WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste handling building

  1. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  2. Preliminary Dynamic Siol-Structure-Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Wagenblast

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this analysis package is to document a preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation of a simplified design concept of the Wade Handling Building (WHB). Preliminary seismic ground motions and soil data will be used. Loading criteria of the WHB System Design Description will be used. Detail design of structural members will not be performed.. The results of the analysis will be used to determine preliminary sizes of structural concrete and steel members and to determine whether the seismic response of the structure is within an acceptable level for future License Application design of safety related facilities. In order to complete this preliminary dynamic evaluation to meet the Site Recommendation (SR) schedule, the building configuration was ''frozen in time'' as the conceptual design existed in October 1999. Modular design features and dry or wet waste storage features were intentionally excluded from this preliminary dynamic seismic evaluation. The document was prepared in accordance with the Development Plan for the ''Preliminary/Dynamic Soil Structure Interaction Analysis for the Waste Handling Building'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b), which was completed, in accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning''.

  3. Solid waste handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  4. Liberalisation of municipal waste handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    2006-01-01

    of price reductions in stead of quality demands in both environmental and working environmental terms. A recent study showed major deficits in the capacities of the municipalities to administer qualitative requirements in the tender process and to manage the contracts as an integral part of a scheme...... for improved performance of municipal waste management. The study stresses the need for training and guidance of municipal administrators. Highlighting ‘best practice’ examples the study shows, however, that it is perfectly possible to end up with quality service on contract. It takes a mixture of careful......Liberalisation of municipal waste handling: How are sustainable practices pursued? In the process of liberalization of public services in Europe contracting out the collection of municipal waste has surged. Research in Denmark has shown that municipalities in general have pursued a narrow policy...

  5. WASTE TREATMENT BUILDING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Habashi

    2000-06-22

    The Waste Treatment Building System provides the space, layout, structures, and embedded subsystems that support the processing of low-level liquid and solid radioactive waste generated within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). The activities conducted in the Waste Treatment Building include sorting, volume reduction, and packaging of dry waste, and collecting, processing, solidification, and packaging of liquid waste. The Waste Treatment Building System is located on the surface within the protected area of the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System helps maintain a suitable environment for the waste processing and protects the systems within the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) from most of the natural and induced environments. The WTB also confines contaminants and provides radiological protection to personnel. In addition to the waste processing operations, the Waste Treatment Building System provides space and layout for staging of packaged waste for shipment, industrial and radiological safety systems, control and monitoring of operations, safeguards and security systems, and fire protection, ventilation and utilities systems. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides the required space and layout for maintenance activities, tool storage, and administrative facilities. The Waste Treatment Building System integrates waste processing systems within its protective structure to support the throughput rates established for the MGR. The Waste Treatment Building System also provides shielding, layout, and other design features to help limit personnel radiation exposures to levels which are as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, and with other MGR systems that support the waste processing operations. The Waste Treatment Building System interfaces with the General Site Transportation System, Site Communications System, Site Water System, MGR

  6. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  7. Waste Handeling Building Conceptual Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. Rowe

    2000-11-06

    The objective of the ''Waste Handling Building Conceptual Study'' is to develop proposed design requirements for the repository Waste Handling System in sufficient detail to allow the surface facility design to proceed to the License Application effort if the proposed requirements are approved by DOE. Proposed requirements were developed to further refine waste handling facility performance characteristics and design constraints with an emphasis on supporting modular construction, minimizing fuel inventory, and optimizing facility maintainability and dry handling operations. To meet this objective, this study attempts to provide an alternative design to the Site Recommendation design that is flexible, simple, reliable, and can be constructed in phases. The design concept will be input to the ''Modular Design/Construction and Operation Options Report'', which will address the overall program objectives and direction, including options and issues associated with transportation, the subsurface facility, and Total System Life Cycle Cost. This study (herein) is limited to the Waste Handling System and associated fuel staging system.

  8. CLINICAL WASTE HANDLING AND OBSTACLES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaidatul Shida Razali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As in many other developing countries, the generation of clinical waste in Malaysia has increased significantly over the last few decades. Even though the serious impact of the clinical waste on human beings and the environment is significant, only minor attention is directed to its proper handling and legal aspects. This study seeks to examine the management of clinical waste in Selangor’s government hospitals as well as problems that arise from the current practice of clinical waste management. A depth interview with the responsible concession who handles the clinical waste management in those hospitals also has been taken. In general, it was found that the consortium’s administration was reasonably aware of the importance of clinical waste management. However, significant voids were presented that need to be addressed in future including efficient segregation, better handling and transfer means, as well as the need for training and awareness programs for the personnel. Other obstacles faced by consortiums were to handle the clinical waste including the operational costs. Waste minimizing and recycling, as well as the alternative treatment methods for incineration are regarded to be major challenges in the future.

  9. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  10. Non-linear model predictive supervisory controller for building, air handling unit with recuperator and refrigeration system with heat waste recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minko, Tomasz; Wisniewski, Rafal; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine a supermarket system. In order to grasp the most important dynamics we present a model that includes the single zone building thermal envelope with its heating, cooling and ventilation. Moreover we include heat waste recovery from the refrigeration high pressure side. The...

  11. 340 Waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stordeur, R.T.

    1996-10-04

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  12. 340 waste handling facility interim safety basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAIL, T.S.

    1999-04-01

    This document presents an interim safety basis for the 340 Waste Handling Facility classifying the 340 Facility as a Hazard Category 3 facility. The hazard analysis quantifies the operating safety envelop for this facility and demonstrates that the facility can be operated without a significant threat to onsite or offsite people.

  13. Waste Handling Equipment Devleopment Test and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.L. Tome

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify candidate Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface waste handling equipment for development testing. This study will also identify strategies for performing the development tests. Development testing shall be implemented to support detail design and reduce design risks. Development testing shall be conducted to confirm design concepts, evaluate alternative design concepts, show the availability of needed technology, and provide design documentation. The candidate equipment will be selected from MGR surface waste handling equipment that is the responsibility of the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Surface Design Department. The equipment identified in this study is based on Viability Assessment (VA) design. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test and Evaluation Plan'' (MGR T&EP), Reference 5.1, was used as a basis for this study. The MGR T&EP reflects the extent of test planning and analysis that can be conducted, given the current status of the MGR requirements and latest VA design information. The MGR T&EP supports the appropriate sections in the license application (LA) in accordance with 10 CFR 60.2 1(c)(14). The MGR T&EP describes the following test activities: site characterization to confirm, by test and analysis, the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for housing a geologic repository; development testing to investigate and document design concepts to reduce risk; qualification testing to verify equipment compliance with design requirements, specifications, and regulatory requirements; system testing to validate compliance with MGR requirements, which include the receipt, handling, retrieval, and disposal of waste; periodic performance testing to verify preclosure requirements and to demonstrate safe and reliable MGR operation; and performance confirmation modeling, testing, and analysis to verify adherence to postclosure regulatory requirements. Development test activities can be

  14. Remote waste handling and feed preparation for Mixed Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.A.; Merrill, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Densley, P.J. [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will serve as a national testbed to demonstrate mature mixed waste handling and treatment technologies in a complete front-end to back-end --facility (1). Remote operations, modular processing units and telerobotics for initial waste characterization, sorting and feed preparation have been demonstrated at the bench scale and have been selected for demonstration in MWMF. The goal of the Feed Preparation design team was to design and deploy a robust system that meets the initial waste preparation flexibility and productivity needs while providing a smooth upgrade path to incorporate technology advances as they occur. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors -- personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Modular processing units were selected to enable processing flexibility and facilitate reconfiguration as new treatment processes or waste streams are brought on line for demonstration. Modularity will be achieved through standard interfaces for mechanical attachment as well as process utilities, feeds and effluents. This will facilitate reconfiguration of contaminated systems without drilling, cutting or welding of contaminated materials and with a minimum of operator contact. Modular interfaces also provide a standard connection and disconnection method that can be engineered to allow convenient remote operation.

  15. Safety Enhancements for TRU Waste Handling - 12258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Curt N. [Perma-Fix Northwest Richland, Inc., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For years, proper Health Physics practices and 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' (ALARA) principles have fostered the use of glove boxes or other methods of handling (without direct contact) high activities of radioactive material. The physical limitations of using glove boxes on certain containers have resulted in high-activity wastes being held in storage awaiting a path forward. Highly contaminated glove boxes and other remote handling equipment no longer in use have also been added to the growing list of items held for storage with no efficient method of preparation for proper disposal without creating exposure risks to personnel. This is especially true for wastes containing alpha-emitting radionuclides such as Plutonium and Americium that pose significant health risks to personnel if these Transuranic (TRU) wastes are not controlled effectively. Like any good safety program or root cause investigation PFNW has found that the identification of the cause of a negative change, if stopped, can result in a near miss and lessons learned. If this is done in the world of safety, it is considered a success story and is to be shared with others to protect the workers. PFNW believes that the tools, equipment and resources have improved over the past number of years but that the use of them has not progressed at the same rate. If we use our tools to timely identify the effect on the work environment and immediately following or possibly even simultaneously identify the cause or some of the causal factors, we may have the ability to continue to work rather than succumb to the start and stop-work mentality trap that is not beneficial in waste minimization, production efficiency or ALARA. (authors)

  16. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  17. WIPP Remote Handled Waste Facility: Performance Dry Run Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrington, T. P.; Britain, R. M.; Cassingham, S. T.

    2003-02-24

    The Remote Handled (RH) TRU Waste Handling Facility at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was recently upgraded and modified in preparation for handling and disposal of RH Transuranic (TRU) waste. This modification will allow processing of RH-TRU waste arriving at the WIPP site in two different types of shielded road casks, the RH-TRU 72B and the CNS 10-160B. Washington TRU Solutions (WTS), the WIPP Management and Operation Contractor (MOC), conducted a performance dry run (PDR), beginning August 19, 2002 and successfully completed it on August 24, 2002. The PDR demonstrated that the RHTRU waste handling system works as designed and demonstrated the handling process for each cask, including underground disposal. The purpose of the PDR was to develop and implement a plan that would define in general terms how the WIPP RH-TRU waste handling process would be conducted and evaluated. The PDR demonstrated WIPP operations and support activities required to dispose of RH-TRU waste in the WIPP underground.

  18. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  19. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Locations for Disposal, Storage and Handling of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains waste site locations for the disposal, storage, and handling of solid and hazardous waste...

  20. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  1. Technical Evaluations of Proposed Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Characterization Requirements at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Channell, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    Characterization, packaging, transport, handling and disposal of remotely handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste at WIPP will be different than similar operations with contact handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste. This paper presents results of technical evaluations associated with the planned disposal of remotely handled transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  2. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  3. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  4. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  5. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  6. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  7. Solid waste handling and decontamination facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The Title 1 design of the decontamination part of the SWH and D facility is underway. Design criteria are listed. A flowsheet is given of the solid waste reduction. The incinerator scrubber is described. Design features of the Gunite Tank Sludge Removal and a schematic of the sluicer, TV camera, and recirculating system are given. 9 figures. (DLC)

  8. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  9. Uncertainty Regarding Waste Handling in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Ewert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available According to our study, based on interviews with households in a residential area in Sweden, uncertainty is a cultural barrier to improved recycling. Four causes of uncertainty are identified. Firstly, professional categories not matching cultural categories—people easily discriminate between certain categories (e.g., materials such as plastic and paper but not between others (e.g., packaging and “non-packaging”. Thus a frequent cause of uncertainty is that the basic categories of the waste recycling system do not coincide with the basic categories used in everyday life. Challenged habits—source separation in everyday life is habitual, but when a habit is challenged, by a particular element or feature of the waste system, uncertainty can arise. Lacking fractions—some kinds of items cannot be left for recycling and this makes waste collection incomplete from the user’s point of view and in turn lowers the credibility of the system. Missing or contradictory rules of thumb—the above causes seem to be particularly relevant if no motivating principle or rule of thumb (within the context of use is successfully conveyed to the user. This paper discusses how reducing uncertainty can improve recycling.

  10. Handling and Treatment of Poultry Hatchery Waste: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Rodda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken to identify methods being used to handle and treat hatchery waste. Hatchery waste can be separated into solid waste and liquid waste by centrifuging or by using screens. Potential methods for treating hatchery waste on site include use of a furnace to heat the waste to produce steam to run a turbine generator or to use an in line composter to stabilise the waste. There is also potential to use anaerobic digestion at hatcheries to produce methane and fertilisers. Hatcheries disposing wastewater into lagoons could establish a series of ponds where algae, zooplankton and fish utilise the nutrients using integrated aquaculture which cleans the water making it more suitable for irrigation. The ideal system to establish in a hatchery would be to incorporate separation and handling equipment to separate waste into its various components for further treatment. This would save disposal costs, produce biogas to reduce power costs at plants and produce a range of value added products. However the scale of operations at many hatcheries is too small and development of treatment systems may not be viable.

  11. Benchmarking the Remote-Handled Waste Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. P. Mendiratta; D. K. Ploetz

    2000-02-29

    ABSTRACT Facility decontamination activities at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), the site of a former commercial nuclear spent fuel reprocessing facility near Buffalo, New York, have resulted in the removal of radioactive waste. Due to high dose and/or high contamination levels of this waste, it needs to be handled remotely for processing and repackaging into transport/disposal-ready containers. An initial conceptual design for a Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RHWF), completed in June 1998, was estimated to cost $55 million and take 11 years to process the waste. Benchmarking the RHWF with other facilities around the world, completed in November 1998, identified unique facility design features and innovative waste pro-cessing methods. Incorporation of the benchmarking effort has led to a smaller yet fully functional, $31 million facility. To distinguish it from the June 1998 version, the revised design is called the Rescoped Remote-Handled Waste Facility (RRHWF) in this topical report. The conceptual design for the RRHWF was completed in June 1999. A design-build contract was approved by the Department of Energy in September 1999.

  12. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste... Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from... Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion...

  13. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  14. 2401-W Waste storage building closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.M.

    1999-07-15

    This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

  15. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  16. Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy Danielsen, Svein; Alnæs, Lisbeth; Azrague, Kamal; Suleng, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Handling of quarry waste from schist production at Oppdal, Norway Svein Willy Danielsen1), Lisbeth Alnæs2), Kamal Azrague2), Jon Suleng3) 1) Geomaterials Consultant, Trondheim Norway, 2) SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway, 3) AF Gruppen AS, Oppdal, Norway A significant amount of aggregate research in Norway has been focused on the recovery and use of surplus sizes from hard rock aggregate quarries. The use of sand sized quarry waste (QW) from crushing/processing has been motivated by the rapid depletion of traditional sand/gravel resources, increasing land-use conflicts, and the need to minimise QW deposits which for some quarries are becoming a critical factor for economy as well as for environmental reasons. With an annual aggregate production of 77 million tons, out of which approximately 83 % comes from hard rock, the annual volume of size economic - and also environmental - potential will be considerable. Understanding the geological conditions and petrographic properties of the rock is vital. This is a quartz-feldspar rich metamorphic rock - a meta-arkose - containing rhythmically distributed planar lamina (less than 2 mm thick) or scattered occurrence of mica, separated by layers composed predominately of quartz and feldspar. The rock can be split along the lamina to slabs varying from 0.5 cm to more than 10 cm in thickness, and the microstructure can be characterized as being granoblastic to gneissic. . This makes it possible by well designed crushing process and careful selection of the in-going rock particles, to obtain well shaped aggregates up to at least 20 mm. The on-going project will also study the total cost situation depending on the QW utilisation, discuss the environmental and sustainability issues with a societal perspective, and also consider the market opportunities.

  17. Logistics of Transport and Handling with the Waste in the Upper Gemer region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Spišák

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the future, not any society (even the most advanced society can exists without waste formed by production processes or by any human activity. Increasing of the waste volume as well as its structure influences the living space of the mankind in a negative way. Therefore, the production, disposal or the exploitation of the waste is not only ecological but also the economical problem for the whole society. New methods of handling and disposal of the waste are preferred. This contribution is oriented on the application of micrologistics proceedings in order to reach a more effective system of transporting and handling with the waste.

  18. Building a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong

    2016-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design.

  19. Waste-handling practices at red meat abattoirs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hester; de Jager, Linda; Blight, Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Abattoir waste disposal must be carefully managed because the wastes can be a source of food-borne diseases (Nemerow & Dasgupta Industrial and Hazardous Waste Treatment, p. 284, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991; Bradshaw et al. The Treatment and Handling of Wastes, p. 183, The Royal Society, Chapman & Hall, London, 1992). Disposal of food that has been condemned because it is known to be diseased is of particular concern, and this paper looks at current disposal methods for such waste in the light of new scientific developments and waste-management strategies. Questionnaires were presented to management and workers at low- and high-throughput red meat abattoirs in the Free State Province, South Africa to determine current waste-handling procedures for condemned products. The waste-handling practices, almost without exception, did not fully comply with the requirements of the South African Red Meat Regulations of 2004, framed under the Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000). The survey highlighted the need to improve current waste-handling strategies to prevent condemned products from re-entering the food chain and contributing to environmental pollution.

  20. Advanced robotics handling and controls applied to Mixed Waste characterization, segregation and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasz, E.; Huber, L.; Horvath, J.; Roberson, P.; Wilhelmsen, K.; Ryon, R.

    1994-11-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Mixed Waste Operations program of the Department of Energy Robotic Technology Development Program (RTDP), a key emphasis is developing a total solution to the problem of characterizing, handling and treating complex and potentially unknown mixed waste objects. LLNL has been successful at looking at the problem from a system perspective and addressing some of the key issues including non-destructive evaluation of the waste stream prior to the materials entering the handling workcell, the level of automated material handling required for effective processing of the waste stream objects (both autonomous and tele-operational), and the required intelligent robotic control to carry out the characterization, segregation, and waste treating processes. These technologies were integrated and demonstrated in a prototypical surface decontamination workcell this past year.

  1. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-02-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  2. Preliminary Hazard Analysis for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Mike Lehto

    2010-10-01

    The need for remote handled low level waste (LLW) disposal capability has been identified. A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal capability for remote-handled LLW that is generated as part of the nuclear mission of the Idaho National Laboratory and from spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This document supports the conceptual design for the proposed remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization and by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW.

  3. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Baer, M.B. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RHLLW) Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2010-10-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability.

  5. The Influence Of Customer Handling On Brand Image In Building Customer Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Kurniawan; Sucherly; Surachman

    2015-01-01

    Complaint handling influences brand image which will influence customer loyalty in the future. This research is aimed to find out how the complaint handling is capable to influence against the brand image in building the customer loyalty of Indomaret Minimarket with the study case of Indomaret Minimarket. This research also aims to find out how the complaint handling is conducted by Indomaret Minimarket the brand image of service on Indomaret Minimarket as well as the customer loyalty of Ind...

  6. Project Execution Plan for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny Anderson

    2014-07-01

    As part of ongoing cleanup activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is proceeding under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (42 USC 9601 et seq. 1980). INL-generated radioactive waste has been disposed of at RWMC since 1952. The Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at RWMC accepted the bulk of INL’s contact and remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) for disposal. Disposal of contact-handled LLW and remote-handled LLW ion-exchange resins from the Advanced Test Reactor in the open pit of the SDA ceased September 30, 2008. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at RWMC will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the SDA (approximately at the end of fiscal year FY 2017). The continuing nuclear mission of INL, associated ongoing and planned operations, and Naval spent fuel activities at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) require continued capability to appropriately dispose of contact and remote handled LLW. A programmatic analysis of disposal alternatives for contact and remote-handled LLW generated at INL was conducted by the INL contractor in Fiscal Year 2006; subsequent evaluations were completed in Fiscal Year 2007. The result of these analyses was a recommendation to the Department of Energy (DOE) that all contact-handled LLW generated after September 30, 2008, be disposed offsite, and that DOE proceed with a capital project to establish replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability. An analysis of the alternatives for providing replacement remote-handled LLW disposal capability has been performed to support Critical Decision-1. The highest ranked alternative to provide this required capability has been determined to be the development of a new onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility to replace the existing remote-handled LLW disposal vaults at the SDA. Several offsite DOE

  7. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Materials and Fuels Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Debris Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Grant; P. J. Crane; S. Butler; M. A. Henry

    2010-02-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes the information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of transuranic (TRU) waste between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP). The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and the applicable portion of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and treatment of TRU debris waste in AMWTP. This report has been prepared for contact-handled TRU debris waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at MFC. The TRU debris waste will be shipped to AMWTP for purposes of supercompaction. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU debris waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for waste originating from MFC.

  8. Development and validation of a building design waste reduction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llatas, C; Osmani, M

    2016-10-01

    Reduction in construction waste is a pressing need in many countries. The design of building elements is considered a pivotal process to achieve waste reduction at source, which enables an informed prediction of their wastage reduction levels. However the lack of quantitative methods linking design strategies to waste reduction hinders designing out waste practice in building projects. Therefore, this paper addresses this knowledge gap through the design and validation of a Building Design Waste Reduction Strategies (Waste ReSt) model that aims to investigate the relationships between design variables and their impact on onsite waste reduction. The Waste ReSt model was validated in a real-world case study involving 20 residential buildings in Spain. The validation process comprises three stages. Firstly, design waste causes were analyzed. Secondly, design strategies were applied leading to several alternative low waste building elements. Finally, their potential source reduction levels were quantified and discussed within the context of the literature. The Waste ReSt model could serve as an instrumental tool to simulate designing out strategies in building projects. The knowledge provided by the model could help project stakeholders to better understand the correlation between the design process and waste sources and subsequently implement design practices for low-waste buildings.

  9. Present E-waste Handling and Disposal Scenario in India: Planning for Future Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipsikha Dasgupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In developing country like India E-waste management is being reckoned as a challenging task due to unplanned discarding of E-waste along with municipal solid waste. A “systematic & scientific” trade chain of E-waste is essential to manage the present scenario both in terms of environmental protection and health perspective. The prevalence of informal E-waste handling in India has put forward several issues of concern (metals, plastic, informal recycling that need to be addressed to protect environment and human health. One of the important aspects of current informal handling of E-waste is its recycling to minimize exposure level. However, it needs skillful protocol (formal handling to ensure the implementation of policy. Legal frame work is another essential part that will also help in E-waste management even in grass root level. A comprehensive E-waste management plan is also needed to improve disposal practice (recycling, landfill, and reuse to reduce the magnitude of exposure notably toxic metals and flame retardants. A multistage approach has been recommended as per policy guideline for the trade chain practionners which will provide benefits to control exposure as well as environmental risk.

  10. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-02-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  11. Modeling the flows of engineered nanomaterials during waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nicole C; Buha, Jelena; Wang, Jing; Ulrich, Andrea; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) at the interface from the technosphere to the ecosphere. Previous modeling of ENM flows to the environment revealed that significant amounts of ENM enter the waste stream and therefore waste incineration plants and landfills. It is the aim of this study to model the flows of ENM during waste incineration and landfilling in greater depth by including a more detailed description of the different processes and considering ENM-specific transformation reactions. Four substances were modeled: nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and carbon nanotube (CNT). These ENM are representative for commonly used materials and products, illustrating a variety of ENM with different behavior. The modeling was performed for Switzerland where almost 100% of the municipal waste and sewage sludge are burned. The mass-based modeling showed that – despite several differences among the models for nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO and nano-Ag (e.g. partial dissolution of nano-ZnO in acid washing of exhaust air or fly ash) – the major ENM flows go from the waste incineration plant to the landfill as bottom ash. All other flows within the system boundary (e.g. with the fly ash) were predicted to be about one magnitude smaller than the bottom ash flow. A different ENM distribution was found for CNTs that are expected to burn to a large extent (94%) so that only insignificant amounts remain in the system. The results of the modeling show that waste incineration can have a strong influence on some ENM but that still the majority of the ENM-mass is expected to end up in landfills.

  12. Update on intrusive characterization of mixed contact-handled transuranic waste at Argonne-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwight, C.C.; Jensen, B.A.; Bryngelson, C.D.; Duncan, D.S.

    1997-02-03

    Argonne National Laboratory and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company have jointly participated in the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Characterization Program since 1990. Intrusive examinations have been conducted in the Waste Characterization Area, located at Argonne-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho, on over 200 drums of mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. This is double the number of drums characterized since the last update at the 1995 Waste Management Conference. These examinations have provided waste characterization information that supports performance assessment of WIPP and that supports Lockheed`s compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Operating philosophies and corresponding regulatory permits have been broadened to provide greater flexibility and capability for waste characterization, such as the provision for minor treatments like absorption, neutralization, stabilization, and amalgamation. This paper provides an update on Argonne`s intrusive characterization permits, procedures, results, and lessons learned. Other DOE sites that must deal with mixed contact-handled transuranic waste have initiated detailed planning for characterization of their own waste. The information presented herein could aid these other storage and generator sites in further development of their characterization efforts.

  13. Robust telerobotics - an integrated system for waste handling, characterization and sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, S.A.; Hurd, R.L.; Wilhelmsen, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was designed to serve as a national testbed to demonstrate integrated technologies for the treatment of low-level organic mixed waste at a pilot-plant scale. Pilot-scale demonstration serves to bridge the gap between mature, bench-scale proven technologies and full-scale treatment facilities by providing the infrastructure needed to evaluate technologies in an integrated, front-end to back-end facility. Consistent with the intent to focus on technologies that are ready for pilot scale deployment, the front-end handling and feed preparation of incoming waste material has been designed to demonstrate the application of emerging robotic and remotely operated handling systems. The selection of telerobotics for remote handling in MWMF was made based on a number of factors - personnel protection, waste generation, maturity, cost, flexibility and extendibility. Telerobotics, or shared control of a manipulator by an operator and a computer, provides the flexibility needed to vary the amount of automation or operator intervention according to task complexity. As part of the telerobotics design effort, the technical risk of deploying the technology was reduced through focused developments and demonstrations. The work involved integrating key tools (1) to make a robust telerobotic system that operates at speeds and reliability levels acceptable to waste handling operators and, (2) to demonstrate an efficient operator interface that minimizes the amount of special training and skills needed by the operator. This paper describes the design and operation of the prototype telerobotic waste handling and sorting system that was developed for MWMF.

  14. Preliminary risk analysis applied to the handling of health-care waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho S.M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 75% and 90% of the waste produced by health-care providers no risk or is "general" health-care waste, comparable to domestic waste. The remaining 10-25% of health-care waste is regarded as hazardous due to one or more of the following characteristics: it may contain infectious agents, sharps, toxic or hazardous chemicals or it may be radioactive. Infectious health-care waste, particularly sharps, has been responsible for most of the accidents reported in the literature. In this work the preliminary risks analysis (PRA technique was used to evaluate practices in the handling of infectious health-care waste. Currently the PRA technique is being used to identify and to evaluate the potential for hazard of the activities, products, and services from facilities and industries. The system studied was a health-care establishment which has handling practices for infectious waste. Thirty-six procedures related to segregation, containment, internal collection, and storage operation were analyzed. The severity of the consequences of the failure (risk that can occur from careless management of infectious health-care waste was classified into four categories: negligible, marginal, critical, and catastrophic. The results obtained in this study showed that events with critics consequences, about 80%, may occur during the implementation of the containment operation, suggesting the need to prioritize this operation. As a result of the methodology applied in this work, a flowchart the risk series was also obtained. In the flowchart the events that can occur as a consequence of a improper handling of infectious health-care waste, which can cause critical risks such as injuries from sharps and contamination (infection from pathogenic microorganisms, are shown.

  15. Robotics and remote handling concepts for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAffee, Douglas; Raczka, Norman; Schwartztrauber, Keith

    1997-04-27

    This paper summarizes preliminary remote handling and robotic concepts being developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project. The DOE is currently evaluating the Yucca Mountain Nevada site for suitability as a possible underground geologic repository for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The current advanced conceptual design calls for the disposal of more than 12,000 high level nuclear waste packages within a 225 km underground network of tunnels and emplacement drifts. Many of the waste packages may weigh as much as 66 tonnes and measure 1.8 m in diameter and 5.6 m long. The waste packages will emit significant levels of radiation and heat. Therefore, remote handling is a cornerstone of the repository design and operating concepts. This paper discusses potential applications areas for robotics and remote handling technologies within the subsurface repository. It also summarizes the findings of a preliminary technology survey which reviewed available robotic and remote handling technologies developed within the nuclear, mining, rail and industrial robotics and automation industries, and at national laboratories, universities, and related research institutions and government agencies.

  16. Influence of Handling Practices on Material Recovery from Residential Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo F. Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Material recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW is becoming widely adopted in several developing countries. Residential solid waste is one of the most important components of MSW and the handling practices of the MSW by the generators have a major impact on the quality and quantity of the materials for recovery. This article analyzes the generation and composition of residential solid waste and the handling practices by users in three municipalities in Colombia that have a solid waste management plant (SWMP. The findings show that, although there are significant amounts of useful materials, their handling of the materials as “garbage”, the low recognition of recovery work, and the inadequate storage and source management practices, affect material recovery and the operation of SWMPs. These results may be taken as a reference for this type of municipality, because the solid waste management system and the type of operation of the SWMPs analyzed is similar to all of the SWMPs in the country as well as in other countries in the region.

  17. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  18. Conceptual Design Report for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2011-03-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  19. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  20. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  1. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2012-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  2. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austad, S. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Guillen, L. E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKnight, C. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ferguson, D. S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  3. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2014-06-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  4. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2011-04-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  5. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad, P.E.; L.E. Guillen, P.E.; C. W. McKnight, P.E.; D. S. Ferguson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Project addresses an anticipated shortfall in remote-handled LLW disposal capability following cessation of operations at the existing facility, which will continue until it is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). Development of a new onsite disposal facility, the highest ranked alternative, will provide necessary remote-handled LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate remote-handled LLW. This report documents the Code of Record for design of a new LLW disposal capability. The report is owned by the Design Authority, who can authorize revisions and exceptions. This report will be retained for the lifetime of the facility.

  6. Design Report of Volume Reduction and Handling Equipment of ACPF Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K. C.; Ku, J. H.; Lee, W. K.; Lee, E. P.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; You, G. S.; Youn, J. S

    2007-01-15

    For the efficient disposal of wastes from the ACPF (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process Facility), hot cell filter press equipment, vacuum press equipment of compatible wastes and hot cell auxiliary crane were developed. The filter press equipment installed in hot cell is pneumatically driven and remotely operated. In order to avoid the contamination of hot cell by dust particles from filters being compressed, it is designed to compress filters with them put into the basket of the solid wastes cask. The performance test showed that the height of a filter was reduced by more than 75% and a basket could contain up to four compressed filters. The vacuum press equipment reduces the volume of the plastic bag containing compatible wastes such as cloth, plastic film and paper by vacuumizing the bag. It consists of the vacuum pump, the suction and HEPA filters and the manual pneumatic valve, and is designed to be easily handled and managed. Through the performance test, it is observed that the volume of wastes was reduced to a third. Also an additional crane of 300 kg capacity was manufactured and installed in the ACP hot cell to handle the salt ingot wastes container located where the overhead crane is not accessible. This report presenting the details of the design, manufacturing and performance of these equipment will be used as technical materials for the operation of the facility and the development of equipment.

  7. The Influence Of Customer Handling On Brand Image In Building Customer Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kurniawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Complaint handling influences brand image which will influence customer loyalty in the future. This research is aimed to find out how the complaint handling is capable to influence against the brand image in building the customer loyalty of Indomaret Minimarket with the study case of Indomaret Minimarket. This research also aims to find out how the complaint handling is conducted by Indomaret Minimarket the brand image of service on Indomaret Minimarket as well as the customer loyalty of Indomaret Minimarket. This research using questionnaire as an instrument in collecting the data. The analysis type of this research is descriptive analysis and causal. The sample used as many as a 165 respondents with purposive sampling techniques. This research uses 33 indicators that will be counted with analysis technique SEM Structural Equation Modelling. The result of this research is that the complaint handling conducted by Indomaret Minimarket has been good but the aspect of speed in complaint handling is considered as not good. Besides the brand image and loyalty have been good enough. The customer loyalty is influenced by the complaint handling and the brand image by 32.7. The complaint handling has a significant influence against the customer satisfaction but the complaint handling does not influence against the customer loyalty. The brand image significantly influences against the customer loyalty. Then complaint handling influential not directly to customers trough loyalty of customer satisfaction. In addition the necessary integrated system standardization compensation and to rejuvenate issue at regular intervals to improve complaint handling that can give the effect to customer loyalty through brand image.

  8. The Availability and Properness of The Health Care Facilities for Waste Handling Based on Indonesian Topography and Geo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulansari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: medical facilities research (Rifakes 2011 was performed to know a comprehensive image about thegovernment health care facilities as a plan in medical service development that fi ts with the society needs. Although healthcenter was already available, but the availability and the properness of the health care facilities were not spread evenly,such as waste handling facilities. The aim of this research is analyzing the availability and the properness of waste handlingin health center based on demography and geography in Indonesia. Methods: This research is a secondary data analysisof Rifakes 2011 about the availability and the properness of waste handling in health center. The data analysis was donein univariat and bivariat. The correlation between the properness of waste handling and the isolation of an area was testedwith spearmann correlation. The correlation between the properness of waste handling of health care in archipelago and ofthat in frontier area was tested with mann whitney test. Results: More than a half ( 66,8% of the waste handling of healthcenter is already available, yet with improper category ( 72,7% . There is a signifi cant correlation between the propernessof waste handling with a location topography ( isolation area, archipelago, and frontier area . The improper waste handlingis especially in rural area with 80, 6%, whereas in city with 5,7%. Conclusion: There is a signifi cant correlation between theproperness of waste handling in health center with topographical and geographical condition. Recommendation: Wastemanagement in health centers should be more serious attention and handling, availability WWTP, feasibility of handlingthe waste, and if possible waste minimalisali clinic.

  9. Mission Need Statement for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego

    2009-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory proposes to establish replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability to meet Nuclear Energy and Naval Reactors mission-critical, remote-handled low-level waste disposal needs beyond planned cessation of existing disposal capability at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. Remote-handled low-level waste is generated from nuclear programs conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory, including spent nuclear fuel handling and operations at the Naval Reactors Facility and operations at the Advanced Test Reactor. Remote-handled low-level waste also will be generated by new programs and from segregation and treatment (as necessary) of remote-handled scrap and waste currently stored in the Radioactive Scrap and Waste Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Replacement disposal capability must be in place by Fiscal Year 2016 to support uninterrupted Idaho operations. This mission need statement provides the basis for the laboratory’s recommendation to the Department of Energy to proceed with establishing the replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, project assumptions and constraints, and preliminary cost and schedule information for developing the proposed capability. Without continued remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability, Department of Energy missions at the Idaho National Laboratory would be jeopardized, including operations at the Naval Reactors Facility that are critical to effective execution of the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program and national security. Remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability is also critical to the Department of Energy’s ability to meet obligations with the State of Idaho.

  10. DOE assay methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, F.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Caldwell, J.T. (Pajarito Scientific Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States))

    1991-08-01

    US Department of Energy methods used for characterization of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are described and listed by contractor site. The methods described are part of the certification process. All CH-TRU waste must be assayed for determination of fissile material content and decay heat values prior to shipment and prior to storage on-site. Both nondestructive assay (NDA) and destructive assay methods are discussed, and new NDA developments such as passive-action neutron (PAN) crate counter improvements and neutron imaging are detailed. Specifically addressed are assay method physics; applicability to CH-TRU wastes; calibration standards and implementation; operator training requirements and practices; assay procedures; assay precision, bias, and limit of detection; and assay limitation. While PAN is a new technique and does not yet have established American Society for Testing and Materials. American National Standards Institute, or Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidelines or methods describing proper calibration procedures, equipment setup, etc., comparisons of PAN data with the more established assay methods (e.g., segmented gamma scanning) have demonstrated its reliability and accuracy. Assay methods employed by DOE have been shown to reliable and accurate in determining fissile, radionuclide, alpha-curie content, and decay heat values of CH-TRU wastes. These parameters are therefore used to characterize packaged waste for use in certification programs such as that used in shipment of CH-TRU waste to the WIPP. 36 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Assessment of work-related accidents associated with waste handling in Belo Horizonte (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Marcos Pg; Pereira, Amanda F; Greco, Dirceu B; Cairncross, Sandy; Heller, Leo

    2017-08-01

    As more urban solid waste is generated, managing it becomes ever more challenging and the potential impacts on the environment and human health also become greater. Handling waste - including collection, treatment and final disposal - entails risks of work accidents. This article assesses the perception of waste management workers regarding work-related accidents in domestic and health service contexts in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. These perceptions are compared with national data from the Ministry of Social Security on accidents involving workers in solid waste management. A high proportion of accidents involves cuts and puncture injuries; 53.9% among workers exposed to domestic waste and 75% among those exposed to health service waste. Muscular lesions and fractures accounted for 25.7% and 12.5% of accidents, respectively. Data from the Ministry of Social Security diverge from the local survey results, presumably owing to under-reporting, which is frequent in this sector. Greater commitment is needed from managers and supervisory entities to ensure that effective measures are taken to protect workers' health and quality of life. Moreover, workers should defend their right to demand an accurate registry of accidents to complement monitoring performed by health professionals trained in risk identification. This would contribute to the improved recovery of injured workers and would require managers in waste management to prepare effective preventive action.

  12. A comparison of the consequences of different waste handling systems in two Danish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    Results from a study conducted in two Danish communities with different waste handling systems are reported: Whereas one community introduced in the beginning of 1993 a system of combining economic incentives with structural improvements to promot separation, the other started in spring 1994 a sy...... cities, and the use of economic incentives were tested. Whereas beliefs influenced attitudes in the expected direction, the consequences of economi incentives for differences in attitudes were less clear....

  13. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

  14. Taking out the Trash (And the Recyclables: RFID and the Handling of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wyld

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how RFID (radio frequency identification is poised to help transform the way wehandle our trash - our MSW (Municipal Solid Waste. We provide an overview showing that trash trendsin the United States are not good, as modern life has meant increasing volumes of trash that can bedisposed of in fewer and fewer landfills. We examine how RFID can be employed in the MSW area toboth facilitate the growth of PAYT (Pay as You Throw use-based billing for waste management servicesand to promote incentive-based recycling programs, both of which aim to reduce the amount of trashentering our landfills. We discuss the prospects for the future as RFID is introduced into what is now a$52 billion market for waste handling.

  15. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  16. Designing and Building an Automatic Information Retrieval System for Handling the Arabic Data

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper aimed to design and build an Automatic Information Retrieval System to handle the Arabic data. Also, this paper presents some type of comparison between the retrieval results using the vector space model in two different indexing methods: the full-ward indexing and the root indexing. The proposed Automatic Information Retrieval system was implemented and built using a traditional model technique: Vector Space Model (VSM) where the cosine measure similarity was used. The output resu...

  17. Acquisition Strategy for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the design-build acquisition strategy that will be applied to the Remote Handled LLW Disposal Project. The design-build delivery method will be tailored, as appropriate, to integrate the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' with the DOE budget formulation process and the safety requirements of DOE-STD-1189, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process.'

  18. Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study will review the environmental implications of dynamic policy objectives and instruments outlined in the European Union 7th Framework Programme (EU-FP7 Project DYNAmic policy MIXes for absolute decoupling of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX to address reductions in food consumption, food waste and a change in waste handling systems. The environmental implications of reductions in protein intake, food waste reductions, food waste management and donations are addressed using a life cycle approach to find the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, land use and water consumption. Data are provided from the Statistics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAOSTAT food balance sheets for the European Union (EU with a base year of 2010 and life cycle inventory (LCI data from a meta-study of available GHG, land use and water consumption data for major food products. The implications are reviewed using a number of scenarios for the years 2030 and 2050 assuming policy instruments are fully effective. Results indicate that reductions in animal-based protein consumption significantly reduce environmental impacts, followed thereafter by reductions in food waste (assuming this also reduces food consumption. Despite the positive implications the policy mixes may have for targets for decoupling, they are not enough to meet GHG emissions targets for the EU outlined in the DYNAMIX project, although land and water use have no significant change compared to 2010 levels.

  19. A pilot survey of the U.S. medical waste industry to determine training needs for safely handling highly infectious waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Aurora B; Hoboy, Selin; Germain, Anne; Miller, Hal; Thompson, Richard; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Beam, Elizabeth L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J

    2017-09-25

    The recent Ebola outbreak led to the development of Ebola virus disease (EVD) best practices in clinical settings. However, after the care of EVD patients, proper medical waste management and disposal was identified as a crucial component to containing the virus. Category A waste-contaminated with EVD and other highly infectious pathogens-is strictly regulated by governmental agencies, and led to only several facilities willing to accept the waste. A pilot survey was administered to determine if U.S. medical waste facilities are prepared to handle or transport category A waste, and to determine waste workers' current extent of training to handle highly infectious waste. Sixty-eight percent of survey respondents indicated they had not determined if their facility would accept category A waste. Of those that had acquired a special permit, 67% had yet to modify their permit since the EVD outbreak. This pilot survey underscores gaps in the medical waste industry to handle and respond to category A waste. Furthermore, this study affirms reports a limited number of processing facilities are capable or willing to accept category A waste. Developing the proper management of infectious disease materials is essential to close the gaps identified so that states and governmental entities can act accordingly based on the regulations and guidance developed, and to ensure public safety. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  1. Guidance for Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) and Mixed Waste (MW) Treatment and Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    mixed in-drum (as shown in Figure 8-13) by inserting a mixer blade into the drum or by physically tumbling the sealed drum. In-drum mixing is...evaporation (Figure 8-16) can also be used, but the waste must be dried before treatment. A steam-heated dryer is used which measures the correct amount of

  2. Carbon Nanotubes in Electronics: Background and Discussion for Waste-Handling Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Andersen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are increasingly being used in electronics products. CNTs have unique chemical and nanotoxicological properties, which are potentially dangerous to public health and the environment. This report presents the most recent findings of CNTs’ toxicity and discusses aspects related to incineration, recycling and potential remediation strategies including chemical and biological remediation possibilities. Our analysis shows that recycling CNTs may be challenging given their physiochemical properties and that available strategies such as power-gasification methods, biological degradation and chemical degradation may need to be combined with pre-handling routines for hazardous materials. The discussion provides the background knowledge for legislative measures concerning specialized waste handling and recycling procedures/facilities for electronics products containing CNTs.

  3. Part 1: The role of waste data in building knowledge: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne; Difford, Mark; Trois, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    An empirical study was undertaken with 31 organisations submitting data to the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) in order to explore the relationship between data and resultant waste knowledge generated through a process of learning. The results show that of the three constructs of knowledge (experience, data/information, and theory), experience has the greatest influence on building waste knowledge, nearly twice that of data/information and three times that of theory. Together the three constructs account for 54.1% of the variance in knowledge. Respondents from municipalities and private waste organisations reflect two distinct sub-groups in the data set. While the theoretical model remains the same for the two sub-groups, the way in which knowledge is constructed, and the variance in knowledge explained by the model, differs for the two. A mixed methods research design, combining quantitative statistical analysis and rich qualitative data, contributes to a comprehensive interpretation of the role of waste data in building knowledge in South Africa. While waste data has a minor influence on building knowledge, respondents acknowledge that waste data does have a positive impact on the way their organisations manage waste. However, it is not the data, but rather the resultant waste knowledge and raised level of awareness that causes the operational response. Experience is obtained predominantly through learning from others. Respondents in municipalities, emphasised learning from consultants, landfill site contractors, and colleagues in city-twinning programmes, while respondents in private waste companies, emphasised learning from experienced, senior colleagues.

  4. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guay, K.P. [S. M. Stroller Corp. (United States); Smith, L.C. [United Energy Services Corp. (United States)

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities.

  6. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed

  7. Pozzolanic mortars based on waste building materials for the restoration of historical buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pašalić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental aspects of waste building materials have been of great interest in recent years. For the sector of building materials this means increased recycling, reduction of energy consumption and natural resources preservation. This also presents an important contribution in the field of environmental protection. The work deals with the development of pozzolanic mortars made of waste building materials, ground red structure bricks and raw clay materials of inadequate characteristics for the production of ceramic materials. Based on the results of historical mortar characterizations, a group of mortars with specific characteristics (satisfied durability, good compatibility with a historical mortar was prepared. The potential of the waste materials and domestic clay materials application in the production of pozzolanic mortars was confirmed. In addition to the waste management, pozzolanic mortars were designed taking into account the existing conventions in the area of culture heritage.

  8. Radioactive waste handling and disposal at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj, Abdalla N; Lobriguito, Aida M; Al Anazi, Ibrahim

    2012-08-01

    King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC) is the largest specialized medical center in Saudi Arabia. It performs highly specialized diagnostic imaging procedures with the use of various radionuclides required by sophisticated dual imaging systems. As a leading institution in cancer research, KFSHRC uses both long-lived and short-lived radionuclides. KFSHRC established the first cyclotron facility in the Middle East, which solved the in-house high demand for radionuclides and the difficulty in importing them. As both user and producer of high standard radiopharmaceuticals, KFSHRC generates large volumes of low and high level radioactive wastes. An old and small radioactive facility that was used for storage of radioactive waste was replaced with a bigger warehouse provided with facilities that will reduce radiation exposure of the staff, members of the public, and of the environment in the framework of "as low as reasonably achievable." The experiences and the effectiveness of the radiation protection program on handling and storage of radioactive wastes are presented.

  9. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for Building 922 solid office waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Environmental Protection Dept.

    1995-01-01

    Building 922 houses all of SNL/California`s ES and H Departments: Health Protection, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Environmental Operations. It covers approximately 10,000 square feet and houses about 80 people. The office personnel generate nonhazardous solid office wastes in their daily activities. To determine the types and amounts of waste generated, a special PPOA sorting team sorted all of the trash collected from the building for a period of one-week (including paper and aluminum cans in the recycling bins). The team sorted the trash into major categories: paper, plastic, metals, glass, wet garbage, rest room waste, and miscellaneous materials. They then sorted it into subcategories within each major category. Rest room waste was collected but not sorted. The waste in each category was weighed separately. The total amount of trash collected during the week was approximately 168.8 kg (371.4 lbs). The results of this PPOA indicate that SNL/California is minimizing most nonhazardous office waste and reductions planned for the near future will add significantly to the minimization efforts.

  10. Waste Technology Engineering Laboratory (324 building)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammenzind, D.E.

    1997-05-27

    The 324 Facility Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is comprised of twenty functional areas. Two of the twenty functional areas (Decontamination and Decommissioning and Environmental Restoration) were determined as nonapplicable functional areas and one functional area (Research and Development and Experimental Activities) was determined applicable, however, requirements are found in other functional areas and will not be duplicated. Each functional area follows as a separate chapter, either containing the S/RID or a justification for nonapplicability. The twenty functional areas listed below follow as chapters: 1. Management Systems; 2. Quality Assurance; 3. Configuration Management; 4. Training and Qualification; 5. Emergency Management; 6. Safeguards and Security; 7. Engineering Program; 8. Construction; 9. Operations; 10. Maintenance; 11. Radiation Protection; 12. Fire Protection; 13. Packaging and Transportation; 14. Environmental Restoration; 15. Decontamination and Decommissioning; 16. Waste Management; 17. Research and Development and Experimental Activities; 18. Nuclear Safety; 19. Occupational Safety and Health; 20. Environmental Protection.

  11. Preliminary Project Execution Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This preliminary project execution plan (PEP) defines U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project objectives, roles and responsibilities of project participants, project organization, and controls to effectively manage acquisition of capital funds for construction of a proposed remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The plan addresses the policies, requirements, and critical decision (CD) responsibilities identified in DOE Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets.' This plan is intended to be a 'living document' that will be periodically updated as the project progresses through the CD process to construction and turnover for operation.

  12. The Second Opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant? Review of Salient Characteristics and Unique Operational Considerations for Remote Handled Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G.; Walker, B.A.

    2003-02-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to dispose of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning in 2005. (1) Four principle regulatory agencies are involved in the process of approving the RH TRU waste activities. The DOE is responsible for operational activities. The U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approves the design and use of shipping containers. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for assuring safe and environmentally effective long-term disposal of the radioactive component of the waste and operational environmental monitoring. The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) is responsible for the handling and the disposal of the non-radioactive hazardous component of the waste. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) is responsible for performing independent technical oversight of all WIPP activities, and will comment on documents and practices for the various regulated RH TRU waste activities. The DOE has already obtained the necessary approvals from the NRC, and has submitted a Class 3 Modification request to the NMED. On December 16, 2002 the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) provided the EPA with a notice of proposed change, in accordance with 40 CFR 194.4 (b) (3), to receive and dispose of remote handled transuranic waste. (2) WIPP procedures for the management of RH TRU waste at the site are being developed. While there are no issues with current NRC Certificates of Compliance for the RH TRU waste shipping containers, it is likely that there will be some controversy over other aspects of the currently planned RH TRU waste program. These issues may include: (1) the published RH TRU waste inventory, (2) the characterization of the radionuclide portion of the waste, for which one planned method is to use dose-to-Curie conversions, and (3) the plans to use bounding estimates for the hazardous portion of the WIPP waste, rather than measuring VOCs on a container

  13. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  14. Bisphenol A in Solid Waste Materials, Leachate Water, and Air Particles from Norwegian Waste-Handling Facilities: Presence and Partitioning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Nicolas; Arp, Hans Peter H; Hale, Sarah E

    2015-07-07

    The plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly found in landfill leachate at levels exceeding acute toxicity benchmarks. To gain insight into the mechanisms controlling BPA emissions from waste and waste-handling facilities, a comprehensive field and laboratory campaign was conducted to quantify BPA in solid waste materials (glass, combustibles, vehicle fluff, waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE), plastics, fly ash, bottom ash, and digestate), leachate water, and atmospheric dust from Norwegian sorting, incineration, and landfill facilities. Solid waste concentrations varied from below 0.002 mg/kg (fly ash) to 188 ± 125 mg/kg (plastics). A novel passive sampling method was developed to, for the first time, establish a set of waste-water partition coefficients, KD,waste, for BPA, and to quantify differences between total and freely dissolved concentrations in waste-facility leachate. Log-normalized KD,waste (L/kg) values were similar for all solid waste materials (from 2.4 to 3.1), excluding glass and metals, indicating BPA is readily leachable. Leachate concentrations were similar for landfills and WEEE/vehicle sorting facilities (from 0.7 to 200 μg/L) and dominated by the freely dissolved fraction, not bound to (plastic) colloids (agreeing with measured KD,waste values). Dust concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 50.7 mg/kgdust. Incineration appears to be an effective way to reduce BPA concentrations in solid waste, dust, and leachate.

  15. Hazard Classification of the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2012-05-01

    The Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is constructing a new facility to replace remote-handled low-level radioactive waste disposal capability for INL and Naval Reactors Facility operations. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) will continue until the facility is full or closed for remediation (estimated at approximately fiscal year 2015). Development of a new onsite disposal facility is the highest ranked alternative and will provide RH-LLW disposal capability and will ensure continuity of operations that generate RH-LLW for the foreseeable future. As a part of establishing a safety basis for facility operations, the facility will be categorized according to DOE-STD-1027-92. This classification is important in determining the scope of analyses performed in the safety basis and will also dictate operational requirements of the completed facility. This paper discusses the issues affecting hazard classification in this nuclear facility and impacts of the final hazard categorization.

  16. Designing and Building an Automatic Information Retrieval System for Handling the Arabic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahiem M.M. El Emary

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to design and build an Automatic Information Retrieval System to handle the Arabic data. Also, this paper presents some type of comparison between the retrieval results using the vector space model in two different indexing methods: the full-ward indexing and the root indexing. The proposed Automatic Information Retrieval system was implemented and built using a traditional model technique: Vector Space Model (VSM where the cosine measure similarity was used. The output results indicate and show that the root indexing improved the retrieval performance more than the full-ward indexing on the Arabic documents; furthermore it reduces the size of stored data and minimizes the time of system processing.

  17. National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Strategy for the Remote-Handled Low-level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggy Hinman

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to have disposal capability for remote-handled low level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the time the existing disposal facility is full or must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the INL Subsurface Disposal Area in approximately the year 2017.

  18. The Handling System of Product and Existence of Waste Components in Fishing Operation of Tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaruddin Mustaruddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling in fishing vessel is urgent to maintaining the quality of tuna products, while the existenceof waste components can bother the performance of fishing operations. The aims of this research are toevaluate the handling system of tuna products in fishing vessel and to analyze the influences of fishingoperation to the existence of waste components. This research methods are no control chart and regressionmodel approach. Research result shows that the handling system in the fishing operation of tuna in Bitungis not optimum. But the quality of tuna products which landed is still in controlled as shown by amountof rejecting products in UCL-LCL range (0 – 3,63 reject products/processing. The influence of amount oftuna caught per setting (X to existence of bait waste (Y formulated with model Y = - 1,176X+37.794, theinfluence of amount of tuna products (X to the existence of ices remained Y formulated with model Y =- 0,002X + 62,226, and also the influences of fishing operation which deputized by the amount of ABK (X1and number of operating days (X2 to the existence of freshwater remained (Y formulated with model Y= 50,000X1-23,704X2+288,889. The significant impacts are only the influence of amount of tuna productsin existence of ices remained (sigh = 0,036 and number of operating days of the existence of freshwaterremained (sigh = 0,037.Keywords: Bitung, waste components, handling system, tuna

  19. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  20. Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building Safety Information Document (SID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatell, L.B.; Woolsey, G.B.

    1993-04-15

    This Safety Information Document (SID) provides a description and analysis of operations for the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Treatment Building (the Treatment Building). The Treatment Building has been classified as a moderate hazard facility, and the level of analysis performed and the methodology used are based on that classification. Preliminary design of the Treatment Building has identified the need for two separate buildings for waste treatment processes. The term Treatment Building applies to all these facilities. The evaluation of safety for the Treatment Building is accomplished in part by the identification of hazards associated with the facility and the analysis of the facility`s response to postulated events involving those hazards. The events are analyzed in terms of the facility features that minimize the causes of such events, the quantitative determination of the consequences, and the ability of the facility to cope with each event should it occur. The SID presents the methodology, assumptions, and results of the systematic evaluation of hazards associated with operation of the Treatment Building. The SID also addresses the spectrum of postulated credible events, involving those hazards, that could occur. Facility features important to safety are identified and discussed in the SID. The SID identifies hazards and reports the analysis of the spectrum of credible postulated events that can result in the following consequences: Personnel exposure to radiation; Radioactive material release to the environment; Personnel exposure to hazardous chemicals; Hazardous chemical release to the environment; Events leading to an onsite/offsite fatality; and Significant damage to government property. The SID addresses the consequences to the onsite and offsite populations resulting from postulated credible events and the safety features in place to control and mitigate the consequences.

  1. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  2. Coping with Life: Building Self-Esteem, Managing Stress, Handling Peer Pressure. Family Living and Parenthood. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This module is designed for use in the Family Living and Parenthood course and other home economics courses. Using this guide, teachers can help students review and learn daily living skills. Following acknowledgments, a foreword, and a subcompetency list are three units: (1) building self-esteem; (2) managing stress; and (3) handling peer…

  3. A Review and Analysis of European Industrial Experience in Handling LWR Spent Fuel and Vitrified High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    2001-07-10

    The industrial facilities that have been built or are under construction in France, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and West Germany to handle light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and canisters of vitrified high-level waste before ultimate disposal are described and illustrated with drawings and photographs. Published information on the operating performance of these facilities is also given. This information was assembled for consideration in planning and design of similar equipment and facilities needed for the Federal Waste Management System in the United States.

  4. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  5. FRIDA: A model for the generation and handling of solid waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helge V.; Møller Andersen, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, Danish waste treatment plants have been obliged to report to the Danish EPA the annual amounts of waste treated. Applying these data, we analyse the development, link amounts of waste to economic and demographic variables, and present a model for the generation and treatment of waste...... in Denmark. Using the model and official projections of the economic development, a baseline projection for the generation and treatment of waste is presented. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  7. Treatment Conditions of Building Wastes in China and Its Integrated Management Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dan; Zha Kun; Li Qibin

    2006-01-01

    The status of utilization and disposal of the building wastes are introduced on the basis of analysis of its compositions, generation and effects on urban environment. The basic framework of the integrated building waste management, including control of the sources, reduction of the integrated process and final disposal, are proposed in view of the problems existing in recovery of the building wastes and the experiences from the developed countries.

  8. Characterization of past and present waste streams from the 325 Radiochemistry Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize, as far as possible, the solid waste generated by the 325 Radiochemistry Building since its construction in 1953. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) activities at Building 325 have generated approximately 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

  9. 76 FR 62062 - Proposed Approval of the Central Characterization Project's Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    .../epahome/dockets.htm . Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the http://www.regulations.gov... shipment of TRU waste for disposal at WIPP from any site other than Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL... waste streams and equipment at LANL) prohibit shipment of TRU waste for disposal at WIPP (from LANL...

  10. 77 FR 11112 - Proposed Approval of the Central Characterization Project's Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm . Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the www... shipment of TRU waste for disposal at WIPP from any site other than Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL... waste streams and equipment at LANL) prohibit shipment of TRU waste for disposal at WIPP (from LANL...

  11. Infectious risk assessment of unsafe handling practices and management of clinical solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Puvanesuaran, Vignesh R; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2013-01-31

    The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  12. Infectious Risk Assessment of Unsafe Handling Practices and Management of Clinical Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the bacterial agents present in various clinical solid wastes, general waste and clinical sharp waste. The waste was collected from different wards/units in a healthcare facility in Penang Island, Malaysia. The presence of bacterial agents in clinical and general waste was determined using the conventional bacteria identification methods. Several pathogenic bacteria including opportunistic bacterial agent such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes were detected in clinical solid wastes. The presence of specific pathogenic bacterial strains in clinical sharp waste was determined using 16s rDNA analysis. In this study, several nosocomial pathogenic bacteria strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in clinical sharp waste. The present study suggests that waste generated from healthcare facilities should be sterilized at the point of generation in order to eliminate nosocomial infections from the general waste or either of the clinical wastes.

  13. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  14. A New Approach for Solid Waste Handling in Mosul City, Comparison Study with the Existing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar T. Hamad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  Municipal Solid waste management constitutes a serious problem in many developing countries. Cities spend increasing resources  to improve their Municipal solid waste management. Based on the concept that solid waste is a resource containing significant amounts of valuable materials, new approaches of solid waste management are adopted. The present work proposes a policy framework for improving a low-cost waste management system in Mosul city. The new approach induces additional services to the existing solid waste system to reduce the unit cost per ton of solid waste generated. The proposed system includes sorting, recycling and composting units.      This paper presents an application of a new computerized decision package for an integrated solid waste management within Mosul city. New software called "COSEPRE" is used to analyze the service cost for both existing and proposed solid waste management system. The input data is collected from different related directorates in Mosul city. Data that are difficult to be obtained are prepared by laboratory analysis or field investigations. The results revealed a 58% reduction in unit cost by employing the new system of solid waste management.

  15. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  16. The Handling System of Product and Existence of Waste Components in Fishing Operation of Tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaruddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling in fishing vessel is urgent to maintaining the quality of tuna products, while the existence of waste components can bother the performance of fishing operations. The aims of this research are to evaluate the handling system of tuna products in fishing vessel and to analyze the influences of fishing operation to the existence of waste components. This research methods are no control chart and regression model approach. Research result shows that the handling system in the fishing operation of tuna in Bitung is not optimum. But the quality of tuna products which landed is still in controlled as shown by amount of rejecting products in UCL-LCL range (0 – 3,63 reject products/processing. The influence of amount of tuna caught per setting (X to existence of bait waste (Y formulated with model Y = - 1,176X+37.794, the influence of amount of tuna products (X to the existence of ices remained Y formulated with model Y = - 0,002X + 62,226, and also the influences of fishing operation which deputized by the amount of ABK (X1 and number of operating days (X2 to the existence of freshwater remained (Y formulated with model Y = 50,000X1-23,704X2+288,889. The significant impacts are only the influence of amount of tuna products in existence of ices remained (sigh = 0,036 and number of operating days of the existence of freshwater remained (sigh = 0,037.

  17. Vaccinations for waste-handling workers. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooher, Rebecca; Griffin, Tabatha; Shute, Elen; Maddern, Guy

    2005-02-01

    A review of the literature relating to the need for vaccination against infectious disease in the solid waste industry was conducted, focusing on hepatitis A, hepatitis B and tetanus. Databases (Medline, PreMedline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents, Cochrane Database, HTA Database, DARE, OSHROM) were searched up to and including August 2003. Articles were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of immunity to hepatitis A, hepatitis B or tetanus in solid waste workers or the incidence of clinical infection with any of these diseases. Papers about hazardous or medical waste, incineration or other infectious diseases were excluded. Forty-four papers constituted the evidence database. Only one paper studied the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A and hepatitis B in solid waste workers compared with sewage plant workers and office workers, and no difference was found between these groups of workers. There was some evidence to support a theoretical risk of infection with hepatitis A, B and tetanus; however, no studies could be found of the risk of these diseases in solid waste workers. No single cases of these diseases being acquired occupationally in solid waste management were identified in the literature. Workers in the solid waste industry may theoretically be at increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases occupationally. However, at present no studies could be found which have documented this risk.

  18. Proposal for Managing Eco-efficient Operations Plant Dedicated to Waste Handling at Costa Rican Institute of Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chinchilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different eco-efficient specifications were established considered by Ingeniería y Construcciónor IC (Engineering and Construction, a business of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE, in Spanish, at the time of developing an operational plant devoted to the handling of waste, in order to make rational use of resources and generate the lowest environmental impact. Initially a general diagnosis was conducted to learn about the current process of waste management in IC, as well as the identification and assessment of its aspects and environmental impacts. An ecoefficiency proposal program was subsequently prepared to be implemented once the ordinary, special and hazardous waste plant is operating. As part of this investigation, eco-efficient measures and technologies were also identified; this can be adopted by IC or any organization to improve its waste management. Finally, it is necessary that the Eco-efficient Management Program (PGE, in Spanish is organized, planned and systematized over time; in addition, the need to have an Ecoefficiency Management Committee arises, which will allow to implement it and measure it through a series of indicators.

  19. Creating healthy buildings: early design stage and handling over are crucial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, C.W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Regrettably, buildings often do not perform as expected or wanted by the users. Especially with regard to indoor environment, dissatisfaction is occurring frequently. Based on an investigation of two office building projects, an analysis of causes for the mismatch between user requirements/expectati

  20. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement

  1. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  2. INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES AND TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN MANAGEMENT OF REMOTE HANDLED AND LARGE SIZED MIXED WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKFORD LT

    2008-02-04

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) plays a critical role in Hanford Site cleanup for the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP). CH2M HILL is responsible for the management of 177 tanks containing 53 million gallons of highly radioactive wastes generated from weapons production activities from 1943 through 1990. In that time, 149 single-shell tanks, ranging in capacity from 50,000 gallons to 500,000 gallons, and 28 double-shell tanks with a capacity of 1 million gallons each, were constructed and filled with toxic liquid wastes and sludges. The cleanup mission includes removing these radioactive waste solids from the single-shell tanks to double-shell tanks for staging as feed to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site for vitrification of the wastes and disposal on the Hanford Site and Yucca Mountain repository. Concentrated efforts in retrieving residual solid and sludges from the single-shell tanks began in 2003; the first tank retrieved was C-106 in the 200 East Area of the site. The process for retrieval requires installation of modified sluicing systems, vacuum systems, and pumping systems into existing tank risers. Inherent with this process is the removal of existing pumps, thermo-couples, and agitating and monitoring equipment from the tank to be retrieved. Historically, these types of equipment have been extremely difficult to manage from the aspect of radiological dose, size, and weight of the equipment, as well as their attendant operating and support systems such as electrical distribution and control panels, filter systems, and mobile retrieval systems. Significant effort and expense were required to manage this new waste stream and resulted in several events over time that were both determined to be unsafe for workers and potentially unsound for protection of the environment. Over the last four years, processes and systems have been developed that reduce worker exposures to these hazards, eliminate violations

  3. Chiral and achiral basket-handle porphyrins: short synthesis and stereostructures of these versatile building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrold, Andreas C; Bruhn, Torsten; Schneider, Heidi; Radius, Udo; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2015-01-16

    Both, chiral and achiral basket-handle porphyrins were synthesized via a short, reliable, and efficient route in multigram quantities. Standard synthetic protocols such as metalation of the macrocycle, halogenation, and borylation of the porphyrin core or alkyl- and arylation with lithium organyls were successfully adapted. The planar-chiral representatives were resolved into their enantiomers, whose absolute configurations were determined by comparison of experimental CD spectra with TDCAM-B3LYP calculated ones.

  4. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  5. 76 FR 33277 - Proposed Approval of the Central Characterization Project's Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm . Docket: All documents in the docket are... site other than the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) until the EPA determines that the site has... CFR Part 194); and (2) (with the exception of specific, limited waste streams and equipment at...

  6. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  7. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  8. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  9. Techniques and Facilities for Handling and Packaging Tritiated Liquid Wastes for Burial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinehammer, T. B.; Mershad, E. A.

    1974-06-01

    Methods and facilities have been developed for the collection, storage, measurement, assay, solidification, and packaging of tritiated liquid wastes (concentrations up to 5 Ci/ml) for disposal by land burial. Tritium losses to the environment from these operations are less than 1 ppm. All operations are performed in an inert gas-purged glovebox system vented to an effluent removal system which permits nearly complete removal of tritium from the exhaust gases prior to their dischardge to the environment. Waste oil and water from tritium processing areas are vacuum-transferred to glovebox storage tanks through double-walled lines. Accommodations are also available for emptying portable liquid waste containers and for removing tritiated water from molecular sieve beds with heat and vacuum. The tritium concentration of the collected liquids is measured by an in-line calorimeter. A low-volume metering pump is used to transfer liquids from holding tanks to heavy walled polyethylene drums filled with an absorbent or cement for solidification. Final packaging of the sealed polyethylene drums is in either an asphalt-filled combination 30- and 55- gallon metal drum package or a 30-gallon welded stainless steel container.

  10. Cultural Resource Protection Plan for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, Brenda Ringe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie Kae [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This plan addresses cultural resource protection procedures to be implemented during construction of the Remote Handled Low Level Waste project at the Idaho National Laboratory. The plan proposes pre-construction review of proposed ground disturbing activities to confirm avoidance of cultural resources. Depending on the final project footprint, cultural resource protection strategies might also include additional survey, protective fencing, cultural resource mapping and relocation of surface artifacts, collection of surface artifacts for permanent curation, confirmation of undisturbed historic canal segments outside the area of potential effects for construction, and/or archaeological test excavations to assess potential subsurface cultural deposits at known cultural resource locations. Additionally, all initial ground disturbing activities will be monitored for subsurface cultural resource finds, cultural resource sensitivity training will be conducted for all construction field personnel, and a stop work procedure will be implemented to guide assessment and protection of any unanticipated discoveries after initial monitoring of ground disturbance.

  11. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  12. Characterization of Emissions from Building Products: Selection Criteria, Storage and Handling of Indoor Materials for Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Ulla Dorte; Nielsen, Peter A.; Marcussen, Lis

    1996-01-01

    be indoor climate relevant, meaning that they should be in direct contact with indoor air when used in buildings, and their emission should contribute significantly to the indoor air concentrations for instance due to a large surface area. They should be representative in terms of being widely used, now...... that the emission mechanisms do not change as a consequence of physical processes or chemical reactions. The five products selected were PVC flooring, waterborne varnish on beechwood parquet, carpet, sealant, and waterborne paint on gypsum board. The products were brought to the laboratory immediately after...

  13. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Management Waste Management Facility Proxy Waste Lot Profile 6.999 for Building K-25 West Wing, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby V.P.

    2009-02-12

    Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008a); Waste Handling Plan for Demolition of the K-25 and K-27 Building Structures and Remaining Components Located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2005); and Waste Handling Plan for Building K-25 West Wing Process Equipment and Piping at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE 2008b).

  15. Quantifying the waste reduction potential of using prefabrication in building construction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillon, L; Poon, C S; Chiang, Y H

    2009-01-01

    As Hong Kong is a compact city with limited available land and high land prices, the construction of high-rise buildings is prevalent. The construction industry produces a significant amount of building waste. In 2005, about 21.5 million tonnes of construction waste were generated, of which 11% was disposed of in landfills and 89% in public filling areas. At the present rate, Hong Kong will run out of both public filling areas and landfill space within the next decade. The government is taking action to tackle the problem, such as by introducing a construction waste landfill charge, and promoting prefabrication to reduce on-site waste generation. This paper reports an ongoing study on the use of prefabrication in buildings and its impact on waste reduction in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was administered to experienced professionals, and case studies of recently completed building projects were conducted. The results revealed that construction waste reduction is one of the major benefits when using prefabrication compared with conventional construction. The average wastage reduction level was about 52%. This implies that a wider use of prefabrication could considerably reduce construction waste generation in Hong Kong and alleviate the burdens associated with its management.

  16. Nitrogenous Waste Handling by Larval Zebrafish Danio rerio in Alkaline Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumai, Yusuke; Harris, Jessica; Al-Rewashdy, Hasanen; Kwong, Raymond W M; Perry, Steve F

    2015-01-01

    Although adult fish excrete their nitrogenous waste primarily as ammonia, larval fish may excrete a higher proportion as urea, an evolutionary strategy that lessens nitrogenous waste toxicity during early development. Previous studies firmly established that ammonia excretion is inhibited in adult fish acutely exposed to alkaline water. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that total nitrogen excretion is maintained in larval zebrafish raised in alkaline water (pH ∼ 10.0) as a result of compensatory adjustments to urea and/or ammonia transport pathways. Raising zebrafish in alkaline water from 0 to 4 d postfertilization (dpf) reduced ammonia excretion at 4 dpf, whereas urea excretion was elevated by 141%. The increase in urea excretion at 4 dpf served to maintain total nitrogen excretion constant, despite the persistent inhibition of ammonia excretion. Whole body ammonia and urea contents were not significantly altered by exposure to alkaline water. Protein and mRNA expression of Rhcg1, an apically expressed ammonia-conducting channel, were significantly elevated after 4-d exposure to alkaline water, whereas the mRNA expression of Rhag, Rhbg, and urea transporter were unaffected. The acute exposure to alkaline water of 4-dpf larvae reared in control water caused a rapid inhibition of ammonia excretion that had partially recovered within 6 h of continued exposure. The partial recovery of ammonia excretion despite continued exposure to alkaline water suggested an increased ammonia excretion capacity. In agreement with an increased capacity to excrete ammonia, the transfer of larvae back to the control (normal pH) water was accompanied by increased rates of ammonia excretion. Urea excretion was not stimulated during 6-h exposure to alkaline water. Following both chronic and acute exposure to alkaline water, the rate of uptake of methylamine (an ammonia analog) was significantly elevated, consistent with increased protein expression of the apical ammonia

  17. Handling Imprecision in Qualitative Data Warehouse: Urban Building Sites Annoyance Analysis Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzougarene, F.; Chachoua, M.; Zeitouni, K.

    2013-05-01

    Data warehouse means a decision support database allowing integration, organization, historisation, and management of data from heterogeneous sources, with the aim of exploiting them for decision-making. Data warehouses are essentially based on multidimensional model. This model organizes data into facts (subjects of analysis) and dimensions (axes of analysis). In classical data warehouses, facts are composed of numerical measures and dimensions which characterize it. Dimensions are organized into hierarchical levels of detail. Based on the navigation and aggregation mechanisms offered by OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, facts can be analyzed according to the desired level of detail. In real world applications, facts are not always numerical, and can be of qualitative nature. In addition, sometimes a human expert or learned model such as a decision tree provides a qualitative evaluation of phenomenon based on its different parameters i.e. dimensions. Conventional data warehouses are thus not adapted to qualitative reasoning and have not the ability to deal with qualitative data. In previous work, we have proposed an original approach of qualitative data warehouse modeling, which permits integrating qualitative measures. Based on computing with words methodology, we have extended classical multidimensional data model to allow the aggregation and analysis of qualitative data in OLAP environment. We have implemented this model in a Spatial Decision Support System to help managers of public spaces to reduce annoyances and improve the quality of life of the citizens. In this paper, we will focus our study on the representation and management of imprecision in annoyance analysis process. The main objective of this process consists in determining the least harmful scenario of urban building sites, particularly in dense urban environments.

  18. Historical Buildings Models and Their Handling via 3d Survey: from Points Clouds to User-Oriented Hbim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, F.; Sammartano, G.; Spanò, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper retraces some research activities and application of 3D survey techniques and Building Information Modelling (BIM) in the environment of Cultural Heritage. It describes the diffusion of as-built BIM approach in the last years in Heritage Assets management, the so-called Built Heritage Information Modelling/Management (BHIMM or HBIM), that is nowadays an important and sustainable perspective in documentation and administration of historic buildings and structures. The work focuses the documentation derived from 3D survey techniques that can be understood like a significant and unavoidable knowledge base for the BIM conception and modelling, in the perspective of a coherent and complete management and valorisation of CH. It deepens potentialities, offered by 3D integrated survey techniques, to acquire productively and quite easilymany 3D information, not only geometrical but also radiometric attributes, helping the recognition, interpretation and characterization of state of conservation and degradation of architectural elements. From these data, they provide more and more high descriptive models corresponding to the geometrical complexity of buildings or aggregates in the well-known 5D (3D + time and cost dimensions). Points clouds derived from 3D survey acquisition (aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, LiDAR and their integration) are reality-based models that can be use in a semi-automatic way to manage, interpret, and moderately simplify geometrical shapes of historical buildings that are examples, as is well known, of non-regular and complex geometry, instead of modern constructions with simple and regular ones. In the paper, some of these issues are addressed and analyzed through some experiences regarding the creation and the managing of HBIMprojects on historical heritage at different scales, using different platforms and various workflow. The paper focuses on LiDAR data handling with the aim to manage and extract geometrical information; on

  19. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant [Information Systems Laboratories, 2235 East 25th Street, Suite 100, Idaho Falls, ID 83404 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  20. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    grouts for measurements. All of the cured grouts were measured for bleed and set. All of the cured grouts satisfied the bleed and set requirements, where no bleed water was observed on any of the grout samples after one day and all had set within 3 days of curing. This data indicates, for a well mixed product, bleed and set requirement are satisfied for the range of acidic feeds tested in this task. The yield stress measurements provide both an indication on the mixability of the salt solution with dry materials and an indication of how quickly the grout is starting to form structure. The inability to properly mix these two streams into a well mixed grout product will lead to a non-homogeneous mixture that will impact product quality. Product quality issues could be unmixed regions of dry material and hot spots having high concentrations of americium 241. Mixes that were more difficult to incorporate typically resulted in grouts with higher yield stresses. The mixability from these tests will provide Waste Solidification Building (WSB) an indication of which grouts will be more challenging to mix. The first yield stress measurements were statistically compared to a list of variables, specifically the batched chemicals used to make the acidic solutions. The first yield stress was also compared to the physical properties of the acidic solutions, physical and pH properties of the neutralized/pH adjusted solutions, and chemical and physical properties of the grout.

  1. Environmental Assessment of the Demolition of Building 78 and Construction of New Hazardous Materials and Hazardous Waste Storage Buildings, Los Angeles Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    hazardous wastes and the scope of its operations. 3.10.4 Asbestos-Containing Material Asbestos-containing material ( ACM ) is any material containing more...transported by a registered hazardous waste hauler to a permitted hazardous waste disposal facility. ACM is assumed or known to be present in all older...LAAFB buildings and in some Fort MacArthur buildings, given bui lding age and the results of limited asbestos surveys completed in the past. ACM is

  2. Factors Contributing to the Waste Generation in Building Projects of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees Ahmed Memon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan.

  3. DQO Summary Report for 324 and 327 Building Hot Cells D4 Project Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Lee

    2006-02-06

    This data quality objective (DQO) summary report provides the results of the DQO process conducted for waste characterization activities for the 324 and 327 Building hot cells decommission, deactivate, decontaminate, and demolish activities. This DQO summary report addresses the systems and processes related to the hot cells, air locks, vaults, tanks, piping, basins, air plenums, air ducts, filters, an adjacent elements that have high dose rates, high contamination levels, and/or suspect transuranic waste, which will require nonstandard D4 techniques.

  4. Cleaner phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes for application in building materials: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Reijnders [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    Application of phosphogypsum, coal combustion ashes and waste incineration ashes in building materials has been limited by the presence of minor components that are hazardous, such as radioactive substances, chlorinated dioxins and heavy metals, or have a negative impact on product quality or production economics, such as phosphate, fluoride, carbon and chloride. Source reduction, destruction of persistent organics and separation techniques may reduce the concentrations of such components. With a few exceptions, separation techniques currently lead to significantly higher (private) costs. Higher waste disposal costs, tighter regulations and higher prices for competing virgin minerals could make the use of the purified phosphogypsum and ashes in building materials more attractive.

  5. Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential for University Technology PETRONAS Academic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In many countries such as Malaysia, it is increasingly more difficult to find suitable locations for landfills, which are accepted by the population. These circumstances are to be found all over the world and make new strategies for waste management necessary. Approach: Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. But for any ISWM system to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. Therefore, the study was conducted to characterize the quality and quantity of generated solid waste at University Technology PETRONAS (UTP academic buildings to suggest a recycling system with emphasis on recycling container size and arrangement. Results: Initially, a survey was conducted to highlight the existing situation of recycling activities and recycle bins condition in the campus. Then, six different sampling points were selected at campus academic complex and solid waste from those points was characterized for both term-time and semester break periods. Procedure of sampling involved unloading and analyzing a quantity of produced daily waste at each building in a controlled area. The integrity of all received waste was maintained regardless of the odor or physical decay. While survey outcomes shows that 80% of students and staff were interested to take part in recycling activities only 53% of them have practiced in it and the main reasons were that 75 and 83% of them could not find suitable and enough number of recycle bin, respectively. In another development it was obtained that up to 80% of produced materials at academic building are recyclable while paper percentage is predominant with 40% and 33% during term-time and semester break, respectively. Food waste was detected in all samples which could lead cross contamination, value drop and development of odor and flies. The solid waste generation was varied between 8

  6. The Future Resources for Eco-building Materials: II.Fly Ash and Coal Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XU Delong

    2009-01-01

    To use fly ash and coal waste effectively,the current technologies for reprocessing and recycling these wastes into eco-building materials were reviewed,such as utilizing fly ash as the component of fly ash cement and low heat cement after the processes of separation,removal of carbon remains and fine comminution,calcining coal waste into kaolin and meta-kaolin with suspension technology,and preparing clinkerless alkali-activated geopolymer materials with fly ash and meta-kaolin.

  7. Evaluation of handling and reuse approaches for the waste generated from MEA-based CO2 capture with the consideration of regulations in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurrokhmah, Laila; Mezher, Toufic; Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R M

    2013-01-01

    A waste slip-stream is generated from the reclaiming process of monoethanolamine (MEA) based Post-Combustion Capture (PCC). It mainly consists of MEA itself, ammonium, heat-stable salts (HSS), carbamate polymers, and water. In this study, the waste quantity and nature are characterized for Fluor's Econamine FGSM coal-fired CO2 capture base case. Waste management options, including reuse, recycling, treatment, and disposal, are investigated due to the need for a more environmentally sound handling. Regulations, economic potential, and associated costs are also evaluated. The technical, economic, and regulation assessment suggests waste reuse for NOx scrubbing. Moreover, a high thermal condition is deemed as an effective technique for waste destruction, leading to considerations of waste recycling into a coal burner or incineration. As a means of treatment, three secondary-biological processes covering Complete-Mix Activated Sludge (CMAS), oxidation ditch, and trickling filter are designed to meet the wastewater standards in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). From the economic point of view, the value of waste as a NOx scrubbing agent is 6,561,600-7,348,992 USD/year. The secondary-biological treatment cost is 0.017-0.02 USD/ton of CO2, while the cost of an on-site incinerator is 0.031 USD/ton of CO2 captured. In conclusion, secondary biological treatment is found to be the most economical option.

  8. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  9. Remote-handled transuranic system assessment appendices. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Volume 2 of this report contains six appendices to the report: Inventory and generation of remote-handled transuranic waste; Remote-handled transuranic waste site storage; Characterization of remote-handled transuranic waste; RH-TRU waste treatment alternatives system analysis; Packaging and transportation study; and Remote-handled transuranic waste disposal alternatives.

  10. Waste Generation and Recycling: Comparison of Conventional and Industrialized Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawshan A. Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the Malaysian construction industry, there is a pressing issue of minimizing construction waste, which cause significant impacts on the environment. With the increasing demand for major infrastructure projects, commercial buildings and housing development programmers, a large amount of construction waste is being produced. Adoption of prefabrication and industrialized building systems is now a priority in the industry and also an important means of reducing waste. Approach: Discussion of the prefabrication adoption were based on a comprehensive review of literatures and studies that contained data, information, findings and evidences related to prefabrication and industrial building systems in Malaysia. This study also highlighted a comparative study of material wastage and recycling based on two project sites e.g., conventional and prefabrication construction. Results: In the Malaysia construction industry, adoption of prefabrication and IBS is strongly encouraged to reduce construction time as well as the industry’s dependency on foreign workers. In addition, this study confirms that a huge amount of material wastage can be reduced by the adoption of prefabrication. This study also revealed that the rates of reused and recycled waste materials are relatively higher in projects that adopt prefabrication. Conclusion: Thus, the adoption of prefabrication and IBS has potential in the reduction of huge waste generation and management problems in the construction sector of Malaysia although there are some challenges in the adoption of prefabrication.

  11. Application of the coal-mining waste in building ceramics production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich

    Full Text Available In the process of construction ceramics production a substantial quantity of non-renewable natural resources - clays - are used. One of the ways of science development in building materials production is investigation of the possibility of regular materials production using technogenic waste. Application of coal-mining waste (technogenic raw material in charge composition for production of ceramic products provides rational use of fuel, contributes to implementation of resource saving technologies on construction materials production enterprises. Though science development on revealing new raw material sources should be conducted with account for safety, reliability, technical, ecological and economical sides of the problem, which is especially current. The article deals with the problem of coal-mining waste usage in building ceramics production instead of fresh primary component (clay, fluxes, thinning agents and combustible additives. The interdependence between the density and shrinkage of the ceramic products and the amount and quality of coal-mining waste in its composition was established. The optimal proportion of coal-mining waste and clay in building ceramics production was estimated.

  12. Building Resilience in Public Organizations: The Role of Waste and Bricolage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper shows how organizational waste and processes of bricolage have an important role in the functioning of public organizations, and how this is essential to innovation, organisational resilience and survival. This paper largely builds on the work of organisation

  13. Building Resilience in Public Organizations: The Role of Waste and Bricolage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper shows how organizational waste and processes of bricolage have an important role in the functioning of public organizations, and how this is essential to innovation, organisational resilience and survival. This paper largely builds on the work of

  14. 建筑废料的再生利用%Recycling of building waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓英

    2012-01-01

    简单介绍了建筑废料的产生及回收利用的重要性,分别阐述了废旧木材、废弃砖石、废钢铁及废弃玻璃的再生利用途径和优点,并提出了全面实现对建筑废料再生利用的具体措施,以期指导实践,保护生态环境,实现可持续发展。%This paper briefly introduces the production of building waste and significance of the recycling,respectively describes recycling ways and advantages of waste wood materials,waste brick and stone,waste steel,and waste glass,and proposes specific measures for comprehensively realizing building waste recycling,with a view to guide practice,to protect ecological environment,and to realize sustainable development.

  15. Assessment of possibility of metal waterjet cutting wastes use in building materials production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skanavi Nataliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at studying the composition and properties of the wastes generated during metal waterjet cutting and assessing the possibility of their use in building materials production. The essence of waterjet cutting process, waste generation mechanism, waste accumulation volumes at enterprises are described. The composition and properties of the used abradant – garnet sand is given and the features of its destruction during cutting are revealed. Waterjet cutting wastes are comprehensively studies: average and bulk density, granulometric composition, chemical composition are determined, various fractions are studied with an electronic microscope. It is revealed that during cutting abradant particles are destroyed, a large amount of dust fraction emerges with the particles of cut metal mixed into it. The metal waterjet cutting wastes are found to be very small, practically monofractive, heavy sands with a high content of dust fraction, which chemical composition is dominated by oxides of iron, silicon and aluminum. This characteristic of the wastes has allowed us to outline possible ways of how to use them: in ceramic items production as thinning agents and fluxing agents, in Portland cement production as a correcting iron-containing agent, as a mortar filler, including special mortars, as a building materials volumetric staining pigment, etc.

  16. Quality Improvement of Granular Wastes-The Effective Way to Recycle Secondary Raw Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Wei-hong; Charles Hendriks; Alex Fraaij; Peter Rem

    2004-01-01

    Granular wastes have negative effects on the environment due to contamination. On the other hand, stony components in granular wastes have a potential good perspectives for utilization in civil engineering works as secondary raw building materials. To reuse such materials without environmental risks, all contaminants must be removed or reduced to an acceptable level. Therefore liberation of materials is an important step in waste treatment. For this purpose, separation and cleansing techniques are suitable. Based on the analysis of contaminants in wastes, it is discussed how to select suitable techniques. The rules for technique selection and processes for quality improvement are set up. To evaluate the environmental quality and technical quality of output products, it is necessary to check leaching behaviours and physical properties.

  17. Production of building elements based on alkali-activated red clay brick waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Andres Robayo-Salazar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the feasibility of reusing a red clay brick waste (RCBW in order to produce building elements such as blocks, pavers and tiles, by using the technique of alkaline activation. The production of these building elements was based on the design of a hybrid mortar with 48.61 MPa of compressive strength, at 28 curing days at room temperature (25 °C. The hybrid mortar was synthesized by adding 10% by weight of Portland cement (OPC to the RCBW, Red Clay Brick Waste. As alkaline activators were used commercial industrial grade sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. Building elements were physically and mechanically characterized, according to Colombian Technical Standards (NTC. This technology process is presented as an alternative for the reuse of RCBW and its contribution to the environmental sustainability.

  18. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  19. Addendum to the Safety Analysis Report for the Steel Waste Packaging. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, S R

    1996-02-15

    The Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Steel Waste Package requires additional analyses to support the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste and special-case waste from the 324 building hot cells to PUREX for interim storage. This addendum provides the analyses required to show that this waste can be safely shipped onsite in the configuration shown.

  20. Use of industrial waste for the manufacturing of sustainable building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Martín, Francisco; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Presently, appropriate waste management is one of the main requisites for sustainable development; this task is tackled by the material construction industry. The work described herein is focused on the valorization of granite waste through incorporation, as a filler-functional admixture, into cement-based mortar formulations. The main components of the waste are SiO(2) (62.1 %), Al(2)O(3) (13.2 %), Fe(2)O(3) (10.1 %), and CaO (4.6 %). The presence of iron oxides is used to develop the photocatalytic properties of the waste. Following heating at 700 °C, α-Fe(2)O(3) forms in the waste. The inclusion of the heated sample as a filler admixture in a cement-based mortar is possible. Moreover, this sample exhibits a moderate ability in the photodegradation of organic dye solutions. Also, the plastering mortars, in which the heated samples have been used, show self-cleaning properties. The preparation of sustainable building materials is demonstrated through the adequate reuse of the granite waste.

  1. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. G. Popa; L. G. Popescu; T. A. Abagiu; C. Popescu; R. Cazalbasu

    2015-01-01

    ...: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials...

  2. Universities in capacity building in sustainable development: focus on solid waste management and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamuthu, P; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyses some of the higher education and research capacity building experiences gained from 1998-2006 by Danish and Malaysian universities. The focus is on waste management, directly relating to both the environmental and socio-economic dimensions of sustainable development. Primary benefits, available as an educational legacy to universities, were obtained in terms of new and enhanced study curricula established on Problem-oriented Project-based Learning (POPBL) pedagogy, which strengthened academic environmental programmes at Malaysian and Danish universities. It involved more direct and mutually beneficial cooperation between academia and businesses in both countries. This kind of university reach-out is considered vital to development in all countries actively striving for global and sustainable development. Supplementary benefits were accrued for those involved directly in activities such as the 4 months of field studies, workshops, field courses and joint research projects. For students and academics, the gains have been new international dimensions in university curricula, enhanced career development and research collaboration based on realworld cases. It is suggested that the area of solid waste management offers opportunities for much needed capacity building in higher education and research, contributing to sustainable waste management on a global scale. Universities should be more actively involved in such educational, research and innovation programmes to make the necessary progress. ISWA can support capacity building activities by utilizing its resources--providing a lively platform for debate, securing dissemination of new knowledge, and furthering international networking beyond that which universities already do by themselves. A special challenge to ISWA may be to improve national and international professional networks between academia and business, thereby making education, research and innovation the key driving mechanisms in

  3. Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOMASZEWSKI, T.A.

    2000-04-25

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP), 2336W Building, on the Hanford Site is designed to receive, confirm, repackage, certify, treat, store, and ship contact-handled transuranic and low-level radioactive waste from past and present U.S. Department of Energy activities. The WRAP facility is comprised of three buildings: 2336W, the main processing facility (also referred to generically as WRAP); 2740W, an administrative support building; and 2620W, a maintenance support building. The support buildings are subject to the normal hazards associated with industrial buildings (no radiological materials are handled) and are not part of this analysis except as they are impacted by operations in the processing building, 2336W. WRAP is designed to provide safer, more efficient methods of handling the waste than currently exist on the Hanford Site and contributes to the achievement of as low as reasonably achievable goals for Hanford Site waste management.

  4. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J. [SAIC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning assessment for the Waste Incineration Facility (Building 232-Z) Hanford Site, [Hanford], WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, L.N. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Building 232-Z is an element of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. From 1961 until 1972, plutonium-bearing combustible materials were incinerated in the building. Between 1972 and 1983, following shutdown of the incinerator, the facility was used for waste segregation activities. The facility was placed in retired inactive status in 1984 and classified as a Limited Control Facility pursuant to DOE Order 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, and 6430.1A, General Design Criteria. The current plutonium inventory within the building is estimated to be approximately 848 grams, the majority of which is retained within the process hood ventilation system. As a contaminated retired facility, Building 232-Z is included in the DOE Surplus Facility Management Program. The objective of this Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) assessment is to remove Building 232-Z, thereby elmininating the radiological and environmental hazards associated with the plutonium inventory within the structure. The steps to accomplish the plan objectives are: (1) identifying the locations of the most significant amounts of plutonium, (2) removing residual plutonium, (3) removing and decontaminating remaining building equipment, (4) dismantling the remaining structure, and (5) closing out the project.

  6. Development of Waste Acceptance Criteria at 221-U Building: Initial Flow and Transport Scoping Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.; Chen, Yousu

    2007-05-30

    This report documents numerical flow and transport simulations performed that establish initial waste acceptance criteria for the potential waste streams that may be safely sequestered in the 221-U Building and similar canyon structures. Specifically, simulations were executed to identify the maximum loading of contaminant mass (without respect to volume) that can be emplaced within the 221-U Building with no more than 1 pCi/m2 of contaminant migrating outside the structure within a 1,000 year time period. The initial scoping simulations were executed in one dimension to assess important processes, and then two dimensions to establish waste acceptance criteria. Two monolithic conditions were assessed: (1) a grouted canyon monolith; and (2) a canyon monolith filled with sand, both assuming no cracks or fissures were present to cause preferential transport. A three-staged approach was taken to account for different processes that may impact the amount of contaminant that can be safely sequestered in canyon structure. In the first stage, flow and transport simulations established waste acceptance criteria based on a linear (Kd) isotherm approach. In the second stage, impacts on thermal loading were examined and the differences in waste acceptance criteria quantified. In the third stage of modeling, precipitation/dissolution reactions were considered on the release and transport of the contaminants, and the subsequent impact on the maximum contaminant loading. The reactive transport modeling is considered a demonstration of the reactive transport capability, and shows the importance of its use for future performance predictions once site-specific data have been obtained.

  7. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed. (CBS)

  8. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  9. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  10. Evaluation of existing Hanford buildings for the storage of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.C.; Hodgson, R.D.; Sabin, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Existing storage space at the Hanford Site for solid low-level mixed waste (LLMW) will be filled up by 1997. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has initiated the project funding cycle for additional storage space to assure that new facilities are available when needed. In the course of considering the funding request, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked WHC to identify and review any existing Hanford Site facilities that could be modified and used as an alternative to constructing the proposed W-112 Project. This report documents the results of that review. In summary, no buildings exist at the Hanford Site that can be utilized for storage of solid LLMW on a cost-effective basis when compared to new construction. The nearest approach to an economically sensible conversion would involve upgrade of 100,000 ft{sup 2} of space in the 2101-M Building in the 200 East Area. Here, modified storage space is estimated to cost about $106 per ft{sup 2} while new construction will cost about $50 per ft{sup 2}. Construction costs for the waste storage portion of the W-112 Project are comparable with W-016 Project actual costs, with escalation considered. Details of the cost evaluation for this building and for other selected candidate facilities are presented in this report. All comparisons presented address the potential decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) cost avoidances realized by using existing facilities.

  11. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter; Arthur S. Rood

    2010-09-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources

  12. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  13. Viscosity of ashes from energy production and municipal solid waste handling: A comparative study between two different experimental setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Folkedahl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of ash fractions produced from the co-combustion of coal and biomass in a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler and from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a Danish incinerator that were determined using the high-temperature rot......This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of ash fractions produced from the co-combustion of coal and biomass in a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler and from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a Danish incinerator that were determined using the high......-temperature rotational viscometer method. Two different Setups in the United States and Denmark were purchased by the same company, HAAKE, but different versions of the basic instrument were used in the study to determine the reproducibility of the method. The two sets of measurements show that the method generates...

  14. Quarter-scale modeling of room convergence effects on CH (contact-handled) TRU drum waste emplacements using WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) reference design geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandeKraats, J.

    1987-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of horizontal room convergence on CH waste packages emplaced in the WIPP Reference Design geometry (rooms 13 feet high by 33 feet wide, with minus 3/8 inch screened backfill emplaced over and around the waste packages) as a function of time. Based on two tests, predictions were made with regard to full-scale 6-packs emplaced in the Reference Design geometry. These are that load will be transmitted completely through the stack within the first five years after waste emplacement and all drums in all 6-packs will be affected; that virtually all drums will show some deformation eight years after emplacement; that some drums may breach before the eighth year after emplacement has elapsed; and that based on criteria developed during testing, it is predicted that 1% of the drums emplaced will be breached after 8 years and, after 15 years, approximately 12% of the drums are predicted to be breached. 8 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Methodology in the handling of the waste radioactive material; Metodologia en el manejo del material radiactivo de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeterio H, M., E-mail: miguel.emeterio@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The methodology in the management of radioactive waste is constituted by an administrative part and seven technical stages: transport, classification, segregation, conditioning, treatment, packages qualification and final disposition (storage). In their diverse stages the management deserves a special attention, due to the increment of the use and application of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances, for such a reason should be managed in such a way that the exposed personnel safety and the public in general is guaranteed, protecting the integrity of the environment. (Author)

  16. Screening for halogenated flame retardants in European consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Komprdová, Klára; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2017-02-01

    To fulfill national and international fire safety standards, flame retardants (FRs) are being added to a wide range of consumer products and building materials consisting of flammable materials like plastic, wood and textiles. While the FR composition of some products and materials has been identified in recent years, the limited global coverage of the data and the large diversity in consumer products necessitates more information for an overall picture of the FR composition in common products/materials. To address this issue, 137 individual samples of various consumer products, building materials and wastes were collected. To identify and characterize potential sources of FRs in indoor environment, all samples were analyzed for content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs). The most frequently detected were HBCDDs (85%), with the highest median concentration of Σ4HBCDDs of 300 mg kg(-1) in polystyrenes. The highest median concentration of Σ10PBDEs was found in recycled plastic materials, reaching 4 mg kg(-1). The lowest concentrations were observed for NFRs, where the median of Σ12NFRs reached 0.4 mg kg(-1) in the group of electrical & electronic equipment wastes. This suggests that for consumer products and building materials that are currently in-use, legacy compounds still contribute to the overall burden of FRs. Additionally, contrasting patterns of FR composition in recycled and virgin plastics, revealed using principle component analysis (PCA), suggest that legacy flame retardants are reentering the market through recycled products, perpetuating the potential for emissions to indoor environments and thus for human exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening for perfluoroalkyl acids in consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Vojta, Šimon; Komprdová, Klára; Klánová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of important chemical compounds with unique and useful physico-chemical properties, widely produced and used in many applications. However, due to the toxicity, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential of certain PFASs, they are of significant concern to scientists and policy makers. To assess human exposure to PFASs, it is necessary to understand the concentrations of these emerging contaminants in our environment, and particularly environments where urban population spend most of their time, i.e. buildings and vehicles. A total of 126 samples of building materials, consumer products, car interior materials and wastes were therefore analyzed for their content of key PFASs - 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). At least one of the target PFAAs was detected in 88% of all samples. The highest concentration of Σ15PFAAs was found in textile materials (77.61 μg kg(-1)), as expected, since specific PFAAs are known to be used for textile treatment during processing. Surprisingly, PFAAs were also detected in all analyzed composite wood building materials, which were dominated by perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with 5-8 carbons in the chain (Σ4PFCAs up to 32.9 μg kg(-1)). These materials are currently widely used for building refurbishment, and this is the first study to find evidence of the presence of specific PFASs in composite wood materials. Thus, in addition to consumer products treated with PFASs, materials used in the construction of houses, schools and office buildings may also play an important role in human exposure to PFASs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Recycling Building Demolition waste As Coarse Aggregate in Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil I. Al- Sarrag* Hanaa Khaleel A Suham E. Saleh Al-Maliky

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the recent years in Iraq, building demolition increase because of wars and the processes of destruction that lead to increase concrete waste, causing extreme pressure on the available land-filled sites that’s becomes a new challenge to local environment, in addition to south region from country poor from aggregate source.  So this study make as first evaluation to return use concrete aggregate for old and demolition building in concrete asphalt mix, the concrete aggregate obtained from building to live long more than 20 years after crash reinforcement concrete and sieving to get requirement granular particle to make locally asphalt mixture (Type IIIB depends on modified specification of State Commission of Roads and Bridges (2003 with percent (0,25,50,75,100% from weight of coarse aggregate.  Asphalt mixtures were tested by Marshall test, Indirect tensile strength test, and the loss of stability test.

  19. Study of composition and morphology features of alumina producing waste for its application in road building technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepelev, Igor; Bochkov, Nikolay; Zhyzhaev, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The research of component composition of complex mineral binder material obtained using non-toxic alumina producing waste was performed. The strength characteristics of road mixtures and binder mineral product structure were studied. The technology of subgrade building on the basis of nepheline slime, gypsum-anhydrite waste and dust from cleaning collectors of electrostatic gas treatment systems of calcination furnaces of Achinsk alumina plant was developed and experimentally tested. It provides beside of part of waste utilization also increasing of strength properties and frost resistance of road mixtures.

  20. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  1. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  2. Waste water ducts in high-rise buildings. Pressure compensation in the downpipe; Schmutzwasserleitungen in Hochhaeusern. Druckausgleich im Fallrohr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishorst, B. [Informationszentrum Entwaesserungstechnik Guss e.V. (IZEG) (Germany); Guetegemeinschaft Entwaesserungstechnik Guss e.V. (GEG) (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    Ventilation is a key aspect for correct function of a waste water system. In order to enable pressure compensation and ensure that sewer gases are led outside, downpipes in high-rise buildings must have at least one main ventilation duct. The author presents examples to illustrate how downpipes should be constructed for optimum flow conditions and reliable function. (orig.)

  3. Influence of construction and demolition waste management on the environmental impact of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify comparable environmental impacts within a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) perspective, for buildings in which the first (Materials) and last (End of Life) life cycle stages are adjusted to several waste/material management options. Unlike most LCAs, the approach is "top-down" rather than "bottom-up", which usually involves large amounts of data and the use of specific software applications. This approach is considered appropriate for a limited but expedient LCA designed to compare the environmental impacts of different life cycle options. Present results, based on real buildings measurements and demolition contractor activities, show that shallow, superficial, selective demolition may not result in reduced environmental impacts. Calculations actually show an increase (generally less than 5%) in most impact categories for the Materials and End of Life stages because of extra transportation needs. However, core material separation in demolition operations and its recycling and/or reuse does bring environmental benefits. A reduction of around 77% has been estimated in the climate change impact category, 57% in acidification potential and 81% in the summer smog impact (for the life cycle stages referred).

  4. Energy efficiency in air handling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, P. [Australian Baldor (Australia)

    1995-07-01

    It is estimated that the cost of air handling in a typical office building is $25,000 to $60,000 per 10,000 sq metres. New technologies are now available to reduce this by 50 percent with an investment that is recoverable within two years. Old systems of air handling operated at full speed with flow rates changed by mechanical vanes or dampers. The excess capacity generated is wasting energy which could be saved using modern motor controls that match the system output with actual needs. Comparisons of relative energy consumptions of different fan flow control methods show that the more time a system spends throttled down, the better candidate it is for the more efficient Variable Speed Drive (VSD) device which matches the motor`s speed to actual needs. The use of VSD instead of vanes and dampers reduces operating costs which impacts directly on profitability. 2 tables, 1 fig.

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  6. Mathematical modeling of the emission of heavy metals into water bodies from building materials derived from production waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugin Konstantin Georgievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time industrial waste is considered to be an alternative to primary natural resources when producing construction materials and products. The use of industrial waste in the construction branch allows reducing ecological load on the environment and population as a result of reducing the amount of unrecyclable waste and reducing the use of primary natural resources. Though when involving waste products as raw material in the preparation of building materials there occur environmental risks of anthropogenic impact increase on the environment. These risks are related to possible emission of heavy metals from construction materials in use. The article describes a tool which allows predicting this issue, depending on the acidity of the medium, the residence time of the material in the environment. The experimental data obtained in determining the migration activity of metals from cement concretes to aqueous solutions served as the basis for the mathematical model. The proposed model allows us to make a prediction of anthropogenic impact on the environment and commensurate this impact with the possibility of assimilation of the environment area where the building materials are applied. This will allow conducting an effective assessment of the created and applied technologies of waste disposal, taking into account the operating conditions of the materials produced.

  7. Kollektiv Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Flemming Ibsen, Laust Høgedahl & Steen Sheuer: Kollektiv Handling. Faglig organisering og skift af fagforening. Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, Frederiksberg, 2012.......Boganmeldelse af Flemming Ibsen, Laust Høgedahl & Steen Sheuer: Kollektiv Handling. Faglig organisering og skift af fagforening. Nyt fra Samfundsvidenskaberne, Frederiksberg, 2012....

  8. Aspects regarding the use of the industrial wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Popa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article are present the results of physical and chemical characterisation activities, of industrial wastes: ash and slag, drilling sludge, metallurgical slag. Also, were established the conditions in which these industrial waste types could be used as raw materials for manufacture some building materials. The ash can be assimilated with a lightweight aggregate similar to the natural sands, the oil-well drilling sludge presents an advanced similarity with the suspensions of fine particles of sand clays, the steel melting slag in electric furnace has the characteristics of a dense granular aggregate and the secondary treatment steel slag is characterized by the high content of calcium oxide.

  9. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  10. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  11. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, H.F.; Quinn, G.J.

    1983-02-01

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site.

  12. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for

  13. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m(-2), the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m(-2), and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m(-2).

  14. Integration of Agricultural Waste in Local Building Materials for their Exploitation: Application with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through experiments, we have determined the mechanical and thermal properties of samples. This allowed us to determine the most optimal formulations. Therefore, we have prepared samples constituted by two basic materials, clay and laterite, mixed with rice straw. Thus, agriculture is among the economic sectors that produce more waste. The latter are mainly the straw of the three most-produced cereals in the world: wheat, corn and rice. Concerning rice straw, its high content of cellulose makes it difficult to digest. So, few animals are able to use it as food. Most of the straws are lost, buried, burned or used as litter. Moreover, clay and laterite formations represent the most abundant materials resources in Africa. So, this study has allowed us to show that the integration of rice straw in lateritic and clay soils for its use as building materials will allow, in addition to its recycling, to greatly reduce the social habitat cost and to improve the thermal comfort.

  15. Evaluation of Groundwater Impacts to Support the National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette Schafer, Arthur S. Rood, A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-12-23

    Groundwater impacts have been analyzed for the proposed remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility. The analysis was prepared to support the National Environmental Policy Act environmental assessment for the top two ranked sites for the proposed disposal facility. A four-phase screening and analysis approach was documented and applied. Phase I screening was site independent and applied a radionuclide half-life cut-off of 1 year. Phase II screening applied the National Council on Radiation Protection analysis approach and was site independent. Phase III screening used a simplified transport model and site-specific geologic and hydrologic parameters. Phase III neglected the infiltration-reducing engineered cover, the sorption influence of the vault system, dispersion in the vadose zone, vertical dispersion in the aquifer, and the release of radionuclides from specific waste forms. These conservatisms were relaxed in the Phase IV analysis which used a different model with more realistic parameters and assumptions. Phase I screening eliminated 143 of the 246 radionuclides in the inventory from further consideration because each had a half-life less than 1 year. An additional 13 were removed because there was no ingestion dose coefficient available. Of the 90 radionuclides carried forward from Phase I, 57 radionuclides had simulated Phase II screening doses exceeding 0.4 mrem/year. Phase III and IV screening compared the maximum predicted radionuclide concentration in the aquifer to maximum contaminant levels. Of the 57 radionuclides carried forward from Phase II, six radionuclides were identified in Phase III as having simulated future aquifer concentrations exceeding maximum contaminant limits. An additional seven radionuclides had simulated Phase III groundwater concentrations exceeding 1/100th of their respective maximum contaminant levels and were also retained for Phase IV analysis. The Phase IV analysis predicted that none of the thirteen remaining

  16. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  18. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  19. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  20. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  1. Issues and Recommendations Arising from the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Composite Analysis - 13374

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, Arthur S.; Schafer, Annette L.; Sondrup, A. Jeff [Idaho National Laboratory, Battelle Energy Alliance, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83401-2107 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Development of the composite analysis (CA) for the Idaho National Laboratory's (INLs) proposed remote-handled (RH) low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility has underscored the importance of consistency between analyses conducted for site-specific performance assessments (PAs) for LLW disposal facilities, sites regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) [1], and residual decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) inventories. Consistency is difficult to achieve because: 1) different legacy sources and compliance time-periods were deemed important for each of the sites evaluated at INL (e.g., 100 years for CERCLA regulated facilities vs. 1,000 years for LLW disposal facilities regulated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 [2]); 2) fate and transport assumptions, parameters, and models have evolved through time at the INL including the use of screening-level parameters vs. site-specific values; and 3) evaluation objectives for the various CERCLA sites were inconsistent with those relevant to either the PA or CA including the assessment of risk rather than effective dose. The proposed single site-wide CA approach would provide needed consistency, allowing ready incorporation of new information and/or facilities in addition to being cost effective in terms of preparation of CAs and review by the DOE. A single site-wide CA would include a central database of all existing INL sources, including those from currently operating LLW facilities, D and D activities, and those from the sites evaluated under CERCLA. The framework presented for the INL RH-LLW disposal facility allows for development of a single CA encompassing air and groundwater impacts. For groundwater impacts, a site-wide MODFLOW/MT3D-MS model was used to develop unit-response functions for all potential sources providing responses for a grid of receptors. Convolution and superposition of the response functions are used to compute

  2. Use of Multiple Innovative Technologies for Retrieval and Handling of Low-Level Radioactive Tank Wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble-Dial, J.; Riner, G.; Robinson, S.; Lewis, B.; Bolling, D.; Ganapathi, G.; Harper, M.; Billingsley, K.; Burks, B.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully implemented an integrated tank waste management plan at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (1), which resulted in the cleanup, removal, or stabilization of 37 inactive underground storage tanks (USTs) since 1998, and the reduction of risk to human health and the environment. The integrated plan helped accelerate the development and deployment of innovative technologies for the retrieval of radioactive sludge and liquid waste from inactive USTs. It also accelerated the pretreatment of the retrieved waste and newly generated waste from ORNL research and development activities to provide for volume and contamination reduction of the liquid waste. The integrated plan included: retrieval of radioactive sludge, contaminated material, and other debris from USTs at ORNL using a variety of robotic and remotely operated equipment; waste conditioning and transfer of retrieved waste to pretreatment facilities and interim, double contained storage tanks; the development and deployment of technologies for pretreating newly generated and retrieved waste transferred to interim storage tanks; waste treatment and packaging for final off-site disposal; stabilization of the inactive USTs that did not meet the regulatory requirements of the Federal Facilities Agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the continued monitoring of the active USTs that remain in long-term service. This paper summarizes the successful waste retrieval and tank stabilization operations conducted during two ORNL tank remediation projects (The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project and the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks Remediation Project), the sludge retrieval operations from the active Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks, and pretreatment operations conducted for the tank waste. This paper also provides the status of ongoing activities conducted in preparation

  3. The Al-containing wastes technology of recycling for alumina, coagulants and building materials production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lainer; U.; A.; Tuzhilin; A.; S.; Perekhoda; S.; P.; Vetchinkina; T.; N.; Samoilov; E.; N.

    2005-01-01

    The Al-containing wastes are generated by a row of industrial plants as hydroalumocarbonate residuum, underwastes water, foundry slag, mud, catalysts, mineral part of coals and others. These wastes is cycling in technological processes that cause to extra energy costs, processes stages difficulties and negatively affecting to environment.……

  4. The Al-containing wastes technology of recycling for alumina, coagulants and building materials production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Al-containing wastes are generated by a row of industrial plants as hydroalumocarbonate residuum, underwastes water, foundry slag, mud, catalysts, mineral part of coals and others. These wastes is cycling in technological processes that cause to extra energy costs, processes stages difficulties and negatively affecting to environment.

  5. HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

  6. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks

  7. Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential for University Technology PETRONAS Academic Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Amirhossein Malakahmad; Muhammad Z.Z.C. Mohd Nasir; Shamsul R.M. Kutty; Mohammed H. Isa

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: In many countries such as Malaysia, it is increasingly more difficult to find suitable locations for landfills, which are accepted by the population. These circumstances are to be found all over the world and make new strategies for waste management necessary. Approach: Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. But for any ISWM system to be successful, the first step is to carry out&#...

  8. Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-05-01

    In July 1981, the Office of Nuclear Waste Management of the Department of Energy contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration for a study of institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major sets of issues which the Academy was asked to investigate were (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program, and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system. To carry out this task, the Academy appointed a panel composed of individuals whose background and experience would provide the several types of knowledge essential to the effort. The findings of this panel are presented along with the executive summary. The report consists of a discussion of the search for a radioactive waste management strategy, and an analysis of the two major groups of institutional issues: (1) intergovernmental, the relationship between the three major levels of government; and (2) interagency, the relationships between the major federal agencies having responsibility for the waste management program.

  9. Federal Existing Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This handbook is focused on applying the EERE definition of zero energy buildings to existing buildings in the federal sector. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  10. Federal New Buildings Handbook for Net Zero Energy, Water, and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-08-14

    In 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) defined zero energy buildings as "an energy-efficient building where, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy." This document is focused on applying EERE’s definition of zero energy buildings to federal sector new buildings. However, it is not intended to replace, substitute, or modify any statutory or regulatory requirements and mandates.

  11. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE BIO MEDICAL WASTE (MANAGEMENT & HANDLING RULES 2011 AMONG THE PARAMEDICS AND LABORATORY TECH N ICIANS OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN NORTH WEST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitasha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bio Medical Waste (BMW refers to the waste generated in a health care facility. It carries a high potential for infection and injury , both to the health care workers and the public. The Government of India framed the Bio Medical Waste (Management and Handling Rules in the year 1998 and subsequently amended , the last amendments being in 2011. OBJECTIVE : To Assess the Knowledge with respect to the Biomedical Waste (Management &Handling rules , 2011 among paramedical staff and interns of a tertiary care centre in North West India. MATERIALS& METHODS : It was a cross sectional study conducted at a tertiary care centre of North West India in the month of September and October 2014 through a self - administered questionnaire using convenience sampling on Paramedical staff and interns. RES ULTS : Two hundred twenty questionnaires were distributed. Two hundred workers responded with a response rate of 91%. Out of the total 200 participants , 47% were laboratory technicians and 53% nursing staff and interns. Out of 72% who were trained in BMW ma nagement , 17% were laboratory technicians against 83% of nursing staff and interns. Knowledge about the new guidelines was seen among 72% but only 13 % knew it correctly. Majority of the participants (77% were aware of hand washing as basic and important universal work precaution. CONCLUSION: The different categories of paramedical staff were aware about the importance of BMW but they were not fully aware with the latest guidelines of BMW rules. Lack of training was found to be one of the most important an d common constraint for the paramedical staff.

  12. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  13. From energy resource to riddance problem. The issue of nuclear waste handling in the public dialogue in Sweden, 1950-2002; Fraan energiresurs till kvittblivningsproblem. Fraagan om kaernavfallets hantering i det offentliga samtalet i Sverige, 1950-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anshelm, Jonas [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    Which risks are associated with the handling of high level radioactive wastes? Where should they be kept? Who is responsible for their safe keeping? How should a repository for safe final disposal be designed? Is there, at all, a safe solution for all future time? How could we possibly know that? These questions and many more have been given much attention in the public debate in Sweden, ever since the plans for a Swedish nuclear power program were approved by the parliament in the 1950s. If the questions largely have remained the same, the answers have varied a lot. Representatives for both the nuclear industry and the environmental movement have changed their attitudes and claims for knowing the truth as the technological, political, economical, scientific and cultural circumstances change. This report examines the changes in value base and what was held for truth regarding the plans for a Swedish repository for high-level radioactive waste. E.g. in the 1950s the waste was regarded as an energy resource for the future breeder reactors - in contrast to the conflict-ridden debates of the 1970s when the possibility to manage the waste by any means was questioned. The opposing views on how to select a site for the repository and the diverging opinions on risks, responsibilities, knowledge, technologies, science and nature during the 1980s and 1990s are also analyzed.

  14. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  15. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  16. Radiological Laboratory, Utility, Office Building LEED Strategy & Achievement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, Nicole R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    Missions that the Radiological Laboratory, utility, Office Building (RLUOB) supports are: (1) Nuclear Materials Handling, Processing, and Fabrication; (2) Stockpile Management; (3) Materials and Manufacturing Technologies; (4) Nonproliferation Programs; (5) Waste Management Activities - Environmental Programs; and (6) Materials Disposition. The key capabilities are actinide analytical chemistry and material characterization.

  17. How should the household waste be handled? Evaluation of different treatment methods; Hur skall hushaallsavfallet tas om hand? Utvaerdering av olika behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, J.O.; Carlsson Reich, M.; Granath, J. [The Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agriculatural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology

    2002-02-01

    Energy turnover, and environmental and economic consequences of different municipal solid waste management systems have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, recycling of separated plastic and cardboard packages and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easy degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. A simulation model (ORWARE), based on LCA methodology, was used. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, emissions of greenhouse gases, emissions of acidifying substances, emissions of eutrophicating substances, emissions of photo oxidant formers, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy. The analysis was based on a model municipality. In a sensitivity analysis different technical, geographic and demographic parameters have been varied, making the result to cover several different types of municipalities and regions. The conclusions from the study are as follows. The most obvious conclusion is that landfilling should be avoided. Wastes that can be incinerated (combusted), material recycled, anaerobically digested or composted should not be landfilled. This is valid even if landfill gas is extracted and utilised, and the leachate is collected and treated. This is due to that the resources in the waste are inefficiently utilised when landfilled, making it necessary to produce materials, fuels and nutrients from virgin resources. It is impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions of which of the other treatment options that is is most preferable. There are advantages and disadvantages with all options. In a systems perspective there are small differences between incineration and aerobic digestion of easy degradable organic material, and between incineration and material recycling of e.g. plastics and cardboard. Material recycling, anaerobic digestion and incineration should not be seen

  18. Retrospective dosimetry: Dose evaluation using unheated and heated quartz from a radioactive waste storage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials contain natural dosemeters Such as quartz. which usually is less sensitive than its heated counterpart. The potential of quartz extracted from mortar in a wall of a low-level radioactive-waste storage facility containing distributed sources of Co-60 and Cs...

  19. Directed Evolution Strategies for Enantiocomplementary Haloalkane Dehalogenases : From Chemical Waste to Enantiopure Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Jan G. E.; Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Janssen, Dick B.

    2012-01-01

    We used directed evolution to obtain enantiocomplementary haloalkane dehalogenase variants that convert the toxic waste compound 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) into highly enantioenriched (R)- or (S)-2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol, which can easily be converted into optically active

  20. Handling Metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Sven; Karmilin, Konstantin; Stöcker, Walter

    2016-02-02

    Substrate cleavage by metalloproteinases involves nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule that is polarized by a catalytic metal, usually a zinc ion, and a general base, usually the carboxyl group of a glutamic acid side chain. The zinc ion is most often complexed by imidazole nitrogens of histidine side chains. This arrangement suggests that the physiological pH optimum of most metalloproteinases is in the neutral range. In addition to their catalytic metal ion, many metalloproteinases contain additional transition metal or alkaline earth ions, which are structurally important or modulate the catalytic activity. As a consequence, these enzymes are generally sensitive to metal chelators. Moreover, the catalytic metal can be displaced by adventitious metal ions from buffers or biological fluids, which may fundamentally alter the catalytic function. Therefore, handling, purification, and assaying of metalloproteinases require specific precautions to warrant their stability. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. The use of coal mining wastes in building road beds; Utilizacion de los Esteriles del Carbon como Materiales para Capas de Firmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This project was aimed at carrying out a study in order to determine the nature and characteristics of coal mining wastes for its possible use in building road beds and to establish the acceptance, implementation and quality control criteria, which can be included in the Spanish General Technical Standard of Road and Bridges Works (PG-3). With that aim, six types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several tests were conducted and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes to road beds were established. A grinding and classification plant was designed in order to obtain the necessary granular materials for conducting real scale compaction tests in road stages. Several types of coal mining wastes were tested: red, black, treated (in the above mentioned plant) untreated, with different bed thickness and runs in the compactors. Likewise, laboratory tests were carried out on black and red coal mining wastes by adding binder materials. The results proved that coal mining wastes can be used as granular material for building different road beds, such as bound with cement, gravel-emulsion or on their own. As a result of this study 53,000 tons of black coal mining wastes mixed with 6% of cement as binder were used for building a 5 km stage of the Highway Oviedo-Mieres, as well as 16,000 tons of red coal mining wastes in the Ujo-Caborana road, which is still being used in the works carried out a present. (Author)

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-24, 119-D Sample Building Drywell, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-19

    The 100-D-24 Sample Building Drywell waste site was a drywell that received drainage from a floor drain in the 119-D Sample Building. Confirmatory sampling was conducted on November 3, 2005. The waste site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. The use of coal mining wastes in building reinforced earth; Utilizacion de los Esteriles del Carbon en la Construccion de Tierra Armada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This project was aimed at evaluating the technical appropriateness of coal mining wastes for its possible use as filling material in reinforced earth structures of roads and highways, etc., and to establish the acceptance, implementation and quality control criteria, which can be included in the Spanish General Technical Standard of Road and Bridges Works (PG-3). With that aim, four types of coal mining wastes were selected out of an inventory and several corrosion tests were conducted with different types of reinforcements and following the results, the most appropriate coal mining wastes, the acceptance limits and the quality control tests to be applied to the materials obtained from coal mining wastes as filling material in reinforced earth structures were established. A real scale reinforced earth structure was erected using mining wastes as filling material and different types of reinforcements. It was tested under normal traffic conditions, carrying out thermal controls, and controls regarding the rolling and the corrosion of the reinforcements. The results proved that coal mining wastes can be used in general as filling material for building earth structures with polymeric reinforcements. As a result of this study 150,000 tons of coal mining wastes were used for building reinforced earth structures in different works carried out in the Principado de Asturias. (Author)

  4. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities May 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-16

    This document contains the Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Building 693 (B693) Yard Area of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) at LLNL. The TSRs constitute requirements for safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analyses for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2011). The analysis presented therein concluded that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts of waste from other DOE facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities.

  5. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group (www.zerowaste.byg.dtu.dk) at the Department of Civil Engineering was established in 2012 and covers the broad range of expertise required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have developed methods for removal of heavy metals...... and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes [1], providing the basis to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector.The amount of waste increases and it is both difficult and expensive to handle many waste types as e.g.different ashes. At the same time...... there are fewer natural resources and the general consumption increases. We wish to utilize alternative and new ash types as raw material in concrete, similarly to what was previously seen with fly ash from coal combustion and microsilica, which were both transformed from problematic waste to valuable raw...

  6. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  7. Building sustainability indicators in the health dimension for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Bonametti Veiga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to prepare a list of sustainability indicators in the health dimension, for urban solid waste management. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory study performed jointly with 52 solid waste specialists, using a three-steps Delphi technique, and a scale measuring the degree of importance for agreement among the researchers in this area. Results: the subjects under study were 92,3% PhD's concentrated in the age group from 30 to 40 years old (32,7% and 51% were men. At the end of the 3rd step of the Delphi process, the average and standard deviation of all the proposed indicators varied from 4,22 (±0,79 to 4,72 (±0,64, in a scale of scores for each indicator from 1 to 5 (from "dispensable" to "very important". Results showed the level of correspondence among the participants ranging from 82% to 94% related to those indicators. Conclusion: the proposed indicators may be helpful not only for the identification of data that is updated in this area, but also to enlarge the field of debates of the environmental health policies, directed not only for urban solid waste but for the achievement of better health conditions for the Brazilian context.

  8. Building sustainability indicators in the health dimension for solid waste management 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Coutinho, Silvano da Silva; Andre, Silvia Carla Silva; Mendes, Adriana Aparecida; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to prepare a list of sustainability indicators in the health dimension, for urban solid waste management. Methods: a descriptive and exploratory study performed jointly with 52 solid waste specialists, using a three-steps Delphi technique, and a scale measuring the degree of importance for agreement among the researchers in this area. Results: the subjects under study were 92,3% PhD's concentrated in the age group from 30 to 40 years old (32,7%) and 51% were men. At the end of the 3rd step of the Delphi process, the average and standard deviation of all the proposed indicators varied from 4,22 (±0,79) to 4,72 (±0,64), in a scale of scores for each indicator from 1 to 5 (from "dispensable" to "very important"). Results showed the level of correspondence among the participants ranging from 82% to 94% related to those indicators. Conclusion: the proposed indicators may be helpful not only for the identification of data that is updated in this area, but also to enlarge the field of debates of the environmental health policies, directed not only for urban solid waste but for the achievement of better health conditions for the Brazilian context. PMID:27508905

  9. Physical chemical studies of dispersed aluminosilicate wastes for obtaining the burned building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuriev, I. Y.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, G. G.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Kosmachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of the studies that determined that grinding can be one of the ways to modify aluminosilicate wastes. The optimal grinding modes were defined in laboratory conditions. Physical and chemical studies of modified ashes were carried out by means of X-ray phase analysis, differential thermal analysis and microscopy. The results have shown that modified ashes of thermal power stations when being applied in production of ceramic brick influence positively the processing properties of raw materials and the ready products.

  10. Steel slag: a waste industrial by-product as an alternative sustainable green building material in construction applications--an attempt for solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofale, Arun D; Nadeem, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This investigation explores the possibility of utilizing granular slag as an alternative to fine aggregate (natural sand) in construction applications like masonry and plastering. Construction industry utilizes large volume of fine aggregate in all the applications which has resulted into shortage of good quality naturally available fine aggregate. Use of granular slag serves two fold purposes, i.e. waste utilisation as well as alternative eco-friendly green building material for construction. The investigation highlights comparative study of properties with partial and full replacement of fine aggregate (natural sand) by granular slag in cement mortar applications (masonry and plastering). For this purpose, cement mortar mix proportions from 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 & 1:6 by volume were selected for 0, 25, 50, 75 & 100% replacement levels with w/c ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70 & 0.72 respectively. Based on the study results, it could be inferred that replacement of natural sand with granular slag from 25 to 75% increased the packing density of mortar which resulted into reduced w/c ratio, increased strength properties of all mortar mixes. Hence, it could be recommended that the granular slag could be effectively utilized as fine aggregate in masonry and plastering applications in place of conventional cement mortar mixes using natural sand.

  11. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  12. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  13. Selecting the group method of data handling as one of the most perspective algorithmes for building a predictive model of petroleum consumption in the system of energy balance of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachuk A.R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues of petroleum consumption in Ukraine. The dynamics of consumption of petroleum is analysed and proposed guidelines for the efficient production, consumption and import of petroleum in Ukraine. Constructed and developed predictive models of petroleum consumption in Ukraine through the use of modern software and using the group method of data handling, which allowed building adequate predictive models of petroleum consumption in the system of Ukraine’s energy balance. Researched and forecasted scenarios of petroleum consumption in the Ukraine. The problem of efficient use of energy resources is critical for sustainable economic development against the backdrop of energy saving national economy depends on energy imports, on the one hand, and rising prices for these resources. The basic foundation of the formation energy system of Ukraine is to build forecasting scenarios for different types of energy and different criteria for effective use of energy resources. Solving this problem is not only with ensuring energy security, but also with the level of development of regions of Ukraine and ensuring quality of life. Prediction of petroleum consumption in Ukraine today is an extremely important issue of strategic importance since conducted through analysis and building predictive models will be possible to develop guidelines for the efficient production and consumption of petroleum across Ukraine as a whole.

  14. Enclosure for handling high activity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimeno de Osso, F.

    1977-07-01

    One of the most important problems that are met at the laboratories producing and handling radioisotopes is that of designing, building and operating enclosures suitable for the safe handling of active substances. With this purpose in mind, an enclosure has been designed and built for handling moderately high activities under a shielding made of 150 mm thick lead. In this report a description is given of those aspects that may be of interest to people working in this field. (Author)

  15. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  16. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  17. Building a Co-Created Citizen Science Program with Community Members Neighboring a Hazardous Waste Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    A research project that is only expert-driven may ignore the role of local knowledge in research, often gives low priority to the development of a comprehensive strategy to engage the community, and may not deliver the results of the study to the community in an effective way. To date, only a limited number of co-created citizen science projects, where community members are involved in most or all steps of the scientific process, have been initiated at contaminated sites and even less in conjunction with risk communication. Gardenroots: The Dewey-Humboldt AZ Garden Project was a place-based, co-created citizen science project where community members and researchers together: defined the question for study, developed hypotheses, collected environmental samples, disseminated results broadly, translated the results into action, and posed new research questions. This co-created environmental research project produced new data and addressed an additional exposure route (consumption of vegetables grown in soils with elevated arsenic levels) that was not being evaluated in the current site assessment. Furthermore, co-producing science led to both individual learning and social-ecological outcomes. This approach illustrates the benefits of a co-created citizen-science program in addressing the complex problems that arise in communities neighboring a hazardous waste sites. Such a project increased the community's involvement in regional environmental assessment and decision-making, which has the potential to help mitigate environmental exposures and thereby reduce associated risks.

  18. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  19. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  20. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasar Habib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG. Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 oC at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG, Elemental Analyzer (E.A and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 oC (53 and 37wt% bio-oil from wheat and barley SG. Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460oC, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals.

  1. Environmental system analysis of the waste water and organic wastes from households - synthesis of handling systems studied in the program 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource'; Miljoesystemanalys av hushaallens avlopp och organiska avfall - syntes av hanteringssystem undersoekta inom FoU-programmet 'Organiskt avfall som vaextnaeringsresurs'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, E.; Joensson, Haakan; Gruvberger, C.; Dalemo, M.; Sonesson, Ulf; Stenstroem, T.A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Knowledge derived within the R and D programme 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource' was in this study used to compare four systems for handling wastewater and organic waste. In the conventional system, the sewage is treated in a sewage plant (SP) with mechanical, biological (incl. 70% nitrogen reduction) and chemical treatment. The sludge is anaerobically digested, dewatered and stored for 20 days. In the energy forest irrigation system the SP has no special nitrogen or phosphorus reduction and the effluent water is stored during winter and used for irrigation during summer. In the liquid compost system the wastewater from the vacuum toilets is co-treated with organic household waste in a reactor at 55 deg C for 7 days. In the other systems, the organic household waste is treated in a central windrow compost. In the urine separation system, the source-separated urine is hygienised by separate storage for 6 months. In the liquid compost and urine separation systems the grey water or the grey water plus faecal wastewater respectively is treated in a SP with phosphorus reduction but without nitrogen reduction. The residual products of the systems fertilise arable land 10 km away. The mass flows, environmental effects, energy turnover and resource utilisation were simulated using ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model), assuming that the wastewater and organic household waste from 20 000 people were treated by the systems. Table values were used for composition of wastewater etc. Industrial wastewater and surface water were excluded from the study. The risk of disease transmission was discussed from the flows and faecal concentrations of the wastewater and from estimated intake of Salmonella, EHEC and Cryptosporidium by some animals under assumed conditions. Throughout the study, it was assumed that the systems function well, without disruptions, and that they are used as intended. The compared environmental effects and resource usage were prioritised

  2. Building sustainability indicators in the health dimension for solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Tatiane Bonametti; Coutinho, Silvano da Silva; Andre, Silvia Carla Silva; Mendes, Adriana Aparecida; Takayanagui, Angela Maria Magosso

    2016-08-08

    to prepare a list of sustainability indicators in the health dimension, for urban solid waste management. a descriptive and exploratory study performed jointly with 52 solid waste specialists, using a three-steps Delphi technique, and a scale measuring the degree of importance for agreement among the researchers in this area. the subjects under study were 92,3% PhD's concentrated in the age group from 30 to 40 years old (32,7%) and 51% were men. At the end of the 3rd step of the Delphi process, the average and standard deviation of all the proposed indicators varied from 4,22 (±0,79) to 4,72 (±0,64), in a scale of scores for each indicator from 1 to 5 (from "dispensable" to "very important"). Results showed the level of correspondence among the participants ranging from 82% to 94% related to those indicators. the proposed indicators may be helpful not only for the identification of data that is updated in this area, but also to enlarge the field of debates of the environmental health policies, directed not only for urban solid waste but for the achievement of better health conditions for the Brazilian context. elaborar uma lista de indicadores de sustentabilidade na dimensão da saúde para gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos. estudo descritivo e exploratório, realizado com 52 especialistas na área de resíduos sólidos, utilizando a técnica Delphi em três etapas, com o uso da escala de mensuração do grau de importância para obtenção de consenso entre pesquisadores da área da investigação. dos sujeitos estudados , 92,3% eram doutores, com maior concentração na faixa etária entre 30 e 40 anos (32,7%) e 51,0% do sexo masculino. Ao final da 3ª etapa de aplicação da técnica Delphi, a média e o desvio-padrão de todos os indicadores propostos variaram de 4,22 (±0,79) a 4,72 (±0,64), em uma escala de pontuação atribuída para cada indicador de 1 a 5 (Respectivamente, de "dispensável" a "muito importante"). Os resultados demonstraram nível de

  3. Radiation protection in transference of radioactive wastes among buildings of an intermediary deposit; Radioprotecao na transferencia de rejeitos radioativos entre edificios de um deposito intermediario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitake, Malvina Boni; Suzuki, Fabio Fumio, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.b, E-mail: ffsuzuki@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/-CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Gerencia de Radioprotecao

    2011-10-26

    This paper describes the planning of radioprotection realized for transfer operation of radioactive wastes from two old buildings for a one of the new buildings. For planning purposes the operation was divided into nine stages and, for evaluation of collective dose, it was considered various relevant factors. The result of radioprotection optimization it was expected a total collective dose of 58.6 mSv per person. The measured dose per dosemeter of direct reading was of 3.9 mSv per person. These difference among the values is due to conservative factors used in the calculation

  4. Plan 2002. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2002. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 25 years operation of the 12 Swedish reactors amounts to 48.6 billion SEK (in the reference scenario). 14.5 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants (end 2001). The following systems are operational as of today: A transport system for radioactive waste; Central interim storage facility for spent fuels (CLAB); Final repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (SFR1). The following systems are planned: Encapsulation plant for spent fuels, Geologic repository for spent fuels, Repository for long-lived low and medium active wastes, repository for demolition wastes.

  5. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' LEARY, GERALD A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-04

    the Department of Energy Los Alamos Site Office, Carlsbad Field Office and the Department of Energy Headquaeters. Rather than simply processing containers as retrieved, the plan places priority on efficient curie disposition, a direct correlation to reducing risk. Key elements of the approch include balancing inventory and operational risks, tailoring methods to meet requirements, optimizing existing facilities, equipment and staff, and incorporating best practices from other Department of Energy sites. With sufficient funding this will enable LANL to ship the above-ground high activity contact-handled transuranic waste offsite by the end of Fiscal Year (FY) 2007 and to disposition the remaining above- and below-ground contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic waste inventory by December 2010. Nearly 70% of the contact-handled transuranic waste containers, including the high activity waste, require processing and repackaging before characterization and certification for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. LANL is employing a balanced risk approach that accomplishes significant long-term risk reduction by accepting short-term increased facility operations risk under well-developed and justified interim controls. Reviews of facility conditions and additional analyses show that the Waste Characterization, Reduction and Repackaging Facility and the Radioassay and Nondestructive Testing Facility are the most appropriate facilities to safetly remediate, repackage, and ship lower activity and the remaining high activity drums. Updated safety documentation supporting limited Hazard Category 2 operations in these facilities has been developed. Once approved, limited-term operations to process the high activity drums can begin in early 2007, building upon the experience base established performing Hazard Category 3 operations processing lower activity waste in these facilities. LANL is also implementing a series of actions to improve and sustain operations for

  6. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  7. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H L

    2007-09-07

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 612 (A612) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2006). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., drum crushing, size reduction, and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A612 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A612 fenceline is approximately 220 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A612 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage

  8. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  9. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  10. Handling sharps and needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000444.htm Handling sharps and needles To use the sharing features ... Health Administration. OSHA fact sheet: protecting yourself when handling contaminated sharps. Updated January 2011. Available at: www. ...

  11. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  12. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  13. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2010-03-05

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities (DSA) (LLNL 2009). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas, consisting

  14. Technical Safety Requirements for the Waste Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laycak, D T

    2008-06-16

    This document contains Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) for the Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES, which include Area 625 (A625) and the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF) Storage Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The TSRs constitute requirements regarding the safe operation of the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES. These TSRs are derived from the 'Documented Safety Analysis for the Waste Storage Facilities' (DSA) (LLNL 2008). The analysis presented therein determined that the WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are low-chemical hazard, Hazard Category 2 non-reactor nuclear facilities. The TSRs consist primarily of inventory limits and controls to preserve the underlying assumptions in the hazard and accident analyses. Further, appropriate commitments to safety programs are presented in the administrative controls sections of the TSRs. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are used by RHWM to handle and store hazardous waste, TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE, LOW-LEVEL WASTE (LLW), mixed waste, California combined waste, nonhazardous industrial waste, and conditionally accepted waste generated at LLNL as well as small amounts from other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as described in the DSA. In addition, several minor treatments (e.g., size reduction and decontamination) are carried out in these facilities. The WASTE STORAGE FACILITIES are located in two portions of the LLNL main site. A625 is located in the southeast quadrant of LLNL. The A625 fenceline is approximately 225 m west of Greenville Road. The DWTF Storage Area, which includes Building 693 (B693), Building 696 Radioactive Waste Storage Area (B696R), and associated yard areas and storage areas within the yard, is located in the northeast quadrant of LLNL in the DWTF complex. The DWTF Storage Area fenceline is approximately 90 m west of Greenville Road. A625 and the DWTF Storage Area are subdivided into various facilities and storage areas

  15. Self-Correcting HVAC Controls: Algorithms for Sensors and Dampers in Air-Handling Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Nicholas; Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2009-12-31

    This report documents the self-correction algorithms developed in the Self-Correcting Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Controls project funded jointly by the Bonneville Power Administration and the Building Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The algorithms address faults for temperature sensors, humidity sensors, and dampers in air-handling units and correction of persistent manual overrides of automated control systems. All faults considered create energy waste when left uncorrected as is frequently the case in actual systems.

  16. Characterization of organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation Building and Air Support Weather Shield II at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoop, D.S.; Jackson, J.M.; Jolley, J.G.; Izbicki, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    During the latter part of Fiscal Year (FY-92), a task was initiated to characterize the organic air emissions from the Certification and Segregation (C and S) Building [Waste Management Facility (WMF) 612] and the Air Support Weather Shield II (ASWS II or ASB II) (WMF 711) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The purpose of this task, titled the RWMC Organic Air Emissions Evaluation Task, was to identify and quantify the volatile organic compounds (VOCS) present in the ambient air in these two facilities and to estimate the organic air emissions. The VOCs were identified and quantified by implementing a dual method approach using two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and SUMMA canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14. The data gathered were used in conjunction with the building`s ventilation rate to calculate an estimated organic air emissions rate. This report presents the data gathered during the performance of this task and relates the data to the relevant regulatory requirements.

  17. Functions and requirements document, WESF decoupling project, low-level liquid waste system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    The Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) was constructed in 1974 to encapsulate and store cesium and strontium which were isolated at B Plant from underground storage tank waste. The WESF, Building 225-B, is attached physically to the west end of B Plant, Building 221-B, 200 East area. The WESF currently utilizes B Plant facilities for disposing liquid and solid waste streams. With the deactivation of B Plant, the WESF Decoupling Project will provide replacement systems allowing WESF to continue operations independently from B Plant. Four major systems have been identified to be replaced by the WESF Decoupling Project, including the following: Low Level Liquid Waste System, Solid Waste Handling System, Liquid Effluent Control System, and Deionized Water System.

  18. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  19. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    ) buried in three rows in the northeast comer. In addition, five eight-foot diameter caissons are located at the west end of the center row of the drum storage units. Initially, wastes disposed to the caissons and drum storage units were from the 325 and 327 building hot cells. Later, a small amount of remote-handled (RH) waste from the 309 building Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) cells, and the newly built 324 building hot cells, was disposed at the site.

  20. Plan 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2003. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to 49.6 billion SEK (about 6.2 billion USD). 12.7 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development (incl. year 2003 costs)

  1. SECONDARY LOW-LEVEL WASTE GENERATION RATE ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. LaRue

    1999-05-10

    The objective of this design analysis is -to update the assessment of estimated annual secondary low-level waste (LLW) generation rates resulting from the repackaging of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) for disposal at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis supports the preparation of documentation necessary for license application (LA) for the MGR. For the purposes of this analysis, secondary LLW is defined, in brief terms, as LLW generated as a direct result of processing SNF/HLW through the receiving and repackaging operations. The current Waste Handling Building (WHB) design is based on the predominant movement of fuel assemblies through the wet handling lines within the WHB. Dry handling lines are also included in the current WHB design to accommodate canistered waste (i.e., SNF and/or HLW packages). Major input changes to this analysis in comparison to previous analyses include: (1) changes in the SNF/HLW arrival schedules; (2) changes to the WHB and the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) dimensions; and (3) changes in operational staff sizes within the WHB and WTB. The rates generated in this analysis can be utilized to define necessary waste processes, waste flow rates, and equipment sizes for the processing of secondary LLW for proper disposal. This analysis is based on the present reference design, i.e., Viability Assessment (VA) design, and present projections on spent fuel delivery and processing. LLW generation rates, for both liquids and solids, are a direct function of square footages in radiological areas, and a direct function of spent fuel throughput. Future changes in the approved reference design or spent fuel throughput will directly impact the LLW generation rates defined in this analysis. Small amounts of wastes other than LLW may be generated on a non-routine basis. These wastes may include transuranic (TRU), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although the objective of this analysis is to define LLW waste generation

  2. Solid Waste Treatment Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershaft, Alex

    1972-01-01

    Advances in research and commercial solid waste handling are offering many more processing choices. This survey discusses techniques of storage and removal, fragmentation and sorting, bulk reduction, conversion, reclamation, mining and mineral processing, and disposal. (BL)

  3. Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System Upgrade for Building 3544 (Process Waste Treatment Plant) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document describes and assesses planned modifications to be made to the Building 3544 Process Waste Treatment Plant of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The modifications are made in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) relating to environmental protection requirements for tank systems. The modifications include the provision of a new double contained LLW line replacing an existing buried line that does not provide double containment. This new above ground, double contained pipeline is provided to permit discharge of treated process waste fluid to an outside truck loading station. The new double contained discharge line is provided with leak detection and provisions to remove accumulated liquid. An existing LLW transfer pump, concentrated waste tank, piping and accessories are being utilized, with the addition of a secondary containment system comprised of a dike, a chemically resistant internal coating on the diked area surfaces and operator surveillance on a daily basis for the diked area leak detection. This assessment concludes that the planned modifications comply with applicable requirements of Federal Facility Agreement, Docket No. 89-04-FF, covering the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  4. Robust ASPNET Exception Handling

    CERN Document Server

    Dumond, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This Wrox Blox will teach you how to unravel the mysteries of exception handling in ASP.NET.   First, you'll get a thorough introduction to structured exception handling in the .NET Framework, learn about the Exception class, the related C# language constructs, and how exceptions propagate up the call stack. Then, you'll delve into a variety of practical topics such as: when, where, and how to properly throw, catch, and handle exceptions in your code; how to employ "defensive programming" techniques to avoid triggering the most common CLR exceptions; adopting exception handling "best practices

  5. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  6. Studies on the production of building material grade slag from hazardous-waste incineration plants; Untersuchungen zur Herstellung einer Schlacke mit Baustoffqualitaet aus Sondermuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J.; Herbel, J.D.; Pasel, C. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    In an attempt to restore the competitive power of hazardous-waste incineration within the present legal framework, plant operators have in some cases lowered disposal prices below the break-even point; in this respect there is no further room for improvement. One approach towards a new marketable solution could be to use rotary kilns not only for disposal but also as production plants. This could be achieved by means of input control and loading materials. If, for example, the slag remaining after combustion could be made to meet building material specifications, thus providing a marketable product, then rotary kilns would be able to serve as production plants for a secondary raw material. If it should prove possible in the course of manufacturing campaigns to develop slags from hazardous-waste incineration plants to a marketable product, then operators will thus have complied to the demand of the Law on Recycling and Waste Management for waste avoidance and that of the Emission Control Law for residue recycling. Targeted use of suitable loading materials for quality improvement could enable operators of hazardous-waste incineration plants to secure a new strategic position on the market as building material manufacturers and utilise existing plant capacities. [Deutsch] Um die Sonderabfallverbrennung im Rahmen der rechtlichen Vorgaben wieder konkurrenzfaehig zu machen, haben die Anlagenbetreiber die Entsorgungspreise teilweise unter die Grenze der Kostendeckung zurueckgenommen; hier besteht kein Spielraum mehr. Ein neuer, marktgerechter Ansatz koennte sich dann ergeben, wenn die Drehrohroefen statt als Beseitigungsaggregate durch Inputsteuerung und Zuschlaege eventuell auch als Produktionsanlagen einzusetzen waeren. Wenn z.B. die Schlacke, als Rueckstand aus der Verbrennung, als ein im Baustoffmarkt absetzbares Produkt nach Qualitaetskriterien gezielt hergestellt wuerde, koennte der Drehrohrofen als Produktionsanlage fuer einen Sekundaerrohstoff betrieben werden

  7. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...

  8. Socialanalyse og handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kirsten; Alminde, Rikke; Stevnsgaard Andersen, Mona

    Social analyse og handling er et redskab beregnet til at inspirere socialarbejdere til at arbejde analytisk, systematisk samt refleksivt med konkrete problemstillinger i socialt arbejde.......Social analyse og handling er et redskab beregnet til at inspirere socialarbejdere til at arbejde analytisk, systematisk samt refleksivt med konkrete problemstillinger i socialt arbejde....

  9. Practices of Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ræbild, Ulla

    area within fashion research. This paper proposes an understanding of the work process of fashion designers as practices of handling comprising a number of embodied methodologies tied to both spatial and temporal dimensions. The term handling encompasses four meanings. As a verb it is literally...... to touch, pick up, carry, or feel with the hands. Figuratively it is to manage, deal with, direct, train, or control. Additionally, as a noun, a handle is something by which we grasp or open up something. Lastly, handle also has a Nordic root, here meaning to trade, bargain or deal. Together all four...... meanings seem to merge in the fashion design process, thus opening up for an embodied engagement with matter that entails direction giving, organizational management and negotiation. By seeing processes of handling as a key fashion methodological practice, it is possible to divert the discourse away from...

  10. Australia: round module handling and cotton classing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round modules of seed cotton produced via on-board module building harvesters are the reality of the cotton industry, worldwide. Although round modules have been available to the industry for almost a decade, there is still no consensus on the best method to handle the modules, particularly when th...

  11. Environmental analysis of the system for the households' wastewater and organic waste. Synthesis of handling systems studied in the research program 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource'; Miljoesystemanalys av hushaallens avlopp och organiska avfall. Syntes av hanteringssystem undersoekta inom FoU-programmet 'Organiskt avfall som vaextnaeringsresurs'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, E. [Chalmers Inst. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Sanitary Engineering; Joensson, Haakan; Sonesson, Ulf [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Agricultural Engineering; Gruvberger, C.; Dalemo, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Stenstroem, T.A. [Swedish Inst. for Infections Disease Control, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    Knowledge derived within the RandD programme 'Organic waste as a plant nutrient resource' was in this study used to compare four systems for handling wastewater and organic waste. In the conventional system, the sewage is treated in a sewage plant (SP) with mechanical, biological (incl. 70% nitrogen reduction) and chemical treatment. The sludge is anaerobically digested, dewatered and stored for 20 days. In the energy forest irrigation system the SP has no special nitrogen or phosphorus reduction and the effluent water is stored during winter and used for irrigation during summer. In the liquid compost system the wastewater from the vacuum toilets is co-treated with organic household waste in a reactor at 55 deg C for 7 days. In the other systems, the organic household waste is treated in a central windrow compost. In the urine separation system, the source-separated urine is hygienised by separate storage for 6 months. In the liquid compost and urine separation systems the grey water or the grey water plus faecal wastewater respectively is treated in a SP with phosphorus reduction but without nitrogen reduction. The residual products of the systems fertilise arable land 10 km away. The mass flows, environmental effects, energy turnover and resource utilisation were simulated using ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model), assuming that the wastewater and organic household waste from 20,000 people were treated by the systems. Table values were used for composition of wastewater etc. Industrial wastewater and surface water were excluded from the study. The risk of disease transmission was discussed from the flows and faecal concentrations of the wastewater and from estimated intake of Salmonella, EHEC and Cryptosporidium by some animals under assumed conditions. Throughout the study, it was assumed that the systems function well, without disruptions, and that they are used as intended. The compared environmental effects and resource usage were prioritised in

  12. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  13. Building flexibility into the design of a pilot plant for the immobilisation of Pu containing residues and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scales, C R; Maddrell, E R [NNL, Havelock Rd, Workington, CA14 3YQ (United Kingdom); Hobbs, J; Stephen, R [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Moricca, S; Stewart, M W A [ANSTO, New Illawara Road, Lucas Heights 2234 (Australia)

    2013-07-01

    NNL and ANSTO on behalf of Sellafield Ltd have developed a process for the immobilisation of a range of Pu containing wastes and residues. Following the inactive demonstration of the technology the project is now focusing on the design of an active pilot plant capable of validating the technology and ultimately immobilising a waste inventory containing around 100 kg plutonium. The diverse wastes from which it is uneconomic to recover Pu, require a flexible process with a wide product envelope capable of producing a wasteform suitable for disposal in a UK repository. Ceramics, glass ceramics and metal encapsulated waste-forms can be delivered by the process line which incorporates size reduction and heat treatment techniques with the aim of feeding a hot isostatic pressing process designed to deliver the highly durable waste-forms. Following a demonstration of feasibility, flowsheet development is progressing to support the design which has the aim of a fully flexible facility based in NNL's Central Laboratory on the Sellafield site. Optimisation of the size reduction, mixing and blending operations is being carried out using UO{sub 2} as a surrogate for PuO{sub 2}. This work is supporting the potential of using an enhanced glass ceramic formulation in place of the full ceramic with the aim of simplifying glove box operations. Heat treatment and subsequent HIPing strategies are being explored in order to eliminate any carbon from the feeds without increasing the valence state of the uranium present in some of the inventory which can result in an unwanted increase in wasteform volumes. The HIP and ancillary systems are being specifically designed to meet the requirements of the Sellafield site and within the constraints of the NNL Central Laboratory. The HIP is being configured to produce consolidated product cans consistent with the requirements of ongoing storage and disposal. With the aim of one cycle per day, the facility will deliver its mission of

  14. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Dexheimer

    2004-02-27

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, perform associated equipment maintenance. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the CHF and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.

  15. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste......Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...

  16. Management of the radioactive waste of European Spallation Source within the Swedish waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ene, Daniela [European Spallation Source AB, ESS-AB (Sweden); Forsstroem, H. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source AB (ESS) is the European common effort in designing and building a next generation large-scale user facility for studies of the structure and dynamics of materials. The proposed schematic layout of the ESS facility is based on a linear driver (linac) directing the proton beam (5 MW of 2.5 GeV) of 2.8 ms long pulses with a 20 Hz on a tungsten target where neutrons are produced via spallation reactions. Further the neutrons will be moderated to thermal and sub-thermal energies in a couple of moderators placed around the target. The moderators feed 22 beam-lines guiding the neutrons to the scattering instruments, mainly for neutron scattering research, as has been previously mentioned. The ESS will generate specific types of radioactive waste. This waste should be handled and disposed of within the Swedish radioactive waste management system, which is owned and operated by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, (SKB). The main objectives of this work are: i) To estimate types and quantities of waste that the ESS project will generate at different stages: commission, operation, decommissioning; ii) To allocate the waste to specific disposal route; iii) To assess the disposal volumes needed and to ensure that the ESS waste may safely be accommodated within the Swedish disposal system, SKB The amounts of ESS waste and classifications were derived using: i) precise Monte Carlo calculations ii) scaling the activity from the operation experience of the existing spallation source installations for waste such it is difficult to predict level of activation or for components of the facility in stage of the pre-conceptual model. Associated waste treatment/conditioning options were further analyzed in order to define the waste type and packet descriptions in agreement with Swedish regulations and policy. The potential final disposal routes for high activated components were decided via the comparison of the activity levels of the isotopes inside the

  17. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  18. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... With Stress Teens Talk About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child ...

  19. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.

    2009-08-14

    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  20. DOE handbook: Tritium handling and safe storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The DOE Handbook was developed as an educational supplement and reference for operations and maintenance personnel. Most of the tritium publications are written from a radiological protection perspective. This handbook provides more extensive guidance and advice on the null range of tritium operations. This handbook can be used by personnel involved in the full range of tritium handling from receipt to ultimate disposal. Compliance issues are addressed at each stage of handling. This handbook can also be used as a reference for those individuals involved in real time determination of bounding doses resulting from inadvertent tritium releases. This handbook provides useful information for establishing processes and procedures for the receipt, storage, assay, handling, packaging, and shipping of tritium and tritiated wastes. It includes discussions and advice on compliance-based issues and adds insight to those areas that currently possess unclear DOE guidance.

  1. Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions

    2001-08-01

    The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites can be grouped under uniform content codes without any lossof waste characterization information. The RH-TRUCON document provides an all-encompassing|description for each content code and compiles this information for all DOE sites. Compliance withwaste generation, processing, and certification procedures at the sites (outlined in this document foreach content code) ensures that prohibited waste forms are not present in the waste. The contentcode gives an overall description of the RH-TRU waste material in terms of processes and|packaging, as well as the generation location. This helps to provide cradle-to-grave traceability ofthe waste material so that the various actions required to assess its qualification as payload for the72-B cask can be performed. The content codes also impose restrictions and requirements on themanner in which a payload can be assembled.The RH-TRU Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (RH-TRAMPAC), Appendix 1.3.7of the 72-B Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR), describes the current governing procedures|applicable for the qualification of waste as payload for the 72-B cask. The logic for this|classification is presented in the 72-B Cask SAR. Together, these documents (RH-TRUCON,|RH-TRAMPAC, and relevant sections of the 72-B Cask SAR) present the foundation and|justification for classifying RH-TRU waste into content codes. Only content codes described in thisdocument can be considered for transport in the 72-B cask. Revisions to this document will be madeas additional waste qualifies for transport. |Each content code uniquely

  2. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  5. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  6. Gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos dos serviços de saúde: aspectos do manejo interno no município de Marituba, Pará, Brasil Medical wastes management: aspects of internal handling in the city of Marituba, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina de Lima Sales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos sólidos dos serviços de saúde (RSSS oferecem risco potencial para saúde pública e meio ambiente perante um gerenciamento inadequado. Objetivou-se verificar aspectos do manejo interno dos RSSS do município paraense de Marituba. Através da aplicação de questionários e visitas de campo, realizou-se um estudo descritivo, observacional em treze estabelecimentos de saúde. O volume total de resíduos gerados era de cerca de 13.000kg/semana. Havia limitações nas diversas etapas do manejo interno, como a realização de tratamento interno somente num local, o armazenamento externo, que ocorria em quatro instituições e de maneira precária, entre outros. Também, havia conformidades como acondicionamento em sacos e recipientes adequados, segregação dos resíduos comuns. De modo geral, as normas federais não eram atendidas e o gerenciamento de RSSS dos estabelecimentos de saúde necessita de adequação na realização de todas as etapas do manejo, para controlar e diminuir os riscos e reduzir a quantidade de resíduos.Medical wastes offer a potential risk to public health and the environment before an inadequate management. This study aims to verify aspects of internal handling of medical wastes in the city of Marituba, Pará State. By means of questionnaires and field visits, a descriptive and observational study was performed in 13 health establishments in the city. The total volume of generated medical wastes was about 13,000kg/week. There were deficiencies in many stages of the internal handling, for example the internal treatment that was performed in only one of the establishments, external storage made in 4 establishments and in precarious ways, among many others. Also, there were conformities as packing in adequate bags and containers as well as common waste separation. In general way, the federal norms were not accomplished and management of medical wastes in health establishments needs adequacy in every stage of

  7. A preliminary study on the preparation of wood-plastic composites from urban wastes generated in Merida, Mexico with potential applications as building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Estrada, Ricardo H; Martínez-Tapia, Gustavo E; Canché-Escamilla, Gonzalo; González-Chí, Pedro I; Martín-Barrera, Cesar; Duarte-Aranda, Santiago; Guillén-Mallette, Javier; Cupul-Manzano, Carlos V; Martínez-Domínguez, Osvaldo; García-Gómez, Carmen

    2010-09-01

    A preliminary study on the use of wood and plastic wastes generated in Merida, Mexico to assess their potential for the development of building materials is reported. Composites based on recycled, high-density polyethylene (R-HDPE) loaded with wood particles were prepared. The R-HDPE was collected from Merida's Separation Plant, where it was sorted from other residues, either organic or inorganic. Composites based on virgin, high-density polyethylene (V-HDPE) were also prepared to assess the effect of the R-HDPE on the composite's mechanical properties. The wood came from the trims of different varieties of the city's trees that are periodically pruned as part of the cleaning and urbanising programmes implemented by the City Council. A batch of this material was selected at random to incorporate into both the R-HDPE and V-HDPE. Different wood particle sizes were experimented with to obtain extruded composites with contents of 50% and 60% by weight of wood that were characterized under tension and impact. Flat wood-plastic extrudates with reasonable good appearance were also produced at the laboratory level as a first step to find an adequate route to scale-up the process to a pilot level to evaluate the feasibility of producing alternative building materials.

  8. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  9. STUDY ON PACKAGING WASTE PREVENTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scortar Lucia-Monica

    2013-07-01

    It is very important to mention that individuals and businesses can often save a significant amount of money through waste prevention: waste that never gets created doesn't have management costs (handling, transporting, treating and disposing of waste. The rule is simple: the best waste is that which is not produced.

  10. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  11. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  12. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  13. Using air-conditioning waste water and stormwater as supply management in a commercial building, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Silva Bastos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of rational use as applied to water conservation consists in managing water supply and demand by trying to meet lesser quality water demands with alternative or reused water supply. This project attempts to demonstrate the application of a system that uses water drained from air conditioning system evaporators and rainwater as alternative sources. Given that each evaporator produces 4.80 liters of water per hour and considering the average use of an air conditioning system to be approximately 10 hours per day, the daily total of a single evaporator would be 48 liters. This would implicate a daily volume of 4,298 liters for the whole 137 units spread throughout the building, which in time would represent 77.72% of the daily demand of wastewater (5,53 liter/day. For the rainwater collection system, the total accumulated volume corresponds to 10% of the site area multiplied by a factor of 0.05, for a retention time of 1 hour, which will produce a total volume 14.8m³ of water. This system´s primary objective is to significantly reduce the consumption of potable water, which nowadays is used for every single activity, thus contributing to a more sustainable building and minimizing the environmental impact caused by the construction.

  14. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  15. Colonic potassium handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Matos, Joana E.; Prætorius, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic control of plasma K+ is a necessary physiological function. The daily dietary K+ intake of approximately 100 mmol is excreted predominantly by the distal tubules of the kidney. About 10% of the ingested K+ is excreted via the intestine. K+ handling in both organs is specifically...

  16. Improving coal handling effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.

    2003-10-01

    Appropriate coal handling systems are essential for successful coal utilisation. The paper looks at some of the options available, including crushers and hammer mills, wear-resistant liners for chutes and wagons, and dewatering systems. These are individual components within larger systems such as stockyard stacking and reclaiming installations. 5 photos.

  17. Editorial on Robotics in Building and Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chung Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced robotics systems have been around for a while now. There have been many opportunities for them to be widely utilized in the contemporary building and infrastructure construction sectors. Several applications, such as advanced construction machinery, sensor- supported construction environments, and automatic planning and optimization are being developed and investigated by researchers around the world. At the same time, Building Information Modelling (BIM is becoming a dominant management approach in the field of Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC. BIM contains necessary information and well-organized data schema enabling personnel to retrieve sufficient information at the right time and in the right place. In order to use BIM for handling uncertainties on the construction site, integration with advanced robotics systems is necessary for cutting out rework and waste during construction.

  18. The global role of health care delivery science: learning from variation to build health systems that avoid waste and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, Albert G

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the fourth theme of the Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference, Clinical Effectiveness and Health Systems Research. It explores geographic variation in health care delivery and health outcomes as a source of learning how to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. It focuses particularly on the relationship between investments made in capacities to deliver different health care services to a population and the value thereby created by that care for individual patients. The framing begins with the dramatic variation in per capita health care expenditures across the nations of the world, which is largely explained by variations in national wealth. The 1978 Declaration of Alma Ata is briefly noted as a response to such inequities with great promise that has not as yet been realized. This failure to realize the promise of Alma Ata grows in significance with the increasing momentum for universal health coverage that is emerging in the current global debate about post-2015 development goals. Drawing upon work done at Dartmouth over more than three decades, the framing then turns to within-country variations in per capita expenditures, utilization of different services, and health outcomes. A case is made for greater attention to the question of value by bringing better information to bear at both the population and individual levels. Specific opportunities to identify and reduce waste in health care, and the harm that is so often associated with it, are identified by learning from outcome variations and practice variations.

  19. Some prospects for the use of ash and slag wastes of coal power plants for production of building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal-fired thermal power plants (TPP generate large amounts of ash and slag wastes (ASW, therefore ecological problems related to ASW storage and disposal for such power plants come to the fore. To obtain new data on ASW properties analysis of a number of ASW samples from ash dump No. 4 of Cherepet’ TPP was carried out as part of engineering surveys. The purpose of this study included determiantion of the ASW granulometrical and mineralogical composition, as well as their physical and chemical properties. During field works 4 ASW samples were taken from the surface layer of the ash dump plus one sample of ash froth for further laboratory analysis. Laboratory analysis enabled determination of the granulometrical, mineralogical and chemical composition of ASW. Assessment of the ASW corrosiveness toward various materials determined necessary limitations in utilization of ASW-based bulding materiasls in contact with steel and aluminum. The content of natural radionuclides of K40, Ra226, Th232 and man-made Cs137 in ASW was determined. The detected increased activity of Ra226 and Th232 necessitates additional studies of radon and thoron emissions from ASW. Microspheres recovered from ash froth during ASW utilization have special usage value.

  20. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  1. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  3. 广东省电子废物回收处理体系建设对策研究%Study on Development Strategies of Building Electronic Waste Recovery Processing System in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖程浩; 张永波; 王明旭; 王春霖

    2012-01-01

    The amount of electronic wastes is very large in Guangdong Province.In order to recycle the resources and avoid the environmental pollution cause by dismantling the electronic waste,it is pressing to build a standardized recovery and processing system.After analyzing the current situation and problems of electronic waste recovery in Guangdong Province,this paper proposes to develop a recovery processing system that include centralized treatment sub-system,industrial recycling sub-system and unified monitoring sub-system.Countermeasures for building the system are studied to facilitate the innocuous reducing and electronic wastes recycling.%广东省的电子废物产生量大,亟须建立规范的回收处理处置体系,实现资源的有序回收利用,避免电子废物的不当拆解处理造成环境污染。针对广东省电子废物回收处理的现状和存在问题,提出建设规模化的集中处理体系,产业化的回收利用体系和规范化的统一监管体系的相关对策,以促进电子废物的无害化、减量化和资源化处理处置。

  4. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... o a rm ct a s tion Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne ... and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food. · Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, ...

  5. Students' Strategies for Exception Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashkovits, Rami; Lavy, Ilana

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses and presents various strategies employed by novice programmers concerning exception handling. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: we provide an analysis tool to measure the level of assimilation of exception handling mechanism; we present and analyse strategies to handle exceptions; we present and analyse…

  6. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  7. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1985-09-01

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  8. Domestic Refuse Handling Practices Among Adult Females in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was an interventional/community-based study involving a total of 436 adult ... Health education was given on domestic refuse handling and reinforcement by ... to the various challenges faced by them particularly the absence of community sanitation members. ... Key words: Solid waste, practices, female adults, obstacles.

  9. IMPROVEMENTS IN CONTAINER MANAGEMENT OF TRANSURANIC (TRU) AND LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORED AT THE CENTRAL WASTE COMPLEX (CWC) AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UYTIOCO EM

    2007-11-14

    of Washington, the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. These commitments require waste containers to be shipped off site for disposal and/or treatment within a certain time frame. Because the program was struggling to meet production demands, the Production and Planning group was tasked with developing a method to assist the LLW Program in fulfilling its requirements. Using existing databases for container management, a single electronic spreadsheet was created to visually map every waste container within the CWC. The file displays the exact location (e.g., building, module, tier, position) of each container in a format that replicates the actual layout in the facility. In addition, each container was placed into a queue defined by the LLW and TRU waste management programs. The queues were developed based on characterization requirements, treatment type and location, and potential final disposition. This visual aid allows the user to select containers from similar queues and view their location within the facility. The user selects containers in a centralized location, rather than random locations, to expedite shipments out of the facility. This increases efficiency for generating the shipments, as well as decreasing worker exposure and container handling time when gathering containers for shipment by reducing movements of waste container. As the containers are collected for shipment, the remaining containers are segregated by queue, which further reduces future container movements.

  10. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-13

    investigations, and defense research and development. The waste must also meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. When TRU waste arrives at WIPP, it is transported into the Waste Handling Building. The waste containers are removed from the shipping containers, placed on the waste hoist, and lowered to the repository level of 655 m (2,150 ft; approximately 0.5 mi) below the surface. Next, the containers of waste are removed from the hoist and placed in excavated disposal rooms in the Salado Formation, a thick sequence of evaporite beds deposited approximately 250 million years ago (Figure 1.1). After each panel of seven rooms has been filled with waste, specially designed closures are emplaced. When all of WIPP's panels have been filled, at the conclusion of WIPP operations, seals will be placed in the shafts. One of the main attributes of salt, as a rock formation in which to isolate radioactive waste, is the ability of the salt to creep, that is, to deform continuously over time. Excavations into which the waste-filled drums are placed will close eventually, flowing around the drums and sealing them within the formation.

  12. Solid Waste Land Applications with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  13. Solid Waste Management Facilities with Permits by the Iowa DNR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — All types of facilities that handle solid waste, including: sanitary landfills, appliance demanufacturing facilities, transfer stations, land application sites,...

  14. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  15. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  16. Construction Material Waste: Recognition and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by long term observations of the construction industry in the Northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The observations showed that the construction waste is becoming a serious environmental, economical and safety issue that affects the suburbs of the KSA. The study utilizes Likert scaled responses through a two-part questionnaire distributed to 42 contractors located in the Northern region of KSA. The first part of the questionnaire aims at identifying causes of material waste in building construction projects from the contractors’ viewpoint. The second part seeks to rank the considered materials according to their level of importance from the contractors’ viewpoint. The collected data was analyzed through Minitab statistical software. It was found that the most significant factors causing construction waste are: (1 inaccuracy in quantity surveys leading to over-ordering or under-ordering; (2 the selection of low quality products; (3 detail errors in design and construction; (4 the order of supplies in loose form; (5 and the inefficiency in resource management. The results of this study show that construction material handling and managerial decisions have a critical impact on the cause and effect of the level of construction waste. The study findings demonstrate that the most important benefits for considering construction waste are to know the exact required quantities for a construction project and to plan and prepare an accurate schedule for material arriving supply. The study recommends employing Lean Manufacturing principles to eliminate the construction waste and to enhance the decision making process in construction management in the northern part of KSA.

  17. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-07

    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections 3.1.1.3.4.13 and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for

  18. Investigation into Waste Management on Construction Sites in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Akinkurolere

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report investigation into the problem of waste management on construction sites in South Western Nigeria and to unveil inherent dangers material wastage poses to the construction Industry. In the construction industries, materials are very vital in building sites, but not all the materials delivered are used for the purposes for which they have been ordered and the subsequent disappearance of these materials constitutes part of the waste. The primary research instruments used was the questionnaire which contained varied questions on material wastage and management. The investigation revealed that material wastage brings about additional cost to the construction project as well as a reduction in the profit of the contractor, considering the cost of storing and transporting construction waste along with the loss of revenue from not reclaiming waste. Also, most waste that occurs at construction sites is due to poor management and lack of awareness of effective waste management. The study finally recommends that recycling and reusing of construction waste is a viable option in construction waste management and that material wastage can be reduced by giving incentives to the workers for better handling of materials and by having trained personals to supervise the works.

  19. A percepção dos trabalhadores de enfermagem sobre o manejo dos resíduos químicos perigosos Percepción de los trabajadores de enfermería sobre el manejo de residuos químicos peligrosos Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza Florêncio Costa

    2012-12-01

    propuestas para el manejo adecuado de residuos químicos peligrosos para la enfermería.The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP, and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  20. Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J.; Odle, C.J.

    1981-09-01

    This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-09-03

    -products management, defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security investigations, and defense research and development. The waste must also meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria. When TRU waste arrives at WIPP, it is transported into the Waste Handling Building. The waste containers are removed from the shipping containers, placed on the waste hoist, and lowered to the repository level of 655 m (2,150 ft; approximately 0.5 mi) below the surface. Next, the containers of waste are removed from the hoist and placed in excavated storage rooms in the Salado Formation, a thick sequence of evaporite beds deposited approximately 250 million years ago (Figure 1.1). After each panel has been filled with waste, specially designed closures are emplaced. When all of WIPP's panels have been filled, at the conclusion of WIPP operations, seals will be placed in the shafts. Salt under pressure is relatively plastic, and mine openings will be allowed to creep closed for final disposal, encapsulating and isolating the waste.

  2. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  3. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  4. Study on Management Strategy of Nanyang City Building Waste%南阳市建筑垃圾管理策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁静

    2013-01-01

    随着城市发展,建筑垃圾量与日俱增。本文通过介绍建筑垃圾的概念,阐释建筑垃圾的危害,分析南阳市建筑垃圾管理中存在的问题,提出了建筑垃圾管理策略。%With the development of city, the amount of constr-uction waste grows with each passing day. This paper introduc-es the concept of construction waste, elucidates construction waste hazards, analyzes the existing problems in Nanyang city construction waste management, and puts forward the constru-ction waste management strategy.

  5. Trends in Modern Exception Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kuta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Exception handling is nowadays a necessary component of error proof information systems. The paper presents overview of techniques and models of exception handling, problems connected with them and potential solutions. The aspects of implementation of propagation mechanisms and exception handling, their effect on semantics and general program efficiency are also taken into account. Presented mechanisms were adopted to modern programming languages. Considering design area, formal methods and formal verification of program properties we can notice exception handling mechanisms are weakly present what makes a field for future research.

  6. REMOTE HANDLING ARRANGEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginns, D.W.

    1958-04-01

    A means for handling remotely a sample pellet to be irradiated in a nuclear reactor is proposed. It is comprised essentially of an inlet tube extending through the outer shield of the reactor and being inclined so that its outer end is at a higher elevation than its inner end, an outlet tube extending through the outer shield being inclined so that its inner end is at a higher elevation than its outer end, the inner ends of these two tubes being interconnected, and a straight tube extending through the outer shield and into the reactor core between the inlet and outlet tubes and passing through the juncture of said inner ends. A rod-like member is rotatably and slidely operated within the central straight tube and has a receptacle on its inner end for receiving a sample pellet from the inlet tube. The rod member is operated to pick up a sample pellet from the inlet tube, carry the sample pellet into the irradiating position within the core, and return to the receiving position where it is rotated to dump the irradiated pellet into the outlet tube by which it is conveyed by gravity to the outside of the reactor. Stop members are provided in the inlet tube, and electrical operating devices are provided to control the sequence of the operation automatically.

  7. Packaging Design Criteria for the Steel Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-10-19

    This packaging design criteria provides the criteria for the design, fabrication, safety evaluation, and use of the steel waste package (SWP) to transport remote-handled waste and special-case waste from the 324 facility to Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage.

  8. Green building: sustainable building quality; Green Building: nachhaltige Gebaeudequalitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article takes a look at the 'Portikon' office building near Zurich, Switzerland, that meets the 'Minergie-P' very low energy consumption requirements. The author is of the opinion that the project can be seen as a reference project for sustainable building technology. The structure of the seven-storey building with a central atrium is described and discussed. The 'Minergie-P' energy concept is discussed, as are the 1,100 square meters of photovoltaic panels on the roof of the building. Heating energy is provided by Zurich's waste incineration plant nearby. Electro-biological aspects in the building are taken care of by appropriate earthing and shielding of cables. The building's facility management system and the installations used are briefly discussed.

  9. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  10. Parallel Handling of Integrity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Flokstra, Jan; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1990-01-01

    Integrity constraints form an important part of a data model. Therefore, a complete integrity constraint handling subsystem is considered an important part of any modern DBMS. In implementing an integrity constraint handling subsystem, there are two major problem areas: providing enough functionalit

  11. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  12. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  13. Mastery of risks: we build the memory of radioactive waste disposal facilities; Maitrise des risques: nous construisons la memoire des centres de stockage des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacourcelle, C.

    2011-07-01

    The ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, is organizing today the information needs of tomorrow. The aim is to allow the future generations to have access to the knowledge of the existence of subsurface radioactive waste facilities and to understand the context and technologies of such facilities. The storage of this information is made on 'permanent paper', a high resistant paper with a lifetime of 600 to 1000 years. An updating of these data is made every 5 years for each waste disposal center. Another project, still in progress, concerns the memory management of deep geologic waste disposal facilities for which the time scale to be considered is of the order of millennia. (J.S.)

  14. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  15. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches......A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...

  16. Redefining NHS complaint handling--the real challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelos, L; Adamson, C

    1994-01-01

    More and more organizations find that a constructive and open dialogue with their customers can be an effective strategy for building long-term customer relations. In this context, it has been recognized that effective complaint-contact handling can make a significant contribution to organizations' attempts to maximize customer satisfaction and loyalty. Within the NHS, an intellectual awareness exists that effective complaint/contact handling can contribute to making services more efficient and cost-effective by developing customer-oriented improvement initiatives. Recent efforts have focused on redefining NHS complaint-handling procedures to make them more user-friendly and effective for both NHS employees and customers. Discusses the challenges associated with opening up the NHS to customer feedback. Highlights potential weaknesses in the current approach and argues that the real challenge is for NHS managers to facilitate a culture change that moves the NHS away from a long-established defensive complaint handling practice.

  17. International E-Waste Management Network (IEMN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Environmental Protection Administration Taiwan (EPAT) have collaborated since 2011 to build global capacity for the environmentally sound management of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), which is commonly called e-waste.

  18. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 5, 1, December 2012. An Assessment of ... sites and interview with agencies responsible for municipal solid waste ... farms, wetlands, uncompleted buildings ..... construct and maintain solid waste.

  19. Plan 2004. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production; Plan 2004. Kostnader foer kaernkraftens radioaktiva restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to about 70 billion SEK (about 9.3 billion USD). 18 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development. The future costs amounts to 51.5 billion SEK. The cost are financed by the nuclear utilities in the form of a special charge on the electricity produced by the nuclear power plants. At present this charge is, on average, 0.005 SEK/kWh (about 0.0007 USD/kWh)

  20. Survey of technology for decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 8. Remote handling and cutting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-03-01

    In nuclear fuel cycle facility decommissioning and refurbishment, the remote handling techniques such as dismantling, waste handling and decontamination are needed to reduce personnel radiation exposure. The survey research for the status of R and D activities on remote handling tools suitable for nuclear facilities in the world and domestic existing commercial cutting tools applicable to decommissioning of the facilities was conducted. In addition, the drive mechanism, sensing element and control system applicable to the remote handling devices were also surveyed. This report presents brief surveyed summaries. (H. Itami)

  1. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    CERN Document Server

    Gueroult, Renaud; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  2. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  3. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Violet

    2008-01-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India′s lack of appropriate infrastru...

  4. PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

    2001-04-20

    CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in

  5. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  6. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  7. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  8. Solidex 88: solids handling conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented under the session headings: BMHB (British Materials Handling Board) - tackling user problems; feeding pneumatic conveying systems - matching the hardware to the product; and solutions to some operational problems.

  9. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  10. Order Handling in Convergent Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vrtanoski, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of IT&T technology had big impact on the traditional telecommunications market, transforming it from monopolistic market to highly competitive high-tech market where new services are required to be created frequently. This paper aims to describe a design approach that puts order management process (as part of enterprise application integration) in function of rapid service creation. In the text we will present a framework for collaborative order handling supporting convergent services. The design splits the order handling processes in convergent environments in three business process groups: order capture, order management and order fulfillment. The paper establishes abstract framework for order handling and provides design guidelines for transaction handling implementation based on the checkpoint and inverse command strategy. The proposed design approach is based in a convergent telecommunication environment. Same principles are applicable in solving problems of collaboration in fun...

  11. Towards integrated microliquid handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elwenspoek, M.; Lammerink, T.S.J.; Miyake, R.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe components for integrated microliquid handling systems such as fluid injection analysis, and first results of planar integration of components. The components discussed are channels, passive and active valves, actuators for micropumps, micromixers, microflow sensors, optica

  12. Risk factors for episodes of enteric disease in cattle wastes handlers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, B; Lupindu, A. M.; Mtambo, MMA

    2017-01-01

    of handlers who were aware of risks of acquiring enteric episodes in animal waste handlers was low (43.6 %. There was limited awareness of government guideline on handling such wastes (3.2%) and washing hands without soap was found to be the most common health measures taken after handling animal wastes (70...

  13. Grain Handling and Storage Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Jill, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural Health and Safety Fact Sheet AHS-02 Grain Handling and Storage Safety Jill Webster Ph.D., S. Christian Mariger, Graduate Assistant Agricultural Systems Technology and Education There are several hazards that should be considered when working with grain. Storage structures, handling equipment, and the grain itself have all caused serious injuries and deaths. Storage structures (bins, silos, and granaries), like all confined spaces, have significant hazards associated with them. Be...

  14. Civilsamfundets ABC: H for Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anker Brink; Meyer, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling.......Hvad er civilsamfundet? Anker Brink Lund og Gitte Meyer fra CBS Center for Civil Society Studies gennemgår civilsamfundet bogstav for bogstav. Vi er nået til H for Handling....

  15. Buildings and climate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodbury, R.; Bartram, L.; Marques, D. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Cole, R.; Vanier, D. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hyde, R. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada); MacLeod, D. [Okanagan Science and Technology Council, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Mueller, T. [Canada Green Buildings Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    Buildings and their stakeholders are critical elements in an effective climate change strategy, since their operation is responsible for more than 30 per cent of the world's greenhouse gases and energy consumption. The building sector comprises government; industry; building owners, occupants and users; utilities; non-governmental organizations; as well as universities, colleges and schools. Innovations in building design, construction and operation can achieve real and lasting reduction of green house gases, energy costs, water use and waste. This paper recommended a wide range of actions for the green building movement, which is aimed at improving coordination, increasing research and knowledge-sharing, and fostering expertise in the BC green building industry. It outlined elements of a strategy that would enable BC to realize the full potential of building innovation. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  18. Multiple utilization of energy in buildings. Utilization of waste heat at the Blood Transfusion Service; Energie im Gebaeude mehrfach nutzen. Abwaermenutzung beim Blutspendedienst Nord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaigalat, Jens

    2012-11-01

    For the Blood Transfusion Service North the German Red Cross (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) utilizes the waste heat from production facilities and laboratories for heating offices. By doing this, the VRV technology for the realization of this solution was used.

  19. Síndrome HaNDL / HaNDL Syndrome / Síndrome HaNDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ernesto Barros-Gutiérrez, MD., Esp.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El Síndrome HaNDL (Headache and neurologic deficits with cerebroespinal fluid lymphocytosis por sus siglas en inglés, es una patología que cursa con cefalea, focalización neurológica y linfocitosis en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Objetivo: este artículo busca presentar un caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, puesto que esta condición nosológica implica un reto diagnóstico. Resultados y conclusiones: Se presenta el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de síndrome de HaNDL los hallazgos al examen físico y del líquido cefalorraquídeo. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introduction: The syndrome of transient Headache and Neurological Deficits with cerebrospinal fluid Lymphocytosis, is a pathology that presents cephalalgia, neurological focalization and lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Objective: This article presents a HaNDL Syndrome case, since this nosological condition implies a diagnostic challenge. Results and conclusions: A case of a patient with HaNDL syndrome diagnosis, physical examination findings and cerebrospinal fluid are presented. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. HaNDL Syndrome. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx]. Introdução: A síndrome de HaNDL (Headache and neurologic déficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis por sua sigla em inglês é uma doença que causa dor de cabeça, foco neurológico e linfocitose no líquido cefalorraquidiano. Objetivo: Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um caso de Síndrome de HaNDL, uma vez que esta condição nosológica envolve um desafio diagnóstico. Resultados e conclusões: Apresenta-se o caso de um paciente diagnosticado com a síndrome de HaNDL, o encontrado no exame físico e o líquido cefalorraquidiano. [Barros-Gutiérrez CE, Silva-Monsalve E, Gualtero-Trujillo S. Síndrome HaNDL. MedUNAB 2015; 17(3: xx-xx].

  20. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    content), 2) low ash and xenobiotic content, 3) high gas yield, 4) volume (produced), 5) dependable distribution and 6) low competition with other end-user technologies. MSW is a complex substrate comprising both degradable and non-degradable material being metal, plastic, glass, building waste etc...... simulating Danish household waste in composition and weight, 2) evaluating the performance of best enzyme candidates on original waste with and without additional additives, 3) measuring the biogas potential of liquefied waste and comparing the results with the biogas potential of untreated waste...

  1. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  2. Repackaging of High Fissile TRU Waste at the Transuranic Waste Processing Center - 13240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Brian; Heacker, Fred [WAI, TRU Waste Processing Center, 100 WIPP Road Lenoir City, TN 37771 (United States); McMillan, Bill [DOE, Oak Ridge Operations, Bldg. 2714, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Twenty-six drums of high fissile transuranic (TRU) waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operations were declared waste in the mid-1980's and placed in storage with the legacy TRU waste inventory for future treatment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Repackaging and treatment of the waste at the TRU Waste Packaging Center (TWPC) will require the installation of additional equipment and capabilities to address the hazards for handling and repackaging the waste compared to typical Contact Handled (CH) TRU waste that is processed at the TWPC, including potential hydrogen accumulation in legacy 6M/2R packaging configurations, potential presence of reactive plutonium hydrides, and significant low energy gamma radiation dose rates. All of the waste is anticipated to be repackaged at the TWPC and certified for disposal at WIPP. The waste is currently packaged in multiple layers of containers which presents additional challenges for repackaging activities due to the potential for the accumulation of hydrogen gas in the container headspace in quantities than could exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL). The outer container for each waste package is a stainless steel 0.21 m{sup 3} (55-gal) drum which contains either a 0.04 m{sup 3} or 0.06 m{sup 3} (10-gal or 15-gal) 6M drum. The inner 2R container in each 6M drum is ∼12 cm (5 in) outside diameter x 30-36 cm (12-14 in) long and is considered to be a > 4 liter sealed container relative to TRU waste packaging criteria. Inside the 2R containers are multiple configurations of food pack cans, pipe nipples, and welded capsules. The waste contains significant quantities of high burn-up plutonium oxides and metals with a heavy weight percentage of higher atomic mass isotopes and the subsequent in-growth of significant quantities of americium. Significant low energy gamma radiation is expected to be present due to the americium in-growth. Radiation dose rates on inner containers are estimated

  3. Rietveld originals: Handle with care!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    The work of architect Gerrit Th. Rietveld (1888 – 1964) is appreciated throughout the world. Many of the well-known buildings he designed have survived to the present. Some have been restored or refurbished, depending on the condition of the building, current needs of the building users, etc. Rietve

  4. Tool handling robot system; Tool handling robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    As an example of the delivery of industrial use automation equipment by Meidensha Corp., the paper introduced a tool handling robot system. The system is a tool handling robot of case processing use FMS (flexible manufacturing system). This is a system which exchanges tool automatically according to the From To order from the managing computer using the ceiling running robot between five horizontal type machining centers and more than 800 collective tool stockers. The structure of the system is as follows: tool handling robot (MHR-400), robot controller (meirocs-F), tool hand, robot running unit, tool stocker (for 844 tools), five life tool exchange trucks, tool truck lifting unit, system control panel. (NEDO)

  5. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  6. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacement drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The WP emplacement gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The WP emplacement gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery

  7. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  8. Management Strategy for Hazardous Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Vilgerts, J; Timma, L; Blumberga, D.

    2012-01-01

    During the past year authorities, manufactures and scientists have been focused on the management and treatment methods of hazardous wastes, because they realized that “prevention costs” of activities connected to handling of hazardous waste are lower than “restoration costs” after damage is done. Uncontrolled management of hazardous substances may lead to contamination of any ecosystem on Earth: freshwater, ocean and terrestrial. Moreover leakage of toxic gasses creates also air pollution...

  9. Waste Socio-technological Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Campos, Maria José; Zapata, Patrik; Eriksson-Zetterquist, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    able to replace other production or construction materials. It also means that the consumption of the amount of virgin material decreases and saves energy. Despite the growing material recycling rates, the amount of waste per person, and packaging waste among others, continues to increase. High......The transformation of packaging waste from a problem into a resource has had significant consequences for a more sustainable use of natural resources and even the reduction of potential C02 emissions and its contribution to the climate change. Material recycling leads to separated material being...... recycling rates can be pointless if the amount of waste does not decrease. This is an example of how well established waste recovery regimes can stand in the way of more sustainable forms to handle waste (Corvellec et al, 2013) and, ultimately, hinder the development towards the EU objective (2008...

  10. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  11. Fault detection and diagnosis for smart buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mohamed, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, buildings account for ca. 40% of the total energy consumption and ca. 20% of the total CO2 emissions. While most of the energy goes into primary building use, a significant amount of energy is wasted due to malfunctioning building system equipment and wrongly configured Building Manage...

  12. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  13. ZeroWaste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group at the Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Byg) was established two years ago and covers the broad range of expertise, required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have, prior to that......, developed methods for removal of heavy metals and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes, providing the basis of to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector. Initial results for upgrading and using different types of ashes are presented...

  14. Værk som handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalving, Camilla

    Hvordan kan et kunstværk være en handling? Hvad er performativ billedkunst, og hvad menes der egentlig med ordet ´performativitet´? Det er nogle af de spørgsmål, bogen Værk som handling griber fat i. Mens performativitet i løbet af de sidste ti år er blevet et bredt anvendt begreb i kulturteorien...... mellem værket som objekt og som handling. Bogens værkanalyser orienterer sig derfor både mod, hvad kunstværket er, og hvordan det er: Hvordan virker det, hvordan stiller det sig frem, hvordan producerer det betydning, hvordan skaber det en situation, og ikke mindst hvordan interagerer det med betragteren?...

  15. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2009-06-11

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2008 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  16. Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, W.R.

    2001-04-17

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2000 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report.

  17. Phase Stability Determinations of DWPF Waste Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, S.L.

    1999-10-22

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. To fulfill this requirement, glass samples were heat treated at various times and temperatures. These results will provide guidance to the repository program about conditions to be avoided during shipping, handling and storage of DWPF canistered waste forms.

  18. The handling of chemical data

    CERN Document Server

    Lark, P D; Bosworth, R C L

    1968-01-01

    The Handling of Chemical Data deals with how measurements, such as those arrived at from chemical experimentation, are handled. The book discusses the different kinds of measurements and their specific dimensional characteristics by starting with the origin and presentation of chemical data. The text explains the units, fixed points, and relationships found between scales, the concept of dimensions, the presentation of quantitative data (whether in a tabular or graphical form), and some uses of empirical equations. The book also explains the relationship between two variables, and how equatio

  19. How Retailers Handle Complaint Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Wilke, Ricky; Zaichkowsky, Judy

    2009-01-01

    as to the links between CM and redress of consumers’ complaints. The results suggest that retailers who attach large negative consequences to consumer dissatisfaction are more likely than other retailers to develop a positive strategic view on customer complaining, but at the same time an increase in perceived......This article fills a gap in the literature by providing insight about the handling of complaint management (CM) across a large cross section of retailers in the grocery, furniture, electronic and auto sectors. Determinants of retailers’ CM handling are investigated and insight is gained...... negative consequences of customer dissatisfaction leads to a more negative view on interacting with complaining customers....

  20. Sustainable Building Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2009-01-01

    Energy-savings in the existing building stock have becomes a main goal in national and international policies. Often focus is on building-renovations, whereas the potential of sustainable building operation to a large extent has been neglected. Nevertheless, international research as well...... as practical experiences from Danish housing estates indicates that there are large potentials for energy savings by focusing on the operation of the buildings. We suggest that in order to achieve sustainability in the existing housing, renovation and operations should be seen as integrated parts...... building operation as an 'umbrella' for various ways of reducing flows of energy, water and waste in the daily operation of the buildings, for instance by regular monitoring the consumption, by using 'green accounting', by applying policies for sustainability etc. The paper is based on case studies...

  1. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this design calculation is to perform a criticality evaluation of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) and the operations and processes performed therein. The current intent of the FHF is to receive transportation casks whose contents will be unloaded and transferred to waste packages (WP) or MGR Specific Casks (MSC) in the fuel transfer bays. Further, the WPs will also be prepared in the FHF for transfer to the sub-surface facility (for disposal). The MSCs will be transferred to the Aging Facility for storage. The criticality evaluation of the FHF features the following: (I) Consider the types of waste to be received in the FHF as specified below: (1) Uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF); (2) Canistered CSNF (with the exception of horizontal dual-purpose canister (DPC) and/or multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)); (3) Navy canistered SNF (long and short); (4) Department of Energy (DOE) canistered high-level waste (HLW); and (5) DOE canistered SNF (with the exception of MCOs). (II) Evaluate the criticality analyses previously performed for the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified transportation casks (under 10 CFR 71) to be received in the FHF to ensure that these analyses address all FHF conditions including normal operations, and Category 1 and 2 event sequences. (III) Evaluate FHF criticality conditions resulting from various Category 1 and 2 event sequences. Note that there are currently no Category 1 and 2 event sequences identified for FHF. Consequently, potential hazards from a criticality point of view will be considered as identified in the ''Internal Hazards Analysis for License Application'' document (BSC 2004c, Section 6.6.4). (IV) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the fuel transfer bay for defense in depth. The SNF/HLW waste transfer activity (i.e., assembly and canister transfer) that is being carried out in the FHF has been classified as safety category in the &apos

  2. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  3. Handling and Disposal of Asbestos-Containing Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Comnud to task tie Civil Entineering Laboratory to devlop p uidance on appropriate practices for handing and dasposal of asbest -ontalning product. I...Hayward Chemical Co. 1280 N. 10th St. Box 2383 San Jose, CA 95112 Kansas City , KS 66110 Vineland Chemical Co. Box 745 Vineland, NJ 08360 NOTE Wetting...D. Good). Panama City FL: Code 713 (J. Quirk) Panama City . FL. Code 715 (J. Mittleman) Panama City . FL. Libiary Panama City . FL NAVCOMMAREAMSTRSTA

  4. Solid Waste Reduction--A Hands-on Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessinger, Diane

    1991-01-01

    This lesson plan uses grocery shopping to demonstrate the importance of source reduction in the handling of solid waste problems. Students consider different priorities in shopping (convenience, packaging, and waste reduction) and draw conclusions about the relationship between packaging techniques and solid waste problems. (MCO)

  5. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C...

  6. 21 CFR 820.140 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Handling. 820.140 Section 820.140 Food and Drugs... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Installation § 820.140 Handling. Each..., contamination, or other adverse effects to product do not occur during handling. ...

  7. 7 CFR 58.443 - Whey handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whey handling. 58.443 Section 58.443 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.443 Whey handling. (a) Adequate sanitary facilities shall be provided for the handling of... objectionable odors. (b) Whey or whey products intended for human food shall at all times be handled in a...

  8. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  9. Seven Ways to Handle Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬

    2007-01-01

    1.Take care of your body.Exercise, eat healthily,and get plenty of sleep.You’ll handle stress much better. 2.Take down your thoughts.Recording your thoughts in a diary will help you choose your feelings and relieve~* stress. 3.Talk about it.If possible,find someone

  10. The Dφ Data Handling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.White; D.Adams; 等

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we highlight strategies and choices that make the Dφ Data Handling system markedly different from many other experiments' systems,We emphasize how far the Dφ system has come in innovating and implementing a Dφ-specific Data Grid system.We discuss experiences during the first months of detector commissioning and give some future plans for the system.

  11. Handling nu eller skru ned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Poul Søren

    2007-01-01

    Søgningen til fremmedsprogstudier er faldende, samtidig med at Region Syddanmark har lanceret en plan, der forudsætter et sprogligt beredskab. Hvis regionen skal klare sig i konkurrencen, må den og det regionale universitet handle, så at der er sproguddannelser. Ellers må regionen og universitetet...

  12. Data Handling and Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2016-01-01

    literature that are mostly based on the ActivatedSludge Model (ASM) framework and their appropriate extensions (Henze et al., 2000).The chapter presents an overview of the most commonly used methods in the estimation of parameters from experimental batch data, namely: (i) data handling and validation, (ii...

  13. At skabe handling og forandring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    ” (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change, på dansk Undersøgelse-Vision-Handling-Forandring). Forskning i anvendelsen af IVAC i pædagogiske udviklingsprojekter i skoler viser, at lærere kan tilpasse IVAC det konkrete sundhedsemne, de beskæftiger sig med, ligesom metoden kan afpasses pensumkravene, klassetrin og...

  14. TNO reticle handling test platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crowcombe, W.E.; Hollemans, C.L.; Fritz, E.C.; Donck, J.C.J. van der; Koster, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Particle free handling of EUV reticles is a major concern in industry. For reaching economically feasible yield levels, it is reported that Particle-per-Reticle-Pass (PRP) levels should be better than 0.0001 for particles larger than 18 nm. Such cleanliness levels are yet to be reported for current

  15. Cargo handling know-how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, T.; Fischer, M. [Liebherr-Werk Nenzing GmbH (Austria)

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews recent bulk handling crane orders from Liebherr. These include mobile harbour cranes at the Port of Dunkirk, a four-rope grab crane at Phu My Port, Vietnam and CBG cranes at Balikpapan Coal Terminal, Indonesia. 4 figs.

  16. Research on Potential of Advanced Technology for Housing. A Building System Based on Filament Winding and New Developments in Water and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.

    The University of Michigan and Aerojet Corporation report their development of a new building system which will offer the consumer a higher quality product at lower cost. To achieve this goal, the University-Aerojet proposal suggested filament winding (a process derived from the aerospace program for the manufacture of reinforced plastic…

  17. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  18. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  19. Waste management in Germany: general overview; Gestion de residuos en Alemania: perspectiva general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt-Tegge, J.; Joachim Wuttke

    1997-04-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany is a highly industrialized country in which almost all technologies and processes know are being operated. Therefore, many kinds of wastes are generated and have to be handled in the waste management system. (Author)

  20. Waste statistics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 reporting to the ISAG comprises 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. In 2002, reports covered 407 plants owned by 296 enterprises. Waste generation in 2003 is compared to targets from 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following can be said to summarise waste generation in 2003: 1) In 2003, total reported waste arisings amounted to 12,835,000 tonnes, which is 270,000 tonnes, or 2 per cent, less than in 2002. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2003 were 11,597,000 tonnes, which is a 2 per cent increase from 2002. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2003 amounted to 7,814,000 tonnes, which is 19,000 tonnes, or 1 per cent, less than in 2002. In other words, there has been a fall in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. 4) The overall rate of recycling amounted to 66 per cent, which is one percentage point above the overall recycling target of 65 per cent for 2008. In 2002 the total rate of recycling was 64 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2002. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point below the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. In 2002, 9 per cent was led to landfill. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being led to landfill. (au)

  1. Production of Biogas from wastes Blended with CowDung for Electricity generation-A Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Sasidhar, Jaladanki

    2017-07-01

    The country’s production of solid waste generation is piling up year after year and the generation of Bio-Gas finds a fruitful solution to overcome this problem. This technology can contribute to energy conservation if the economic viability and social acceptance of this technology are favorable. Our campus has a number of hostel buildings which generates large quantum of kitchen waste and sewage per day. This research will have process ofcarrying out survey, characterization of kitchen waste from several kitchens & Canteens and knowing the potential for biogas production. The waste generated from kitchen and sewage from the hostels is given as feedstock to produce 600 m3 of biogas per day with cow dung as byproduct. The methane gas generated from Biogas is purified and this is used for power generation. Two biogas engine generators of 30 kVA and 50 kVA were installed. This power is used for backup power for girl’s hostel lighting load. From this study it is concluded that the generation of Biogas production and its usage for power production is the best option to handle these large quantum of sewage, kitchen waste generated from various buildings and also treated effluent from biogas plant and the biomass generated is a wealth for doing agriculture for any community ultimately it protects the environment.

  2. Characterization and handling solutions through development and adaptation of available technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, W.S.; Frazee, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces unique challenges in characterizing and handling its mixed wastes. Mixed waste is low-level or transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes containing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous materials. Characterization and material handling technologies will be required to solve pretreatment and disposal needs, and to meet transportation requirements. The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) will fund the development and demonstration of characterization and material handling technologies to ensure the availability to support the DOE mixed waste needs. The MWFA will be evaluating commercially available and laboratory developed technologies for applicability in meeting these needs. Improved systems will be developed, on the commercial or laboratory side, as needed to address unmet needs. Studies/demonstrations are taking place this year to evaluate the capabilities of existing systems and identify technology gaps. Calls for proposals will be made to both industry and laboratory to identify work to address those gaps. Prioritization of applicable proposals will take place and activities funded appropriately to address characterization and material handling needs.

  3. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueroult, Renaud, E-mail: rgueroul@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A detailed economic study on plasma mass filtering techniques is presented. • Comparison with chemical techniques shows similar costs for solid-waste pretreatment. • Significant savings potential is identified through superior waste minimization. - Abstract: Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  4. LCA Modeling of Waste Management Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide

    2011-01-01

    and shows that recycling is superior to incineration with energy recovery, which again is better than landfilling. Cleary (2010) reviewed 20 waste management scenarios assessed in 11 studies published in the period 2002–2008 and concluded that, due to lack of transparency regarding boundary conditions...... and exchange with the energy systems, a comparison of results was hampered on a system level. In addition, differences in waste composition may affect the LCA results. This chapter provides results of LCA modeling of 40 waste management scenarios handling the same municipal waste (MSW) and using different...... management systems. The study focuses on Europe in terms of waste composition and exchange with the energy system. The waste management systems modeled are described with respect to waste composition, waste management technologies, mass flows and energy exchange in the systems. Results are first presented...

  5. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  6. Safe handling of potential peroxide forming compounds and their corresponding peroxide yielded derivatives.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Boyle, Timothy J.; Dean, Christopher J.

    2013-06-01

    This report addresses recent developments concerning the identification and handling of potential peroxide forming (PPF) and peroxide yielded derivative (PYD) chemicals. PPF chemicals are described in terms of labeling, shelf lives, and safe handling requirements as required at SNL. The general peroxide chemistry concerning formation, prevention, and identification is cursorily presented to give some perspective to the generation of peroxides. The procedure for determining peroxide concentrations and the proper disposal methods established by the Hazardous Waste Handling Facility are also provided. Techniques such as neutralization and dilution are provided for the safe handling of any PYD chemicals to allow for safe handling. The appendices are a collection of all available SNL documentation pertaining to PPF/PYD chemicals to serve as a single reference.

  7. Handling Software Faults with Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carzaniga, Antonio; Gorla, Alessandra; Pezzè, Mauro

    Software engineering methods can increase the dependability of software systems, and yet some faults escape even the most rigorous and methodical development process. Therefore, to guarantee high levels of reliability in the presence of faults, software systems must be designed to reduce the impact of the failures caused by such faults, for example by deploying techniques to detect and compensate for erroneous runtime conditions. In this chapter, we focus on software techniques to handle software faults, and we survey several such techniques developed in the area of fault tolerance and more recently in the area of autonomic computing. Since practically all techniques exploit some form of redundancy, we consider the impact of redundancy on the software architecture, and we propose a taxonomy centered on the nature and use of redundancy in software systems. The primary utility of this taxonomy is to classify and compare techniques to handle software faults.

  8. Actitudes de estudiantes de enfermería mexicanos al manejar residuos peligrosos biologico infecciosos Atitudes de estudantes de enfermagem mexicanos ao manipular resíduos biológicos infecciosos perigosos Attitudes of students of nursing to handle mexican biological infectious hazardous waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Olivos Rubio

    2008-09-01

    contrair alguma doença infecto-contagiosa, por não saberem manusear estes resíduos, sentem indiferença por não acreditar que existe risco, vergonha em relação a críticas, coragem por sofrer acidentes com resíduos e arrependimento por não realizarem adequadamente a classificação.Nowadays the handling of biological infectious hazardous wastes represents a big deal to Mexican nursing students that are part of a health team since these wastes cause illnesses. The intention was to identify the attitudes as factor of risk for the students of nursing in the Biological Infectious managing of the Dangerous Residues. This is a quantitative study which includes an observant and transversal, descriptive transverse focus. The sample consisted of 403 students of 1 º 2 º and 3 º year at nursing Faculty during the clinical practices realized in hospitals of Toluca México's city. It was applied to the students an attitude Likert scale, 25 interviews and 12 guides of observation. In regards to the attitudes observed during the clinic practices of students it was remarkable the uncertainty and fear of catching an infectious and contagious illness because of lack of knowledge, indifference because they think there is no risk, embarrassment when being criticized, annoyance when having accidents with wastes and remorse for not having done an adequate classification of waster .uncertainty and dread of contracting some disease infectious-contagious, for not being able to handle these residues, indifference for not believing in that risk, shame exists to the critique, courage for having accidents with residues, repentance for not realizing adequately the classification.

  9. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  10. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  11. Recovery technologies for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Veiko; Nurme, Martin; Valgma, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Mining industry provides building materials for construction. Civil engineers have settled the quality parameters for construction materials. When we produce high quality building materials from carbonate rock (limestone, dolostone), then the estimated waste share is 25% to 30%, depending on crushing principles and rock quality. The challenge is to find suitable technology for waste recovery. During international mining waste related cooperation project MIN-NOVATION (www.min-novation.eu), partners mapped possibilities for waste recovery in mining industry and pointed out good examples and case studies. One example from Estonia showed that when we produce limestone aggregate, then we produce up to 30% waste material (fines with size 0-4mm). This waste material we can see as secondary raw material for building materials. Recovery technology for this fine grained material has been achieved with CDE separation plant. During the process the plant washes out minus 63 micron material from the limestone fines. This technology allows us to use 92% of all limestone reserves. By-product from 63 microns to 4 mm we can use as filler in concrete or as fine limestone aggregate for building or building materials. MIN-NOVATION project partners also established four pilot stations to study other mineral waste recovery technologies and solutions. Main aims on this research are to find the technology for recovery of mineral wastes and usage for new by-products from mineral mining waste. Before industrial production, testing period or case studies are needed. This research is part of the study of Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  12. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  13. BIOMEDICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN MAJOR PUBLIC HOSPITALS OF SHIMLA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh; Salig Ram; Anmol K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The actual biomedical waste management situation in the democratic developing country like India is grim. Even though there are Rules stipulating the method of safe disposal of Bio-medical Waste (BMW), hospital waste generated by Government Hospitals is still largely being dumped in the open, waiting to be collected along with general waste. OBJECTIVES: To assess the waste handling and treatment system of hospital bio-medical solid waste METHODOLOGY: A Cross se...

  14. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-44:2, Discovery Pipeline Near 108-F Building, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-05-30

    The 100-F-44:2 waste site is a steel pipeline that was discovered in a junction box during confirmatory sampling of the 100-F-26:4 pipeline from December 2004 through January 2005. The 100-F-44:2 pipeline feeds into the 100-F-26:4 subsite vitrified clay pipe (VCP) process sewer pipeline from the 108-F Biology Laboratory at the junction box. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Source Segregation and Collection of Source-Segregated Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    of optimal handling of the waste. But in a few cases, the waste must also be separated at source, for example removing the protective plastic cover from a commercial advertisement received by mail, prior to putting the advertisement into the waste collection bin for recyclable paper. These issues are often......The Segregation of individual material fractions at the waste source and keeping the fractions separate for collection is one of the key issues in modern waste management. In most cases the waste is just kept segregated from other waste according to certain criteria that improve the possibility...... termed source separation or sorting at source. Here the word segregation has been chosen to indicate the importance of keeping the waste fractions apart by sorting waste and by separating waste into segregated materials as it is generated. The more waste that a physically defined source generates...

  18. Orion Entry Handling Qualities Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, B.; Tiggers, M.; Strahan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Sullivan, K.; Stephens, J. P.; Hart, J.; Law, H., III; Bilimoria, K.; Bailey, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Command Module (CM) is a capsule designed to bring crew back from the International Space Station (ISS), the moon and beyond. The atmospheric entry portion of the flight is deigned to be flown in autopilot mode for nominal situations. However, there exists the possibility for the crew to take over manual control in off-nominal situations. In these instances, the spacecraft must meet specific handling qualities criteria. To address these criteria two separate assessments of the Orion CM s entry Handling Qualities (HQ) were conducted at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the Cooper-Harper scale (Cooper & Harper, 1969). These assessments were conducted in the summers of 2008 and 2010 using the Advanced NASA Technology Architecture for Exploration Studies (ANTARES) six degree of freedom, high fidelity Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) simulation. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities criteria, the vehicle configuration, the scenarios flown, the simulation background and setup, crew interfaces and displays, piloting techniques, ratings and crew comments, pre- and post-fight briefings, lessons learned and changes made to improve the overall system performance. The data collection tools, methods, data reduction and output reports will also be discussed. The objective of the 2008 entry HQ assessment was to evaluate the handling qualities of the CM during a lunar skip return. A lunar skip entry case was selected because it was considered the most demanding of all bank control scenarios. Even though skip entry is not planned to be flown manually, it was hypothesized that if a pilot could fly the harder skip entry case, then they could also fly a simpler loads managed or ballistic (constant bank rate command) entry scenario. In addition, with the evaluation set-up of multiple tasks within the entry case, handling qualities ratings collected in the evaluation could be used to assess other scenarios such as the constant bank angle

  19. E-Waste and Harm to Vulnerable Populations: A Growing Global Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacock, Michelle; Kelly, Carol Bain; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Bergman, Åke Lennart; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Carpenter, David O.; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia; Kamel, Mostafa; Landrigan, Philip J.; Magalini, Federico; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Neira, Maria; Omar, Magdy; Pascale, Antonio; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Van den Berg, Martin; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electronic waste (e-waste) is produced in staggering quantities, estimated globally to be 41.8 million tonnes in 2014. Informal e-waste recycling is a source of much-needed income in many low- to middle-income countries. However, its handling and disposal in underdeveloped countries is often unsafe and leads to contaminated environments. Rudimentary and uncontrolled processing methods often result in substantial harmful chemical exposures among vulnerable populations, including women and children. E-waste hazards have not yet received the attention they deserve in research and public health agendas. Objectives: We provide an overview of the scale and health risks. We review international efforts concerned with environmental hazards, especially affecting children, as a preface to presenting next steps in addressing health issues stemming from the global e-waste problem. Discussion: The e-waste problem has been building for decades. Increased observation of adverse health effects from e-waste sites calls for protecting human health and the environment from e-waste contamination. Even if e-waste exposure intervention and prevention efforts are implemented, legacy contamination will remain, necessitating increased awareness of e-waste as a major environmental health threat. Conclusion: Global, national, and local levels efforts must aim to create safe recycling operations that consider broad security issues for people who rely on e-waste processing for survival. Paramount to these efforts is reducing pregnant women and children’s e-waste exposures to mitigate harmful health effects. With human environmental health in mind, novel dismantling methods and remediation technologies and intervention practices are needed to protect communities. Citation: Heacock M, Kelly CB, Asante KA, Birnbaum LS, Bergman AL, Bruné MN, Buka I, Carpenter DO, Chen A, Huo X, Kamel M, Landrigan PJ, Magalini F, Diaz-Barriga F, Neira M, Omar M, Pascale A, Ruchirawat M, Sly L, Sly PD

  20. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-12

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The system also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacment drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery after abnormal events may require clearing of equipment

  1. 7 CFR 1207.307 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.307 Handle. Handle means to grade, pack,...

  2. Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Proper Handling and Storage of Human Milk Recommend on Facebook ... sure to wash your hands before expressing or handling breast milk. When collecting milk, be sure to ...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.312 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.312 Handle. Handle means to harvest, gin, warehouse, compress, purchase, market, transport, or otherwise acquire ownership or control of cotton....

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  5. 7 CFR 983.14 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.14 Handle. Handle means to engage in: (a) Receiving pistachios; (b... of interstate or foreign commerce; and/or (d) Placing pistachios into the current of commerce...

  6. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    involves the lowest greenhouse gas load for the types of waste glass packaging, metal packaging and plastic packaging. Biological treatment (biogas production) provides the lowest GHG (greenhouse gas) impact for the treatment of wet organic waste. Energy recovery provides the lowest GHG impact for the treatment of paper, cardboard and wood waste. Disposal provides the greatest greenhouse gas load for all the analyzed types of waste, but plastic and glass containers. For waste composition has a major impact on greenhouse gas emissions for the landfill and the energy efficiency of the waste. The composition varies both with the types of waste disposed and with what kind of source separation schemes offered in the various municipalities. This in turn can vary depending on population density (urban areas / cities versus scattered buildings), and motivation of the individual citizen to source sorting. Energy recovery means the lowest greenhouse gas emissions for an 'average composite' residual waste in Norway. Analysis of residual waste should always be considered in context with the total amounts and handling of sorted out waste types, as well as total amounts and composition of residual waste. This is important to achieve a comprehensive assessment and avoid suboptimalization. Transport related greenhouse gas emissions are generally of relatively little importance in relation to the environmental benefits arising from the material and / or energy utilization. 3. The model is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions resulting from disposal of a total of approximately 4.1 million tons of waste from households, industry, construction and service industries. 4. Analysis of a realistic optimal scenario for disposal of household waste show that this system can be virtually carbon-neutral. 5. The choice of which assumptions to be incorporated in this type of analysis depends on the purpose of analysis, in addition to local and geographical conditions. 6. Relevant

  7. Natural Analogues - One Way to Help Build Public Confidence in the Predicted Performance of a Mined Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2002-02-26

    The general public needs to have a way to judge the predicted long-term performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The applicability and reliability of mathematical models used to make this prediction are neither easily understood nor accepted by the public. Natural analogues can provide the average person with a tool to assess the predicted performance and other scientific conclusions. For example, hydrologists with the Yucca Mountain Project have predicted that most of the water moving through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will move through the host rock and around tunnels. Thus, seepage into tunnels is predicted to be a small percentage of available infiltration. This hypothesis can be tested experimentally and with some quantitative analogues. It can also be tested qualitatively using a variety of analogues such as (1) well-preserved Paleolithic to Neolithic paintings in caves and rock shelters, (2) biological remains preserved in caves and rock shelters, and (3) artifacts and paintings preserved in man-made underground openings. These examples can be found in materials that are generally available to the non-scientific public and can demonstrate the surprising degree of preservation of fragile and easily destroyed materials for very long periods of time within the unsaturated zone.

  8. Expertise concerning the request by the ZWILAG Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG for granting of a licence for the building and operation of the Central Intermediate Storage Facility for radioactive wastes; Gutachten zum Gesuch der ZWILAG Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG um Erteilung der Bewilligung fuer Bau und Betrieb des Zentralen Zwischenlagers fuer radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    of the high level of radiation the building for MAA wastes is equipped with thick walls with 140 cm of concrete which assures external shielding. In the hot cell, highly radioactive materials like spent fuel assemblies can be remotely manipulated, but normally highly-active wastes and spent fuel assemblies remain in their containers, which are not opened. The radioactivity in the repository for SAA wastes amounts to 10{sup 16} Bq with less than 10{sup 15} Bq of {alpha}-active nuclides. In the conditioning repository, SAA wastes are treated: some of the materials are decontaminated and disposed of as inactive material; the rest is encapsulated in barrels with cement. In the incineration and melting plant, the SAA wastes are burnt in a plasma oven at temperatures up to 20'000 K in order to reduce their volume. On the basis of its examination, HSK concluded that, from the point of view of the nuclear safety and radiation protection, no objections can be raised against the building license on condition that its requirements are taken into account. As far as the operational licence for conditioning, incineration and melting installations are concerned, many points cannot be satisfactorily cleared on the basis of the current safety report

  9. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste

  10. The weak link in waste management in tropical Asia? Solid waste collection in Bali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacRae, Graeme; Rodic-Wiersma, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    This article builds on earlier work that examined waste processing options on the island of Bali, which can be seen as a useful "laboratory" for the study of solid waste management (SWM) problems and solutions in tropical Asia. The research reported here examines the challenges of waste collectio

  11. Feedstock storage, handling and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egg, R.P.; Coble, C.G.; Engler, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Lewis, D.H. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology)

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a review of the technology and research covering components of a methane from biomass system between the field and the digester. It deals primarily with sorghum as a feedstock and focuses on research conducted by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Subjects included in this paper are harvesting, hay storage, ansiling, materials handling, pumping and hydraulic characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, pressure/density relationship, and biological pretreatment. This paper is not a comprehensive design manual; however, design equations and coefficients for sorghum are presented, where available, along with references describing the development and application of design models. (author)

  12. Logik, mening, handling og tale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    skal ses i relation til sandheds- og meningstilskrivning, sådan som den finder sted ikke i først og fremmest i sproget, men i tanken, sådan som den åbenbarer sig i instrumentelle handling. Det er på baggrund af denne pragmatisering af logikken, talehandlingsbegrebet skal ses: Først og fremmest som den...... instrumentelle handleverdens møde med den sociale verden i assertivet. Dernæst som assertivets nødvendige udspaltninger i normativet og konstativet. Og endelig som de perlokutionære handlinger kommissiv, direktiv og informativ....

  13. Preoperational test, vent building ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, F.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-20

    Preoperational Test Procedure for Vent Building Ventilation System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The Vent Building ventilation system provides ventilation, heating, cooling, and zone confinement control for the W-030 Project Vent Building. The tests verify correct System operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control system.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.953 - Material handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material handling. 1926.953 Section 1926.953 Labor... Material handling. (a) Unloading. Prior to unloading steel, poles, cross arms and similar material, the... employees exist tag lines or other suitable devices shall be used to control loads being handled by hoisting...

  15. 50 CFR 14.111 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Handling. 14.111 Section 14.111 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION... and Birds to the United States § 14.111 Handling. (a) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling the...

  16. 9 CFR 3.118 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.118 Section 3.118 Animals... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.118 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers moving marine...

  17. 7 CFR 985.152 - Handling report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling report. 985.152 Section 985.152 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Administrative Rules and Regulations § 985.152 Handling...

  18. 9 CFR 3.142 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.142 Section 3.142 Animals... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of... Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.142 Handling. (a) Carriers and intermediate handlers shall move live...

  19. Scheduling of outbound luggage handling at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barth, Torben C.; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the outbound luggage handling problem at airports. The problem is to assign handling facilities to outbound flights and decide about the handling start time. This dynamic, near real-time assignment problem is part of the daily airport operations. Quality, efficiency and rob...

  20. ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Luv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a clear vision on better waste management system. The thesis introduced the sustainable waste management along with innovation. The aim of the research was to find out the types of waste being introduced to environment, their consequence on human beings and surroundings, best policies, principles and practices to minimize the effect of the waste to lowest. The study was based on literature. The thesis includes the introduction of types of waste, clarifi...

  1. Waste certification: Who really is on first?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Waste certification is the process of stating whether or not a given waste package meets the acceptance criteria of whatever facility is receiving the package. Establishing a program for certification of low-level waste requires coordination of a variety of requirements and limitations, including regulations, physical characteristics of the waste and of the type of radiation emitted by radionuclides in the waste, uncertainty in measurements, quality assurance, and personnel exposures. The goal of such a program must be to provide an acceptable degree of assurance that the waste generating facility will be able to convince the waste receiving facility that individual waste packages do meet the applicable waste acceptance criteria. The preceding paragraph raises many questions: what is an acceptable degree of assurance? What does one have to do to convince a receiving facility? How can the measurement uncertainty be taken into account? This paper attempts to address several of those questions in the context of the development being done in the solid low-level waste (SLLW) certification program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). First, a brief history of the SLLW certification program at ORNL is presented. The remaining discussions are devoted to considering the problems and pitfalls of implementing a waste certification program, concentrating on such areas as the responsibilities of various organizations and individuals, waste characterization techniques, handling levels of uncertainty, and development of waste acceptance criteria.

  2. Waste certification: Who really is on first?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Waste certification is the process of stating whether or not a given waste package meets the acceptance criteria of whatever facility is receiving the package. Establishing a program for certification of low-level waste requires coordination of a variety of requirements and limitations, including regulations, physical characteristics of the waste and of the type of radiation emitted by radionuclides in the waste, uncertainty in measurements, quality assurance, and personnel exposures. The goal of such a program must be to provide an acceptable degree of assurance that the waste generating facility will be able to convince the waste receiving facility that individual waste packages do meet the applicable waste acceptance criteria. The preceding paragraph raises many questions: what is an acceptable degree of assurance? What does one have to do to convince a receiving facility? How can the measurement uncertainty be taken into account? This paper attempts to address several of those questions in the context of the development being done in the solid low-level waste (SLLW) certification program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). First, a brief history of the SLLW certification program at ORNL is presented. The remaining discussions are devoted to considering the problems and pitfalls of implementing a waste certification program, concentrating on such areas as the responsibilities of various organizations and individuals, waste characterization techniques, handling levels of uncertainty, and development of waste acceptance criteria.

  3. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Violet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India′s lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India′s current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

  4. E-waste hazard: The impending challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Violet N

    2008-08-01

    Electronic waste or e-waste is one of the rapidly growing problems of the world. E-waste comprises of a multitude of components, some containing toxic substances that can have an adverse impact on human health and the environment if not handled properly. In India, e-waste management assumes greater significance not only due to the generation of its own e-waste but also because of the dumping of e-waste from developed countries. This is coupled with India's lack of appropriate infrastructure and procedures for its disposal and recycling. This review article provides a concise overview of India's current e-waste scenario, namely magnitude of the problem, environmental and health hazards, current disposal and recycling operations, existing legal framework, organizations working on this issue and recommendations for action.

  5. Consumer Perception of Environmental Harm and Willingness to Pay Environmental Handling Fees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lakhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study undertook a critical examination of the relationship between perception of environmental harm and consumer willingness to pay for environmental handling fees (EHF. This analysis was supplemented by asking study participants to indicate under what circumstances (and for what materials they believe a visible fee is appropriate. This study found that there is a statistically significant correlation between willingness to pay environmental handling fees and the perceived environmental harm of the product on which the fee is applied. For items that respondents viewed as “innocuous to the environment” (i.e., “keyboards and mice”, they were relatively unwilling to pay an environmental handling fee. Conversely, for the full range of hazardous waste materials, consumers expressed a willingness to pay EHFs. With respect to fee visibility, respondents indicated that they preferred visible fees (at the sticker for products that they perceived to be dangerous. There is a strong correlation between perceived environmental harm and whether fees should be visible. Consumers are not necessarily averse to paying an eco fee on products (be they hazardous waste, electronic waste, etc., but their willingness to do so is almost entirely a function of whether they believe the product is environmentally burdensome. It is the recommendation of this study that promotion and education campaigns for environmental handling fees, particularly those surrounding waste electronics, place greater emphasis on environmental consequences of improper disposal.

  6. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  7. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  8. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  9. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  10. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  11. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  12. An Applied Study on the Decontamination and Decommissioning of Hot Cell Facilities in the United States and Comparison with the Studsvik Facility for Solid and Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff; Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This report presents the plans, processes and results of the decontamination and decommissioning of the Hot Cell Facility in Building 23 at the General Atomics Torrey Pines Mesa Facility (HCF) and compares the program and cost of decommissioning HCF with the Swedish cost estimate for decontamination and decommissioning of the HM hot cell and wastes treatment facility at Studsvik in Sweden. The HCF had three main hot cells and was licensed to: Receive, handle and ship radioactive materials; Remotely handle, examine and store irradiated fuel materials; Extract tritium (engineering scale); Support new reactor production development; Develop, fabricate and inspect UO{sub 2} - BeO fuel materials. The HM facility in Studsvik was constructed to handle and package medium-active solid and liquid wastes, prior to disposal. Central to the facility is a conventional hot cell including three work stations, serviced by master slave manipulators. Other parts of the facility include holding tanks for liquid wastes and slurries, a centrifuge room, as well as an encapsulation station where drummed wastes can be encapsulated in cement, offices, laboratories and workshops and so on, as well as building and cell ventilation systems. Decontamination and decommissioning of the HCF took place during 1993 through 2001. The objective was to obtain regulatory release of the site so that it could be used on an unrestricted basis. Based on data from extensive hazardous and radiological materials characterization, GA evaluated four decommissioning options and selected dismantling as the only option that would satisfy the decommissioning objective. The decontamination and decommissioning scope included the following actions. 1. Remove the legacy waste that consisted of radioactive wastes stored at the HCF consisting of 21,434 kg of irradiated fuel material (IFM) that was owned by the US DoE and store the waste in temporary storage set up at the GA site. 2. Actual Decontamination and

  13. Zero Waste; Energy Recovery From Non-recyclable Mixed Municipal Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Laštůvka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero Waste is a strategy offering waste management solutions for today’s businesses. The Zero Waste strategy has been created with the objective of stimulating sustainable utilisation of resources, production and consumption with the highest possible level of recycling of generated waste. Due to the fact that currently there is very little information and only few relevant data available as a base for the implementation of the Zero Waste strategy, waste management specialists approach and apply such a strategy in different manners. On the other hand, there are areas of waste management where such a strategy has already been applied on a long-term basis in spite of non-existing relevant legislative tools. Indicators determined in the Zero Waste strategy may be achieved only if the individual countries clearly define legislative environment and adopt a national Zero Waste strategy with achievable objectives unambiguously determined. The area of waste separation, or handling of fractions of waste non-utilisable as secondary materials after separation, is one of the areas directly connected to the Zero Waste strategy. The objective of this paper is the evaluation of the usage of fractions of waste non-utilisable as secondary materials for energy recovery, providing thus valuable knowledge and information for the implementation of the Zero Waste strategy.

  14. Operation of the JET active gas handling system during and after DTE1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laesser, R.; Bell, A.C.; Bainbridge, N.; Brennan, D.; Grieveson, B.; Hemmerich, J.L.; Jones, G.; Kennedy, D.; Knipe, S.; Lupo, J.; Mart, J.; Perevezentsev, A.; Skinner, N.; Stagg, R.; Yorkshades, J.; Atkins, G.V. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Doerr, L. [FZ Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, D-76021, Karlsruhe (Germany); Green, N.; Stead, M.; Wilson, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1999-11-01

    During and after the deuterium-tritium experiment (DTE1) the JET active gas handling system fulfilled all expectations and requirements: it pumped, processed and purified the gases from the torus and connected systems, isotopically separated hydrogen and supplied 100 g tritium to the machine with only 20 g on JET site which means that the tritium was recycled five times. In addition, it supplied ventilation air detritiation services during interventions inside and outside the active gas handling building. This demonstrated for the first time that high tritium quantities can be recycled safely in connection with a large fusion facility. The paper describes the operation of the active gas handling system. (orig.)

  15. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  16. Automated Continuous Commissioning of Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Acronyms AHU: Air Handling Unit ANSI: American National Standards Institute API: Application Programming Interface ASHRAE : American Society of Heating... Refrigerating , and Air-Conditioning Engineers BACnet: Building Automation and Control Networks BMS: Building Management System CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute...from the database, performs computations, and archives the results back in the database. The visualization module is implemented as a stand The user

  17. New Construction for Commercial Building (Restaurant) By Considering The Green Building Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    MF Baharom; Ahmad, K.; M. N. M. Nasir; W.M Bukhari; H.I. Jaafar

    2015-01-01

    The Green Building Index (GBI) is one of green building strategies that are needed in order to decrease the human technologies and waste made by them. Moreover, GBI is the latest green building strategies that been implemented in the new building construction in Malaysia. It is proven as the building sector consumes 40% of the total energy consumption in the world, thus increasing the environmental problems. Mechanical, cooling, lighting and ventilating spaces consume by far the most energy i...

  18. MPI Debugging with Handle Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Laust; DelSignore, John; Squyres, Jeffrey M.;

    The Message Passing Interface, MPI, is the standard programming model for high performance computing clusters. However, debugging applications on large scale clusters is difficult. The widely used Message Queue Dumping interface enables inspection of message queue state but there is no general...... interface for extracting information from MPI objects such as communicators. A developer can debug the MPI library as if it was part of the application, but this exposes an unneeded level of detail. The Tools Working Group in the MPI Forum has proposed a specification for MPI Handle Introspection....... It defines a standard interface that lets debuggers extract information from MPI objects. Extracted information is then presented to the developer, in a human readable format. The interface is designed to be independent of MPI implementations and debuggers. In this paper, we describe our support...

  19. Berkeley Lab to Help Build Straw Bale Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsham, S.A.; Van Mechelen, G.

    1998-12-01

    The Shorebird Environmental Learning Center (SELC) is a new straw bale building that will showcase current and future technologies and techniques that will reduce the environmental impacts of building construction and operations. The building will also serve as a living laboratory to test systems and monitor their performance. The project will be the model for a building process that stops using our precious resources and reduces waste pollution. The rice straw that will be used for the bale construction is generally waste material that is typically burned--millions of tons of it a year--especially in California's San Joaquin Valley. Buildings have significant impacts on the overall environment. Building operations, including lighting, heating, and cooling, consume about 30% of the energy used in the United States. Building construction and the processes into making building materials consume an additional 8% of total energy. Construction also accounts for 39% of wood consumed in the U S, while 25% of solid waste volume is construction and demolition (C &D) debris. The SELC will incorporate a variety of materials and techniques that will address these and other issues, while providing a model of environmentally considered design for Bay Area residents and builders. Environmental considerations include energy use in construction and operations, selection of materials, waste minimization, and indoor air quality. We have developed five major environmental goals for this project: (1) Minimize energy use in construction and operations; (2) Employ material sources that are renewable, salvaged, recycled, and/or recyclable; (3) Increase building lifespan with durable materials and designs that permit flexibility and modification with minimal demolition; (4) Reduce and strive to eliminate construction debris; and (5) Avoid products that create toxic pollutants and make a healthy indoor environment.

  20. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  1. Engineering study of the potential uses of salts from selective crystallization of Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1996-04-30

    The Clean Salt Process (CSP) is the fractional crystallization of nitrate salts from tank waste stored on the Hanford Site. This study reviews disposition options for a CSP product made from Hanford Site tank waste. These options range from public release to onsite low-level waste disposal to no action. Process, production, safety, environment, cost, schedule, and the amount of CSP material which may be used are factors considered in each option. The preferred alternative is offsite release of clean salt. Savings all be generated by excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization. Income would be received from sales of salt products. Savings and income from this alternative amount to $1,027 million, excluding the cost of CSP operations. Unless public sale of CSP products is approved, the material should be calcined. The carbonate form of the CSP could then be used as ballast in tank closure and stabilization efforts. Not including the cost of CSP operations, savings of $632 million would be realized. These savings would result from excluding the material from low-level waste stabilization and reducing purchases of chemicals for caustic recycle and stabilization and closure. Dose considerations for either alternative are favorable. No other cost-effective alternatives that were considered had the capacity to handle significant quantities of the CSP products. If CSP occurs, full-scale tank-waste stabilization could be done without building additional treatment facilities after Phase 1 (DOE 1996). Savings in capital and operating cost from this reduction in waste stabilization would be in addition to the other gains described.

  2. Machine coolant waste reduction by optimizing coolant life. Project summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallansch, J.

    1995-08-01

    The project was designed to study the following: A specific water-soluble coolant (Blasocut 2000 Universal) in use with a variety of machines, tools, and materials; Coolant maintenance practices associated with three types of machines; Health effects of use and handling of recycled coolant; Handling practices for chips and waste coolant; Chip/coolant separation; and Oil/water separation.

  3. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  4. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  5. Technologies for sorting, assaying, classifying, and certifying transuranic waste within the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, D.G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) was developed to provide nondestructive examination and assay techniques for examining and certifying TRU wastes without opening the waste container. This technology was developed, primarily for stored TRU waste, to evaluate waste package compliance with Waste Disposal Acceptance Criteria and Transportation requirements prior to shipment. These techniques include real-time x-ray radiography, passive and active neutron assay, and ultrasonic container integrity examination. These techniques provide the necessary information to ensure safe transportation, handling, and disposal of the waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). 1 ref., 3 figs.

  6. Technologies for sorting, assaying, classifying, and certifying transuranic waste within the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, D.G. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls (USA))

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) was developed to provide nondestructive examination and assay techniques for examining and certifying TRU wastes without opening the waste container. This technology was developed, primarily for stored TRU waste, to evaluate waste package compliance with Waste Disposal Acceptance Criteria and Transportation requirements prior to shipment. These techniques include real-time x-ray radiography, passive and active neutron assay, and ultrasonic container integrity examination. These techniques provide the necessary information to ensure safe transportation, handling, and disposal of the waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). (orig.).

  7. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  8. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  10. Mechanical Demolition of Buildings with Concrete Asbestos Board Siding: Methodology, Precautions, and Results at the Hanford Central Plateau - 12417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehler, Kurt [Decommissioning and Demolition, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since the start of its contract in 2008, the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) has demolished 25 buildings with concrete asbestos board (CAB) siding using mechanical means. While the asbestos contained in CAB siding is not friable in its manufactured form, concerns persist that mechanical methods of demolition have the potential to render the asbestos friable and airborne, therefore posing a health risk to demolition workers and the public. CH2M HILL's experience demonstrates that when carefully managed, mechanical demolition of CAB siding can be undertaken safely, successfully, and in compliance with regulatory requirements for the disposal of Class II Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM). While the number of buildings demolished at Hanford and the number of samples collected does not make a conclusive argument that CAB cannot be made friable with normal demolition techniques, it certainly provides a significant body of evidence for the success of the approach. Of course, there are many factors that affect how to demolish a structure and dispose of the waste. These factors will impact the success depending on each site. The most obvious factors which contribute to this success at Hanford are: 1. The availability of onsite waste disposal where the handling and cost of asbestos-containing waste is not much different than other potentially contaminated waste. Therefore, segregation of demolition debris from the potential asbestos contamination is not necessary from a debris handling or asbestos disposal aspect. 2. The space between structures is typically significant enough to allow for large exclusion zones. There are not many restrictions due to cohabitation issues or potential contamination of adjacent facilities. 3. The willingness of the regulators and client to understand the industrial safety issues associated with manual CAB removal. (authors)

  11. Waste management and enzymatic treatment of Municipal Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner

    The work carried out during the Ph.D. project is part of the Danish Energy Authority funded research project called PSO REnescience and is focussed on studying the enzymatic hydrolysis and liquefaction of waste biomass. The purpose of studying the liquefaction of waste biomass is uniform slurry...... generation for subsequent biogas production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is produced in large amounts every year in the developed part of the world. The household waste composition varies between geographical areas and between seasons. However the overall content of organic and degradable material is rather...... content), 2) low ash and xenobiotic content, 3) high gas yield, 4) volume (produced), 5) dependable distribution and 6) low competition with other end-user technologies. MSW is a complex substrate comprising both degradable and non-degradable material being metal, plastic, glass, building waste etc...

  12. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  13. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  14. Sustainable treatment of municipal waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Augusto; Larsen, Henrik Fred

    treatment technologies are to be assessed. This paper will present the first LCA results from running existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methodology on some of the waste water treatment technologies. Keywords: Sustainability, LCA, micropollutants, waste water treatment technologies.......The main goal of the EU FP6 NEPTUNE program is to develop new and improve existing waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) and sludge handling technologies for municipal waste water, in accordance with the concepts behind the EU Water Framework Directive. As part of this work, the project.......e. heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors) in the waste water. As a novel approach, the potential ecotoxicity and human toxicity impacts from a high number of micropollutants and the potential impacts from pathogens will be included. In total, more that 20 different waste water and sludge...

  15. Ergonomic handle for an arthroscopic cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijthof; van Engelen; Herder; Goossens; Snijders; van Dijk

    2003-03-01

    From an analysis of the routinely performed meniscectomy procedures, it was concluded that a punch with a side-ways steerable tip would improve the reachability of meniscal tissue. This potentially leads to a safer and more efficient meniscectomy. Furthermore, the current scissors handles of arthroscopic punches are ergonomically not sufficient. An ergonomic handle is designed with one lever that enables opening and closing of the instrument tip, and side-ways steering of the instrument tip. The design of the handle complies with ergonomic guidelines that were found in the literature. A model of the instrument tip was added to the new handle for comparison with conventional handles. Experiments were performed with a knee joint model, using objective and subjective criteria. The results show that the concept of a side-ways steerable punch is promising, since faster task times are achieved without increasing the risk of damaging healthy tissue. The current design of the ergonomic handle incorporates two degrees of freedom in an intuitive way, the handle is more comfortable to hold, and easy to control. The external memory capabilities of the new handle could be improved. Further development of this handle and the addition of a sufficient instrument tip and force transmission are recommended.

  16. Handling S/MAR vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Baiker, Armin; Postberg, Jan; Ehrhardt, Anja; Lipps, Hans J

    2012-06-01

    Nonviral episomal vectors represent attractive alternatives to currently used virus-based expression systems. In the late 1990s, it was shown that a plasmid containing an expression cassette linked to a scaffold/matrix attached region (S/MAR) replicates as a low copy number episome in all cell lines tested, as well as primary cells, and can be used for the genetic modification of higher animals. Once established in the cell, the S/MAR vector replicates early during S-phase and, in the absence of selection, is stably retained in the cells for an unlimited period of time. This vector can therefore be regarded as a minimal model system for studying the epigenetic regulation of replication and functional nuclear architecture. In theory, this construct represents an almost "ideal" expression system for gene therapy. In practice, S/MAR-based vectors stably modify mammalian cells with efficiencies far below those of virus-based constructs. Consequently, they have not yet found application in gene therapy trials. Furthermore, S/MAR vector systems are not trivial to handle and several critical technical issues have to be considered when modifying these vectors for various applications.

  17. Evaluation of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Ossama A; Hussein, Ahmed H; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Zakaria, Adel; Mohamed, Mona G

    2005-01-01

    Medical establishments play important roles in different activities by using of modern technology to serve the humans and the environment through different departments in the establishment and its firms. Medical wastes are considered as a hazardous waste because they contain toxic materials, infectious, or non-infectious wastes and they are considered as a hazard to millions of patients, health care workers, and visitors. Treatment processes for medical wastes comprise autoclaving, microwaving, chemical disinfection, irradiation, plasma system, and incineration. Incineration is a thermal process, which destroys most of the waste including microorganisms. Combustion process must be under controlled conditions to convert wastes containing hazardous materials into mineral residues and gases. Hospital waste incinerators may emit a number of pollutants depending on the waste being incinerated. These pollutants include particulate matter, acid gases, toxic metals, and toxic organic compounds products of incomplete combustion, e.g., dioxins, furans, and carbon monoxide, as well as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. So, there should be a reduction of emissions of most of these pollutants by air pollution control devices. This study was conducted in 51 medical establishments (ME) in Alexandria. To evaluate its incinerators. It was found that only 31.4% of total ME have their own incinerators to treat their medical waste. Also, the incinerators conditions were poor with incomplete combustion. So, the study recommend handling of all medical wastes of ME in Alexandria by the company which is responsible now for management of domestic solid wastes of the city.

  18. Commercial high-level-waste management: options and economics. A comparative analysis of the ceramic and glass waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKisson, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Guon, J.; Recht, H.L.

    1983-02-25

    Results of an estimate of the waste management costs of the commercial high-level waste from a 3000 metric ton per year reprocessing plant show that the judicious use of the ceramic waste form can save about $2 billion during a 20-year operating campaign relative to the use of the glass waste form. This assumes PWR fuel is processed and the waste is encapsulated in 0.305-m-diam canisters with ultimate emplacement in a BWIP-type horizontal-borehole repository. The estimated total cost (capital and operating) of the management in the ceramic form is $2.0 billion, and that of the glass form is $4.0 billion. Waste loading and waste form density are the driving factors in that the low-waste loading (25%) and relatively low density (3.1 g/cm/sup 3/) characteristic of the glass form require several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm/sup 3/) characteristic of the glass form requires several times as many canisters to handle a given waste throughput than is needed for the ceramic waste form whose waste loading capability exceeds 60% and whose waste density is nominally 5.2 g/cm/sup 3/. The minimum-cost ceramic waste form has a 60 wt. % waste loading of commercial high-level waste and requires 25 years storage before emplacement in basalt with delayed backfill. Because of the process flexibility allowed by the availability of the high-waste loading of the ceramic form, the intermediate-level liquid waste stream can be mixed with the high-level liquid waste stream and economically processed and emplaced. The cost is greater by $0.3 billion than that of the best high-level liquid waste handling process sequence ($2.3 billion vs $2.0 billion), but this difference is less than the cost of the separate disposal of the intermediate-level liquid waste.

  19. Recyclage de déchets industriels, phosphogypse et cendres volantes, dans des matériaux de construction Recycling of industrial wastes, phosphogypsum and fly ash, in building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L’industrie des céramiques traditionnelles, en particulier celle des matériaux de construction, connaît actuellement un important essor au Maroc. Une demande croissante se traduit par la création ou l’expansion de plusieurs unités de production (cimenteries, briqueteries,…. Ces matériaux, produits en fort tonnage, sont susceptibles de confiner certains déchets industriels dans un souci de respect environnemental. Ce confinement ne doit avoir de retombées négatives ni sur la performance du matériau, ni sur la santé. Notre objectif est le recyclage de ces déchets (produits à plusieurs millions de tonnes annuellement qui sont actuellement soit rejetés en mer ou stockés par leur mise en terril. L’objet de ce travail est le recyclage de deux sous produits industriels : le phosphogypse (rejet de la production de l’acide phosphorique et les cendres volantes (résidus de centrales thermiques par leur intégration dans la formulation de produits de la terre cuite. L’avantage est que la microstructure de ces matériaux présente une phase vitreuse susceptible de confiner certains métaux lourds sources de radioactivité. Plusieurs formulations ont ainsi été préparées. Les produits sont caractérisés (DRX, porosimétrie, comportement mécanique,.. en fonction de leur teneur en additifs, de la température de cuisson,… . L’ensemble des résultats est encourageant et nous permet de proposer les paramètres optimaux pour une substitution avantageuse des argiles par le phosphogypse et les cendres volantes pour l’élaboration de briques de terre cuite. The ceramics industry in particular traditional building materials, is undergoing a major expansion in Morocco. An increasing demand results in the creation or expansion of several production units (cement, brick … throughout the country. These materials, produced in large tonnages, are likely to contain some industrial waste capable of causing environmental problems. This

  20. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    Not all the nuclear waste destined for Yucca Mountain is in the form of spent fuel. Some of it will be radioactive waste generated from the production of nuclear weapons. This so-called defense waste exists mainly as corrosive liquids and sludge in underground tanks. An essential task of the U.S. high-level radioactive waste program is to process these defense wastes into a solid material--called a waste form. An ideal waste form would be extremely durable and unreactive with other repository materials. It would be simple to fabricate remotely so that it could be safely transported to a repository for permanent storage. What's more, the material should be able to tolerate exposure to intense radiation without degradation. And to minimize waste volume, the material must be able to contain high concentrations of radionuclides. The material most likely to be used for immobilization of radioactive waste is glass. Glasses are produced by rapid cooling of high-temperature liquids such that the liquid-like non-periodic structure is preserved at lower temperatures. This rapid cooling does not allow enough time for thermodynamically stable crystalline phases (mineral species) to form. In spite of their thermodynamic instability, glasses can persist for millions of years. An alternate to glass is a ceramic waste form--an assemblage of mineral-like crystalline solids that incorporate radionuclides into their structures. The crystalline phases are thermodynamically stable at the temperature of their synthesis; ceramics therefore tend to be more durable than glasses. Ceramic waste forms are fabricated at temperatures below their melting points and so avoid the danger of handling molten radioactive liquid--a danger that exists with incorporation of waste in glasses. The waste form provides a repository's first line of defense against release of radionuclides. It, along with the canister, is the barrier in the repository over which we have the most control. When a waste

  1. The NIST Green Building Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, J.E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    For over 2 decades, NIST has been involved in energy conservation programs. NIST`s current programs broadly span the areas from waste minimization to air, soil, water, indoor air quality, ozone depletion, and global warming. The latest endeavor NIST is undertaking is the {open_quotes}Green Building Program{close_quotes} in which NIST is at the forefront of designing buildings using environmentally safe materials. NIST`s program has two components. The laboratory-based activities involve NIST staff working directly with manufacturers and designers to develop technologies conducive to energy efficiency. The second component, demonstration buildings, includes environmentally safe buildings which are monuments to green technologies. These buildings not only demonstrate cost effectiveness and evaluate green technologies, they also identify new technologies needed to develop an effective green building.

  2. A design methodology to reduce waste in the construction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AndrewN.BALDWIN; SimonA.AUSTIN; AndrewKEYS

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual tool to enable construction professional to identify where waste is generated during the construction of buildings and address how it can be reduced. It allows an improvement in the waste management practices on site by forecasting future waste types and volumes. It will reduce waste volumes on site through identification of wasteful design practices. The tool contributes to all stages of design and construction. At the Concept Stage of Design the proposed methodology provides a framework for reducing waste through better informed decisions. At the Detailed Design Stage it gives a methodology to address the areas of concern and provide focused information to aid the reduction of waste through informed design decisions. During construction it provides a tool to predict waste types arising on site thus allowing a system of proaclive waste management that will aid skip segregation strategies leading to improved waste recycling and waste reuse.

  3. Producing energy from cardboard factory waste, Finding sustainable solutions for handling non-recyclable waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Eska Graphic Board is a cardboard factory which requires large amounts of energy in the form of heat for the production of graphical cardboard. Currently, Eska has on-site gas powered boilers to produce heat and a combined-heat-and-power (CHP) system to p

  4. Producing energy from cardboard factory waste, Finding sustainable solutions for handling non-recyclable waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Eska Graphic Board is a cardboard factory which requires large amounts of energy in the form of heat for the production of graphical cardboard. Currently, Eska has on-site gas powered boilers to produce heat and a combined-heat-and-power (CHP) system to p

  5. Research on Event Handling Models of Java

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yue; WU Jing; ZHOU Ming-tian

    2004-01-01

    A new event-handling paradigm and its application model are proposed. The working mechanism and principle of event listener model is given in detail. Finally, the launching event mechanisms,the choosing event handling models and the dispatching mechanism are illustrated.

  6. 9 CFR 3.19 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.19 Section 3.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs...

  7. 9 CFR 3.41 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.41 Section 3.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  8. 9 CFR 3.92 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.92 Section 3.92 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  9. 9 CFR 3.66 - Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling. 3.66 Section 3.66 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  10. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  11. 38 CFR 1.660 - Expeditious handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expeditious handling. 1.660 Section 1.660 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Inventions by Employees of Department of Veterans Affairs § 1.660 Expeditious handling. No patent...

  12. 30 CFR 715.16 - Topsoil handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Topsoil handling. 715.16 Section 715.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.16 Topsoil handling. To prevent topsoil from being...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.11 - Handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.11 Handle. Handle means to pack, process, transport, purchase, or in any other way to place or cause Hass...

  14. Information Handling, Organizational Structure, and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1989-01-01

    Uses examples from military strategic communications to demonstrate that organizational structures and the distribution of power within organizational structures adapt to changes in information handling capability. It is concluded that delegation and decentralization can be viewed as indicative of inadequate information handling and that improved…

  15. Storage and Handling of Commercially Packaged Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Villalba, Abigail; Boyer, Renee Raiden; Bazemore, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    Proper selection of foods at the grocery store and appropriate storage and handling practices at home are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of commercially processed foods and perishable foods. This brochure offers some guidelines to follow when buying, handling, and storing packaged foods.

  16. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...1 1.2 Objective and scope

  17. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.F.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Ronden, D.M.S.; Klinkhamer, J.F.F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C.I.

    2011-01-01

    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  18. 7 CFR 765.151 - Handling payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling payments. 765.151 Section 765.151 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Borrower Payments § 765.151 Handling payments. (a) Borrower...

  19. Reduction in waste load from a meat processing plant: Beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-10-31

    ;Contents: Introduction (Randolph Packing Company, Meat Plant Wastewaters, Slaughterhouses, Packing Houses, Sources of Wastewater, Secondary Manufacturing Processes, An Example of Water Conservation and Waste Control, Water Conservation Program); Plant Review and Survey (Survey for Product Losses and Wastes, Water Use and Waste Load, Wastewater Discharge Limitations and Costs); Waste Centers, Changes, Costs and Results (In-Plant Control Measures, Water Conservation, Recovery Products, By-Products and Reducing Waste Load, Blood Conservation, Paunch Handling and Processing, Summary of Process Changes, Pretreatment, Advantages and Disadvantages of Pretreatment, Pretreatment Systems).

  20. Reducing Mouse Anxiety during Handling: Effect of Experience with Handling Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Gouveia; Hurst, Jane L.

    2013-01-01

    Handling stress is a well-recognised source of variation in animal studies that can also compromise the welfare of research animals. To reduce background variation and maximise welfare, methods that minimise handling stress should be developed and used wherever possible. Recent evidence has shown that handling mice by a familiar tunnel that is present in their home cage can minimise anxiety compared with standard tail handling. As yet, it is unclear whether a tunnel is required in each home c...