79% of equilibrium capacity of biosorption in 20 min and reached equilibrium in 90 min. The pseudo second-order and first-order models described the biosorption kinetics of As (V with good correlation coefficient (R2>0.93 and better than the other equations. The data obtained from the experiment of biosorption isotherm were analyzed using the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The equation described the isotherm of As (V biosorption with relatively high correlation coefficient (R2>0.93. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum uptake capacities (qm of tea fungal biomass for As (V were obtained 3.9810-3 mmol/gr. The effect of Na+, K+, Mg+2 and Ca+2 on equilibrium capacities of As was not significant. The variation of sorption efficiency with pH showed that optimum biosorption takes place in the pH ranges of 6 to 8. Promising results were obtained in laboratory experiments and effective As (V removals were observed.

  12. The Disposal of Hazardous Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Benjamin J.

    1978-01-01

    The highlights of a symposium held in October, 1977 spotlight some problems and solutions. Topics include wastes from coal technologies, radioactive wastes, and industrial and agricultural wastes. (BB)

  13. Geochemical and geomechanical solid-solutions interactions in unsaturated media. Prospects for the storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, M.

    2010-01-01

    Porous materials, especially the unsaturated ones, are complex systems in which several physicochemical parameters interact (eg relative humidity, T C, pore solution composition, geometry of the pore network). The precipitation of secondary phases inside and the associated changes (e.g. topology of the porous spaces) are important to understand for several applied topics: civil engineering, soil science or geology of deep wastes disposal. This experimental work was undertaken to better understand the mechanisms linking geochemical phase transitions and physicochemical properties of multiphasic porous media. The precipitation of salts in porous synthetic materials allowed us to identify two types of geochemistry-geomechanics coupling: the crystallization pressure (compression phenomenon, already known in the literature), and the capillary traction. These secondary precipitates are also responsible for a porous networks heterogenization which modifies the transfer functions. But we also show that the portions of liquid may be isolated by salts 'corks' and thus develop new thermochemical properties. In particular, we have observed cavitation events in some of these occluded solutions which indicate that they underwent a metastable superheated state. Finally, differential extraction experiments showed that the solubility changes with the pore size, and an interpretation based on pore geometry (solid curvature) has been proposed. Some evidence that these phenomena may actually be active in natural processes were collected, and this extension to the natural environment must now be treated extensively. (authors)

  14. Usefulness of ANN-based model for copper removal from aqueous solutions using agro industrial waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Marija S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption properties of locally available lignocelluloses biomaterials as biosorbents for the removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. Materials are generated from juice production (apricot stones and from the corn milling process (corn cob. Such solid wastes have little or no economic value and very often present a disposal problem. Using batch adsorption techniques the effects of initial Cu(II ions concentration (Ci, amount of biomass (m and volume of metal solution (V, on biosorption efficiency and capacity were studied for both materials, without any pre-treatments. The optimal parameters for both biosorbents were selected depending on a highest sorption capability of biosorbent, in removal of Cu(II. Experimental data were compared with second order polynomial regression models (SOPs and artificial neural networks (ANNs. SOPs showed acceptable coefficients of determination (0.842 - 0.997, while ANNs performed high prediction accuracy (0.980-0.986 in comparison to experimental results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003, TR 31055

  15. Analysis of solutes in groundwaters from the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1986, groundwater samples from more than 60 locations in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site were collected and analyzed for a variety of major, minor, and trace solutes. Most of the samples were from the Rustler Formation (the Culebra Dolomite, the Magenta Dolomite, or the zone at the contact between the Rustler and underlying Salado Formations) or the Dewey Lake Red Beds. The analytical data from the laboratories are presented here with accompanying discussions of sample collection methods, supporting field measurements, and laboratory analytical methods. A comparison of four data sets and a preliminary evaluation of the data for the major solutes (Cl - , SO 4 -2 , Na, K, Ca, and Mg) shows that the data for samples analyzed by UNC/Bendix for SNL seem to be the most reliable, but that at some locations, samples representative of the native, unperturbed groundwater have not been collected. At other locations, the water chemistry has apparently changed between sampling episodes

  16. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by carbonate hydroxylapatite derived from eggshell waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Li Xiaoming; Yang Qi; Zeng Guangming; Shen Xiangxin; Zhang Ying; Liu Jingjin

    2007-01-01

    Carbonate hydroxylapatite (CHAP) synthesized by using eggshell waste as raw material has been investigated as metal adsorption for Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The effect of various parameters on adsorption process such as contact time, solution pH, amount of CHAP and initial concentration of metal ions was studied at room temperature to optimize the conditions for maximum adsorption. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cu(II) by CHAP could reach 94 and 93.17%, respectively, when the initial Cd(II) concentration 80 mg/L and Cu(II) 60 mg/L and the liquid/solid ratio was 2.5 g/L. The equilibrium sorption data for single metal systems at room temperature could be described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The highest value of Langmuir maximum uptake, (b), was found for cadmium (111.1 mg/g) and copper (142.86 mg/g). Similar Freundlich empirical constants, K, were obtained for cadmium (2.224) and copper (7.925). Ion exchange and surface adsorption might be involved in the adsorption process of cadmium and copper. Desorption experiments showed that CaCl 2 , NaCl, acetic acid and ultrasonic were not efficient enough to desorb substantial amount of metal ions from the CHAP. The results obtained show that CHAP has a high affinity to cadmium and copper

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Melanin from Cuttlefish and Squid Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuspihana Fitrial

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environment comprises of many organism which are known to posses bioactive compound as a common means of self-defense or for the protection of eggs and embryos. Class Cephalopods (such as squidand cuttlefish are notable for their defences, such as jetting escape movements, changes in colouration, toxic venom and inking.This study aims to compare the antibacterial activity of melanin from cuttlefish ink (Sepia sp. with squid ink (Loligo sp. against E. coli. Extraction and purification studies were carried out on Sepia and Loligo melanin using a hydrochloric acid 0,5M treatment under mechanical.The melanins were obtained and further evaluated their activity by direct contact methods between melanin and E. coli in nutrient broth.Total microbes was counted by total plate count.Both inks also was tested their activity against E. coli. The results showed that melanin from cuttlefish and squid inks had inhibitory activity at concentrations of 10 mg / ml and 20 mg / mL, respectively reaching 99.99% against E. coli.The inks of both Cephalopods at the same concentration as melanin, did not show any inhibitory activity against E. coli.  The melanin of Sepia sp. have a higher antibacterial activity than the melanin of Loligo sp.

  18. Fruit waste adsorbent for ammonia nitrogen removal from synthetic solution: Isotherms and kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrim, AY; Lija, Y.; Ricky, L. N. S.; Azreen, I.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, four types of watermelon rind (WR) adsorbents; fresh WR, modified WR with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were used as a potential low-cost adsorbent to remove NH3-N from solution. The adsorption data were fitted with the adsorption isotherm and kinetic models to predict the mechanisms and kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process. The equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir isotherm model with highest correlation (R2=1.00). As for kinetic modelling, the adsorption process follows pseudo-second order for all four types of adsorbents which has R2 value of 1.0 and calculated adsorption capacity, Qe of 1.2148mg/g. The calculated Qe for pseudo-second order has the smallest difference with the experimental Qe and thus suggest that this adsorption process is mainly governed by chemical process involving cations sharing or exchange between WR adsorbent and NH3-N in the solution.

  19. Thermodynamic study of the adsorption of chromium ions from aqueous solution on waste corn cobs material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Fonseca-Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of a study obtaining activated carbon from corn cobs and determining its use as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr3+ from aqueous solutions. The finely ground precursor was subjected to pyrolysis at 600 and 900 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere and chemical activation with H2O2 and HNO3. The effects of pyrolysis conditions and activation method on the physicochemical properties of the materials obtained were tested. The samples were characterised chemically and texturally. Were obtained microporous activated carbons of well-developed surface area varying from 337 to 1213 m2/g and exhibited differences acid-base character of the surface. The results obtained shows that a suitable good option of the activation procedure for corncobs permits the production of economic adsorbents with high sorption capacity for Cr3+ from aqueous solutions. A detailed study of immersion calorimetry was performed with carbons prepared from corn cobs to establish possible relationships with these materials between the enthalpies of immersion and textural and chemical parameters.

  20. Ballpoint pen inks: characterization by positive and negative ion-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the forensic examination of writing inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Lafontaine, Pierre; Brazeau, Luc

    2002-11-01

    A method based on profiling of dye components by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) is described for the characterization of ballpoint pen inks. The method involves benzyl alcohol (30 microL) extraction of ink from paper. The extracts of ink lines 1 and 5 mm in length are used for direct ESI/MS analysis in positive and negative modes, respectively. The instrumental analysis takes 3 min. Basic and acid dyes in the inks are detected in the positive and negative modes, respectively, with each dye yielding one or two characteristic ion peaks. The mass spectrum, which is mainly a compositional signature of the dyes in the ink, was not affected by the type of paper from which the ink was extracted, or by natural ageing of the ink on document in the absence of light. However, exposure to fluorescent illumination caused dealkylation of polyalkylated basic dyes and resulted in changes in the homologous distribution of the dyes. In this study, a total of 44 blue inks, 23 black inks, and 10 red inks have been analyzed, and the mass spectra were used to establish a searchable library. ESI/MS analysis provides a simple and fast way to compare ink specimens and in combination with on-line library search permits rapid screening of inks for forensic document investigations.

  1. Kinetic Aspects of Leaching Zinc from Waste Galvanizing Zinc by Using Hydrochloric Acid Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sminčáková, Emília; Trpčevská, Jarmila; Pirošková, Jana

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the results of acid leaching of flux skimmings coming from two plants are presented. Sample A contained two phases, Zn(OH)Cl and NH4Cl. In sample B, the presence of three phases, Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O, (NH4)2(ZnCl4) and ZnCl2(NH3)2, was proved. The aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and distilled water was used as the leaching medium. The effects of the leaching time, temperature and concentration of the leaching medium on the zinc extraction were investigated. The apparent activation energy, E a = 4.61 kJ mol-1, and apparent reaction order n = 0.18 for sample A, and the values E a = 6.28 kJ mol-1 and n = 0.33 for sample B were experimentally determined. Zinc leaching in acid medium is a diffusion-controlled process.

  2. Electrodriven selective transport of Cs+ using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in polymer inclusion membrane: a novel approach for cesium removal from simulated nuclear waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Goswami, Asok

    2014-11-04

    The work describes a novel and cleaner approach of electrodriven selective transport of Cs from simulated nuclear waste solutions through cellulose tri acetate (CTA)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based polymer inclusion membrane. The electrodriven cation transport together with the use of highly Cs+ selective hexachlorinated derivative of cobalt bis dicarbollide, allows to achieve selective separation of Cs+ from high concentration of Na+ and other fission products in nuclear waste solutions. The transport selectivity has been studied using radiotracer technique as well as atomic emission spectroscopic technique. Transport studies using CTA based membrane have been carried out from neutral solution as well as 0.4 M HNO3, while that with PVC based membrane has been carried out from 3 M HNO3. High decontamination factor for Cs+ over Na+ has been obtained in all the cases. Experiment with simulated high level waste solution shows selective transport of Cs+ from most of other fission products also. Significantly fast Cs+ transport rate along with high selectivity is an interesting feature observed in this membrane. The current efficiency for Cs+ transport has been found to be ∼100%. The promising results show the possibility of using this kind of electrodriven membrane transport methods for nuclear waste treatment.

  3. The role of the national low level waste repository operator in delivering new solutions for the management of low level wastes in the UK - 16217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkingshaw, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The UK National Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is located near to the village of Drigg in West Cumbria. It is the principal site for disposal of solid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the program of work currently being undertaken by the site's operators, (LLW Repository Ltd and its newly appointed Parent Body Organisation), to extend the life of the LLWR and reduce the overall cost of LLW management to the UK taxpayer. The current focus of this program is to prevent disposal capacity being taken up at LLWR by waste types which lend themselves to alternative treatment and/or disposition routes. The chosen approach enables consignors to segregate LLW at source into formats which allow further treatment for volume reduction or, (for wastes with lower levels of activity), consignment in the future to alternative disposal facilities. Segregated waste services are incorporated into LLW Disposal commercial agreements between the LLWR operator and waste consignors. (author)

  4. Development of a New Stretchable and Screen Printable Conductive Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Anwar A.

    Stretchable conductive ink is a key enabler for stretchable electronics. This thesis research focuses on the development of a new stretchable and screen printable conductive ink. After print and cure, this ink would be capable of being stretched by at least 500 cycles at 20% strain without increasing its resistance by more than 30 times the original resistance, while maintaining electrical and mechanical integrity. For a stretchable and screen-printable conductive ink, the correct morphology of the metal powder selected and the ability of the binder to be stretched after the sintering process, are both indispensable. This research has shown that a bi-modal mixture of fine and large-diameter silver flakes will improve stretchability. While the smaller flakes increase the conductivity and lower the sintering temperature, the larger flake particles promote ohmic connectivity during stretching. The bi-modal flake distribution increases connection points while enhancing packing density and lowering the thermal activation barrier. The polymer binder phase plays a crucial role in offering stretchability to the stretchable conductive inks. The silver flakes by themselves are not stretchable but they are contained within a stretchable binder system. The research demonstrates that commonly used printable ink binder when combined with large-chain polymers through a process known as 'elastomeric chain polymerization' will enable the conductive ink to become more stretchable. This research has shown that the new stretchable and screen printable silver conductive ink developed based upon the two insights mentioned above; (1) bi modal flakes to improve ohmic connectivity during stretching and (2) elastomeric chain polymerized binder system which could stretch even after the ink is sintered to the substrate, can exhibit an ink stretchability of at least 500 cycles at 20% strain while increasing the resistance by less than 30 times the original resistance. Wavy print patterns can

  5. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2017-10-25

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  6. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2015-03-31

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  7. Potential Malaysia agricultural waste materials for the biosorption of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, L.P.Y.; Tee, C.Z.; Raimy, N.R.; Hassell, D.G.; Lee, L.Y. [University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-04-15

    Biosorption of cadmium(II) ions (Cd{sup 2+}) onto Ananas comosus (AC) peel, Parkia speciosa (PS) pods and Psidium guajava (PG) peel were investigated in this study. Batch sorption experiments were performed by investigating the effect of initial pH. It was found that Cd{sup 2+} uptake was highly dependent on the initial pH and Cd{sup 2+} removal efficiency was highest for PG peel, followed by AC peel and PS pods. Biosorption experiments were carried out using different initial Cd{sup 2+} concentration and the experimental data obtained was fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The experimental data was found to best fit the Langmuir isotherm, and adsorption capacities of 18.21 mg/g (AC peel), 25.64 mg/g (PS pods) and 39.68 mg/g (PG peel) were obtained. Comparison with published adsorption capacities for other low-cost biosorbents indicates that PS pods and PG peel have potential as low-cost biosorbent materials for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. (orig.)

  8. Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions using engineered magnetic biochars derived from waste marine macro-algal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Eun-Bi; Poo, Kyung-Min; Chang, Jae-Soo; Chae, Kyu-Jung

    2018-02-15

    Despite the excellent sorption ability of biochar for heavy metals, it is difficult to separate and reuse after adsorption when applied to wastewater treatment process. To overcome these drawbacks, we developed an engineered magnetic biochar by pyrolyzing waste marine macro-algae as a feedstock, and we doped iron oxide particles (e.g., magnetite, maghemite) to impart magnetism. The physicochemical characteristics and adsorption properties of the biochar were evaluated. When compared to conventional pinewood sawdust biochar, the waste marine algae-based magnetic biochar exhibited a greater potential to remove heavy metals despite having a lower surface area (0.97m 2 /g for kelp magnetic biochar and 63.33m 2 /g for hijikia magnetic biochar). Although magnetic biochar could be effectively separated from the solution, however, the magnetization of the biochar partially reduced its heavy metal adsorption efficiency due to the biochar's surface pores becoming plugged with iron oxide particles. Therefore, it is vital to determine the optimum amount of iron doping that maximizes the biochar's separation without sacrificing its heavy metal adsorption efficiency. The optimum concentration of the iron loading solution for the magnetic biochar was determined to be 0.025-0.05mol/L. The magnetic biochar's heavy metal adsorption capability is considerably higher than that of other types of biochar reported previously. Further, it demonstrated a high selectivity for copper, showing two-fold greater removal (69.37mg/g for kelp magnetic biochar and 63.52mg/g for hijikia magnetic biochar) than zinc and cadmium. This high heavy metal removal performance can likely be attributed to the abundant presence of various oxygen-containing functional groups (COOH and OH) on the magnetic biochar, which serve as potential adsorption sites for heavy metals. The unique features of its high heavy metal removal performance and easy separation suggest that the magnetic algae biochar can potentially

  9. Microbiological evaluation of open and sealed tattoo inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bonadonna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Introduction of tattoo inks in the skin has been associated with a potential entry of a great number of microorganisms including bacteria, virus and fungi. Contaminated pigments, diluents and instruments represent primary infection risk factors as well as inadequacy of hygienic measures during this practice. However, the evaluation of the infectious risk for public health due to tattoo ink use is actually not feasible cause of the low efficiency of health surveillance and the lack of specific regulation in this area.Materials and Methods. A survey was carried out to test the microbial product safety of some tattoo inks available in Italian tattoo parlours. Physical packaging and labelling of the collected inks were also examined. Newly acquired sealed stock bottles, open ink bottles and tattoo-correlated instruments (needles, spikes and grips were collected and tested for different microbiological parameters. Results. Both from opened and sealed inks a variety of potentially pathogenic organisms were isolated and identified including Gram positive rods and cocci, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Different species of Bacillus and Staphylococcus genera were identified, among which S. haemolyticus; Cronobacter sakazaki, Enterobacter intermedius and Sphingomonas paucimobilis were also identified while no atypical mycobacteria were isolated. Needles, spikes and grips tested for sterility were aseptic.Conclusions. Microbial contamination of opened samples suggest inefficacy of preservatives and additives in maintaining inks hygienic quality, and inadequacy of hygienic procedures during the tattooing operations, while the occurrence of microorganisms in unopened samples put in doubt the effectiveness of the sterilization technology applied to this type of product.

  10. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S

    2004-07-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs{sup +} and/or Sr{sup 2+} sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  11. Cesium release from ceramic waste form materials in simulated canister corrosion product containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittorio, Luca; Drabarek, Elizabeth; Chronis, Harriet; Griffith, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that immobilization of Cs + and/or Sr 2+ sorbed on hexagonal tungsten oxide bronze (HTB) adsorbent materials can be achieved by heating the materials in air at temperatures in the range 500 - 1300 deg C. Highly crystalline powdered HTB materials formed by heating at 800 deg C show leach characteristics comparable to Cs-containing hot-pressed hollandites in the pH range from 0 to 12. As a very harsh leaching test, and also to model in a basic manner, leaching in the presence of canister corrosion products in oxidising environments, leaching of the bronzoid phases has been undertaken in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 solutions of increasing concentration. This is done in comparison with Cs -hollandite materials in order to compare the leaching characteristics of these two materials under such conditions. Both the Cs-loaded bronze and hollandite materials leach severely in Fe(NO 3 ) 3 losing virtually all of the immobilized Cs in a period of four days at 150 deg C. Total release of Cs and conversion of hollandite to titanium and iron titanium oxides begins to be observed at relatively low concentrations and is virtually complete after four days reaction in 0.5 mol/L Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . In the case of the bronze, all of the Cs is also extracted but the HTB structure is preserved. The reaction presumably involves an ion-exchange mechanism and iron oxide with a spinel structure is also observed at high Fe concentrations. (authors)

  12. Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management. Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) 2004–2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) (2004–2010) The IAEA’s progamme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman’s Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on the CD-ROM which accompanies this report

  13. High performance screen printable lithium-ion battery cathode ink based on C-LiFePO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, R.E.; Oliveira, J.; Gören, A.; Miranda, D.; Silva, M.M.; Hilliou, Loic; Costa, C.M.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • C-LiFePO 4 paste was been prepared for screen-printing technique. • The inks produced have a Newtonian viscosity of 3 Pa.s for this printing technique. • C-LiFePO 4 inks present a 48.2 mAh.g −1 after 50 cycles at 5C. • This ink is suitable in the development of printed lithium ion batteries. - Abstract: Lithium-ion battery cathodes have been fabricated by screen-printing through the development of C-LiFePO 4 inks. It is shown that shear thinning polymer solutions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) with Newtonian viscosity above 0.4 Pa s are the best binders for formulating a cathode paste with satisfactory film forming properties. The paste shows an elasticity of the order of 500 Pa and, after shear yielding, shows an apparent viscosity of the order of 3 Pa s for shear rates corresponding to those used during screen-printing. The screen-printed cathode produced with a thickness of 26 μm shows a homogeneous distribution of the active material, conductive additive and polymer binder. The total resistance and diffusion coefficient of the cathode are ∼ 450 Ω and 2.5 × 10 −16 cm 2 s −1 , respectively. The developed cathodes show an initial discharge capacity of 48.2 mAh g −1 at 5C and a discharge value of 39.8 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles. The capacity retention of 83% represents 23% of the theoretical value (charge and/or discharge process in twenty minutes), demonstrating the good performance of the battery. Thus, the developed C-LiFePO 4 based inks allow to fabricate screen-printed cathodes suitable for printed lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  15. Textile dyes removal from aqueous solution using Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste as adsorbent and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Cid, A A; Velázquez-Ugalde, I; Herrera-González, A M; García-Serrano, J

    2013-11-30

    For this research, three different adsorbents, one untreated and two chemically activated, were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit waste. By the construction of adsorption isotherms, its adsorption capabilities and the viability of its use in the removal of textile basic and direct type dyes were determined. It was found that the adsorbent with the most adsorption capacity for basic dyes was the one activated with NaClO, and, for direct dyes, it was the one activated with NaOH. Langmuir and Freundlich equations isotherms were applied for the analysis of the experimental data. It was found that the Freundlich model best described the adsorption behavior. The adsorption capacity was improved when the pH of the dye solution had an acid value. The specific surface area of the adsorbents was calculated by means of methylene blue adsorption at 298 K to stay within a range between 348 and 643 m(2) g(-1). The FTIR spectroscopic characterization technique, the SEM, the point of zero charge, and the elemental analysis show the chemical and physical characteristics of the studied adsorbents, which confirm the adsorption results obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction and Removal of Five Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution Using Magnetite Nanoparticle Loaded Platanusorientalis Waste Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Madrakian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on synthesis of a magnetic adsorbent for wastewater treatment purposes. In this regard, platanus orientalis waste leaves were chosen as a cheap material for preparing the magnetic adsorbent by loading magnetite nanoparticles on it. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. Then, it was used for magnetic solid phase extraction and removal of five cationic dyes including methyl violet (MV, methylene blue (MB, malachite green (MG, crystal violet (CV, and neutral red (NR from aqueous solution as a model application. Different important factors affecting the adsorption process were optimized, and the results showed that under the optimized conditions (pH 10 for CV, MV, MB, and MG; pH 6 for NR; adsorbent dosage, 20 mg; agitation time, 25 min efficient removal of the investigated dyes (adsorption capacities between of 89-133 mg g-1 is achievable using the synthesized adsorbent. Furthermore, the reusability experiments showed that the adsorbent could be reused at least ten cycles without any significant loss in its sorption behavior.

  17. Enhanced corrosion resistance of stainless steel type 316 in sulphuric acid solution using eco-friendly waste product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, O.; Popoola, A. P. I.; Fayomi, O. S. I.

    2018-06-01

    Literature has shown that different organic compounds are effective corrosion inhibitors for metal in acidic environments. Such compounds usually contain oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur and function through adsorption on the metal surface, thereby creating a barrier for corrosion attack. Unfortunately, these organic compounds are toxic, scarce and expensive. Therefore, plants, natural product and natural oils have been posed as cheap, environmentally acceptable, abundant, readily available and effective molecules having low environmental impact. The corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steel Type 316 in the presence of eco-friendly waste product was studied using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques in 0.5 M H2SO4. The corrosion rate and corrosion potential of the steel was significantly altered by the studied inhibitor. Results show that increase in concentration of the inhibitor hinders the formation of the passive film. Experimental observation shows that its pitting potential depends on the concentration of the inhibitor in the acid solution due to adsorption of anions at the metal film interface. The presence of egg shell powder had a strong influence on the corrosion resistance of stainless steel Type 316 with highest inhibition efficiency of 94.74% from weight loss analysis, this is as a result of electrochemical action and inhibition of the steel by the ionized molecules of the inhibiting compound which influenced the mechanism of the redox reactions responsible for corrosion and surface deterioration. Inhibitor adsorption fits the Langmuir isotherm model. The two methods employed for the corrosion assessment were in good agreement.

  18. Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies for the Removal of Europium Ions from Waste Solution Using Some Local Clay Minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kamash, A.M.; El-Masry, E.H.; El-Dessouky, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic investigations on the removal of Eu 3+ ions from aqueous waste solution using bentonite and sandstone, as local clay minerals, has been done using batch technique. The influences of ph, contact time between liquid and solid phases, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature have been evaluated. Pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order kinetic models were used to analyze the sorption rate data and the results showed that the pseudo second-order model is best correlate the kinetic data. Equilibrium isotherms were determined to assess the maximum sorption capacity of bentonite and sandstone and the equilibrium sorption data were analyzed using Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. All tested models fit the data reasonably well in terms of regression coefficients. The maximum sorption capacity of bentonite was found to be greater than that of sandstone and the mean free energy is in all cases in the range corresponding to the ion exchange type of sorption. Sorption studies were also performed at different temperatures to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The numerical value of δG degree decreases with an increase in temperature, indicating that the sorption reaction is more favorable at higher temperature. The positive values of δH degree correspond to the endothermic nature of the sorption process

  19. Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pHpzc, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dyes concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model better represented the adsorption kinetics and the mechanism was controlled by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibb’s free energy (ΔG° of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  20. Governing through time: management of radioactive waste in France, organizational changes and the construction of irreversible technical solutions (1950-2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanck, Julie

    2017-01-01

    In France, the problem of radioactive waste has been subjected to different solutions. In 1979, the storage of radioactive waste was entrusted to a specialized operator, the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Andra). Yet, through the course of its history, the Agency has faced many difficulties to implement its projects, which often came under strong public criticism. Still today, while its project of geological disposal is about to move into its industrial phase, the Andra is still widely criticized and serves as a crystallization point for power relationships in the nuclear sector. In order to retrace the evolution of French radioactive waste management since the 1950's, the archival and ethnographic study of the Andra's organizational work provides an insider perspective on how its agents have defined problems, as well as conceived and implemented solutions. Indeed, through this strategic and political work, they have frequently transformed the Agency to fit the progress of its projects. From an industrial subsidiary of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the Agency was transformed into a finalized research agency, then again into an industrial operator in order to undertake to construction the geological disposal site. Through to these changes, actors have been able to revived criticized projects, without necessarily modifying their contents. In fact, it is not stability but organizational and institutional flexibility, which can account for the preservation of these controversial solutions. Lastly, the problem of radioactive waste crystallizes a multiplicity of temporal logics. The analysis of this work of temporalization, which can be seen as a particular kind of organization, questions the articulation between change and permanency of public action. As such, this study sheds light on the relation between dynamics of problem definition, the construction of irreversible technical solutions, and organizational and temporal work

  1. The Use of Conductive Ink in Antenna Education and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, David W.

    Conductive ink from a printer allows for the fabrication of conductive material with tight tolerances without the cost and time of chemical etching. This paper explores the use of AGIC printable conductive ink on a paper substrate as design tool for antennas as well as classroom use in antenna education. The antenna designs satisfy the requirements of a compact Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) antenna while showing a competitive performance within the current market. One best design is shown along with three other structures. These antennas consist of a bowtie cross-dipole over a reflective disc with conductive-ink grounded structures. In addition to the GNSS antennas, a linear elliptical dipole over a reflective disc with conductive grounded structures is presented. This elliptical antenna design attempts to find the maximum impedance bandwidth beyond the GNSS band. The inexpensive nature of conductive ink allows for its use in a classroom to demonstrate antenna behavior as part of antenna education. An inexpensive approach to the patch antenna using conductive ink is described and paired with a system made of off-the-shelf parts. The system is capable of measuring the power of the received signal. The received signal measurement is not as accurate as using a anechoic chamber but pattern details are visible. This is used to demonstrate aspects of the Friis transmission equation such as distance, polarization, radiation pattern shape, and loss.

  2. Photocytotoxicity in human dermal fibroblasts elicited by permanent makeup inks containing titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamer, Wayne G; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a pigment widely used in decorative tattoo and permanent makeup inks. However, little is known about the risks associated with its presence in these products. We have developed an in vitro assay to identify inks containing TiO2 that are cytotoxic and/or photocytotoxic. The presence of TiO2 in ten permanent makeup inks was established by X-ray fluorescence. Using X-ray diffraction, we found that seven inks contained predominately TiO2 (anatase), the more photocatalytically active crystalline form of TiO2. The remaining inks contained predominately TiO2 (rutile). To identify cytotoxic and/or photocytotoxic inks, human dermal fibroblasts were incubated for 18 h in media containing inks or pigments isolated from inks. Fibroblasts were then irradiated with 10 J/cm2 UVA radiation combined with 45 J/cm2 visible light for determining photocytotoxicity, or kept in the dark for determining cytotoxicity. Toxicity was assessed as inhibition of colony formation. No inks were cytotoxic. However eight inks, and the pigments isolated from these inks, were photocytotoxic. Using ESR, we found that most pigments from photocytotoxic inks generated hydroxyl radicals when photoexcited with UV radiation. Therefore, the possibility of photocytotoxicity should be considered when evaluating the safety of permanent makeup inks containing TiO2.

  3. Application of Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering to the analysis of synthetic dyes found in ballpoint pen inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiman, Irina; Leona, Marco; Lombardi, John R

    2009-07-01

    The applicability of Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to the analysis of synthetic dyes commonly found in ballpoint inks was investigated in a comparative study. Spectra of 10 dyes were obtained using a dispersive system (633 nm, 785 nm lasers) and a Fourier transform system (1064 nm laser) under different analytical conditions (e.g., powdered pigments, solutions, thin layer chromatography [TLC] spots). While high fluorescence background and poor spectral quality often characterized the normal Raman spectra of the dyes studied, SERS was found to be generally helpful. Additionally, dye standards and a single ballpoint ink were developed on a TLC plate following a typical ink analysis procedure. SERS spectra were successfully collected directly from the TLC plate, thus demonstrating a possible forensic application for the technique.

  4. Ink composition for making a conductive silver structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven B.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-18

    An ink composition for making a conductive silver structure comprises a silver salt and a complex of (a) a complexing agent and a short chain carboxylic acid or (b) a complexing agent and a salt of a short chain carboxylic acid, according to one embodiment. A method for making a silver structure entails combining a silver salt and a complexing agent, and then adding a short chain carboxylic acid or a salt of the short chain carboxylic acid to the combined silver salt and a complexing agent to form an ink composition. A concentration of the complexing agent in the ink composition is reduced to form a concentrated formulation, and the silver salt is reduced to form a conductive silver structure, where the concentrated formulation and the conductive silver structure are formed at a temperature of about 120.degree. C. or less.

  5. Print Quality of Ink Jet Printed PVC Foils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kašiković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital printing technique is used for a wide variety of substrates, one of which are PVC foils. Samples used in this research were printed by digital ink jet printing technique using Mimaki JV22 printing machine and J-Eco Subly Nano inks. As printing substrates, two different types of materials were used (ORACAL 640 - Print Vinyl and LG Hausys LP2712. A test card consisting of fields of CMYK colours was created and printed, varying the number of ink layers applied. Samples were exposed to light after the printing process. Spectrophotometric measurements were conducted before and after the light treatment. Based on spectrophotometricaly obtained data, colour differences ΔE2000 were calculated. Results showed that increasing number of layers, as well as the right choice of substrates, can improve the behaviour of printed product during exploitation.

  6. Silver nanoparticle ink technology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Krishna Rajan, Ignazio Roppolo, Annalisa Chiappone, Sergio Bocchini, Denis Perrone, Alessandro Chiolerio Center for Space Human Robotics, Italian Institute of Technology, Turin, Italy Abstract: Printed electronics will bring to the consumer level great breakthroughs and unique products in the near future, shifting the usual paradigm of electronic devices and circuit boards from hard boxes and rigid sheets into flexible thin layers and bringing disposable electronics, smart tags, and so on. The most promising tool to achieve the target depends upon the availability of nanotechnology-based functional inks. A certain delay in the innovation-transfer process to the market is now being observed. Nevertheless, the most widely diffused product, settled technology, and the highest sales volumes are related to the silver nanoparticle-based ink market, representing the best example of commercial nanotechnology today. This is a compact review on synthesis routes, main properties, and practical applications. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance, nanocomposites, inks, printed electronics

  7. A Potential Adjuvant Agent of Chemotherapy: Sepia Ink Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangping Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepia ink polysaccharide (SIP isolated from squid and cuttlefish ink is a kind of acid mucopolysaccharide that has been identified in three types of primary structures from squid (Illex argentinus and Ommastrephes bartrami, cuttlefish Sepiella maindroni, and cuttlefish Sepia esculenta ink. Although SIP has been proved to be multifaceted, most of the reported evidence has illuminated its chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. As a natural product playing a role in cancer treatment, SIP may be used as chemotherapeutic ancillary agent or functional food. Based on the current findings on SIP, we have summarized four topics in this review, including: chemopreventive, antineoplastic, chemosensitive, and procoagulant and anticoagulant activities, which are correlative closely with the actions of anticancer agents on cancer patients, such as anticancer, toxicity and thrombogenesis, with the latter two actions being common causes of death in cancer cases exposed to chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  9. Ink Penetration of Uncoated Inkjet Paper and Impact on Printing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren'ai Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated ink penetration through imaging technology, first by gray and contour mapping and then calculating the ink penetration depth by programing. Next, a series of further analyses were carried out, including average ink permeability, ink distributions, and printability of different uncoated inkjet paper with different parameters. The impact on ink penetration of the microstructure and hydrophilicity of the uncoated paper was also studied. The experimental results indicated that paper specimens with sizing agent were resistant to the ink, resulting in a slow and shallow ink penetration. Paper containing filler had a more hydrophilic surface and porous structure, leading to a faster and deeper ink penetration. However, the calendering operation could make the paper structure more compact and reduce the porosity and penetration depth. When an appropriate combination of sizing agent, filler content, and the calendering process was utilized, a more stable hue could be produced with improvements in optical density, saturation, and color.

  10. Topic of nuclear power plant wastes at fifth CMEA symposium on research of fuel and radioactive solution reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Napravnik, J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of the results of the work of Session 3 of the Symposium held in Marianske Lazne from April 7 to 10, 1981. The participants heard 44 papers mainly related to the following problem areas: existing methods and methods being developed of handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants; improvements in the technology of the concentration of liquid wastes by evaporation and other methods; solidification of concentrated liquid wastes into suitable form; methods of the treatment of solid (combustible, non-combustible and compactable) wastes; improvements in methods of the treatment of gaseous effluents. A survey was organized on criteria applied to methods used for radioactive waste processing. The inquiry showed that the principal criteria are the product Quality, costs for waste processing and the release of harmful substances into the environment. (Ha)

  11. External PIXE analysis of old inks and papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanzadeh, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Shokouhi, F.

    1999-01-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission, PIXE is a very well established analytical method. This technique of analysis can equally be applied both in vacuum, internal PIXE, and in atmosphere, external PIXE. External PIXE has been applied to material analysis in Van de Graaff laboratory at AEOI using filters and funny filters. Advantages of using these filters have been studied when analysing ancient written documents such as envelopes, inks, and newspapers. This technique clearly demonstrated the differences between new and old inks and papers. More data is needed to show other features of this technique. (author)

  12. Microbial status and product labelling of 58 original tattoo inks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, T; Saunte, D M; Frimodt-møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    and labelled according to REACH as if they were plain chemicals. Objective  The objective of this study was to check the microbial product safety of unopened and opened tattoo ink stock bottles. Packaging, labelling, preservation, sterility and contamination with micro-organisms were studied. Methods  Physical......-pathogenic environmental bacteria. Yeast or moulds were detected in none of the samples. A total of 31% of the manufacturers informed only about the brand name. No information about content, sterility, risks or expiry date was indicated on the label. A total of 42% claimed sterility of their inks. A total of 54% labelled...

  13. Pigments and oligomers for inks - moving towards the best combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.; Smith, S.; Grierson, W.; Devine, E.

    1999-01-01

    The formulation of UV curable printing inks depends on several complex factors. If the individual components of the ink are not complementary, then performance problems can arise. One critical combination is that between the pigment and the oligomer. In a new approach to improve understanding of pigment/oligomer interactions, the resources of a pigment manufacturer and an oligomer manufacturer have been combined to investigate the problem. Initial screening of process yellow pigments and several oligomer types highlighted performance variations which were then examined in more detail

  14. Paper-based maskless enzymatic sensor for glucose determination combining ink and wire electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-Gutiérrez, O; Costa Rama, E; Costa-García, A; Fernández-Abedul, M T

    2017-07-15

    In this work we have developed an amperometric enzymatic biosensor in a paper-based platform with a mixed electrode configuration: carbon ink for the working electrode (WE) and metal wires (from a low-cost standard electronic connection) for reference (RE) and auxiliary electrodes (AE). A hydrophobic wax-defined paper area was impregnated with diluted carbon ink. Three gold-plated pins of the standard connection are employed, one for connecting the WE and the other two acting as RE and AE. The standard connection works as a clip in order to support the paper in between. As a proof-of-concept, glucose sensing was evaluated. The enzyme cocktail (glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase and potassium ferrocyanide as mediator of the electron transfer) was adsorbed on the surface. After drying, glucose solution was added to the paper, on the opposite side of the carbon ink. It wets RE and AE, and flows by capillarity through the paper contacting the carbon WE surface. The reduction current of ferricyanide, product of the enzymatic reaction, is measured chronoamperometrically and correlates to the concentration of glucose. Different parameters related to the bioassay were optimized, adhering the piece of paper onto a conventional screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). In this way, the RE and the AE of the commercial card were employed for optimizing the paper-WE. After evaluating the assay system in the hybrid paper-SPCE cell, the three-electrode system consisting of paper-WE, wire-RE and wire-AE, was employed for glucose determination, achieving a linear range between 0.3 and 15mM with good analytical features and being able of quantifying glucose in real food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzi; Xiang, Hai; Zhang, Guoliang; Cao, Xia; Meng, Qing

    2009-08-15

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O&G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O&G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O&G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O&G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12h was required for removing approximately 95% of O&G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  16. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongzi; Xiang Hai; Zhang Guoliang; Cao Xia; Meng Qing

    2009-01-01

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  17. Artificial intelligence and regression analysis for Cd(II) ion biosorption from aqueous solution by Gossypium barbadense waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Manal; Nasr, Mahmoud; Nagy, Heba; Helmi, Shacker

    2018-02-01

    In this study, batch biosorption experiments were conducted to determine the removal efficiency of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solutions by Gossypium barbadense waste. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) connected with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The sorption mechanism was described by complexation/chelation of Cd 2+ with the functional groups of O-H, C=O, -COO-, and C-O, as well as, cation-exchange with Mg 2+ and K + . At initial Cd(II) ion concentration (C o ), 50 mg/L, the adsorption equilibrium of 89.2% was achieved after 15 min under the optimum experimental factors of pH 6.0, biosorbent dosage 10 g/L, and particle diameter 0.125-0.25 mm. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted well to the sorption data, suggesting the co-existence of monolayer coverage along with heterogenous surface biosorption. Artificial neural network (ANN) with a structure of 5-10-1 was performed to predict the Cd(II) ion removal efficiency. The ANN model provided high fit (R 2 0.923) to the experimental data and indicated that C o was the most influential input. A pure-quadratic model was developed to determine the effects of experimental factors on Cd(II) ion removal efficiency, which indicated the limiting nature of pH and biosorbent dosage on Cd(II) adsorption. Based on the regression model (R 2 0.873), the optimum experimental factors were pH 7.61, biosorbent dosage 24.74 g/L, particle size 0.125-0.25 mm, and adsorption time 109.77 min, achieving Cd 2+ removal of almost 100% at C o 50 mg/L.

  18. 47{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2016). Key Topics / Enhanced safety and operation excellence and decommissioning experience and Waste management solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salnikova, Tatiana [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Schaffrath, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Summary report on the Key Topics ''Enhanced Safety and Operation Excellence'' and ''Decommissioning Experience and Waste Management Solutions'' of the 47{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2016) held in Hamburg, 10 to 12 May 2016. Other Sessions of AMNT 2016 have been and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  19. Green recovery of silver as crystalline Nano-particles from corresponding waste solutions by Lime Juice as compared with Ascorbic acid and Citric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Safaei

    2017-01-01

    Different biological methods are gaining recognition for the production of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), However, none of them have concerned to do recovery, removal and separation as a goal. In this study silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were recovered from fixer effluent solution as waste solution of silver by interacting with Lime juice as a bio-reducing and bio-capping agent. The best conditions for obtaining Ag NPs were determined by UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, DLS technique, SEM and X...

  20. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  1. Applicability of surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering for the direct discrimination of ballpoint pen inks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifar, R.M.; Verheul, J.M.; Ariese, F.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Gooijer, C.

    2001-01-01

    In situ surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) with excitation at 685 nm is suitable for the direct discrimination of blue and black ballpoint pen inks on paper. For black inks, shorter excitation wavelengths can also be used. For blue inks, SERRS at 514.5 and 457.9 nm does not

  2. Behavior of technetium in alkaline solution: Identification of non-pertechnetate species in high-level nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Shuh, David K.; Schroeder, Norman C.; Ashley, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Technetium is a long-lived (99Tc: 213,000 year half-life) fission product found in nuclear waste and is one of the important isotopes of environmental concern. The known chemistry of technetium suggests that it should be found as pertechnetate, TcO4-, in the extremely basic environment of the nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford site. However, other chemical forms of technetium are present in significant amounts in certain tanks, and these non-pertechnetate species complicate the treatment of the waste. The only spectroscopic characterization of these non-pertechnetate species is a series of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of actual tank waste. To better understand the behavior of technetium under these conditions, we have investigated the reduction of pertechnetate in highly alkaline solution in the presence of compounds found in high-level waste. These results and the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of these species are compared to the chemical behavior and XANES spectra of the actual non-pertechnetate species. The identity of the nonpertechnetate species is surprising

  3. Anti-Microbial Activity and Spectro-Chemical Investigation of Ink Extracts of Sepiella inermis (Van Hasselt 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasal VASANTHARAJA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crude petroleum ether and methanol ink extracts of Sepiella inermis were tested for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria by disc diffusion method. Spectral analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR, Raman IR and GC-MS. Of the two solvent extracts, only methanol extract was active and no activity was detected in petroleum ether extract. The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and bacterium Proteus vulgaris were found to be highly sensitive, with an inhibition zone of 20 and 19 mm respectively. GC-MS of methanol ink extract revealed sixteen compounds belonging to the derivatives of dihydroxy indole-2-carboxylic acid and dihydroxyindole. These investigations proved that methanol ink extract of Sepiella inermis possess significant antimicrobial property against both fungus and gram –ve bacteria. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as a waste material, studies focused on isolation and characterization of bioactive substances pave the way for new antimicrobial compounds.

  4. Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.

    As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which

  5. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P., E-mail: dpb@unh.edu; Gupta, Nivedita [University of New Hampshire, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  6. Antifungal and Antihepatotoxic Effects of Sepia Ink Extract against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in ...

  7. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P.; Gupta, Nivedita

    2016-08-01

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  8. Rheological behavior of silver nanowire conductive inks during screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmati, Shohreh; Barkey, Dale P.; Gupta, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    The rheological behavior of silver nanowire (AgNW) suspensions adapted for screen printing inks was investigated. Aqueous silver nanowire inks consisting of AgNW (length of 30 μm, and diameter of 40 and 90 nm), dispersant and binder were formulated. The effect of AgNW content on the rheological behavior of the ink and the build-up of ink structure after screen printing were examined as they depend on applied shear and temperature. Rheological measurements under conditions that mimic the screen printing process were done to assess viscoelastic properties induced by flow alignment of the wires and the subsequent recovery of the low shear structure. The Stretched Exponential model (SEmo) was used to model the recovery process after screen printing to obtain the characteristic time of the recovery or build-up process. The characteristic time was determined at several temperatures to obtain the activation energy of recovery. The domination of Brownian motion or non-Brownian motion behavior can be characterized by a Peclet number, which is the ratio of shear rate to the rotational diffusion coefficient. The Peclet number and the dimensionless concentration of wires were used to assess the recovery mechanism. The steady viscosity at low and high shear rates was also treated by an activation energy analysis.

  9. In search of the rainbow: Colored inks in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although surgical pathologists are aware of the multiple advantages that coloured inks contribute to surgical pathology practice, these coloured inks are not available in India and importing them is not a viable proposition. A systematic search for locally available coloring agents was done, and resulted in identifying specific shades within a popular set of children′s hobby colors of a particular brand. They retain their bright distinct colors on paraffin blocks and sections. These paints are available all over India, and are cheap, safe, and easy to use. Coloring gross specimen excision margins with different colors, adds precision to margin examination. It allows three-dimensional microscopic reconstruction of the tumor vis-a-vis its various neighboring anatomic structures. It allows postoperative comparison of tissue planes predicted by preoperative imaging. It maintains orientation of grossed and dissected specimens, enabling the pathologist to re-visit the grossed specimen, if required, and confidently allows further sampling if necessary. Aim: A systematic search for indigenous coloring agents was carried out, which included the dyes used in the histopathology laboratory, gelatin, commercially available paints, including acrylic paints and inks. Results: The study identified specific shades within a brand of acrylic colors that are easily available and simple to use, with good results on microscopic examination. Conclusion: Colored inks lend precision to margin examination. A set of easily procurable colors are available in our country, which are easy to use, with distinct bright colors, safe, and reliable.

  10. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  11. Radiation cure technology used in inks and coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravijst, J.-P.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation cure technology in inks and coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) and electron beam (EB) was introduced. The technology is the only one which meets the 3-E rules. An advantage of this technology is that a wide range of substrates can be printed such as paper, card, metal and even heat sensitive plastics

  12. Ridge Width Correlations between Inked Prints and Powdered Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Barrot-Feixat, Carme; Zapico, Sara C; Mancenido, Michelle; Broatch, Jennifer; Roberts, Katherine A; Carreras-Marin, Clara; Tasker, Jack

    2017-10-03

    A methodology to estimate the time of latent fingerprint deposition would be of great value to law enforcement and courts. It has been observed that ridge topography changes as latent prints age, including the widths of ridges that could be measured as a function of time. Crime suspects are commonly identified using fingerprint databases that contain reference inked tenprints (flat and rolled impressions). These can be of interest in aging studies as they provide baseline information relating to the original (nonaged) ridges' widths. In practice, the age of latent fingerprints could be estimated following a comparison process between the evidentiary aged print and the corresponding reference inked print. The present article explores possible correlations between inked and fresh latent fingerprints deposited on different substrates and visualized with TiO 2 . The results indicate that the ridge width of flat inked prints is most similar to fresh latent fingerprints , and these should be used as the comparison standard for future aging studies. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  14. Comparative potential of black tea leaves waste to granular activated carbon in adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ifelebuegu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption properties and mechanics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds; 17 β-estradiol, 17 α – ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A on locally available black tea leaves waste and granular activated carbon were investigated. The results obtained indicated that the kinetics of adsorption were pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature dependent with equilibrium being reached at 20 to 40 minutes for tea leaves waste and 40 to 60 minutes for granular activated compound. Maximum adsorption capacities of 3.46, 2.44 and 18.35 mg/g were achieved for tea leaves waste compared to granular activated compound capacities of 4.01, 2.97 and 16.26 mg/g for 17 β- estradiol, 17 α-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A respectively. Tea leaves waste adsorption followed pseudo-first order kinetics while granular activated compound fitted better to the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The experimental isotherm data for both tea leaves waste and granular activated compound showed a good fit to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models with the Langmuir model showing the best fit. The thermodynamic and kinetic data for the adsorption indicated that the adsorption process for tea leaves waste was predominantly by physical adsorption while the granular activated compound adsorption was more chemical in nature. The results have demonstrated the potential of waste tea leaves for the adsorptive removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A KINETIC MODEL OF BOEHMITE DISSOLUTION IN CAUSTIC SOLUTIONS APPLIED TO OPTIMIZE HANFORD WASTE PROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disselkamp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Boehmite (e.g., aluminum oxyhydroxide) is a major non-radioactive component in Hanford and Savannah River nuclear tank waste sludge. Boehmite dissolution from sludge using caustic at elevated temperatures is being planned at Hanford to minimize the mass of material disposed of as high-level waste (HLW) during operation of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). To more thoroughly understand the chemistry of this dissolution process, we have developed an empirical kinetic model for aluminate production due to boehmite dissolution. Application of this model to Hanford tank wastes would allow predictability and optimization of the caustic leaching of aluminum solids, potentially yielding significant improvements to overall processing time, disposal cost, and schedule. This report presents an empirical kinetic model that can be used to estimate the aluminate production from the leaching of boehmite in Hanford waste as a function of the following parameters: (1) hydroxide concentration; (2) temperature; (3) specific surface area of boehmite; (4) initial soluble aluminate plus gibbsite present in waste; (5) concentration of boehmite in the waste; and (6) (pre-fit) Arrhenius kinetic parameters. The model was fit to laboratory, non-radioactive (e.g. 'simulant boehmite') leaching results, providing best-fit values of the Arrhenius A-factor, A, and apparent activation energy, E A , of A = 5.0 x 10 12 hour -1 and E A = 90 kJ/mole. These parameters were then used to predict boehmite leaching behavior observed in previously reported actual waste leaching studies. Acceptable aluminate versus leaching time profiles were predicted for waste leaching data from both Hanford and Savannah River site studies.

  16. [Determination of photoinitiators in printing inks used in food contact materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Yu, Yanjun; Li, Ningtao; Wang, Libing

    2011-05-01

    A new analytical method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques was developed for the determination of five photoinitiators (PIs), benzophenone (BP), 4-methylbenzophenone (MBP), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDAB), 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EHDAB) and 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (Irgacure 184), in the printing inks used in food contact materials. The test solutions were extracted from selected food contact materials using Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. By adding 50 and 200 microg/L of a standard mixture of photoinitiators into the extracts of the blank packaging materials, the recoveries obtained were in the range of 66.7%-89.4%. The repeatability of the method was assessed by determining the contents of the photoinitiators in five types of food contact materials, and the results were lower than 10%. The instrumental detection limits (IDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) were in the range of 2.9-6.0 microg/L and 0.0017-0.0036 mg/dm2, respectively. The method was applied in the analysis of about twenty real samples (yogurt carton, milk carton, fruit juice carton and plastic bags samples). The most significant pollutants were BP and MBP. The concentrations of Irgacure 184, EDAB and EHDAB found in three individual samples were 0.84 mg/dm2, 0.2 mg/dm2 and 1.2 mg/dm2, respectively. The work proposed a new method to analyze the migration level of initiators from the inks.

  17. Moessbauer spectrometry applied to the study of laboratory samples made of iron gall ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgaud, C.; Rouchon, V.; Refait, P.; Wattiaux, A.

    2008-01-01

    Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based precipitates. In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precipitates, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements were performed on laboratory made inks at room temperature. These were completed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The samples consisted of several solutions of iron(II) sulphate, gallic acid and gum arabic. After evaporation, the residues were analysed. Up to eight different Moessbauer signatures were detected, most of them correlated to iron sulphates. The Moessbauer signature of the iron gall precipitate was also isolated. It is not distinctly defined and may overlap with the signatures of iron(III) hydroxy-sulphates, such as jarosite or copiapite. Raman spectrometry then proved to be a useful complementary technique for the identification of the precipitate. (orig.)

  18. Ecological solution of the problem of handling liquid radioactive wastes - Lr (by the example of Flue SSC RF RIA R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.I.; Bukvich, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    A sharp reduction of nuclear waste amounts is possible if their elements are considered as source material of atomic complexes - SMAC. The prospect of their possible salvaging will require technological changes and ensuring safety of storage of the material till the need arises. Long experience in deep liquid radioactive waste disposal and accounting, calculations, and motivations demonstrate that a corresponding choice of geological formations makes it possible to abandon liquid radioactive waste solidification and ensure their isolation from environment when the most rigid radiation safety requirements are fulfilled. (author)

  19. Characterization of printed pigment-based inks on ink-jet media using cross-sectional electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, P. de; Pataki, T.; Peeters, D.; Roost, C. van

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the microscopic assessment of representative specimen cross-sections prepared by microtomy and ultramicrotomy with emphasis in structure-property information using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, namely, the absolute optical density δ, the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde, the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar, and the morphology at 100% nominal printing coverage. This work shows that for different test patches printed at the same nominal printing coverage a number of different printing schemes yield a pre-defined absolute optical density δ which basically depends on the measured effective printing coverage C-tilde and the type of pigment-based inks used (spectral absorptivity m≠∞) and therefore on the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar. A method for estimating the spectral absorptivity m is presented which combines the absolute optical density δ of the test patch and the averaged pigment-based ink layer thickness t-bar as measured from cross-sectional electron microscopy

  20. Integrated energy and waste water solutions to solve small town municipal service delivery problems in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing municipal services such as electricity and waste water treatment is a major challenge for small towns that often lack the institutional capacity to manage and maintain the necessary infrastructure. High levels of poverty in these towns...