WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste gases originating

  1. Dry additives-reduction catalysts for flue waste gases originating from the combustion of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    Hard coal is the basic energy generating raw material in Poland. In 1990, 60% of electricity and thermal energy was totally obtained from it. It means that 100 million tons of coal were burned. The second position is held by lignite - generating 38% of electricity and heat (67.3 million tons). It is to be underlined that coal combustion is particularly noxious to the environment. The coal composition appreciably influences the volume of pollution emitted in the air. The contents of incombustible mineral parts - ashes - oscillates from 2 to 30%; only 0.02 comes from plants that had once originated coal and cannot be separated in any way. All the rest, viz. the so-called external mineral substance enters the fuel while being won. The most indesirable hard coal ingredient is sulfur whose level depends on coal sorts and its origin. The worse the fuel quality, the more sulfur it contains. In the utilization process of this fuel, its combustible part is burnt: therefore, sulfur dioxide is produced. At the present coal consumption, the SO{sub 2} emission reaches the level of 3.2 million per year. The intensifies the pressure on working out new coal utilization technologies, improving old and developing of pollution limiting methods. Research is also directed towards such an adaptation of technologies in order that individual users may also make use thereof (household furnaces) as their share in the pollution emission is considerable.

  2. Biological production of products from waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  3. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  4. GREENHOUSE GASES REDUCTION THROUGH WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anić Vučinić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate change policy is one of the key factors in the achievement of sustainable development in the Republic of Croatia. Control and mitigation of green house gases is correlated with all economy activities. Waste management is one of the main tasks of environmental protection in Croatia. The Waste Management Strategy of the Republic of Croatia and the Waste Management Plan in the Republic of Croatia define the concept of waste management hierarchy and direct and indirect measures as criteria for sustainable waste management establishment. The main constituent of this system is avoiding and minimizing waste, as well as increasing the recycling and recovery level of waste and land fill gas, which also represent green house gases mitigation measures. The Waste Management Plan consists of several direct and indirect measures for green house gases emission reduction and their implementation also affects the green house gases emissions. The contribution of the methane emission from land fills amounts to about 2% of the total green house gases emissions in Croatia. The climate change control and mitigation measures as an integral part of waste management sector strategies represent the measures of achieving the national objectives to wards green house gases emission reduction which Croatia has accepted in the frame work of the Kyoto Protocol.

  5. Purification of burned gases of domestic wastes; Moderna purificacion de gases quemados de las basuras domesticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, J.; Buttman, P.; Johansson, T.

    1997-09-01

    The author presents the technology to reduce the emission from the burned gases purification of domestic wastes combustion. The technology was demonstrated in Hobec, Denmark, and developed in Germany. (Author)

  6. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  7. Contamination of the operating room by waste anesthetic gases

    OpenAIRE

    新, 太喜治; 清水, 信義; 河上, 靖登; 冨田,校朗; 光岡,利人; 塚原, 恒子; 折田,薫三

    1980-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to evaluate the possible relationship between abnormal pregnancy and exposure to waste anesthetic gases. The results indicate that during the years 1976-1979, 36 per cent of pregnant operating room nurses suffered from threatend abortion, compared with 10 per cent in the control group. Our measurement of waste anesthetic gases showed that trace concentrations of 100ppm of nitrous oxide and 2.0 ppm of halothane were present in the operating room atomosphere. The contami...

  8. Origin of noble gases in the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    Current models of the origin of noble gases in the terrestrial planets are reviewed. Primary solar system volatile sources and processes are examined along with the current data base on noble gases and its applications to evolutionary processing. Models of atmospheric evolution by hydrodynamic escape are addressed.

  9. Simultaneous treatment of SO2 containing stack gases and waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradek, J. C.; Collins, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A process for simultaneously removing sulfur dioxide from stack gases and the like and purifying waste water such as derived from domestic sewage is described. A portion of the gas stream and a portion of the waste water, the latter containing dissolved iron and having an acidic pH, are contacted in a closed loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone to effect absorption of the sulfur dioxide into the waste water. A second portion of the gas stream and a second portion of the waste water are controlled in an open loop gas-liquid scrubbing zone. The second portion of the waste water contains a lesser amount of iron than the first portion of the waste water. Contacting in the openloop scrubbing zone is sufficient to acidify the waste water which is then treated to remove solids originally present.

  10. Management of exposure to waste anesthetic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Francis Duval

    2010-04-01

    Anesthetic agents were developed in the 1700s, and nitrous oxide was first used in 1884. Research on the effects of waste anesthetic gas exposure started appearing in the literature in 1967. Short-term exposure causes lethargy and fatigue, and long-term exposure may be linked to spontaneous abortion, congenital abnormalities, infertility, premature births, cancer, and renal and hepatic disease. Today, perioperative staff members are exposed to trace amounts of waste anesthetic gas, and although this exposure cannot be eliminated, it can be controlled. Health care facilities are required to develop, implement, measure, and control practices to reduce anesthetic gas exposure to the lowest practical level. Exposure levels must be measured every six months and maintained at less than 25 parts per million for nitrous oxide and 2 parts per million for halogenated agents to be compliant with Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG......) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection...

  12. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  13. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  14. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  15. Import of combustible waste and its impact on emissions of climate gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Sundberg, Johan (Profu, Moelndal (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Import of combustible waste for waste incineration in Sweden has increased over the last decade and prognosis show that importation will increase even further in the future. The reason for the projected increase is that many new incineration facilities are being built and several of those plan to use a portion of imported combustible waste as fuel. From an environmental perspective import of waste is controversial and some argue that the import short be restricted. Because of this controversial aspect it is essential to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the environmental impacts of the importation of combustible waste to Swedish incineration facilities. This project is a study of the impact of the import of combustible waste on climate emissions. This is a system analysis study which included both direct as well as indirect emissions from the activity of importation of combustible waste. Direct emissions occur from the incineration of waste while indirect emissions occur in systems that interact with the incineration facility. These systems are: transport of waste, alternative waste treatment, alternative electricity production and alternative heat production in the district heating system which the incineration facility is connected with. From the perspective of a system analysis the import of combustible waste to incineration leads to the following consequences regarding emissions of climate gases: - The imported waste is used as fuel in the incineration facility which generates heat and electricity. During the combustion process climate gases are being emitted - As the combustible waste is being imported it has to be transported from the country of origin to the incineration facility. The vehicle used for the transport is emitting climate gases - By importing combustible waste an alternative treatment method in the country of origin is avoided by that country. Emissions from the alternative treatment method are thereby avoided - Import of combustible waste

  16. Emission of Gases during Composting of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Kučić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biochemical process converting organic components into stable compost with release of heat, water, CO2 and NH3. The objective of this work was to determine the amount of CO2 and NH3 in the exhaust gases during composting of tobacco waste (TW and mixture of tobacco and grape waste (TGW. The cumulative evolved CO2 during 21 days of composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 94.01 g kg−1 and 208.18 g kg−1, respectively, and cumulative evolved NH3 during composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 504.81 mg kg−1 and 122.45 mg kg−1, respectively.

  17. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO(2)-equivalent (kg CO(2)-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, and travel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

  18. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO2) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al2O3 and Ni-Co/Al2O3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmolsyngasg-1waste. The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.G.; Prout, W.E.; Buckner, J.T.; Buckner, M.R.

    1980-12-01

    Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.

  20. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste... that affected facility any gases that contain municipal waste combustor organics, expressed as total... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits for municipal waste...

  1. Greenhouse gases emission from municipal waste management: The role of separate collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S

    2009-07-01

    The municipal solid waste management significantly contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (e.g. CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) and therefore the management process from collection to treatment and disposal has to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. In this paper, starting from the average composition of undifferentiated municipal solid waste in Italy, the effect of separate collection on greenhouse gases emissions from municipal waste management has been assessed. Different combinations of separate collection scenarios and disposal options (i.e. landfilling and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery from waste both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed. The results outline how a separate collection approach can have a significant effect on the emission of greenhouse gases and how wise municipal solid waste management, implying the adoption of Best Available Technologies (i.e. biogas recovery and exploitation system in landfills and energy recovery system in Waste to Energy plants), can not only significantly reduce greenhouse gases emissions but, in certain cases, can also make the overall process a carbon sink. Moreover it has been shown that separate collection of plastic is a major issue when dealing with global warming relevant emissions from municipal solid waste management.

  2. Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

  3. Heat exchangers and recuperators for high temperature waste gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, H.

    General considerations on high temperature waste heat recovery are presented. Internal heat recovery through combustion air preheating and external heat recovery are addressed. Heat transfer and pressure drop in heat exchanger design are discussed.

  4. Temporal variation of decomposition gases from baled municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Ismail; Durmusoglu, Ertan

    2012-05-01

    In this study, after nine cylindrical bales containing a mix of different waste materials were constructed, they were stored in the open air and temporal variations of CO(2), CH(4), O(2), and N(2) were monitored over 10 months. In each bale, different waste fractions were considered in order to represent different moisture contents. The results showed that CO(2) increased within very few days to approximately 80% and stabilized later in the range of between 10% and 35% in a month. The O(2) levels dropped from approximately 15% to significantly less than 1%. There was no significant anaerobic decomposition since CH(4) did not exceed 5% during the whole test period. N(2) exhibited an opposite pattern with CO(2). In addition, relationships between waste species in the bales and gas formations were determined by a bivariate correlation analysis. An empirical prediction model for the maximum CO(2) production was also developed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NO x ) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 88 ± 36 g CH 4 ton -1 , and 69 ± 16 g N 2 O ton -1 , while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH 4 ton -1 and 259.76 g N 2 O ton -1 , and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO 2 ton -1 , 43.44 g CH 4 ton -1 and 401.21 g N 2 O ton -1 , respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for A facility and 11,082 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 for A facility and 32,916 ton CO 2- eq yr -1 , indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 , while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO 2 -eq yr -1 . The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and

  6. Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management--a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2010-11-01

    This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Removal of ethylene oxide from waste gases by absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide (EtO is an organic compound, which is used as starting material in the production of polymers and as sterilizing agent for thermolabile materials. Although ethylene oxide is not common as an organic pollutant, its removal from numerous emission sources (e.g. ethylene oxide production plants or food and pharmaceutical sterilizing units is of the crucial importance because of its mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effect on human health. The objective of this paper is the experimental investigation of ethylene oxide (EtO absorption in diluted aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in order to evaluate the applicability of this procedure as well as to obtain project parameters for industrial plant realization. It was found that absorption is suitable as the fist step in the purification treatment of high EtO concentrations in the emission gases. According to the literature data, the basic parameter that defines the scrubber efficiency is the contact time, i.e. the ratio of packing height in scrubber and velocity of gas mixture. To investigate the characteristics of wet treatment in a broad range of contact time, part of experimental studies were conducted in the system with two and with three scrubbers in series. The obtained experimental results show that the high degree of EtO removal can be achieved (>98% when the contact time is sufficiently long (about 25 s. The process is effective until the concentration of formed glycol in the solution reaches value of about 20%. The process is safe and there is no danger of ignition and explosion of air and EtO mixture, although at the entrance to the scrubber EtO concentrations are significantly above the lower explosive limit.

  8. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals... stringent. (c) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor organics, expressed as total mass dioxin... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission guidelines for municipal waste...

  9. 40 CFR 60.52b - Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 60.52b Standards for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a... oxygen (dry basis), whichever is less stringent. (c) The limits for municipal waste combustor organics... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for municipal waste combustor...

  10. Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  11. European trends in greenhouse gases emissions from integrated solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Paolo S; Gori, Manuela; Lubello, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has 28 member states, each with very different characteristics (e.g. surface, population density, per capita gross domestic product, per capita municipal solid waste (MSW) production, MSW composition, MSW management options). In this paper several integrated waste management scenarios representative of the European situation have been generated and analysed in order to evaluate possible trends in the net emission of greenhouse gases and in the required landfill volume. The results demonstrate that an integrated system with a high level of separate collection, efficient energy recovery in waste-to-energy plants and very limited landfill disposal is the most effective according to the indices adopted. Moreover, it is evident that a fully integrated system can make MSW management a carbon sink with a potentiality of up to approximately 40 Mt CO2eq year(-1).

  12. Real-time measurement and control of waste anesthetic gases during veterinary surgeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, J.E.; Stobbe, T.J. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Veterinary clinics are typically small businesses without access to sophisticated occupational safety and health programs that may exist for larger firms or hospitals. Exposures to waste anesthetic gases have been linked to a myriad of adverse health-related conditions. Excessive exposures to anesthetic agents are possible because many of the clinics use portable gas delivery carts that are not designed to capture waste gases. While scavenging systems are available to remove waste anesthetic gases, the cost may be prohibitive for smaller clinics and the effectiveness of these systems has not been fully established in veterinary clinics. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends limiting exposures to nitrous oxide (N2O) to a time-weighted average (TWA) concentration of 25 ppm and halogenated agents to 2 ppm. The NIOSH TWA is based on the weight of the agent collected from a 45-L air sample by charcoal adsorption over a sampling period not to exceed 1 hr. The NIOSH criteria state that, in most situations, control of N2O to the TWA as defined will result in levels of approximately 0.5 ppm of the halogenated agent. At present, no Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure level (PEL) exists for exposure to anesthetic agents; nor do specific recommendations exist for veterinary scavenging systems. Waste anesthetic gas exposures were determined using a modified MIRAN 1A at five veterinary clinics operating within the Morgantown, West Virginia, vicinity. For unscavenged systems of methoxyflurane and halothane, 1-hr time-weighted average exposures ranged from 0.5 to 45.5 ppm and 0.2 to 105.4 ppm, respectively.

  13. Geochemistry and origins of natural gases in the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins, offshore South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; Xiao, X.; Li, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry

    2003-07-01

    Four gas fields and a number of gas-bearing structures have been discovered in the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins offshore South China Sea. Chemical and isotopic data indicate the presence of at least three genetic groups of gases in these basins: biogenic gas, thermogenic gas, and gases with mixed origin. Thermogenic gases produced from the Yacheng field are characterized by relatively high contents of benzene and toluene, relatively low {delta}{sup 13}C values of toluene, and high abundance of bicadinanes and oleanane in the associated condensates, showing good correlation with the coal-bearing sequence of the Yacheng Formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin. Analyses on potential source rock samples indicate excellent gas source potential for both the coal-bearing sequence in the Yacheng Formation and the Miocene neritic shales containing type III-II2 kerogens. As the result of recent rapid subsidence and sedimentation, high temperature and overpressure systems are well developed in the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins. Results of 1-D modeling indicate that the coal-bearing Yacheng Formation in the Yacheng Sag reached peak gas generation during mid Miocene-Pliocene time, after the deposition of upper Oligocene to lower Miocene reservoir rocks. The lower-mid Miocene marine shales reached their peak gas generation stage during the Pliocene-Quaternary in the central Yinggehai basin, supplying abundant gases to charge the Pliocene reservoirs. Focused-episodic gas migration significantly increased the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiencies of source rocks providing favorable conditions for the accumulation of large amounts of gases in the diapiric structures in a very short geological time. The gas-source relationship for the Yacheng field suggests dominantly short-distance gas migration and thus strong source facies controls on the geographic distribution of gas fields within the Qiongdongnan Basin.

  14. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  15. System catalytic neutralization control of combustion engines waste gases in mining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, G. I.; Solnitsev, R. I.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the problems solution of the atmospheric air pollution with the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engines, used in mining technologies. Such engines are used in excavators, bulldozers, dump trucks, diesel locomotives in loading and unloading processes and during transportation of minerals. NOx, CO, CH emissions as the waste gases occur during engine operation, the concentration of which must be reduced to the standard limits. The various methods and means are used for the problem solution, one of which is neutralization based on platinum catalysts. A mathematical model of a controlled catalytic neutralization system is proposed. The simulation results confirm the increase in efficiency at start-up and low engine load and the increase in the catalyst lifetime.

  16. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate......Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative...

  17. Geochemistry and origins of natural gases in the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins, offshore South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baojia Huang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangdong (China); CNOOC Nanhai West Research Institute, Guangdong (China); Xianming Xiao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Guangdong (China); Xuxuan Li [CNOOC Nanhai West Research Institute, Guangdong (China)

    2003-07-01

    Four gas fields and a number of gas-bearing structures have been discovered in the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins offshore South China Sea. Chemical and isotopic data indicate the presence of at least three genetic groups of gases in these basins: biogenic gas, thermogenic gas, and gases with mixed origin. Thermogenic gases produced from the Yacheng field are characterized by relatively high contents of benzene and toluene, relatively low {delta}{sup 13}C values of toluene, and high abundance of bicadinanes and oleanane in the associated condensates, showing good correlation with the coal-bearing sequence of the Yacheng Formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin. In contrast, the gases from the DF1-1 and LD gas fields contain high amounts of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, low to moderate amounts of benzene and toluene, with relatively high {delta}{sup 13}C values of toluene. These characteristics correlate well with the Miocene neritic shales in the Yinggehai Basin. Analyses on potential source rock samples indicate excellent gas source potential for both the coal-bearing sequence in the Yacheng Formation and the Miocene neritic shales containing type III{approx}II2 kerogens. As the result of recent rapid subsidence and sedimentation, high temperature and overpressure systems are well developed in the Yinggehai and Qiongdongnan basins. The rapid heating resulted in advanced maturation of organic matter deposited in normally pressured and overpressured strata, whereas the strongly overpressured systems led to retarded organic matter maturation, postponing the time when the source rocks reached peak gas generation. Results of 1-D modeling indicate that the coal-bearing Yacheng Formation in the Yacheng Formation in the Yacheng Sag reached peak gas generation during mid Miocene-Pliocene time, after the deposition of upper Oligocene to lower Miocene reservoir rocks. The lower-mid Miocene marine shales reached their peak gas generation stage during the Pliocene-Quaternary in the

  18. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management--an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby exposing the lay reader to a brief overview of the methods for calculating the effects of GHGs on climate change. An objective of this paper is to increase awareness that the GWP of GHGs has been re-adjusted as the concentration and relative proportion of these GHGs has changed with time (e.g., the GWP of methane has changed from 21 to 25 CO(2)-eq). Improved understanding of the indirect effects of GHGs has also led to a modification in the methodology for calculating GWP. Following a presentation of theory behind GHG, RF and GWP concepts, the paper briefly describes the most important GHG sources and sinks in the context of the waste management industry. The paper serves as a primer for more detailed research publications presented in this special issue of Waste Management & Research providing a technology-based assessment of quantitative GHG emissions from different waste management technologies.

  19. Shock-implanted noble gases - An experimental study with implications for the origin of Martian gases in shergottite meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Horz, Friedrich; Johnson, Pratt H.

    1986-01-01

    The shock-implantation of gases is studied by artificially shocking whole rock and power samples of terrestrial basalt to pressures of 2-40 GPa. Ar, Kr, Xe, and Ne were implanted into the silicate. It is observed that the amount of implanted gas is linearly proportional to its partial pressure over a pressure range of 0.0001 to 0.1 atmosphere. The fractionation effect in the implanted gas and the gas diffusion properties are examined. The amounts of gas that would have been implanted with 100 percent efficiency are calculated from the measured porosities of the power samples and are compared to observed abundances. It is determined that the implantation efficiencies are approximately 0.5 percent at 2 GPa, 7 percent at 5 GPa, and greater than 50 percent at both 20 and 35 GPa. The experimental data correlate with the shock implantation of Martian gases without mass fractionation into the shock-melted phase of meteorite EETA 79001.

  20. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  1. Noble gases in presolar diamonds I: Three distinct components and their implications for diamond origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Gary R.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1994-01-01

    High-purity separates of presolar diamond were prepared from 14 primitive chondrites from 7 compositional groups. Their noble gases were measured using stepped pyrolysis. Three distinct noble gas components are present in diamonds, HL, P3, and P6, each of which is found to consist of five noble gases. P3, released between 200 C and 900 C, has a 'planetary' elemental abundance pattern and roughly 'normal' isotopic ratios. HL, consisting of isotopically anomalous Xe-HL and Kr-H, Ar with high Ar-38/Ar-36, and most of the gas making up Ne-A2 and He-A, is released between 1100 C and 1600 C. HL has 'planetary' elemental ratios, except that it has much more He and Ne than other known 'planetary' components. HL gases are carried in the bulk diamonds, not in some trace phase. P6 has a slightly higher median release temperature than HL and is not cleanly separated from HL by stepped pyrolysis. Our data suggest that P6 has roughly 'normal' isotopic compositions and 'planetary' elemental ratios. Both P3 and P6 seem to be isotopically distinct from P1, the dominant 'planetary' noble-gas component in primitive chondrites. Release characteristics suggest that HL and P6 are sited in different carriers within the diamond fractions, while P3 may be sited near the surfaces of the diamonds. We find no evidence of separability of Xe-H and Xe-L or other isotopic variations in the HL component. However, because approximately 10(exp 10) diamonds are required to measure a Xe composition, a lack of isotopic variability does not constrain diamonds to come from a single source. In fact, the high abundance of diamonds in primitive chondrites and the presence of at least three distinct noble-gas components strongly suggest that diamonds originated in many sources. Relative abundances of noble-gas components in diamonds correlate with degree of thermal processing, indicating that all meteorites sampled essentially the same mixture of diamonds. That mixture was probably inherited from the Sun

  2. Characteristics and origin of natural gases in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Y.R.; Zhao, C.Y.; Wang, Y.P.; Zhao, W.Z.; Peng, P.A.; Shuai, Y. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guangdong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Significant gas condensate as well as some black oils have been discovered in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China. Dry gases with high {delta}{sup 13}C values occur in the Kelasu structural belt, wet, isotopically light gases in the Yiqikelik belt, whereas condensates are distributed mainly in the Front Uplift area. Kinetic modeling results show that the variation of methane and ethane isotopes with increasing vitrinite reflectance is independent of heating rates for a given source rock. Two maturity trends have been observed on a C2/C1-{delta}{sup 13}C plot, one for thermogenic gases associated with coal, another for oil-associated gases with minor contribution from biogenic gas. It is most likely that the gases in the Kelasu belt and Front Uplift area were derived from the Jurassic coal measures and Triassic lacustrine shales, respectively, with those in the Yiqikelik belt being the mixtures of gases from the two sources.

  3. What CO2 well gases tell us about the origin of noble gases in the mantle and their relationship to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, Chris J; Holland, Greg

    2008-11-28

    Study of commercially produced volcanic CO2 gas associated with the Colorado Plateau, USA, has revealed substantial new information about the noble gas isotopic composition and elemental abundance pattern of the mantle. Combined with published data from mid-ocean ridge basalts, it is now clear that the convecting mantle has a maximum (20)Ne/(22)Ne isotopic composition, indistinguishable from that attributed to solar wind-implanted (SWI) neon in meteorites. This is distinct from the higher (20)Ne/(22)Ne isotopic value expected for solar nebula gases. The non-radiogenic xenon isotopic composition of the well gases shows that 20 per cent of the mantle Xe is 'solar-like' in origin, but cannot resolve the small isotopic difference between the trapped meteorite 'Q'-component and solar Xe. The mantle primordial (20)Ne/(132)Xe is approximately 1400 and is comparable with the upper end of that observed in meteorites. Previous work using the terrestrial (129)I - (129)Xe mass balance demands that almost 99 per cent of the Xe (and therefore other noble gases) has been lost from the accreting solids and that Pu-I closure age models have shown this to have occurred in the first ca 100Ma of the Earth's history. The highest concentrations of Q-Xe and solar wind-implanted (SWI)-Ne measured in meteorites allow for this loss and these high-abundance samples have a Ne/Xe ratio range compatible with the 'recycled-air-corrected' terrestrial mantle. These observations do not support models in which the terrestrial mantle acquired its volatiles from the primary capture of solar nebula gases and, in turn, strongly suggest that the primary terrestrial atmosphere, before isotopic fractionation, is most probably derived from degassed trapped volatiles in accreting material.By contrast, the non-radiogenic argon, krypton and 80 per cent of the xenon in the convecting mantle have the same isotopic composition and elemental abundance pattern as that found in seawater with a small sedimentary Kr

  4. The Origin and Time Dependence of the Amount and Composition of Non-Constituent Gases Present in Crystal Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, Witold

    1998-01-01

    Presence of different, non-constituent gases may be a critical factor in crystal growth systems. In Physical Vapor Transport processes the cras(es) can be used intentionally (to prevent excessively high, unstable growth conditions), or can evolve unintentionally during the course of the process (which may lead to undesired reduction in the -rowth rate). In melt growth, particularly under low gravity conditions (reduced hydrostatic pressure) the gas present in the system may contribute to formation of voids in the growing crystals and even to a separation of the crystal and the liquid phase [1]. On the other hand, some amount of gas may facilitate 'contactless' crystal growth particularly under reduced gravity conditions [2 - 6]. Different non-constituent gases may be present in growth ampoules, and their amount and composition may change during the crystallization process. Some gases can appear even in empty ampoules sealed originally under high vacuum: they may diffuse in from the outside, and/or desorb from the ampoule walls. Residual gases can also be generated by the source materials: even very high purity commercial elements and compounds may contain trace amounts of impurities, particularly oxides. The oxides may have low volatilities themselves but their reaction with other species, particularly carbon and hydrogen, may produce volatile compounds like water or carbon oxides. The non-constituent gases, either added initially to the system or evolved during the material processing, may diffuse out of the ampoule during the course of the experiment. Gases present outside (e.g. as a protective atmosphere or thermal conductor) may diffuse into the ampoule. In either case the growth conditions and the quality of the crystals may be affected. The problem is of a particular importance in sealed systems where the amount of the gases cannot be directly controlled. Therefore a reasonable knowledge and understanding of the origin, composition, magnitude, and change with

  5. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

  7. Characteristics and origin of natural gases in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Rong Zou; Yunpeng Wang; Ping' an Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry; Changyi Zhao; Wenzhi Zhao [Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing (China); Yanhua Shuai [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Geochemistry; Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing (China)

    2006-03-15

    Significant gas condensate as well as some black oils have been discovered in the Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin, NW China. Dry gases with high {delta}{sup 13}C values occur in the Kelasu structural belt, wet, isotopically light gases in the Yiqikelik belt, whereas condensates are distributed mainly in the Front Uplift area. Kinetic modeling results show that the variation of methane and ethane isotopes with increasing vitrinite reflectance is independent of heating rates for a given source rock. Two maturity trends have been observed on a C{sub 2}/C{sub 1}-{delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} plot, one for thermogenic gases associated with coal, another for oil-associated gases with minor contribution from biogenic gas. It is most likely that the gases in the Kelasu belt and Front Uplift area were derived from the Jurassic coal measures and Triassic lacustrine shales, respectively, with those in the Yiqikelik belt being the mixtures of gases from the two sources. Both Jurassic coals and Triassic lacustrine shales appear to have contributed to the gases in the Kela 2 (KL2) and Dina 2 (DN2), the two largest gas fields in the Tarim Basin. (author)

  8. Residual Gases in Crystal Growth Systems: Their Origin, Magnitude, and Dependence on the Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Residual gases present in closed ampoules may affect different crystal growth processes. Their presence may affect techniques requiring low pressures and affect the crystal quality in different ways. For that reason a good understanding and control of formation of residual gases may be important for an optimum design and meaningful interpretation of crystal growth experiments. Our extensive experimental and theoretical study includes degassing of silica glass and generation of gases from various source materials. Different materials processing conditions, like outgassing under vacuum, annealing in hydrogen, resublimation, different material preparation procedures, multiple annealings, different processing times, and others were applied and their effect on the amount and composition of gas were analyzed. The experimental results were interpreted based on theoretical calculations on diffusion in silica glass and source materials and thermochemistry of the system. Procedures for a reduction of the amount of gas are also discussed.

  9. Composition and origin of coalbed gases in the Upper Silesian and Lublin basins, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotarba, M.J. [Stanislaw Staszic University of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    Coalbed gases in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) are highly variable in molecular and stable isotope composition. Various geochemical indices and stable isotope ratios for coalbed gases from USCB and the Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) were determined. Methane, higher gaseous hydrocarbons (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5}) and carbon dioxide occurring in the coalbed gases in both the USCB and the LCB were generated during the bituminous stage of the coalification process and, probably, during microbial reduction of carbon dioxide. However, depth-related isotopic fractionation which has resulted from physical (e.g. diffusion and adsorption/desorption) processes during gas migration cannot be neglected. In both basins the coalification process lasted no longer than several Ma, and was completed at the end of the Variscan orogeny (at the turn of Carboniferous and Permian).

  10. Noble gases as tracers of the origin and evolution of the Martian atmosphere and the degassing history of the planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    Noble gas analysis of Martian samples can provide answers to a number of crucial questions. Some of the most obvious benefits will be in Martian chronology, using techniques that have been applied to lunar samples. However, these are by no means the only relevant noble gas studies possible. Since Mars has a substantial atmosphere, noble gases can be used to study the origin and evolution of that atmosphere, including the degassing history of the planet. This type of study can provide constraints on: (1) the total noble gas inventory of the planet, (2) the number of noble gas reservoirs existing, and (3) the exchange of gases between these reservoirs. How to achieve these goals are examined.

  11. Survey Observation of S-bearing Species toward Neptune's Atmosphere to Constrain the Origin of Abundant Volatile Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T.; Mizuno, A.; Nagahama, T.; Nakajima, T.

    2013-09-01

    We present our recent sub-mm waveband observation result of CS, CO and HCN gases on Neptune's atmosphere. Obtained abundance of both CO and HCN were comparable to previous observations. In turn, CS gas, which was produced largely after the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter in 1994 was not detected. Obtained [CS]/[CO] value was at least 300 times more lower than the case of SL9 event while the calculated lifetime of CS gas by thermo-chemical simulation is quite longer than other S-bearing species. The interpretation of the absence of CS bring the new mystery of the origin of trace gases on Neptune's atmosphere.

  12. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Greenhouse Gases Life Cycle Assessment (GHGLCA) as a decision support tool for municipal solid waste management in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudkhani, Rouhallah; Valizadeh, Behzad; Khastoo, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    One of the most problems in developing countries is the integrated waste management and the effects on Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emission, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used in this paper as a decision supporting tool in planning Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) managements. In this paper the EPA's Waste Reduction Model (WARM) that provide GHG emission factors for waste stream components that are based on life Cycle Inventory (LCI) framework were used and The MSW management methods comprised in seven scenarios. The amount of GHG which was generated from Iran's waste sector estimated about 17836079 Metric Tons of Carbon dioxide Equivalents (MT CO2e) in this study. The lowest amount of GHG was generated by LFG capture system with energy recovery (557635 MT CO2e), while Incineration of materials being sent to landfill (1756823 MT CO2e), Landfill Gas (LFG) capture system with flaring (2929150 MT CO2e) and Improved source reduction and recycling (4780278 MT CO2e) emitted fewer GHG than the other scenarios. Lowest levels of gross energy consumption occur in source reduction with recycling and composting (-89356240 Mega British Thermal Unit, M BTU), recycling and composting (-86772060 M BTU) as well as Improved source reduction with recycling and composting (-54794888 M BTU). It appears that recycling and composting each offer significant GHG emissions and energy consumption reductions (scenarios 4, 5 and 6). Upon of the GHG emission and energy consumption results concluded that improved source reduction and recycling scenario has been the Balanced and appropriate technology for handling the solid waste streams in municipalities.

  14. Hydrocarbon gases and their origin for gas hydrates in the South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Youhai; Huang, Yongyang; Zhang, Guangxue

    2005-07-01

    Bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) and geochemical anomalies for gas hydrates have been found in the South China Sea, in particular in its northern and southern slope, such as in the Xisha Trough, the southeastern slope of Dongsha Islands, offshore Taiwan, Bijianan Basin, Nansha Trough and etc. A large amount of surface sediments and deeper sediments have been recovered from piston cores, gravity cores, grab cores and drilling cores of ODP leg-184 in these areas. The concentrations of hydrocarbon gases and their isotopic compositions are measured from headspace and ''extraction'' gases (which released by acid treatment of the sediments). Higher hydrocarbon gas concentrations have been discovered in the BSRs developed regions, which are probably related to gas hydrate. Both microbial and thermogenic gas have been found in the possible gas hydrate occurrence areas of the South China Sea. Furthermore, it seems to be mainly microbial gas in the Nansha Trough (located in the southern slope of the South China Sea) and offshore Taiwan, whose ae{sup 13}C (PDB) values of methane range from approx. 10.26% to -5.78%, whereas there are much more thermogenic gas or mixed gas in the Xisha Trough and Dongsha Islands (located in the northern slope of the South China Sea), whose ae{sup 13}C values range from approx. 4.38% to approx. 2.40%, respectively. (Author)

  15. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and soli...

  16. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  17. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-11-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N(2)O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and solid residues generated. GHG contributions were categorized with respect to direct emissions from the combustion plant as well as indirect upstream contributions (e.g. provision of fuels and materials) and indirect downstream contributions (e.g. substitution of electricity and heat produced elsewhere). GHG accounting was done per tonne of waste received at the plant. The content of fossil carbon in the input waste, for example as plastic, was found to be critical for the overall level of the GHG emissions, but also the energy conversion efficiencies were essential. The emission factors for electricity provision (also substituted electricity) affected the indirect downstream emissions with a factor of 3-9 depending on the type of electricity generation assumed. Provision of auxiliary fuels, materials and resources corresponded to up to 40% of the direct emission from the plants (which were 347-371 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) of waste for incineration and 735-803 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) of waste for co-combustion). Indirect downstream savings were within the range of -480 to -1373 kg CO(2)eq. tonne(-1) of waste for incineration and within -181 to -2607 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1) of waste for co-combustion. N(2)O emissions and residue management did not appear to play significant roles.

  18. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS – Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jurkat

    2016-04-01

    an isotopically labeled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO, which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5−. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low 10 pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement of the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO (High Altitude LOng range research aircraft. As an example, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition of the LMS/UT and Earth System Model Validation mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. The combination of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques yields a comprehensive picture of the sulfur, chlorine and reactive nitrogen oxide budget in the UTLS. The different trace gases measured with AIMS exhibit the potential to gain a better understanding of the trace gas origin and variability at and near the tropopause.

  19. Modelling study of NOx removal in oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolińska, Ewa; Sun, Yongxia; Chmielewski, A. G.; Nichipor, H.; Bulka, S.

    2015-08-01

    Computer simulations for high concentration of NOx removal from oil-fired waste off-gases under electron beam irradiation were carried out by using the Computer code "Kinetic" and GEAR method. 293 reactions involving 64 species were used for the modelling calculations. The composition of simulated oil-fired off-gas was the same as the experimental conditions. The calculations were made for following system: (75.78% N2+11.5% CO2+8.62% H2O+4.1% O2), NOx concentration varies from 200 ppm to 1500 ppm. Calculation results qualitatively agree with the experimental results. Furthermore the influence of temperature, SO2 concentration and ammonia addition is discussed.

  20. Development of a Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation Method to Produce Feedstock Gases from Waste Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Guerrero-Medina, Karen J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high cost of space launch, the repurposing of biological and plastic wastes to reduce the need for logistical support during long distance and long duration space missions has long been recognized as a high priority. Described in this paper are the preliminary efforts to develop a wet air oxidation system in order to produce fuels from waste polymers. Preliminary results of partial oxidation in near supercritical water conditions are presented. Inherent corrosion and salt precipitation are discussed as system design issues for a thorough assessment of a second generation wet air oxidation system. This work is currently being supported by the In-Situ Resource Utilization Project.

  1. Landfilling of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recove...

  2. Unconventional views to generation of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryan Petr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the implemented measures lowering the amount of originating greenhouse gases derive particularly fromthe balances targeted into power industry, transportation or heavy industry. The article summarized date shoving that the dumpingof communal biodegradace wastes related to catering in many aspects competes in the creation of grenhouses gates related with the cartransportation or power industry.

  3. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comparison of waste anesthetic gases in operating rooms with or without an scavenging system in a Brazilian University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Leandro Gobbo; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Cavalcante, Guilherme Aparecido Silva; Souza, Kátina Meneghetti; Lucio, Lorena Mendes de Carvalho; Braz, Mariana Gobbo

    Occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases in operating room (OR) without active scavenging system has been associated with adverse health effects. Thus, this study aimed to compare the trace concentrations of the inhaled anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane in OR with and without central scavenging system. Waste concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane were measured by infrared analyzer at different locations (near the respiratory area of the assistant nurse and anesthesiologist and near the anesthesia station) and at two times (30 and 120minutes after the start of surgery) in both OR types. All isoflurane and sevoflurane concentrations in unscavenged OR were higher than the US recommended limit (2 parts per million), regardless of the location and time evaluated. In scavenged OR, the average concentrations of isoflurane were within the limit of exposure, except for the measurements near the anesthesia station, regardless of the measurement times. For sevoflurane, concentrations exceeded the limit value at all measurement locations and at both times. The exposure to both anesthetics exceeded the international limit in unscavenged OR. In scavenged OR, the concentrations of sevoflurane, and to a lesser extent those of isoflurane, exceeded the recommended limit value. Thus, the OR scavenging system analyzed in the present study decreased the anesthetic concentrations, although not to the internationally recommended values. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. One-step conversion of agro-wastes to nanoporous carbons: Role in separation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipendu; Taylor, Bryan; Alexander, Nicole; Joyce, Daniel F; Faux, Gabriela I; Lin, Yiting; Shteyn, Vladimir; Orkoulas, Gerassimos

    2018-02-06

    Highly microporous carbons have been synthesized from four types of agro-wastes of lignin, walnut shells, orange peels and apricot seeds by one-step carbonization/activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) in varying ratios. The resultant carbons demonstrated BET specific surface areas of 727-2254 m 2 /g, and total pore volumes 0.34-1.14 cm 3 /g. These are higher than the majority of agro-waste derived carbons reported in the literature. For all the carbons, CO 2 adsorption at 298 K was higher than SF 6 followed by N 2 suggesting a possible separation of CO 2 and SF 6 from N 2 . The adsorbed amounts of CO 2 at 298 K and 273 K and at pressures up to 760 Torr were 7.24 and 9.4 mmol/g, respectively which, to the best of our knowledge, are the highest CO 2 uptakes in these temperatures by any carbon material reported so far. For all the gases, selectivity, mixed adsorption isotherms and adsorption breakthrough have been simulated from experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recuperation of waste heat from flue gases containing solid particles and corrosive chemicals at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, U.

    1982-11-01

    Heat recuperation which is the heating up of combustion air by the heat of flue gases were examined. The research project included: development of the mathematical models and computer programs for complete systems of cassette recuperators; practical trials and measuring of performance data of a cassette recuperator installed at two soaking pit chambers long term test fo determination of life expectance. It is found that cassette recuperators have under comparable conditions a life time of three years and are more economical than convective recuperators. Protective layers on the heat resisting sheets, promise a rise of durability of 50 to 100%. Cassett recuperators are installed at approx. 20 soaking pit chambers in the steel industry.

  7. The origin of two-dimensional electron gases at oxide interfaces: insights from theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, N C; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P B; Artacho, Emilio

    2014-04-09

    The response of oxide thin films to polar discontinuities at interfaces and surfaces has generated enormous activity due to the variety of interesting effects that it gives rise to. A case in point is the discovery of the electron gas at the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, which has since been shown to be quasi-two-dimensional, switchable, magnetic and/or superconducting. Despite these findings, the origin of the two-dimensional electron gas is highly debated and several possible mechanisms remain. Here we review the main proposed mechanisms and attempt to model expected effects in a quantitative way with the ambition of better constraining what effects can/cannot explain the observed phenomenology. We do it in the framework of a phenomenological model constructed to provide an understanding of the electronic and/or redox screening of the chemical charge in oxide heterostructures. We also discuss the effect of intermixing, both conserving and not conserving the total stoichiometry.

  8. WASTE WOOD OF URBAN ORIGIN FOR ENERGY USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rogério Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increasing demand for energy propels new areas of research in the search for sources that are economically viable and sustainable from an environmental point of view. In this sense, the objective of this study was to characterize a batch from urban wood waste aimed at energy use. We evaluate six different types of waste: solid wood, plywood, chipboard, MDF, OSB, and veneer. The residues were collected in a recycling plant in Piracicaba - SP and were taken to the laboratory to carry out the physical, chemical and thermogravimetric analyses. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment (waste. Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey test applied for multiple comparisons of means. Overall, there were no major differences between the results of solid wood residues and waste panels. Waste analyzed showed potential for energy use. It is recommended further studies to investigate the influence of different panels resins and coatings in its thermal degradation process.

  9. Demonstration of high temperature thermoelectric waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of a combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Weidenkaff, Anke; Populoh, Sascha; Brunko, Oliver; Veziridis, Angelika; Bach, Christian; Cabalzar, Urs [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    The energy efficiency of passenger cars becomes increasingly important due to a growing awareness in terms of climate change and shortages of resources associated with rising fuel prices. In addition to the efforts towards the optimization of the engine's internal efficiency, waste heat recovery is the main objective. In this respect, thermoelectric (TE) devices seem to be suited as heat recuperation systems. Thermoelectric generators allow for direct transformation of thermal into electrical energy. In order to thoroughly investigate this type of recovery system a TE demonstrator was mounted on the muffler of a VW Touran and tested. The waste heat of the exhaust gas was converted into electricity with a conversion rate of {proportional_to}. 3.5%. The limiting factor was the low thermal stability of the commercial modules used in this pre-study to elaborate reference values. Thermoelectric modules based on sustainable and temperature-stable materials are being developed to improve the measured values. A thermoelectric test generator with perovskite-type oxide modules was constructed confirm the function and stability at elevated temperatures. Despite all the advantages of this material class, the TE performance is still to be improved. A quantitative measure of a material's TE performance is the temperature-independent Figure of Merit ZT. ZT increases with decreasing thermal and increasing electrical conductivity. An approach to thermal conductivity reduction is nanostructuring of the material. The Ultrasonic Spray Combustion (USC) technique allows to produce powders with a grain size on the nanoscale and was tested in this study. (orig.)

  10. Spatial distribution and origin of coalbed gases at the working faces of the Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, since the year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduč, Tjaša; Zavšek, Simon; Jamnikar, Sergej; Verbovšek, Timotej

    2016-10-01

    Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at the excavation fields of mining areas in Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, has been ongoing since the year 2000 with the aim of obtaining better insights into the distribution and origin of coalbed gases. Results from the mining areas Pesje and Preloge (active excavation fields) are presented here from the year 2000 up to the present. Composition and origin of coalbed gases were determined using mass spectrometry at the Jožef Stefan Institute. From a larger database of geochemical samples, 119 samples were used for analysis and spatial presentation in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. We have used geochemical (CH4, CO2 and N2) and isotopic (δ13CCO2 and δ13CCH4) tracers for geochemical and isotopic characterisation of coalbed gases from the active excavation fields. Concentrations of CO2 and the carbon dioxide-methane indices in the southern part of the basin are higher than in the northern part of the basin due to the vicinity of the active Šoštanj Fault. The value of δ13CCH4 at the active excavation field indicates a bacterial origin, with values greater than -50‰, and only some boreholes show elevated δ13CCH4 quantities as a consequence of the CO2 reduction process in Velenje Coal Basin. The value of δ13CCO2 indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon.

  11. Spatial distribution and origin of coalbed gases at the working faces of the Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, since the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanduč Tjaša

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at the excavation fields of mining areas in Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, has been ongoing since the year 2000 with the aim of obtaining better insights into the distribution and origin of coalbed gases. Results from the mining areas Pesje and Preloge (active excavation fields are presented here from the year 2000 up to the present. Composition and origin of coalbed gases were determined using mass spectrometry at the Jožef Stefan Institute. From a larger database of geochemical samples, 119 samples were used for analysis and spatial presentation in a geographical information system (GIS environment. We have used geochemical (CH4, CO2 and N2 and isotopic (δ13CCO2 and δ13CCH4 tracers for geochemical and isotopic characterisation of coalbed gases from the active excavation fields. Concentrations of CO2 and the carbon dioxide–methane indices in the southern part of the basin are higher than in the northern part of the basin due to the vicinity of the active Šoštanj Fault. The value of δ13CCH4 at the active excavation field indicates a bacterial origin, with values greater than –50‰, and only some boreholes show elevated δ13CCH4 quantities as a consequence of the CO2 reduction process in Velenje Coal Basin. The value of δ13CCO2 indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon.

  12. Bioconversion of Waste Gases into Biofuel via Fermentation in a Continuous Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafpour, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological hydrogen production was carried out in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor. A photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum, was used as biocatalyst to oxidize carbon monoxides in the waste gas generated from biomass in a gasification process. The fresh liquid media was supplied for microbial growth which contained sodium acetate as carbon source at initial concentration of 4 gL-1. The optimum media space velocity or the suitable ratio of liquid flow rate to the reactor volume (F/VL was 0.02 h-1. At the steady state condition, the concentration of acetate was independent of the dilution rate and it was approximately 1.5 gL-1. The average cell dry weight in the fermentation broth was at satisfactory concentration, approximately 3.4 gL-1 with dilution rate at 0.55 mL min-1. The maximum value of KLa and CO conversion were about 58 h-1 and 80%, respectively, with agitation speed at 500 rpm and gas flow rate at 14 mL min-1. At this condition, the maximum yield of hydrogen production was 0.82 mmol H2•mmol-1 CO.

  13. Combination of advanced oxidation processes and gas absorption for the treatment of chlorinated solvents in waste gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulf, J; Van Langenhove, H; De Smedt, E; Geuens, S

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of chlorinated organic compounds in waste gases is difficult because of several reasons: these compounds are dioxin precursors when incinerated, and also biological treatment is difficult because of a limited number of suitable microbial degradation pathways. On the other hand, since the 1990s, a new generation of chemical oxidation techniques has been introduced in water treatment. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are based on a combination of UV/H202, UV/O3 or H2O2/O3. The combinations result in the generation of OH-radicals, which subsequently attack the organic pollutants. In this work, the treatment of a gas stream (240 L/h) loaded with 20-40 ppmv trichloroethylene (TCE) is presented. Therefore, a combination of an absorption process in a bubble column with a liquid H2O2/O3 initiated oxidation, was investigated. Removal efficiencies, depending on the dosed H2O2 and O3, up to 94% were found. The production of chloride ions was investigated: the Cl-atoms from the removed TCE could be found back as chloride ions. Next to the experimental work, attention was paid to the mechanisms taking place in the proposed concept. Here, a simulation model was developed, considering gas/liquid mass transfer of TCE and ozone, axial liquid dispersion, advective gas and liquid transport and about 29 chemica reaction steps. The modelling allowed a better understanding of the technique and gives insight in its possibilities and limitations. Finally, it can be concluded that the proposed technique shows interesting perspectives: it is able to transform chlorine in chlorinated solvents into chloride ions effectively at ambient temperature conditions.

  14. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas; Ekvall, T.

    2009-01-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspec...

  15. Genetic origins of marine gases in the Tazhong area of the Tarim basin, NW China: Implications from the pyrolysis of marine kerogens and crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hui; Xiao, Xianming; Guo, Liguo; Yang, Liguo [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wilkins, Ronald W.T. [CSIRO Petroleum, P. O. Box 136, North Ryde, NSW (Australia); Gan, Huajun [Department of Coal and Coalbed Methane Engineering, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Although abundant natural gases have been discovered in Carboniferous and Ordovician reservoirs in the Tazhong area, central Tarim basin, their genetic origins is still an open question because of significant variations in chemical and carbon isotopic compositions. In the present study, three samples representing the possible gas sources were pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes to investigate their gas potentials, and chemical and carbon isotopic signatures. The samples were a crude oil, a low maturity kerogen and a high maturity kerogen. The results show that the chemical and isotopic compositions of gaseous pyrolysates from the three samples are quite different. Generally, the gases from oil cracking are compositionally wetter and isotopically lighter than those from kerogen cracking at similar thermal levels. The large quantities of methane experimentally observed in oil cracking gases are mainly associated with the re-cracking of wet gases at very high maturity levels. Methane in gases derived from kerogen, especially high maturity kerogen, in contrary, is mainly generated by the demethylation reaction. The diagrams of {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1} vs. {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2}-{delta}{sup 13}C{sub 3} and C{sub 2}/C{sub 3} vs. {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2}-{delta}{sup 13}C{sub 3}, along with natural gas plots, have proven to be a very effective tool in the genetic interpretation of natural gases from kerogen and oil cracking in the Tarim basin. Their combined application shows that two types of gas source can be identified in the Tazhong area. The first type is oil cracking gas, mainly discovered in Carboniferous reservoirs of the central fault horst area, but also partly in Ordovician reservoirs, such as in the wells TZ45, TZ44b and TZ 16. The other is kerogen cracking gas occurring largely in Ordovician reservoirs, especially in the North Slope area. The two types of gases, however, are mixed in many reservoirs as their generation is overlapped in time and/or space. This

  16. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atmosphere, creating a greenhouse effect that results in global warming and climate change. Many gases exhibit these greenhouse properties. Some gases occur naturally and are also produced by human activities. Some, such as industrial gases, are exclusively ...

  17. Biodegradation of chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons in relation to biological waste-gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, S.

    1993-01-01

    The original goal of the research described in this thesis was to develop a biological process for the removal of vinyl chloride from waste gases. The gaseous and carcinogenic vinyl chloride is used to produce the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC). During this production process waste gases

  18. LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE AND RECYCLABLE ORIGIN OF HOUSEHOLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Raquel da Silva Sottoriva

    2011-09-01

    environment. Studies have shown that household waste in Parana rose by 89% between 1990 and 2005, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG emissions, ranging from 42 to 79.64 GgCH4 GgCH4. The increase was attributed to the population growth and the disposal of waste to dumps and landfills. Of the total waste, 60% would be likely to compost and 20% being recycled. It is concluded that the problem of solid, recycling and disposal waste must be analyzed from the choice of raw material, production process and product, as well as waste, effluents and emissions generated.

  19. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  20. Experimental Design of Compact Heat Exchanger for Waste Heat Recovery of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gases for Grain Dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Nasruddin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract??? In diesel engine cycle, 35% of energy losses through the exhaust gases, the heat is an energy potential that can still be reused for various purposes. This research aims to design a heat exchanger, based of diesel engine exhaust gases integrated with rice milling unit for drying agricultural products. The exhaust gas is derived from 6D16 diesel engine of 120 kVA as a power generator for rice milling unit at South Sulawesi. Exhaust gas temperature reaches 357oC with the mass flow r...

  1. Self-Flammability of Gases Generated by Hanford Tank Waste and the Potential of Nitrogen Inerting to Eliminate Flammability Safety Concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Through radiolytic and thermolytic reactions, Hanford tank wastes generate and retain a variety of gases, including hydrogen, nitrous oxide, methane (and other hydrocarbons), ammonia, and nitrogen. This gas generation can be expected to continue during processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The generation rates in the WTP will change from those for the in-situ tank waste because of different process temperatures, different dose rates produced by in-process changes in the proportions of solid and liquid, and dilution of the waste liquid. The flammability of the generated gas that is continuously released, and of any retained gas that might be released into a vessel headspace in quantity due to a spontaneous release, depends on the concentrations not only of the fuel gases—primarily hydrogen (H2), methane, other hydrocarbons, and ammonia—but of the oxidizer nitrous oxide (N2O). As a result of high concentrations of N2O, some gas mixtures are “self-flammable” (i.e., ignition can occur when no air is present because N2O provides the only oxidizer needed). Self-flammability could potentially reduce the effectiveness of using a nitrogen (N2) purge in the headspace as a flammability control, if its effects are not accounted for. A given amount of inertant gas (N2) can accommodate only a certain amount of a generated self-flammable gas before the mixture with inertant gas becomes flammable.

  2. Noble gases in crude oils from the Paris Basin, France: Implications for the origin of fluids and constraints on oil-water-gas interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Marty, Bernard

    1995-08-01

    In order to investigate the potential of noble gases to trace the dynamics of oil reservoirs, we have analysed the abundance and isotopic composition of all noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) in crude oils from the Paris Basin, France, using a new extraction and purification procedure. The main oil reservoirs are presently located in the Jurassic (Dogger) limestone and in the Triassic (Keuper) sandstone, but hydrocarbons originated from a common source rock formation located in the interbedded Liassic sequence. Despite this common origin, the abundance and isotopic ratios of the noble gases differ between the Dogger and the Keuper. The isotopic compositions of Kr and Xe are indistinguishable from that of air. 3He/ 4He ratios, higher than those predicted from radiogenic production in the sediments or in the crust, are attributed to the occurrence of mantle-derived 3He in the basin. Each sedimentary sequence is characterised by well defined and homogeneous 21Ne/ 22Ne and 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios, which average 0.0306 ± 0.0008 and 312 ± 10 for the Dogger and 0.0367 ± 0.0012 and 664 ± 30 for the Keuper, respectively. The main source of radiogenic noble gases appears to be the continental crust underlying the basin, with possible regional contributions of noble gas isotopes produced in the sediments. The helium and argon isotopic ratios of the Dogger oils are very similar to those observed in geothermal waters flowing in the Dogger aquifer throughout the basin, demonstrating that noble gases in oils derive from associated groundwaters. Oil reservoirs in the Paris Basin therefore accumulate noble gases from wide regions of the continental crust through cross-formational flow of groundwaters and subsequent partitioning into oil. This observation implies that noble gases cannot be directly used to date oils, but can provide time constraints if (1) water/oil interactions are quantified and (2) the residence time as well as the noble gas characteristics of associated

  3. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  4. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  5. Method of reducing environmental pollution by utilizing stack gases, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, and water, including sea water and waste water, to manufacture hydrocarbon energy fuel, potable water and other commercial products. [processing of flue gases and seawater or waste water to produce methane and useful by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, R.V.

    1974-06-28

    A method and apparatus is described for treating smoke stack gases diverted to minimize air pollution to recover from the stack gases the individual constituents thereof, namely, carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), water (H/sub 2/O) and nitrogen (N/sub 2/) freed of other products, such as oxides; and to recover from water (including nonpotable water such as sea water, waste water and even polluted water sources) the individual constituents thereof of interest here, namely, hydrogen (H/sub 2/); and delivering the recovered carbon dioxide and the recovered hydrogen into a catalytic reaction chamber under sufficiently high temperature conditions in the presence of a suitable catalyst to establish therein a reaction temperature to support a Sabatier catalytic reaction (CO/sub 2/ + 4H/sub 2/ = CH/sub 4/ + 2H/sub 2/O) hydrogenating the carbon dioxide to form methane for use as fuel, and potable water for commercial usage. (Official Gazette)

  6. Investigation into the possibility of recycling thermosetting resin waste originating from the plastics industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, E.; Richer; Marting, Ch.

    Thermosetting resin waste originating from glass fiber reinforced polyester production amounts to approximately 4% of the output. It is proposed to use the material recovered from the waste as reinforcement of polymers, either virgin or recycled material, for the purpose of enhancing mechanical properties such as resistance to tensile stress, deformation, shock, etc. The process includes recovery of the glass fibers from the resin matrix by heat treatment at 350C to 400C, followed by crushing and chopping, treatment with dilute HCl, addition of adjuvants, kneading and masticating, prior to blending with the polymer melt of recycled thermoplastics such as plasticized PVC and polyethylene. The recovered glass fibers enable energy to be saved in the manufacture of novel types of fibers. However, a comprehensive energy balance must await the construction and testing of a small pilot plant.

  7. The development of a real-time monitor for metallic off-gases emitted from hazardous mixed waste processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, K.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A glow discharge based detection system has been developed for the real-time monitoring of As and Pb in off-gas systems for the plasma hearth hazardous mixed waste processing system. The glow discharge sampling system has been calibrated using hydride generation which has been described in the literature. Arsenic has been detected at levels below 500 ug/m{sup 3} in an argon flow stream. Aspects of the design and operation characteristics of the discharge cell will be presented. Results for the quantification of As and Pb in a combustion flow stream will be presented.

  8. Origin of the gases released from the Acqua Passante and Ermeta wells (Mt. Amiata, central Italy and possible environmental implications for their closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nisi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mt. Amiata volcano (Tuscany, central Italy hosts the second largest geothermal field of Italy. Its SW and NE sectors are characterized by the presence of several CO2-rich (>95% by vol. gas discharges. An intense Hg mining activity had taken place from the 19th century up to the end of the ’70s, particularly close to Abbadia San Salvatore, during which two drillings (Acqua Passante and Ermeta intercepted a CO2-rich gas fertile horizon. The related gases are emitted in the atmosphere since 1938 and 1959, respectively, causing severe concerns for the local air quality. In this work the results of a geochemical and isotopic survey carried out on these gas emissions from March 2009 to January 2014 are presented. CO2 fluxes from both the two wells and soil from an area of about 653,500 m2 located between them were measured. The two wells are emitting up to 15,000, 92 and 8 tons y-1 of CO2, CH4 and H2S, respectively, while the computed soil CO2 output was estimated at 4,311 ton y-1. The spatial distribution of the CO2 soil flux suggests the presence of preferential patterns, indicating sites of higher permeability. Since the local municipality is evaluating the possibility to plug the Ermeta vent, a temporarily closure should first be carried out to test the possible influence of this operation on the diffuse soil degassing of deep-originated CO2 in the surrounding area. This implies that diffuse soil gases should carefully be monitored before proceeding with its definitive closure.

  9. Characterization of Discharge Areas of Radionuclides Originating From Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, L.; Xu, S.; Worman, A.

    2009-05-01

    significant amounts of radionuclides are limited. To limit the radiological dose assessment, analyses should be focused to and more detailed in such landscape areas in which doses are expected to be high. Due to the similarities among deep groundwater discharge areas, one can make site-specific analyses of those areas, which have a broad applicability for migration of radionuclides originating from a nuclear waste repository.

  10. Performance of a biotrickling filter in the removal of waste gases containing low concentrations of mixed VOCs from a paint and coating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Ye, Guangyun; Sun, Duanfang; An, Taicheng; Sun, Guoping; Liang, Shizhong

    2012-02-01

    The performance of a field-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) in the removal of waste gases containing low concentrations of mixed volatile organic compounds was evaluated. Results showed that acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were more easily removed than toluene and styrene. The removal efficiency for acetone and MEK reached over 99% on days 28 and 25 of the operation, whereas those for toluene and styrene were 80 and 63% on day 38. The maximum individual elimination capacities for styrene, toluene, acetone, and MEK were 10.2, 2.7, 4.7, and 8.4 g/m(3) h, respectively. These values were achieved at inlet loading rates of 13.9, 3.3, 4.8, and 8.5 g/m(3) h, respectively, at an empty bed retention time of 14 s. the removal efficiency for styrene and toluene rapidly increased from 67% and 83% to 86% and over 99%, respectively, when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen (N-NH(4) (+)) and phosphates (P) in the nutrients increased from 350 to 840 mg/l and 76 to 186 mg/l. When the BTF was restarted after a four-day shutdown, the removal efficiency for toluene was restored to over 99% within a week. However, that for styrene was not restored to its previous level before the shutdown. No noticeable adverse effect on acetone and MEK removal was observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results for the bacterial community in the BTF during VOC removal showed that proteobacterial phylum was dominant, and the changes of nutrient concentration and shutdown periods may have played a role in the community structure differences.

  11. Long-range transport pathways of tropospheric source gases originating in Asia into the northern lower stratosphere during the Asian monsoon season 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vogel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS using artificial tracers of air mass origin are used to analyze transport mechanisms from the Asian monsoon region into the lower stratosphere. In a case study, the transport of air masses from the Asian monsoon anticyclone originating in India/China by an eastward-migrating anticyclone which broke off from the main anticyclone on 20 September 2012 and filaments separated at the northeastern flank of the anticyclone are analyzed. Enhanced contributions of young air masses (younger than 5 months are found within the separated anticyclone confined at the top by the thermal tropopause. Further, these air masses are confined by the anticyclonic circulation and, on the polar side, by the subtropical jet such that the vertical structure resembles a bubble within the upper troposphere. Subsequently, these air masses are transported eastwards along the subtropical jet and enter the lower stratosphere by quasi-horizontal transport in a region of double tropopauses most likely associated with Rossby wave breaking events. As a result, thin filaments with enhanced signatures of tropospheric trace gases were measured in the lower stratosphere over Europe during the TACTS/ESMVal campaign in September 2012 in very good agreement with CLaMS simulations. Our simulations demonstrate that source regions in Asia and in the Pacific Ocean have a significant impact on the chemical composition of the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. Young, moist air masses, in particular at the end of the monsoon season in September/October 2012, flooded the extratropical lower stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere with contributions of up to  ≈  30 % at 380 K (with the remaining fraction being aged air. In contrast, the contribution of young air masses to the Southern Hemisphere is much lower. At the end of October 2012, approximately 1.5 ppmv H2O is found in the lower

  12. Biodegradation of chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons in relation to biological waste-gas treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmans, S.

    1993-01-01

    The original goal of the research described in this thesis was to develop a biological process for the removal of vinyl chloride from waste gases. The gaseous and carcinogenic vinyl chloride is used to produce the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC). During this production process waste gases containing vinyl chloride are generated. As a microorganism capable of growth on vinyl chloride as the sole carbon and energy source had been isolated it was envisaged that it might be possible to ...

  13. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was

  14. SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REUSE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE ORIGINATED FROM PERSONAL COMPUTERS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eugênio Simonetto; Osvaldo Quelhas; Vesna Spasojević Brkić; Goran Putnik; Cátia Alves; Hélio Castro

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are part of the day to day activities of a large part of world population, however its use involves a growing generation of electronic waste (ewaste...

  15. Incineration/vitrification of radioactive wastes and combustion of pyrolysis gases in thermal plasmas; Incineration/vitrification de dechets radioactifs et combustion de gaz de pyrolyse en plasma d`arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girold, Ch. [CEA de la Vallee du Rhone, Departement de Retraitement des Dechets et du Demantelemnet, 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Limoges Univ., 87 (France)

    1997-03-01

    Two thermal plasma processes used for incineration of radioactive technological wastes (cellulose, plastics, rubber...) have been investigated. First, the different types of radioactive wastes are presented, with a special attention to those which may benefit from a high temperature thermal treatment. The most significant thermal plasma processes, suitable for this goal, are described. Then, the author deals with the post-combustion, in an oxygen plasma jet reactor, of gases from burnable radioactive waste pyrolysis. An experimental planning method as been used to evaluate the combustion performances in the reactor, with a wide range of gas composition and running parameters such as oxygen excess and electrical power. The results of a modeling of kinetics, based on 116 chemicals reactions between 25 species, are compared with experimental values. Finally, an oxygen plasma reactor where the arc is transferred on a basalt melt is experimented. The efficiency of the combustion and the homogeneity of the glass are discussed. The volatility of some glass elements and tracers added to the wastes is also approached in two different ways: by post-trial material balance and by an optical emission spectroscopic method. The author built a diagnostic method that allows the following versus time of the metallic vapours above the melt. (author) 51 refs.

  16. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.

  17. A novel approach to scavenging anesthetic gases in rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Jeffrey C; Krageschmidt, Dale A; Blanco, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal procedures using gas anesthetics may amass elevated waste gas concentrations in operating rooms if controls are not implemented for capturing and removing the vapors. Area sampling using an infrared analyzer indicated isoflurane concentrations likely to exceed occupational exposure guidelines. Our study showed environmental concentrations of oxygen as high as 40% and isoflurane concentrations >100 ppm when no controls or merely passive controls were utilized. These extraneous isoflurane emissions were determined to be originating from the pre-procedural induction process as well as the gas delivery nose cone. A novel waste gas collection cylinder was designed to enclose the gas delivery nose cone and animal head during the administration of anesthetic gases. The vented cylinder utilized a house vacuum to remove the waste anesthetic gases from the surgical field. A commercially available induction chamber designed to be actively and externally exhausted was used to lower concentrations during the induction process. With implementation of local exhaust ventilation controls, waste anesthetic gas concentrations decreased to below recommended occupational exposure levels. In vitro (sham) testing compared favorably to in vivo measurements validating the reduction capability of active ventilation during rodent anesthetic administration. In vivo isoflurane reductions for the induction chamber emissions, the operating room, and the surgeon's breathing zone were 95%, 60%, and 53%, respectively. The same measurements for an in vitro procedure were 98%, 84%, and 87%, respectively.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and fats of animal and vegetable origin

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The potential of mesophilic anaerobic digestion for the treatment of fats of different origin through co-digestion with the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) has been evaluated. Co-digestion process was conducted in a pilot plant working in semi-continuous regime in the mesophilic range (37◦ C) and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 17 days. During the start-up period the digester was fed with increasing quantities of a simulated OFMSW (diluted dry pet food). When the des...

  19. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonakou, E.V. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, K.G.; Stephanidis, S.D. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Triantafyllidis, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lappas, A.A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Achilias, D.S., E-mail: axilias@chem.auth.gr [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis is a powerful method for recycling of WEEEs. • Liquid products obtained from the pyrolysis of PC or HIPS found in waste CDs are very different. • Mainly phenols are obtained from pyrolysis PC based wastes while aromatics from HIPS. • Use of MgO catalyst increases the amount of phenols from CD recycling compared to ZSM-5. • Use of MgO or ZSM-5 catalysts reduces the amount of styrene recovered from HIPS. - Abstract: Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  20. Determination of plutonium isotopes in low activity waste of NPP origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforova, A.; Taskaeva, I.; Veleva, B.; Valova, Tz.; Slavchev, B.; Dimitrova, D.

    2006-01-01

    The inventory analysis of the alkaline low level liquid radioactive waste collected during more than 30 years of NPP “Kozloduy” operation requires determination of eighteen radioactive isotopes with different decay properties. Plutonium isotopes of interest are Pu-238, Pu-239/Pu-240, and Pu-242. The preliminary investigations of the supernatant phase of model and authentic waste samples showed essential challenges for determination of plutonium due to its various oxidation states and low concentration in the complex matrix. Plutonium concentration was determined in precipitate and supernatant after the calcium phosphate precipitation and in the different fractions of the anion exchange steps. The separation by anion exchange and final purification of plutonium fraction by extraction chromatography on TEVA resin (EiChroM Industries) was studied by variation of plutonium oxidation states. The sources were prepared by micro precipitation with NdF3 and counted by alpha spectrometry. As a result from the performed experiments, plutonium determination procedure was optimized and applied to real waste samples.

  1. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, S M; Rovere, E L L; Mahler, C F

    2013-05-01

    This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities' boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REUSE OF ELECTRONIC WASTE ORIGINATED FROM PERSONAL COMPUTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Simonetto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT are part of the day to day activities of a large part of world population, however its use involves a growing generation of electronic waste (ewaste. Due to the increasing technological innovation, it occurs that in a short time, the products become obsolete and have their life cycle reduced. The article aims to present the development, verification and validation of models of computational simulation for assessment of environmental and financial impacts caused by the extension of the life cycle of personal computers (PC through their remanufacturing. For the system modeling the System Dynamics theory was used. Results generated by the simulation model, show that the remanufacturing is a viable alternative for the reutilization of discarded computers and that it is possible, in advance, to discuss, assess and decide necessary measures for a better financial and environmental performance in the acquisition and use of ICT.

  3. Characterization of PM2.5 particles originating from a modern waste incineration plant by factor analysis of chemical data, mass and black carbon in ambient aerosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aboh, Innocent Joy Kwame; Henrikson, Dag; Laursen, Jens

    are subject to restrictions are well below the allowed limits as stated by Swedish and European standards. The aim of the present work is to study the particle pollutants with emphasis on PM2.5 in the ambient air and to identify the specific contribution from the new incineration plant. Many different sources...... contribute to PM2.5 in urban air. Thus, the general problem is to characterise and identify the particle pollution, which can be attributed to gases and/or particles emitted by the waste incineration plant. For this reason aerosol samples, PM2.5, were collected and analyzed for concentrations of twenty...

  4. Evaluation of benefits and risks associated with the agricultural use of organic wastes of pharmaceutical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Mirko; Tacconi, Chiara; Ricci, Anna; Pezzolla, Daniela; Sordi, Simone; Zadra, Claudia; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Industrial fermentations for the production of pharmaceuticals generate large volumes of wastewater that can be biologically treated to recover plant nutrients through the application of pharmaceutical-derived wastes to the soil. Nevertheless, benefits and risks associated with their recovery are still unexplored. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize three potential organic residues (sludge, anaerobic digestate and compost) derived from the wastewater generated by the daptomycin production process. The main parameters evaluated were the physico-chemical properties, potential contaminants (heavy metals, pathogens and daptomycin residues), organic matter stabilization and the potential toxicity towards soil microorganisms and plants. The results showed that all the studied materials were characterized by high concentrations of plant macronutrients (N, P and K), making them suitable for agricultural reuse. Heavy metal contents and pathogens were under the limits established by European and Italian legislations, avoiding the risk of soil contamination. The compost showed the highest organic matter stabilization within the studied materials, whereas the sludge and the anaerobic digestate were characterized by large amounts of labile organic compounds. Although the pharmaceutical-derived fertilizers did not negatively affect the soil microorganisms, as demonstrated by the enzymatic activities, the sludge and the anaerobic digestate caused a moderate and strong phytotoxicity, respectively. The compost showed no toxic effect towards plant development and, moreover, it positively affected the germination and growth in lettuce and barley. The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that the valorization of pharmaceutical-derived materials through composting permits their agricultural reuse and also represents a suitable strategy to move towards a zero-waste production process for daptomycin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Funding from the Nordic Energy Research Programme and from Helsinki University of Technology allowed for the preparation of this e-book, accompanied by overhead sheets as presented during the lectures. All material can be downloaded as pdf documents from the internet-address http://www.hut.fi/-rzeveho//gasbook, hence the qualification e- book Updates will be produced chapter-by-chapter in the future. Objectives and scope. Textbooks on this subject are, in general, limited to what can be called 'conventional' flue gas cleaning for conventional pulverised coal combustion processes, i.e. wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD), bag filters and electrostatic precipitators for flyash and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control. Other books address waste incineration within a discussion on waste management. The scope of this material we tried to make more up-to-date and therefore wider than these texts. Apart from pollutant control the formation of the pollutants is briefly addressed, which often provides the key to abatement methods as an alternative to control methods. Secondly, more species are addressed such HS in addition to SO{sub 2}; N{sub 2}0, HCN and NH{sub 3} in addition to NO{sub x}; alkali metals and trace elements such as mercury, halogenic compounds such as HO and dioxines and furanes; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also greenhouse gases, mainly CO{sub 2}, and ozone-depleting gases, such as CFCs, are briefly discussed. The motivation for this was to cover flue gases from combustion as well as fuel gases from gasification processes, using various types of furnaces and boilers, and to extend the range of chemical compounds to those found in the product gases in waste incineration and energy-from-waste processes. Finally, not only 'cold' gas cleaning but also 'hot' gas cleaning is addressed. All this in an attempt to cover the wide spectrum of pollutants found in

  6. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Kilpinen, P.

    2004-07-01

    Textbooks on this subject are, in general, limited to what can be called 'conventional' flue gas cleaning for conventional pulverised coal combustion processes, i.e. wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD), bag filters and electrostatic precipitators for flyash and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NO{sub x} control. Other books address waste incineration within a discussion on waste management. The scope of this material we tried to make more up-to-date and therefore wider than these texts. Apart from pollutant control the formation of the pollutants is briefly addressed, which often provides the key to abatement methods as an alternative to control methods. Secondly, more species are addressed such HS in addition to SO{sub 2}; N{sub 2}O, HCN and NH{sub 3} in addition to NO{sub x}; alkali metals and trace elements such as mercury, halogenic compounds such as HO and dioxines and furanes; and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Also greenhouse gases, mainly CO{sub 2}, and ozone-depleting gases, such as CFCs, are briefly discussed. The motivation for this was to cover flue gases from combustion as well as fuel gases from gasification processes, using various types of furnaces and boilers, and to extend the range of chemical compounds to those found in the product gases in waste incineration and energy-from- waste processes. Finally, not only 'cold' gas cleaning but also 'hot' gas cleaning is addressed. All this in an attempt to cover the wide spectrum of pollutants found in gas streams in modern thermal power generation processes, being based on combustion or gasification, with a fossil fuel, biomass or waste-derived fuel as input. Recovery boilers for black liquor are, however, not specifically-dealt with. Updates of the textbook has been produced and will also be so in future chapter by chapter. For the third edition, tine latest emission standards data for SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and

  7. Characterization of Greenhouse Gases Emissionsfrom Urban Solid Waste in Baja California: A Proposal to Incorporate TechnicalInput into Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Muñoz Meléndez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available este estudio detalla la estimación de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (Gei gene-rados por desechos sólidos urbanos en Bajacalifornia usando el métodoPicc1996.losresultados muestran un aumento de 0.604 Gg/año en el período 1990-2010.la proyecciónde emisiones exhibe un aumento continuo para los siguientes 35 años. Fueron construidossiete escenarios de reducción:130 por ciento de disminución,2biodigestor,3una opciónintegral,4bioventanas,5compostaje,6vermicompostaje, y7biocubierta.los resulta-dos revelaron que es posible planear medidas o combinar estrategias inclusive, identificandocomo mejores los escenarios que incluyen aspectos sociales y opciones tecnológicas.

  8. The management of industrial wastes in hydrology; La gestion des dechets industriels en hydrologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbaz-Seboun, V.

    1998-07-08

    The industrial wastes are made of different kind of wastes: the inert wastes, the banal wastes (municipal wastes), the special wastes containing noxious elements with respect to human health and environment, and the radioactive wastes. Each industry generates its own effluents (sludges from water treatment plants and leachates from rubbish dumps). The main water pollutions are due to the fermentescible organic matters, nitrates and heavy metals from the industrial waste waters. The aim of the public water agencies is to better protect the environment and to give help to the industrialists in the management of their wastes: reduction at the source, selective collection, valorization, transportation and processing. Non-valorizable wastes must be processed: physico-chemical and biological processing (bio-filtering, coagulation-flocculation, membranes and industrial gases), incineration (organic wastes), disposal in class 1 technical burial centres after stabilization (ultimate wastes). Since July 2002, only the ultimate wastes will be disposed off and all class 2 and 3 dumps must have been rehabilitated. This work is divided into 2 parts: part 1 gives a presentation of the different types of industrial wastes and of their management (origin of wastes, effluents, heavy metals, environmental impact, legal aspects, wastes management, valorization). The second part describes the different processes for the treatment of industrial wastes (conventional processes, physico-chemical and biological processes, incineration, tipping, processing of radioactive wastes). (J.S.)

  9. Considerations over the effects caused by a heat recovery system for exhaust gases, adapted to gas turbines originally designed for the operation in a simple cycle; Consideraciones sobre los efectos causados por un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape, adaptado a turbinas de gas disenadas originalmente para operar bajo un ciclo simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta Escobar, Cesar A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This article sets out the considerations on what a heat recovery system from exhaust gases, to already installed and in operation gas turbines, and that were not originally designed to operate with this system, can cause. The potential effects are set forth on the control systems, on the combustion chambers, and in the gas turbine blades, utilized for natural gas pumping or power generation in land installations or in offshore platforms in trying to adapt to them a regenerative cycle or a heating system. Observed effects, fundamentally in the flame stability loop, flow velocity, thermal intensity coefficient, air/fuel relationships and mass flow. Also are presented the consequences that primary production system would suffer, mainly due to the natural gas pumping reduction, the space availability, the fuel consumption, and the maximum amount of heat susceptible to be recovered, comparing the requirements of this in the system. [Espanol] En este articulo se plantean las consideraciones sobre lo que puede provocar un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape adaptado a turbinas de gas ya instaladas, operando y que no fueron disenadas originalmente para operar con este sistema. Se plantean los probables efectos en los sistemas de control, en las camaras de combustion y en los empaletados de las turbinas de gas usadas para bombeo de gas natural o generacion electrica en instalaciones de tierra o plataformas marinas, al tratar de adaptarseles un ciclo regenerativo o un sistema para calentamiento. Efectos observados, fundamentalmente, en el LOOP de estabilidad de flama, velocidad del flujo, coeficiente de intensidad termica, relaciones aire-combustible y flujo masico. Tambien se presentan las consecuencias que sufriria el sistema primario de produccion debido, principalmente, a la reduccion del bombeo de gas natural, a la disponibilidad de espacio, al consumo de combustible y a la cantidad maxima de calor susceptible de recuperarse, comparada con los

  10. Lunar Organic Waste Reformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Organic Waste Reformer (LOWR) utilizes high temperature steam reformation to convert all plastic, paper, and human waste materials into useful gases. In...

  11. Chemical Equilibrium of Aluminate in Hanford Tank Waste Originating from Tanks 241-AN-105 and 241-AP-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoskey, Jacob K. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, Gary A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The purposes of the study described in this document follow; Determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of gibbsite in contact with two real tank waste supernatant liquids through both dissolution of gibbsite (bottom-up approach) and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids (top-down approach); determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of a mixture of gibbsite and real tank waste saltcake in contact with real tank waste supernatant liquid through both dissolution of gibbsite and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids; and characterize the solids present after equilibrium and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids.

  12. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  13. Pyrolysis of electrical and electronic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, I.; Caballero, B.M.; Chomon, M.J.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.; Fernandez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela T.S. de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Arnaiz, S. [Centro Tecnologico GAIKER, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 2002, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been carried out. Four type of samples coming from real WEEEs streams, including wires of polyethylene (PE), table phones, mobile phones and printed circuit boards (PCB) have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5 dm{sup 3} autoclave at 500 C for 30 min. PE wires yield 44.1 wt.% of wax-like liquids, 23 wt.% gases and a solid product mainly composed of Cu and Al together with some char formed during the process. Table and mobile phones give quite similar results, 53 and 57 wt.%, respectively of brown-coloured fluid liquids, {approx}12 wt.% gases and a solid which contains several metals (Cu, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, etc.) together with a significant amount of char ({approx}50% with respect to solids). Printed circuit boards yield only 16.2 wt.% brown-coloured fluid liquids and 7.3 wt.% gases, and leave 76.5 wt.% of solids which include a wide variety of metals (from Fe to precious metals) which are present in the original circuit board waste. In all the cases the polymer-free metals may be separated and recycled, the gases may be enough energy sources to self-sustain the process and the liquids may have a potential use as energy or chemicals source. (author)

  14. Desulphurisation of waste gases in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svrèek Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the decreasing sulphur dioxide emission in the Czech Republic. In 1991 a new Cean Air Act has been accepted. Emission limit values based on the best available technology not entailing cost. All sources of pollution will have to comply the emission limit values up to December 31, 1998 at the latest. At the present time the last units in the power plants and heating plants are under construction, many of them are on the scale. The prevailing system is the wet limestone technology producing gypsum. Differences in the installed systems, in particular power plants, are described. In a lesser extent the wet dry lime technology will be used. Old boilers are replaced by the atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. At the end of the paper the proposal of the amendment to the Europe Union Directive 608/87 EEC, is discussed. Differences in the systems in the particular power plants are described.

  15. Characterization of Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Urban Solid Waste in Baja California: A Proposal to Incorporate Technical Input into Decision-Making/Caracterización de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero generados por residuos sólidos urbanos en Baja California: Una propuesta para usar información técnica en la toma de desiciones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriela Muñoz Meléndez; Lilia Betania Vázquez González

    2015-01-01

    ... detalla la estimación de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEl) generados por desechos sólidos urbanos en Baja California usando el método PICC 1996. Los resultados muestran un aument...

  16. Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

    2008-02-01

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate

  17. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver ... such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is suspected. Blood gases may also be used ...

  18. On Classical Ideal Gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacques Arnaud; Laurent Chusseau; Fabrice Philippe

    2013-01-01

      We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent...

  19. Kinetic theory of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

  20. Climate impacts from import of waste fuels; Klimatpaaverkan fraan import av braennbart avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Sundberg, Johan (Profu, Moelndal (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Imports of combustible waste has increased in recent years and imported waste has become an increasingly important fuel in the Swedish district heating systems. The projections for the next few years show that the imports can be much higher, partly due to reduced amounts of waste in the wake of economic downturn the world economy, partly because several new incinerators will be put into operation. In a environmental perspective, imports are controversial and it has been proposed that imports should be restricted. This report provides an assessment of the climate impact of importing waste for combustion. The report shows that greenhouse gas emissions due to imports of waste to the Swedish district heating plants in 2007 was reduced by 500 000 tonnes of carbon dioxide. This is equivalent to the emissions from 300 000 Swedes car journeys a year, or 2.5% of the total emission reduction target set by the Government for the non-trading sector until 2020. Imports of wood waste-chips accounts for the largest reduction, but the study shows that imports of other types of waste contribute to a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. The reasons for the reduction is that the use of imported waste fuel substitute for other heating and electricity generation, which gives the consequence that emissions are avoided. The largest emission reductions are obtained, however, by the importation of household waste by replacing the alternative waste treatment of the corresponding waste in the country of origin. In the countries from which imports of waste currently takes place there is a lack of treatment capacity for organic waste. The alternative treatment available is primarily deposition. This treatment causes significant emissions of methane, which is a very strong greenhouse gas. The shipment of waste that occur as a result of imports gives a marginal contribution of greenhouse gases, compared against the emission reductions outlined above

  1. Planetary noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  2. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, J.I.

    1985-02-08

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  3. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  4. Biological nutrients removal from the supernatant originating from the anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamis, S; Katsou, E; Di Fabio, S; Bolzonella, D; Fatone, F

    2014-09-01

    This study critically evaluates the biological processes and techniques applied to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from the anaerobic supernatant produced from the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and from its co-digestion with other biodegradable organic waste (BOW) streams. The wide application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of several organic waste streams results in the production of high quantities of anaerobic effluents. Such effluents are characterized by high nutrient content, because organic and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus are hydrolyzed in the anaerobic digestion process. Consequently, adequate post-treatment is required in order to comply with the existing land application and discharge legislation in the European Union countries. This may include physicochemical and biological processes, with the latter being more advantageous due to their lower cost. Nitrogen removal is accomplished through the conventional nitrification/denitrification, nitritation/denitritation and the complete autotrophic nitrogen removal process; the latter is accomplished by nitritation coupled with the anoxic ammonium oxidation process. As anaerobic digestion effluents are characterized by low COD/TKN ratio, conventional denitrification/nitrification is not an attractive option; short-cut nitrogen removal processes are more promising. Both suspended and attached growth processes have been employed to treat the anaerobic supernatant. Specifically, the sequencing batch reactor, the membrane bioreactor, the conventional activated sludge and the moving bed biofilm reactor processes have been investigated. Physicochemical phosphorus removal via struvite precipitation has been extensively examined. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal from the anaerobic supernatant can take place through the sequencing anaerobic/aerobic process. More recently, denitrifying phosphorus removal via nitrite or nitrate has been explored. The removal of

  5. MOBILE COMPLEX FOR CATALYTIC THERMAL WASTE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedi V.E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and purpose of the basic units of the mobile waste processing complex “MPK” are described. Experimental data of catalytic purification of exhaust gases are presented. Experimental data on catalytic clearing of final gases of a designed mobile incinerator plant are shown. It is defined, that concentrating of parasitic bridging in waste gases of the complex are considerably smaller, rather than allowed by normative documents.

  6. Remote Assessment of Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    PETROLEUM REFINERIES SUPERPHOSPHATE MANUFACTURE CHEMICAL FACTORIES UFg MANUFACTURE SI LICONE AND PLASTICS STEEL MILLS AND METAL FABRICATION...manufacture, enrichment , and reprocessing; gases evolved are, for example, SF-, UFg, HF, organic solvents such as ether, NO , Kr, Xe, I-, Br». c

  7. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2006-04-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  9. Investigation into the Origin and Character of Surficial Sedimentary Deposits at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, Joseph P.; Newell, Wayne L.; DeJong, Benjamin D.

    2009-01-01

    A temporary exposure at the Midshore Regional Solid Waste Facility near Easton, MD, provided an opportunity to document the characteristics of the complex assemblage of surficial facies in that area. This unusually large cross section allowed interpretation of the changing processes that shaped the landscape in response to climate change through the late Pleistocene. Eight stratigraphic units were recognized: (1) gray, fossiliferous, muddy silt of the marine Miocene Choptank Formation; (2) coarse, crossbedded conglomerate of the late Miocene to Pliocene fluvial Pensauken Formation; (3) bioturbated muddy conglomerate interpreted as deposits of small colluvial fans; (4) pebbly, quartzose sand overlying a planar erosional surface reflecting a marine transgression; (5) irregular pods and lenses of sand and gravel deformed into bowl-shaped folds and faulted, which are interpreted as wind deposits over a semipermanent snow cover (niveo-aeolian deposits); (6) crossbedded sand and conglomerate with abundant mud partings indicating tidal influences on sinuous stream channels; (7) heavily bioturbated silt and sand with abundant root casts and flattened vesicles interpreted as aeolian loess deposits in marshy fens; and (8) pebbly sand and mud with scattered boulders and cobbles that reflect modern infill of the excavation by the operators. Soils formed on units 3, 4, and 7. Superimposed on units 4, 5, and 7 is evidence of deep freezing and permafrost development and subsequent thermokarst development after thawing, which includes large, complexly filled wedge-shaped cracks, deformed bedding and faults, fluid-injection structures, and spherical blobs of sand and mud. Each of the stratigraphic units has irregular distributions and lateral changes. The results of this study provide a unique insight into the geometry of surficial deposits that will help facilitate mapping of units, interpretation of cored intervals, and understanding of ground-penetrating radar profiles. The

  10. Sudden releases of gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupecká Hana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  11. Chemical Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  12. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  13. Selective Growth of Noble Gases at Metal/Oxide Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Oka, Hiroshi; Ohnuki, Somei

    2016-02-17

    The locations and roles of noble gases at an oxide/metal interface in oxide dispersed metal are theoretically and experimentally investigated. Oxide dispersed metal consisting of FCC Fe and Y2Hf2O7 (Y2Ti2O7) is synthesized by mechanical alloying under a saturated Ar gas environment. Transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory observes the strain field at the interface of FCC Fe {111} and Y2Hf2O7 {111} whose physical origin emerges from surface reconstruction due to charge transfer. Noble gases are experimentally observed at the oxide (Y2Ti2O7) site and calculations reveal that the noble gases segregate the interface and grow toward the oxide site. In general, the interface is defined as the trapping site for noble gases; however, transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory found evidence which shows that noble gases grow toward the oxide, contrary to the generally held idea that the interface is the final trapping site for noble gases. Furthermore, calculations show that the inclusion of He/Ar hardens the oxide, suggesting that material fractures could begin from the noble gas bubble within the oxides. Thus, experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that noble gases grow from the interface toward the oxide and that oxides behave as a trapping site for noble gases.

  14. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-13

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  15. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-19

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  16. Trapped noble gases in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Timothy D.

    1988-01-01

    The trapped noble gases in meteorites come in two main varieties, usually referred to as solar and planetary. The solar noble gases are implanted solar-wind or solar-flare materials, and thus their relative elemental abundances provide a good estimate of those of the sun. The planetary noble gases have relative elemental abundances similar to those in the terrestrial atmosphere, but there are also important distinctions. At least one other elemental pattern (subsolar) and several isotopic patterns have also been identified.

  17. Warm non-equilibrium gas phase chemistry as a possible origin of high HDO/H2O ratios in hot and dense gases : application to inner protoplanetary discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, W. -F.; Woitke, P.; Kamp, I.

    2010-01-01

    The origin of Earth oceans is controversial. Earth could have acquired its water either from hydrated silicates (wet Earth scenario) or from comets (dry Earth scenario). [HDO]/[H2O] ratios are used to discriminate between the scenarios. High [HDO]/[H2O] ratios are found in Earth oceans. These high

  18. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium controls on the abundances of clumped isotopologues of methane during thermogenic formation in laboratory experiments: Implications for the chemistry of pyrolysis and the origins of natural gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Douglas, Peter M.J.; Zhang, Shuichang; Stolper, Daniel A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lawson, Michael; Lewan, Michael; Formolo, Michael; Mi, Jingkui; He, Kun; Hu, Guoyi; Eiler, John M.

    2018-01-01

    of methane from an alkyl precursor. Other interpretations are also explored. These findings provide new insights into the chemistry of thermogenic methane generation, and may provide an explanation of the elevated apparent temperatures recorded by the methane clumped-isotope thermometer in some natural gases. However, it remains unknown if the laboratory experiments capture the processes that occur at the longer time and lower temperatures of natural gas formation.

  19. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium controls on the abundances of clumped isotopologues of methane during thermogenic formation in laboratory experiments: Implications for the chemistry of pyrolysis and the origins of natural gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanhua; Douglas, Peter M. J.; Zhang, Shuichang; Stolper, Daniel A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lawson, Michael; Lewan, Michael D.; Formolo, Michael; Mi, Jingkui; He, Kun; Hu, Guoyi; Eiler, John M.

    2018-02-01

    precursor. Other interpretations are also explored. These findings provide new insights into the chemistry of thermogenic methane generation, and may provide an explanation of the elevated apparent temperatures recorded by the methane clumped-isotope thermometer in some natural gases. However, it remains unknown if the laboratory experiments capture the processes that occur at the longer time and lower temperatures of natural gas formation.

  20. Environmental sustainability comparison of a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system and a door-to-door system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punkkinen, Henna; Merta, Elina; Teerioja, Nea; Moliis, Katja; Kuvaja, Eveliina

    2012-10-01

    Waste collection is one of the life cycle phases that influence the environmental sustainability of waste management. Pneumatic waste collection systems represent a new way of arranging waste collection in densely populated urban areas. However, limited information is available on the environmental impacts of this system. In this study, we compare the environmental sustainability of conventional door-to-door waste collection with its hypothetical pneumatic alternative. Furthermore, we analyse whether the size of the hypothetical pneumatic system, or the number of waste fractions included, have an impact on the results. Environmental loads are calculated for a hypothetical pneumatic waste collection system modelled on an existing dense urban area in Helsinki, Finland, and the results are compared to those of the prevailing, container-based, door-to-door waste collection system. The evaluation method used is the life-cycle inventory (LCI). In this study, we report the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), SO(2) and NO(x). The results indicate that replacing the prevailing system with stationary pneumatic waste collection in an existing urban infrastructure would increase total air emissions. Locally, in the waste collection area, emissions would nonetheless diminish, as collection traffic decreases. While the electricity consumption of the hypothetical pneumatic system and the origin of electricity have a significant bearing on the results, emissions due to manufacturing the system's components prove decisive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  2. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hamonangan Siregar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable. It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the Surya Institute in Indonesia to improve the mathematics education in Indonesia. In Matematika GASING, there is a step called “the critical point” that needs to be mastered for each topic. The focus of our research is the critical point for addition, that is addition of two numbers between 1 − 10 with a sum less than 20. The subject is a matriculation class at STKIP Surya and the research method used is Classroom Action Research. The statistics obtained is described using Qualitative Descriptive Statistics.

  3. Preliminary qualitative and quantitative assessment of gases from biodigestion of solid wastes in the landfill of Londrina,Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.11453

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz Audibert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials conducted in controlled landfillsor dumps are still incipient in Brazil. This paper aimed to qualify and quantify the emission of biogas in the landfill of Londrina, Paraná State. Measurements were performed by three types of tests: static closed chamber for the characterization and quantification of gas leakage by the surface layer, inspection tubes for pressure quantification and qualification of the biogas produced below the surface layer and, finally, measurements in vertical drains to quantify and qualify the biogas. Results for the flow rates of methane gas in the vertical drains ranged from 0 to 190.2 N m 3 h-1, depending on the shape of the drain and to the age of solid waste deposition. The tests with static closed chamberhad results between 1.3 and 30.6 NL h-1 m2, influenced by changes in the age of solid waste deposition, different thicknesses of the surface layer, and excessive rainfall during the tests. With the data of methane gas flow obtained by thestatic closed chambertests and by the biogas drains, it was preliminary quantified the total emission of methane in the landfill of Londrina, Paraná State.  

  4. Solidification of Simulated Liquid Effluents Originating From Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, FY-03 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. V. Raman; A. K. Herbst; B. A. Scholes; S. H. Hinckley; R. D. Colby

    2003-09-01

    In this report, the mechanism and methods of fixation of acidic waste effluents in grout form are explored. From the variations in the pH as a function of total solids addition to acidic waste effluent solutions, the stages of gellation, liquefaction, slurry formation and grout development are quantitatively revealed. Experimental results indicate the completion of these reaction steps to be significant for elimination of bleed liquid and for setting of the grout to a dimensionally stable and hardened solid within a reasonable period of about twenty eight days that is often observed in the cement and concrete industry. The reactions also suggest increases in the waste loading in the direction of decreasing acid molarity. Consequently, 1.0 molar SBW-180 waste is contained in higher quantity than the 2.8 molar SBW-189, given the same grout formulation for both effluents. The variations in the formulations involving components of slag, cement, waste and neutralizing agent are represented in the form of a ternary formulation map. The map in turn graphically reveals the relations among the various formulations and grout properties, and is useful in predicting the potential directions of waste loading in grouts with suitable properties such as slurry viscosity, Vicat hardness, and mechanical strength. A uniform formulation for the fixation of both SBW-180 and SBW-189 has emerged from the development of the formulation map. The boundaries for the processing regime on this map are 100 wt% cement to 50 wt% cement / 50 wt% slag, with waste loadings ranging from 55 wt% to 68 wt%. Within these compositional bounds all the three waste streams SBW-180, SBW-189 and Scrub solution are amenable to solidification. A large cost advantage is envisaged to stem from savings in labor, processing time, and processing methodology by adopting a uniform formulation concept for fixation of compositionally diverse waste streams. The experimental efforts contained in this report constitute the

  5. Evaluation of the generation and release of flammable gases in tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babad, H.; Johnson, G.D.; Lechelt, J.A.; Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Pederson, L.R.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Meisel, D.; Jonah, C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Ashby, E.C. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Tank 241-SY-101 is a double shell, high-level waste tank located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank contains about 1 million gallons of waste that was concentrated at the 242-S Evaporator. Shortly after the waste was put in the tank, the waste began to expand because the generation of gases. In 1990 this tank was declared to have an unreviewed safety question because of the periodic release of hydrogen and nitrous oxide. A safety program was established to conduct a characterization of the waste and vented gases and to determine an effective means to prevent the accumulation of flammable gases in the tank dome space and ventilation system. Results of the expanded characterization conducted in fiscal year 1991 are presented. The use of gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, and hydrogen-specific monitors provided a greater understanding of the vented gases. Additional instrumentation placed in the tank also helped to provide more detailed information on tank temperatures, gas pressure, and gas flow rates. An extensive laboratory study involving the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Georgia Institute of Technology was initiated for the purpose of determining the mechanisms responsible for the generation of various gases. These studies evaluate both radiolytic and thermochemical processes. Results of the first series of experiments are described.

  6. Hydrodynamics of unitary Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan E.

    Unitary fermi gases have been widely studied as they provide a tabletop archetype for re- search on strongly coupled many body systems and perfect fluids. Research into unitary fermi gases can provide insight into may other strongly interacting systems including high temperature superconductor, quark-gluon plasmas, and neutron stars. Within the unitary regime, the equilib- rium transport coefficients and thermodynamic properties are universal functions of density and temperature. Thus, unitary fermi gases provide a archetype to study nonperturbative many-body physics, which is of fundamental significance and crosses several fields. This thesis reports on two topics regarding unitary fermi gases. A recent string theory conjecture gives a lower bound for the dimensionless ratio of shear viscosity of entropy, η/s ≥ 4pi /kb . Unitary fermi gases are a candidate for prefect fluids, yet η/s is well above the string theory bound. Using a stochastic formulation of hydrodynamics, we calculate a lower bound for this ratio accounting for the momentum dissipation from fluctuations. This lower bound is in good agreement with both theoretical and experimental results. The second question addressed is the simulation of elliptic flow. Elliptic flow, first observed in 2002, is a characteristic of strongly coupled systems and has been studied in both quark-gluon plasmas and unitary fermi gases. As such, simulations of these systems are of interest. We test a variety of lattice Boltzmann models and compare the simulation results to the theoretical and experimental findings.

  7. Measuring the Speed of Sound through Gases Using Nitrocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Karen Sinclair; Reyes, Karl A.; Burnette, Brandon A.; Stepherson, Jacob R.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the heat capacity ratios, ?, of gases either through adiabatic expansion or sound velocity is a well established physical chemistry experiment. The most accurate experiments depend on an exact determination of sound origin, which necessitates the use of lasers or a wave generator, where time zero is based on an electrical trigger. Other…

  8. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...... and has just been landfilled. However, in recent years more focus has been put on C&D waste and data are starting to appear. One reason is that it has been recognized that C&D waste may include many materials that are contaminated either as part of their original design or through their use and therefore...... should be managed accordingly. Another reason is that it has been documented that a large fraction of C&D waste (about 90 %) can be easily recycled and thus can conserve landfill capacity. C&D waste may conveniently be divided into three subcategories: Buildings, roads and excavations. This chapter...

  9. Adsorption of Dissolved Gases (CH4, CO2, H2, Noble Gases) by Water-Saturated Smectite Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Gadikota, G.; Dazas, B.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of dissolved gases by water-saturated clay minerals plays important roles in a range of fields. For example, gas adsorption in on clay minerals may significantly impact the formation of CH4 hydrates in fine-grained sediments, the behavior of CH4 in shale, CO2 leakage across caprocks of geologic CO2 sequestration sites, H2 leakage across engineered clay barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories, and noble gas geochemistry reconstructions of hydrocarbon migration in the subsurface. Despite its importance, the adsorption of gases on clay minerals remains poorly understood. For example, some studies have suggested that clay surfaces promote the formation of CH4 hydrates, whereas others indicate that clay surfaces inhibit the formation of CH4 hydrates. Here, we present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the adsorption of a range of gases (CH4, CO2, H2, noble gases) on clay mineral surfaces. Our results indicate that the affinity of dissolved gases for clay mineral surfaces has a non-monotone dependence on the hydrated radius of the gas molecules. This non-monotone dependence arises from a combination of two effects: the polar nature of certain gas molecules (in particular, CO2) and the templating of interfacial water structure by the clay basal surface, which results in the presence of interfacial water "cages" of optimal size for intermediate-size gas molecules (such as Ne or Ar).

  10. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  11. Combustion of low calorific value gases in porous burners; Verbrennung von niederkalorischen Gasen in Porenbrennern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diezinger, S.; Talukdar, P.; Issendorff, F. von; Trimis, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Stroemungsmechanik Friedrich-Alexander-Univ., Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    By the use of low calorific value gases significant energy amounts can be saved, emissions can be reduced and system efficients can be increased. These mixtures are generated in different fields like waste sites and fuel cell systems with reformation of hydrocarbons. Conventional combustion techniques are not suited for the combustion of this kind of gases. Due to its high internal heat recuperation the porous burner technology has great potential for the combustion of low calorific value gases. In this work the influence of the combustion zone properties, the surface load and the educt temperature were determined by numerical simulations and experiments. (orig.)

  12. The role of atmospheric gases in global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this opening chapter of this book is to explain in simple terms what the greenhouse effect is, what its origins are, and what the properties of greenhouse gases are. I will restrict this chapter to an explanation of the physical chemistry of greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect, and not delve too much into the politics of ‘what should or should not be done’. However, one simple message to convey at the onset is that the greenhouse effect is not just about concentration le...

  13. [CFC gases in medicinal sprays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P H; Svendsen, U G

    1989-03-20

    In 1987, approximately 1.18 million aerosol dispensers for medicinal use were sold in Denmark. These contained approximately 29 tons of completely halogenized CFC gases ("Freon") and the preparations were employed for the treatment of bronchial asthma and rhinitis. The possibilities of substitutes are discussed in this article. Preparations are already available which do not contain CFC. Producers of CFC are also attempting to develop new aerosol gases which do not damage the environment. Perhaps these will be found in medicinal preparations in the future.

  14. Removal of co2 and/or h2s and/or cos from gases containing these constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appl, M.; Fuerst, E.; Henrici, H.J.; Kuessner, K.; Volkamer, K.; Wagner, U.

    1982-06-22

    An aqueous solution containing from 0.81 to 1.3 moles of piperazine per liter is used as a washing agent for removing impurities such as h2s, co2 and cos from gases. Piperazine can also be used, in amounts of up to 0.8 mole per liter, together with physical or chemical solvents, to accelerate the absorption of h2s, co2 and cos. The washing process is used for natural gases, coke-oven gases, gases from the gasification of coal and synthesis gases, of any origin.

  15. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    showed that waste management personnel have contributed immensely to the management of waste in the area. However .... problem contributing to the ongoing climate change by large emissions of greenhouse gases. .... because failure to manage waste properly exposes people to increased risk of infectious diseases.

  16. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noble Gases as Mantle Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, D. R.; Porcelli, D.

    2003-12-01

    The study of the noble gases has been associated with some of the most illustrious names in experimental science, and some of the most profound discoveries. Fundamental advances in nuclear chemistry and physics - including the discovery of isotopes - have resulted from their study, earning Nobel Prizes for a number of early practitioners (Rutherford in 1908; Soddy in 1921; Aston in 1922) as well as for their discoverers (Ramsay and Rayleigh in 1904). Within the Earth Sciences, the noble gases found application soon after discovery - helium was used as a chronometer to estimate formation ages of various minerals (Strutt, 1908). In more recent times, the emphasis of noble gas research has shifted to include their exploitation as inert tracers of geochemical processes. In large part, this shift stems from the realization that primordial volatiles have been stored within the Earth since the time of planetary accretion and are still leaking to the surface today. In this introduction, we give a brief overview of the discovery of the noble gases and their continuing utility in the Earth Sciences, prior to setting into perspective the present contribution, which focuses on noble gases in the Earth's mantle.

  18. LEARNING THE CRITICAL POINTS FOR ADDITION IN MATEMATIKA GASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hamonangan Siregar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable. It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the Surya Institute in Indonesia to improve the mathematics education in Indonesia. In Matematika GASING, there is a step called “the critical point” that needs to be mastered for each topic. The focus of our research is the critical point for addition, that is addition of two numbers between 1 − 10 with a sum less than 20. The subject is a matriculation class at STKIP Surya and the research method used is Classroom Action Research. The statistics obtained is described using Qualitative Descriptive Statistics.Keyword: Matematika GASING, Addition, Critical Points, Classroom Action Research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.5.2.1500.160-169

  19. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-22

    Jun 22, 2013 ... leaf litter, sugarcane trash, rice husk and saw dust using millipedes were found to be a promising technology for utilization of organic wastes and converting them into organic manure. This could be a promising technology for reducing the usage of synthetic fertilizers (Karthigeyanm and Alagesan,. 2011).

  20. EDITORIAL: Cold Quantum GasesEditorial: Cold Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassen, W.; Hemmerich, A.; Arimondo, E.

    2003-04-01

    This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of cold quantum gases. Different aspects of atom optics, matter wave interferometry, laser manipulation of atoms and molecules, and production of very cold and degenerate gases are presented. The variety of subjects demonstrates the steadily expanding role associated with this research area. The topics discussed in this issue, extending from basic physics to applications of atom optics and of cold atomic samples, include: bulletBose--Einstein condensation bulletFermi degenerate gases bulletCharacterization and manipulation of quantum gases bulletCoherent and nonlinear cold matter wave optics bulletNew schemes for laser cooling bulletCoherent cold molecular gases bulletUltra-precise atomic clocks bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to metrology and spectroscopy bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to quantum computing bulletNanoprobes and nanolithography. This special issue is published in connection with the 7th International Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, held in Lunteren, The Netherlands, from 28 September to 2 October 2002. This was the last in a series of Workshops organized with the support of the European Community that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The scientific part of the Workshop was managed by A Hemmerich, W Hogervorst, W Vassen and J T M Walraven, with input from members of the International Programme Committee who are listed below. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Petra de Gijsel from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. The Workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation (programme BEC2000+), the European Networks 'Cold Quantum Gases (CQG)', coordinated by E Arimondo, and 'Cold Atoms and Ultraprecise Atomic Clocks (CAUAC)', coordinated by J Henningsen, by the German Physical Society (DFG), by

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Technol. Arts Res. J., April-June 2015, 4(2): 164-180. 168. Table 2: Actinomycetes with potent antimicrobial activity and their origin (soil). Isolates. Origin (soil). PO-01, PO-02. Mandagadde. PO-03, PO-04. Mahishi. PO-05. Bejjavalli. PO-06. Kudumallige. PO-07, PO-08. Maaluru. PO-09, PO-10 Thirthahalli. PO-11. Kaimara.

  2. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  3. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  4. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  5. Exposure of postoperative nurses to exhaled anesthetic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessler, D I; Badgwell, J M

    1998-11-01

    The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has established recommended exposure limits of 25 parts per million (ppm) as a time-weighted average for nitrous oxide and a ceiling of 2 ppm for volatile anesthetics. We quantified exposure of postanesthetic nurses to exhaled anesthetic gases. This study was conducted in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) of a medium-sized hospital. PACU air exchanges averaged 8 vol/h; however, much of this air was recirculated. We evaluated 50 adults anesthetized with either isoflurane (n = 19) or desflurane (n = 31). Roughly half the patients were tracheally extubated in the operating room, whereas the others were extubated just after admission to the PACU. Exhaled anesthetic gases were sampled through a 20-m hose attached to the participating nurses' shoulders (breathing zone). We also evaluated nursing exposure to exhaled anesthetic gases during recovery of 15 patients who had been anesthetized with nitrous oxide. Exposure was quantified with lapel dosimeters. Anesthetic and recovery durations were each approximately 1 h, with most patients being tracheally extubated in the PACU. Breathing-zone anesthetic concentrations in the patients given isoflurane exceeded NIOSH recommendations in 37% of the patients, representing 12% of recovery time. Breathing-zone anesthetic concentrations in the patients given desflurane, however, exceeded NIOSH limits in 87% of the patients, representing 49% of recovery time. Altogether, noncompliant episodes were detected in 68% of these patients, representing 35% of the entire recovery duration. Breathing-zone anesthetic concentrations in the patients given nitrous oxide exceeded NIOSH limits in 53% of the patients. Our data suggest that postoperative nurses' exposure to exhaled anesthetic gases exceeds NIOSH limits under some circumstances. Some epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to waste anesthetic gases may be associated with reproductive toxicity. Accordingly, the

  6. Dipolar quantum gases and liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Tilman

    2017-04-01

    Dipolar interactions are fundamentally different from the usual van der Waals forces in real gases. Besides the anisotropy the dipolar interaction is nonlocal and as such allows for self organized structure formation. Candidates for dipolar species are polar molecules, Rydberg atoms and magnetic atoms. More than ten years ago the first dipolar effects in a quantum gas were observed in an ultracold Chromium gas. By the use of a Feshbach resonance a purely dipolar quantum gas was observed three years after. By now dipolar interaction effects have been observed in lattices and also for polar molecules. Recently it became possible to study degenerate gases of lanthanide atoms among which one finds the most magnetic atoms. Similar to the Rosensweig instability in classical magnetic ferrofluids self-organized structure formation was expected. In our experiments with quantum gases of Dysprosium atoms we could recently observe the formation of a droplet crystal. In contrast to theoretical mean field based predictions the superfluid droplets did not collapse. We find that this unexpected stability is due to beyond meanfield quantum corrections of the Lee-Huang-Yang type. We observe and study self-bound droplets which can interfere with each other. These droplets are 100 million times less dense than liquid helium droplets and open new perspectives as a truly isolated quantum system.

  7. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  8. Fuel gases from pyrolysis of waste Polyethylene sachets | Ademiluyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  9. Fuel gases from pyrolysis of waste Polyethylene sachets 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    catalytic pyrolysis of polyethylene in spouted bed reactor and obtained products ranging from C2 to C9. It was concluded that the rate of weight loss is greatly influenced by the .... reaction to form these 18 gaseous products at higher temperatures. Fig 3 Effect of Temperature and time on the yield of gaseous products. 0. 100.

  10. Existence of solitary waves in dipolar quantum gases

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    We study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation arising in the mean field description of dipolar quantum gases. Under the assumption of sufficiently strong dipolar interactions, the existence of standing waves, and hence solitons, is proved together with some of their properties. This gives a rigorous argument for the possible existence of solitary waves in BoseEinstein condensates, which originate solely due to the dipolar interaction between the particles. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    potential to transport radionuclides in groundwater. The aim of the study of colloids in the Forsmark 2.3 site investigation was to quantify and determine the composition of colloids in groundwater samples from the boreholes. There are both inorganic and organic colloids, and the site investigation measured both types. - Gases (Chapter 3): Dissolved gases in groundwater contribute to the mass of dissolved species. The distribution and composition of dissolved gases in deep groundwater are important to understand in the safety assessment of a deep geological nuclear waste repository: Micro bubbles of gas may potentially transport radionuclides from the repository to the surface. Oxygen, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are parts of fundamental redox couples that participate in several solid-aqueous phase transformations such as the precipitation of ferric iron oxides, iron sulphide and calcite. Methane and hydrogen, may serve as sources of energy to various microbiological processes

  12. Solid Waste Biodegradation Enhancements and the Evaluation of Analytical Methods Used to Predict Waste Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Ryan J.

    2002-01-01

    Conventional landfills are built to dispose of the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated each year. A relatively new type of landfill, called a bioreactor landfill, is designed to optimize the biodegradation of the contained waste to stabilized products. Landfills with stabilized waste pose little threat to the environment from ozone depleting gases and groundwater contamination. Limited research has been done to determine the importance of biodegradation enhancement tech...

  13. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARKER, S.A.

    2006-07-27

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 5 is the annual update of the methodology and calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  14. Mixed Waste Integrated Program: A technology assessment for mercury-containing mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perona, J.J.; Brown, C.H.

    1993-03-01

    The treatment of mixed wastes must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for chemically hazardous species and also must provide adequate control of the radioactive species. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development established the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) to develop mixed-waste treatment technology in support of the Mixed Low-Level Waste Program. Many DOE mixed-waste streams contain mercury. This report is an assessment of current state-of-the-art technologies for mercury separations from solids, liquids, and gases. A total of 19 technologies were assessed. This project is funded through the Chemical-Physical Technology Support Group of the MWIP.

  15. Waste catalysts for waste polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmiaton, A; Garforth, A

    2007-01-01

    Catalytic cracking of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Two fresh and two steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as two used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Also, inert microspheres (MS3) were used as a fluidizing agent to compare with thermal cracking process at BP pilot plant at Grangemouth, Scotland, which used sand as its fluidizing agent. The results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product are fresh FCC catalysts>steamed FCC catalysts approximately used FCC catalysts. The thermal cracking process using MS3 showed that at 450 degrees C, the product distribution gave 46 wt% wax, 14% hydrocarbon gases, 8% gasoline, 0.1% coke and 32% nonvolatile product. In general, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.

  16. [Pollution of the workplace by anesthetic gases. Causes and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, W; Shimada, K; Goerig, M; Fuhlrott, M; Schulte am Esch, J

    1991-06-01

    Waste anesthetic gas concentrations were measured in areas corresponding to the breathing zones of the anesthetists and operating room nurses for personal exposure (n = 27, time-weighted values) and during special work practices (n = 65). Leaks related to anesthetic machines and high-pressure nitrous oxide components were investigated during (n = 60) and after anesthesia (n = 85). The effect of a local scavenging system on occupational exposure during inhalation induction of anesthesia in children was studied (n = 60). Concentrations of nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane were determined by using active dosimeters (SKC 222) and different infrared gas-analyzers. Factors that increase waste anesthetic gas concentrations in operating rooms can be divided into several categories, such as low air conditioning systems, anesthetists' work practices, equipment leakage, including leakage from high-pressure nitrous oxide systems, and inadequate scavenging devices. Equipment leakage is almost invariably present in low-pressure components of the anesthesia machine because so many seals and joints are necessary to permit disassembly for cleaning and replacement. Waste anesthetic gases are also distributed in the exhaled air of patients recovering from anesthesia. To restrict the levels, exposure must be as low as can be achieved with reasonable efforts. Thus, the anesthetic equipment should be designed to avoid leakage, leakage tests should be performed before the use of anesthetic machines, and waste anesthetic gases should be scavenged by central as well as by local systems. Regular and periodic use of a trace gas analyzer permits direct observation of gas leakage and enables anesthetists to modify their work technique in order to reduce avoidable leakage.

  17. Mechanics of liquids and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Loitsyanskii, L G; Jones, W P

    1966-01-01

    Mechanics of Liquids and Gases, Second Edition is a 10-chapter text that covers significant revisions concerning the dynamics of an ideal gas, a viscous liquid and a viscous gas.After an expanded introduction to the fundamental properties and methods of the mechanics of fluids, this edition goes on dealing with the kinetics and general questions of dynamics. The next chapters describe the one-dimensional pipe flow of a gas with friction, the elementary theory of the shock tube; Riemann's theory of the wave propagation of finite intensity, and the theory of plane subsonic and supersonic flows.

  18. Ultrasonic waves in classical gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.

    2017-12-01

    The velocity and absorption coefficient for the plane sound waves in a classical gas are obtained by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation, which describes the reaction of the single-particle distribution function to a periodic external field. Within the linear response theory, the nonperturbative dispersion equation valid for all sound frequencies is derived and solved numerically. The results are in agreement with the approximate analytical solutions found for both the frequent- and rare-collision regimes. These results are also in qualitative agreement with the experimental data for ultrasonic waves in dilute gases.

  19. Ammonia removal from air stream and biogas by a H2SO4 impregnated adsorbent originating from waste wood-shavings and biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuejun Jack; Tak, Jin Kwon; Johnson, Richard L

    2009-07-15

    A new and cost-effective adsorbent N-TRAP, made from waste wood-shavings and anaerobically digestion biosolids and impregnated with H(2)SO(4), was applied for the ammonia removal from air stream and biogas with high efficiency and effectiveness. Bearing a 75-80 and 65 wt.% sulfuric acid, the N-TRAPs mediated with wood shavings and biosolids showed the maximum ammonia adsorption capacity of 260-280 and 230 mg g(-1), respectively. Gas temperatures (20 and 60 degrees C) and moisture content (100% relative humidity) had no significantly negative effect on ammonia capture performance when temperature in the fixed-bed column was kept equalled to or slightly above the feed gas temperature. The pressure drop increased significantly when NH(3) began to break through the N-TRAP stripper due to the formation of ammonium sulfate blocking the vacuum space of packed adsorbent. At last, an alternative N-TRAP filter bed design was proposed to resolve the problem of pressure drop evolution.

  20. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    in a sustainable way. Therefore, the objective of th was to assess poultry production practice productivity of indigenous and exotic chicken in th area. Original ... systems. Method of Data Collection. The data was collected from the four RKs purposively selected from each agro-ecology, 15 households who owned flock of ...

  2. Assessment of environmental influence of bentonite and lustrous carbon carrier - in an aspect of gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bobrowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission results of the selected gases from a bentonite-carbon mixture and from dusts originated from dry de-dusting of thegreen sand processing plant (at high temperatures are presented in the paper. In order to check and compare samples of dusts andbentonite-carbon mixtures in respect of emission of gases the Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA was performed by means of the massspectrometry method. This method allows to determine emission conditions of the selected chemical compounds.

  3. Researches on the development of new composite materials complete / partially biodegradable using natural textile fibers of new vegetable origin and those recovered from textile waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, M. P.; Bulei, C.; Heput, T.; Kiss, I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop new fully / partially biodegradable composite materials by using new natural fibers and those recovered from various wastes. Thus, the research aims to obtain some composites with matrix of various types of polymeric materials and the reinforcement phase of textile materials (of different natures, morphologies and composites) so that the resulting products to be (bio)degradable. The textile inserts used as raffle are ecological, non–toxic and biodegradable and they contain (divided or in combination) bast fibers (flax, hemp, jute) and other vegetable fibers (cotton, wool) as plain yarn or fabric, which can replace fibers of glass commonly used in polymeric composites. The main activities described in this article are carried out during the first phase of the research (phase I – initiation of research) and they are oriented towards the choice of types of textile inserts from which the composites will be obtained (the materials needed for the raffle), the choice of the types of polymers (the necessary materials for matrices) and choosing the variants of composites with different types and proportions of the constituent content (proposals and working variants) and choosing the right method for obtaining samples of composite materials (realization technology). The purpose of the research is to obtain composite materials with high structural, thermo–mechanical and / or tribological performances, according to ecological norms and international requirements in order to replace the existing classical materials, setting up current, innovative and high performance solutions, for applications in top areas such as automotive industry and not only.

  4. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  5. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  6. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  7. Angular correlation studies in noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.

  8. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  9. Fullerenes: An extraterrestrial carbon carrier phase for noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bunch, Ted E.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, we report on the discovery of naturally occurring fullerenes (C60 to C400) in the Allende and Murchison meteorites and some sediment samples from the 65 million-year-old Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary layer (KTB). Unlike the other pure forms of carbon (diamond and graphite), fullerenes are extractable in an organic solvent (e.g., toluene or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene). The recognition of this unique property led to the detection and isolation of the higher fullerenes in the Kratschmer/Huffmann arc evaporated graphite soot and in the carbon material in the meteorite and impact deposits. By further exploiting the unique ability of the fullerene cage structure to encapsulate and retain noble gases, we have determined that both the Allende and Murchison fullerenes and the KTB fullerenes contain trapped noble gases with ratios that can only be described as extraterrestrial in origin. PMID:10725367

  10. Biological effects of noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růzicka, J; Benes, J; Bolek, L; Markvartová, V

    2007-01-01

    Noble gases are known for their inertness. They do not react chemically with any element at normal temperature and pressure. Through that, some of them are known to be biologically active by their sedative, hypnotic and analgesic properties. Common inhalation anesthetics are characterized by some disadvantages (toxicity, decreased cardiac output, etc). Inhalation of xenon introduces anesthesia and has none of the above disadvantages, hence xenon seems to be the anesthetic gas of the future (with just one disadvantage - its cost). It is known that argon has similar anesthetic properties (under hyperbaric conditions), which is much cheaper and easily accessible. The question is if this could be used in clinical practice, in anesthesia of patients who undergo treatment in the hyperbaric chamber. Xenon was found to be organ-protective. Recent animal experiments indicated that xenon decreases infarction size after ischemic attack on brain or heart. The goal of our study is to check if hyperbaric argon has properties similar to those of xenon.

  11. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G.; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2015-12-01

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.

  12. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  13. Recover heat from waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Using these guidelines, engineers can address critical design problems associated with burning process-waste streams and select cost-effective waste-heat boilers. Incinerating contaminant streams is a win-win situation: (1) complete destruction of pollutant(s) is attained and (2) valuable thermal energy is recovered as steam and returned to process, thus conserving energy. However, recovering thermal energy from incinerated flue-gas streams contains some caveats. This treatment method creates a large high-temperature flue gas from which valuable thermal energy is recovered as saturated or superheated steam. Unfortunately, because a process-waste stream is used as feed, this stream will have variations in contaminant and component concentrations which influence the load on the boiler. Also, burning contaminants may create acid gases which will accelerate corrosion problems for the boiler at elevated temperatures. The following guidelines and checklist clarify the do`s and don`ts when designing waste-heat boilers.

  14. Comparison of natural gases accumulated in Oligocene strata with hydrous pyrolysis gases from Menilite Shales of the Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Curtis, John B.; Lewan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the molecular and isotopic compositions of gases generated from different kerogen types (i.e., Types I/II, II, IIS and III) in Menilite Shales by sequential hydrous pyrolysis experiments. The experiments were designed to simulate gas generation from source rocks at pre-oil-cracking thermal maturities. Initially, rock samples were heated in the presence of liquid water at 330 ??C for 72 h to simulate early gas generation dominated by the overall reaction of kerogen decomposition to bitumen. Generated gas and oil were quantitatively collected at the completion of the experiments and the reactor with its rock and water was resealed and heated at 355 ??C for 72 h. This condition simulates late petroleum generation in which the dominant overall reaction is bitumen decomposition to oil. This final heating equates to a cumulative thermal maturity of 1.6% Rr, which represents pre-oil-cracking conditions. In addition to the generated gases from these two experiments being characterized individually, they are also summed to characterize a cumulative gas product. These results are compared with natural gases produced from sandstone reservoirs within or directly overlying the Menilite Shales. The experimentally generated gases show no molecular compositions that are distinct for the different kerogen types, but on a total organic carbon (TOC) basis, oil prone kerogens (i.e., Types I/II, II and IIS) generate more hydrocarbon gas than gas prone Type III kerogen. Although the proportionality of methane to ethane in the experimental gases is lower than that observed in the natural gases, the proportionality of ethane to propane and i-butane to n-butane are similar to those observed for the natural gases. ??13C values of the experimentally generated methane, ethane and propane show distinctions among the kerogen types. This distinction is related to the ??13C of the original kerogen, with 13C enriched kerogen generating more 13C enriched hydrocarbon gases than

  15. Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. Fluctuations in the

  16. Waste management and climate protection. Contribution of Bavarian waste management for greenhouse gas minimization; Abfallwirtschaft und Klimaschutz. Beitrag der bayerischen Abfallwirtschaft zur Treibhausgas-Minderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peche, R.; Kreibe, S. [bifa Umweltinstitut, Augsburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    bifa created a material flow model for approximately 23 million tons of Bavarian municipal and industrial waste that incorporates collection of waste, waste disposal and processing and treatment of residual material. bifa determined the influence of these material flows on emissions of greenhouse gases. The analysis shows that the Bavarian waste management achieved a reduction of greenhouse gases in the municipal and industrial waste sector that amounted to 3.2 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO{sub 2}E) in 2003, thus reducing environmental impact considerably. To see the overall reduction of greenhouse gases it is however necessary to compare the system of waste collection, waste treatment and waste processing with a fictitious scenario of waste disposal exclusively via landfill. This would cause an environmental load of 9.58 million tons CO{sub 2}E. Together with the amount of reduction attained in 2003, an overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 12.78 millions tons CO{sub 2}E has thus been achieved by the Bavarian waste management. Analysis of possible future waste processing and waste avoidance measures showed two areas with significant additional potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. One is waste avoidance - e. g. through increased municipal counselling - however, this is difficult to realize. The other possibility is the optimisation of bio-waste processing. (orig.)

  17. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+, with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp. Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc. on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs, affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR system promotes mercury oxidation by 34–85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP and fabric filter (FF remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD captures 60–95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs. For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66–82 % of total mercury in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29–90 % from non-ferrous metal

  18. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  19. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ± 3.0% of the NIST-accepted value or other similar standards we approve, and meet the stability..., such as a compressed-gas cylinder. (d) To maintain stability and purity of gas standards, use good..., span, and calibration gases. For example, it may be necessary to store bottles of condensable gases in...

  20. Properties and Bibliography of GaSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Brahim-Otsmane 1993) and (Fargues 1993). Growth of Fullerene thin films on a GaSe substrate is covered by (Sakurai 1993). There is some literature on the...and GaSe samples." Experimentelle Technik der Physik. 37 173-185 Stadnik, V. A. (1988). "Optical bistability, the pulsation effect, and 95 GaS. Page 55

  1. Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in the Atmosphere Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by ...

  2. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calibration gas must not exceed five percent of the NO content); CO2 and purified nitrogen. Note: For the HFID... accuracy of the mixing device must be such that the concentration of the diluted gases may be determined to... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90...

  3. Hyperpolarized noble gases as contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gases ((3)He and (129)Xe) can provide NMR signal enhancements of 10,000 to 100,000 times that of thermally polarized gases and have shown great potential for applications in lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by greatly enhancing the sensitivity and contrast. These gases obtain a highly polarized state by employing a spin exchange optical pumping technique. In this chapter, the underlying physics of spin exchange optical pumping for production of hyperpolarized noble gases is explained and the basic components and procedures for building a polarizer are described. The storage and delivery strategies of hyperpolarized gases for in vivo imaging are discussed. Many of the problems that are likely to be encountered in practical experiments and the corresponding detailed approaches to overcome them are also discussed.

  4. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  5. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  6. Organized and optimized composting of agro-waste some important considerations and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Shilpa

    2013-01-01

    In the modern industrialized society, generation of solid waste, such as agricultural waste, yard waste, waste paper and food waste is increasing at an alarming rate. In countries, like India, a common method of their disposal adopted by farmers, agro- industries, municipal workers and contracting agencies is to burn such waste on site or in incinerators leading to emission of green house gases and release of pollutants directly into atmosphere. In developed countries, these solid wastes are disposed of through landfilling, which are clogging under ever-increasing load. Emission of gases from land- fills poses yet another environmental challenge. Today, composting offers a promising solution to disposal of agro-waste with minimum harmful impact on environment. Need of the hour is to carry out composting in an organized and controlled manner to derive maximum benefits with minimum undesirable effects and researchers are attempting to compost agro-wastes with these objectives in mind.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO REDUCE EMISSIONS OF NOXIOUS GASES RESULTING FROM LIVESTOCK FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Smurzyńska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the animal production, which is increasingly expanding, it comes to harmful gas emissions. These emissions relate to both greenhouse and odorous gases emissions. The resulting volatile compounds also contribute to the formation of acid rain, eutrophication of water aquens and soils, corrosion in livestock buildings and damage of the ozone layer. Considering the existing problem, solutions neutralizing the impact of animal production on the environment, are being looked for. Moreover, numerous activities in the way of nutritional and technological solutions are undertaken. Nutritional techniques are based on diet modification and require continuous monitoring of livestock animals. On the other hand, technological solutions are taking action to reduce emissions of gases from livestock buildings and slurry management. The proposed ways of disposing slurry result in different effects in terms of reduction of dangerous gases. They require the implementation of additional actions leading, among other things, to the proper animal waste disposal.

  8. The unspoken food waste crisis: a behavioral challenge

    OpenAIRE

    How Tam Fat, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Food waste has been linked to the elevated level of methane gases that presents threats to the environment and a somber future for the years to come. Understanding the food waste phenomenon through the post-consumer behavior is key to achieving a sustainable future. Behavioral analysis can offer the methods to recognize the determinants and driving force behind food waste in households. Efforts to raise awareness and create c...

  9. Investigating tunable KRb gases and Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils Byg

    2015-01-01

    We present the production of dual-species Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K and 87Rb with tunable interactions. A dark spontaneous force optical trap was used for 87Rb to reduce the losses in 39K originating from light-assisted collisions in the magneto optical trapping phase. Using sympathetic...... for dual-species condensates with tunable interactions. Employing the dual-species condensates, the miscible to immiscible phase transition was investigated. By applying an empirical model, the transition was used to determine the background scattering length. Two species quantum gases with tunable...

  10. Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-08-16

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The model is based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. This constitutes the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of SR and LA (BSC 2003a) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2002a). The technical work plan is governed by the procedures of AP-SIII.10Q, Models. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model: (1) Impacts of magma intrusion on the components of engineered barrier system (e.g., drip shields and cladding) of emplacement drifts in Zone 1, and the fate of waste forms. (2) Impacts of conducting magma heat and diffusing magma gases on the drip shields, waste packages, and cladding in the Zone 2 emplacement drifts adjacent to the intruded drifts. (3) Impacts of intrusion on Zone 1 in-drift thermal and geochemical environments, including seepage hydrochemistry. The scope of this model only includes impacts to the components stated above, and does not include impacts to other engineered barrier system (EBS) components such as the invert and

  11. Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-11-15

    Nov 15, 1996 ... Public health surveillanre: Historical origins, methods and evaluation. Bull World .... collected by the National Intelligence Service from the truck ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table I. Origin of respondents. Place of origin. Number. Percentage. Durban. 75. 20.8. East Rand. 49. 13.6. Johannesburg. 50. 13.9.

  13. Pyrolysis and combustion kinetics and emissions of waste lube oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Rico, Maria F.; Martin-Gullon, Ignacio; Fullana, Andres; Conesa, Juan A.; Font, Rafael [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad de Alicante, PO Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    The present work studies first the kinetics of the global primary thermal decomposition of raw waste lubricant oils in helium atmosphere conditions and with different proportions of helium:oxygen by TGA. In addition, pyrolysis and partial oxidation runs were carried out in a tubular reactor at 723 and 1123 K, where the volatiles and semivolatiles evolved were quantified by gas chromatography. TGA analysis shows nearly no difference between helium and helium-oxygen atmosphere, yielding no appreciable residue. Primary decomposition, which takes place between 450 and 700 K, can be modeled with two different processes: the main one (92.6% of the initial material) is an evaporation of the motor oil (with apparent zero order and a kinetic constant dependent on the mass and heating rate) and a small contribution of a typical solid carbonaceous pyrolysis. In the tubular reactor, gases evolved in pyrolysis at 773 K corroborate TG findings that the process is mainly an evaporation, with little changes with respect to the original chemical structure of the oil. Nevertheless, the gas composition changes completely in the presence of air, where the partial oxidation in the gas phase after evaporation yields lower chain paraffins and olefines. Gas evolution at 1123 K is completely different, yielding showing typical cracked flue gas composition: light gases with abundant olefins and poly-condensed aromatics.

  14. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  15. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  16. Atomic physics: Cold gases venture into Flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Keith

    2007-09-01

    Vortex structures have revealed a lot about the nature of three-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. They play an even bigger part in two-dimensional cold atomic gases and drive a fundamentally different phase transition.

  17. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  18. Phase space methods for degenerate quantum gases

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, Bryan J; Barnett, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental progress has enabled cold atomic gases to be studied at nano-kelvin temperatures, creating new states of matter where quantum degeneracy occurs - Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases. Such quantum states are of macroscopic dimensions. This book presents the phase space theory approach for treating the physics of degenerate quantum gases, an approach already widely used in quantum optics. However, degenerate quantum gases involve massive bosonic and fermionic atoms, not massless photons. The book begins with a review of Fock states for systems of identical atoms, where large numbers of atoms occupy the various single particle states or modes. First, separate modes are considered, and here the quantum density operator is represented by a phase space distribution function of phase space variables which replace mode annihilation, creation operators, the dynamical equation for the density operator determines a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution function, and measurable...

  19. The Radioactive Waste Management at Studsvik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, R.; Lindskog, A.

    1966-04-15

    The report was originally prepared as a contribution to the discussions in an IAEA panel on economics of radioactive waste management held in Vienna from 13 - 17 December 1965. It contains the answers and comments to the questions of a questionnaire for the panel concerning the various operations associated with the management (collection, transport, treatment, discharge, storage, and operational monitoring) of: - radioactive liquid wastes, except high-level effluents from reactor fuel recovering operations; - solid wastes, except those produced from treatment of high level wastes; - gaseous wastes produced from treatment of the foregoing liquid and solid wastes; - equipment decontamination facilities and radioactive laundries.

  20. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  1. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Arazim, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  2. Source gases: Concentrations, emissions, and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Paul J.; Harriss, Robert; Penkett, Stuart A.; Makide, Yoshihiro; Sanhueza, Eugenio; Alyea, Fred N.; Rowland, F. Sherwood; Blake, Don; Sasaki, Toru; Cunnold, Derek M.

    1991-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that influence levels of stratospheric ozone (O3) by transporting species containing halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen to the stratosphere. Examples are the CFC's, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). Other source gases that also come under consideration in an atmospheric O3 context are those that are involved in the O3 or hydroxyl (OH) radical chemistry of the troposphere. Examples are CH4, carbon monoxide (CO), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC's). Most of the source gases, along with carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O), are climatically significant and thus affect stratospheric O3 levels by their influence on stratospheric temperatures. Carbonyl sulphide (COS) could affect stratospheric O3 through maintenance of the stratospheric sulphate aerosol layer, which may be involved in heterogeneous chlorine-catalyzed O3 destruction. The previous reviews of trends and emissions of source gases, either from the context of their influence on atmospheric O3 or global climate change, are updated. The current global abundances and concentration trends of the trace gases are given in tabular format.

  3. Automotive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigard, Selma E; Shariaty, Pooya; Niknaddaf, Saeid; Lashaki, Masoud Jahandar; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher

    2015-10-01

    A review of the literature from 2014 related to automotive wastes is presented. Topics include solid wastes from autobodies and tires as well as vehicle emissions to soil and air as a result of the use of conventional and alternative fuels. Potential toxicological and health risks related to automotive wastes are also discussed.

  4. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. The Use of Microwave Incineration to Process Biological Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Covington, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The handling and disposal of solid waste matter that has biological or biohazardous components is a difficult issue for hospitals, research laboratories, and industry. NASA faces the same challenge as it is developing regenerative systems that will process waste materials into materials that can be used to sustain humans living in space for extended durations. Plants provide critical functions in such a regenerative life support scheme in that they photosynthesize carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The edible portions of the plant provide a food source for the crew. Inedible portions can be processed into materials that are more recyclable. The Advanced Life Support Division at NASA Ames Research Center has been evaluating a microwave incinerator that will oxidize inedible plant matter into carbon dioxide and water. The commercially available microwave incinerator is produced by Matsushita Electronic Instruments Corporation of Japan. Microwave incineration is a technology that is simple, safe, and compact enough for home use. It also has potential applications for institutions that produce biological or biohazardous waste. The incinerator produces a sterile ash that has only 13% of the mass of the original waste. The authors have run several sets of tests with the incinerator to establish its viability in processing biological material. One goal of the tests is to show that the incinerator does not generate toxic compounds as a byproduct of the combustion process. This paper will describe the results of the tests, including analyses of the resulting ash and exhaust gases. The significance of the results and their implications on commercial applications of the technology will also be discussed.

  6. IGNEOUS INTRUSION IMPACTS ON WASTE PACKAGES AND WASTE FORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2004-04-19

    The purpose of this model report is to assess the potential impacts of igneous intrusion on waste packages and waste forms in the emplacement drifts at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The models are based on conceptual models and includes an assessment of deleterious dynamic, thermal, hydrologic, and chemical impacts. The models described in this report constitute the waste package and waste form impacts submodel of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) model assessing the impacts of a hypothetical igneous intrusion event on the repository total system performance. This submodel is carried out in accordance with Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA (BSC 2004 [DIRS:167796]) and Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approaches (BSC 2003 [DIRS: 166296]). The technical work plan was prepared in accordance with AP-2.27Q, Planning for Science Activities. Any deviations from the technical work plan are documented in the following sections as they occur. The TSPA-LA approach to implementing the models for waste package and waste form response during igneous intrusion is based on identification of damage zones. Zone 1 includes all emplacement drifts intruded by the basalt dike, and Zone 2 includes all other emplacement drifts in the repository that are not in Zone 1. This model report will document the following model assessments: (1) Mechanical and thermal impacts of basalt magma intrusion on the invert, waste packages and waste forms of the intersected emplacement drifts of Zone 1. (2) Temperature and pressure trends of basaltic magma intrusion intersecting Zone 1 and their potential effects on waste packages and waste forms in Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (3) Deleterious volatile gases, exsolving from the intruded basalt magma and their potential effects on waste packages of Zone 2 emplacement drifts. (4) Post-intrusive physical

  7. Enduring originalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pojanowski, Jeffrey A; Walsh, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    ... originalist. This insight animates what many have begun to call the "positive turn" in originalism. Defenses of originalism in this vein are "positive" in that they are based on the status of the Constitution, and constitutional law, as positive law...

  8. Status report on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culler, F.L. Jr.; McLain, S. (comps.)

    1957-06-25

    A comprehensive survey of waste disposal techniques, requirements, costs, hazards, and long-range considerations is presented. The nature of high level wastes from reactors and chemical processes, in the form of fission product gases, waste solutions, solid wastes, and particulate solids in gas phase, is described. Growth predictions for nuclear reactor capacity and the associated fission product and transplutonic waste problem are made and discussed on the basis of present knowledge. Biological hazards from accumulated wastes and potential hazards from reactor accidents, ore and feed material processing, chemical reprocessing plants, and handling of fissionable and fertile material after irradiation and decontamination are surveyed. The waste transportation problem is considered from the standpoints of magnitude of the problem, present regulations, costs, and cooling periods. The possibilities for ultimate waste management and/or disposal are reviewed and discussed. The costs of disposal, evaporation, storage tanks, and drum-drying are considered.

  9. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  10. Classification of waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.P.; Sauer, M.; Rojahn, T. [Versuchsatomkraftwerk GmbH, Kahl am Main (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A barrel gamma scanning unit has been in use at the VAK for the classification of radioactive waste materials since 1998. The unit provides the facility operator with the data required for classification of waste barrels. Once these data have been entered into the AVK data processing system, the radiological status of raw waste as well as pre-treated and processed waste can be tracked from the point of origin to the point at which the waste is delivered to a final storage. Since the barrel gamma scanning unit was commissioned in 1998, approximately 900 barrels have been measured and the relevant data required for classification collected and analyzed. Based on the positive results of experience in the use of the mobile barrel gamma scanning unit, the VAK now offers the classification of barrels as a service to external users. Depending upon waste quantity accumulation, this measurement unit offers facility operators a reliable and time-saving and cost-effective means of identifying and documenting the radioactivity inventory of barrels scheduled for final storage. (orig.)

  11. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014.

  12. Municipal Waste Incinerator Public Works Center, Yokosuka Japan Evaluation and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Combustible Material Not Requiring Processing 18 C. Wood Shredder 18 £ D. Refuse Mixing and Charging 19 Ill. The Municipal Waste Incinerator 19 A...Description of the Municipal Waste Incinerator 19 * B. Combustion Gases Treatment and Monitoring 22 1. Exhaust Gas Cooling Chamber 22 U I I Page 3 2...Emission Charts 3 Appendix C Refuse Residence Time Calculations Appendix D Sorted Analysis of the Municipal Waste Appendix E Model of Municipal Waste

  13. Emission of greenhouse gases from sewage installations; Emissies van broeikasgassen van rwzi's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voorthuizen, E.; Van Leusden, M.; Visser, A.; Kruit, J. [Royal Haskoning, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Kampschreur, M.; Van Dongen, U.; Van Loosdrecht, M. [Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are monitored. The emission of CO2 from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is related to the use of electricity, natural gas or other fossil fuels. The amount and origin of the emission of CH4 and N2O, however, is unknown. Presently emission factors from the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) are used to estimate those emissions. The aim of the study on the title subject was to determine the level of N2O and CH4 emission from Dutch WWTPs to understand the accuracy of the existing emission factors. In this way an estimation of the total greenhouse gas emission from a Dutch WWTP can be made. The emission of N2O and CH4 was measured at three WWTPs in the Netherlands: Papendrecht, Kortenoord and Kralingseveer [Dutch] In deze studie zijn de indirecte en directe emissies van broeikasgassen (CO2, CH4 en N2O) van rwzi's in kaart gebracht aan de hand van metingen. De resultaten hebben aanleiding gegeven voor een vervolgonderzoek waarbij onder meer kennis wordt ontwikkeld op het gebied van methaanvorming (CH4) in de riolering en mogelijkheden om de emissie van methaan op een zuivering te reduceren. Met betrekking tot lachgas N2O wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de vormingsprocessen van lachgas en de wijze waarop deze vrijkomt vanuit een rwzi. Verder worden relaties tussen lachgasemissie en procesparameters inzichtelijk gemaakt. Met deze kennis is het hopelijk in de toekomst mogelijk om maatregelen te nemen die de vorming en emissie van lachgas vanuit rwzi's te reduceren.

  14. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17 Section 194.15-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and...

  15. METHODOLOGY & CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TU, T.A.

    2007-01-04

    Waste stored within tank farm double-shell tanks (DST) and single-shell tanks (SST) generates flammable gas (principally hydrogen) to varying degrees depending on the type, amount, geometry, and condition of the waste. The waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank's carbon steel walls. Radiolysis and thermolytic decomposition also generates ammonia. Nonflammable gases, which act as dilutents (such as nitrous oxide), are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks. Volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals in tanks also produce organic vapors. The generated gases in tank waste are either released continuously to the tank headspace or are retained in the waste matrix. Retained gas may be released in a spontaneous or induced gas release event (GRE) that can significantly increase the flammable gas concentration in the tank headspace as described in RPP-7771, Flammable Gas Safety Isme Resolution. Appendices A through I provide supporting information. The document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste and characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 6 is the annual update of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs.

  16. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes. © 2011 The Royal Society

  17. Life-cycle modelling of waste management in Europe: tools, climate change and waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel

    of waste management systems and communicate the outcomes to develop evidence-based waste management policy. Global warming potential is an environmental indicator routinely modelled in LCA tools, but also reported by a number of other accounting protocols, leading to potential confusion. In this thesis......, a review of the different waste management and greenhouse gases accounting mechanisms was carried out and a reporting framework, called the upstream-operating-downstream, or ‘UOD’ framework, proposed. As a mean of illustration, the global warming factor of six European member states was modelled...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For calibration, this scale was checked at frequent intervals against an accurate beam balance laboratory scale. (Detecto Personal Weigher, Detecto Scales Ine.; BrookIyn NY,. USA). For stunting (chronic malnutrition) and wasting (acute malnutrition) the classification of Waterlowl 4-16 was used together with the National ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    pharmacological uses of the plant, an acute toxicity of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract was assessed in ... common weed of waste places and found along the ... water. The hydro-ethanolic extract was then evapo- rated to a syrupy mass under reduced pressure, air- dried, kept in a dessicator and the percent yield cal-.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    more or less globular and covered on top with golden hairs as inside the fruit is ovoid containing black numerous seeds (I). Pan tropical wild species, grow around roadside. and on waste land medicinally used for malaria, gonorrhoea. abortion. breast cancer (I),. inflammation and poisoning (2). Phytochemically, Sida.

  1. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-21

    Dec 21, 2012 ... main contaminants of these water sources are human excreta, animal waste and effluent because of open field defecation practices. Thus, the majority of rural communities use water from contaminated or doubtful sources, which expose the people to various water-borne diseases. (FDRE, MoWR, 2004).

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children from one rural community and three urban. communities were examined for nutritional status and dental caries. Results. In the total sample prevalences of wasting were mild. (28%), moderate (4%) and severe (2%). For stunting the prevalences were mild (13%), moderate (3%) and severe (1%). For both conditions ...

  3. Solid Wastes Management of Yasuj Hospitals, Iran 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Raygan Shirazi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Unhygienic methods of colleting, storage, transportation and disposal of the hospital wastes results in serious hazards that can endanger the health and environment. These materials are classified as dangerous, and have to be collected and disposed based on special rules. Materials & Methods: In the present study we aimed to evaluate the quality of management of hospital wastes and to estimate the waste constituents in Yasuj hospitals. Density, constituents, methods of collecting, transportation and disposal of hospital wastes were evaluated in 3 consecutive days of every months of the year 2006. Results: Study showed that the daily production of solid wastes was 5.5 Kg per hospital bed and infected solid wastes were estimated to be 1.5 Kg per hospital bed. The total solid waste production was 1350 Kg per day which included 27.2 percent as infected solid wastes. Solid waste density was 160.7 Kg per cubic meter and its constituents were food wastes (19.753%, rubber (47.02%, paper (12.05%, glass (5.211%, metals (3.41% and bandages, gases, clothes, etc (12.556%. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the solid waste management of the studied hospitals is not satisfying and more attention must be paid to the critical issues, such as plans for reducing solid wastes, isolating infected solid wastes at the production site and using safe and updated methods of disposal of solid wastes.

  4. Recent Experimental Advances to Determine (noble) Gases in Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.; Huxol, S.; Mächler, L.; Maden, C.; Vogel, N.; Tomonaga, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In aquatic systems noble gases, radon, and bio-geochemically conservative transient trace gases (SF6, CFCs) are frequently applied to determine water residence times and to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions. Recent experimental breakthroughs now enable ● to apply the well-established concepts of terrestrial noble gas geochemistry in waters to the minute water amounts stored in sediment pore space and in fluid inclusions (A), ● to determine gas exchange processes on the bio-geochemical relevant time scales of minutes - hours (B), and ● to separate diffusive and advective gas transport in soil air (C). A. Noble-gas analysis in water samples (techniques that combine crushing and sieving speleothem samples in ultra-high-vacuum to a specific grain size allow to separate air and water-bearing fluid inclusions and thus enables noble-gas-based reconstruction of environmental conditions from water masses as small as 1mg [2]. B. The coupling of noble gas analysis with approaches of gas chromatography permits combined analysis of noble gases and other gases species (e.g., SF6, CFCs, O2, N2) from a single water sample. The new method substantially improves ground water dating by SF6 and CFCs as excess air is quantified from the same sample and hence can adequately be corrected for [3]. Portable membrane-inlet mass spectrometers enable the quasi-continuous and real-time analysis of noble gases and other dissolved gases directly in the field, allowing, for instance, quantification of O2 turnover rates on small time scales [4]. C. New technical developments perfect 222Rn analysis in water by the synchronous the determination of the short-lived 220Rn. The combined 220,222Rn analysis sheds light on the emanation behaviour of radon by identifying soil water content to be the crucial control of 220Rn occurrence in the environment, e.g., making an argument why 220Rn is not detectable in water, but in soil air. As 220Rn occurrence is of 'very local origin

  5. Equilibrium Molecular Interactions in Pure Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium molecular interactions in pure real gases are investigated based on the chemical thermodynamics principles. The parallels between clusters in real gases and chemical compounds in equilibrium media have been used to improve understanding of the real gas structure. A new approach to the equilibrium constants for the cluster fractions and new methods to compute them and their significant parameters from the experimental thermophysical data are developed. These methods have been applied to some real gases, such as Argon and Water vapors and gaseous Alkanes. It is shown that the four-particle clusters make a noticeable contribution in the thermophysical properties of the equilibrium Water vapor. It is shown also that the effective bond energy for dimers in Alkanes linearly grows with the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

  6. Absorption of Soluble Gases by Atmospheric Nanoaerosols

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, Tov; Krasovitov, Boris; Lushnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    We investigate mass transfer during absorption of atmospheric trace soluble gases by a single droplet whose size is comparable to the molecular mean free path in air at normal conditions. It is assumed that the trace reactant diffuses to the droplet surface and then reacts with the substances inside the droplet according to the first order rate law. Our analysis applies a flux-matching theory of transport processes in gases and assumes constant thermophysical properties of the gases and liquids. We derive an integral equation of Volterra type for the transient molecular flux density to a liquid droplet and solve it numerically. Numerical calculations are performed for absorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2), dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) and chlorine (Cl2) by liquid nanoaerosols accompanied by chemical dissociation reaction. It is shown that during gas absorption by nanoaerosols the kinetic effects play significant role, and neglecting kinetic effects leads to significant overestimation of the soluble gas flux into a...

  7. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  8. Survey of lunar carbon compounds. I - The presence of indigenous gases and hydrolysable carbon compounds in Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. I.; Cadogan, P. H.; Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1971-01-01

    Indigenous gases and hydrolyzable carbon compounds in Apollo 11 and 12 samples through gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric examination, noting meteoritic impact and solar wind implantation as probable origins

  9. Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owoyemi Jacob Mayowa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

  10. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  11. Impact Delivery of Reduced Greenhouse Gases on Early MARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K.

    2017-01-01

    While there is abundant evidence for flowing liquid water on the ancient Martian surface, a widely accepted greenhouse mechanism for explaining this in the presence of a faint young sun has yet to emerge. Gases such as NH3, CO2 alone, SO2, clouds, and CH4, have sustainability issues or limited greenhouse power. Recently, Ramirez et al. proposed that CO2-H2 atmospheres, through collision induced absorptions (CIA), could solve the problem if large amounts are present (1.3-4 bars of CO2, 50-20% H2). However, they had to estimate the strength of the H2- CO2 interaction from the measured strength of the H2- N2 interaction. Recent ab initio calculations show that the strength of CO2-H2 CIA is greater than Ramirez et al. assumed. Wordsworth et al. also calculated the absorption coefficients for CO2-CH4 CIA and show that on early Mars a 0.5 bar CO2 atmosphere with percent levels of H2 or CH4 can raise mean annual temperatures by tens of degrees Kelvin. Freezing temperatures can be reached in atmospheres containing 1-2 bars of CO2 and 2-10% H2 and CH4. The new work demonstrates that less CO2 and reduced gases are needed than Ramirez et al. originally proposed, which improves prospects for their hypothesis. If thick weakly reducing atmospheres are the solution to the faint young sun paradox, then plausible mechanisms must be found to generate and sustain the required concentrations of H2 and CH4. Possible sources of reducing gases include volcanic outgassing, serpentinization, and impact delivery; sinks include photolysis, oxidation, and hydrogen escape. The viability of the reduced greenhouse hypothesis depends, therefore, on the strength of these sources and sinks.

  12. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  13. Noble gases in pure lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Valdez, F J; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2013-03-21

    The mechanism of how a noble gas modifies the excitability of nerve cells and how such excitability can be recovered under hyperbaric pressure remains unclear. Here we present a calorimetric study where the melting point depression of pure lipid membranes induced by noble gases and its recovery with a hydrostatic pressure is addressed. A correlation is found between the electric polarizability (α) of these gases and their effect on the melting transition of the membranes. These results concur with other findings to support the idea that general anesthesia only depends on the ability of a certain atom or molecule to increase the general disorder of the membrane.

  14. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  15. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  16. Nanoclusters and Microparticles in Gases and Vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2012-01-01

    Research of processes involving Nanoclusters and Microparticleshas been developing fastin many fields of rescent research, in particular in materials science. To stay at the cutting edge of this development, a sound understanding of the processes is needed. In this work, several processes involving small particles are described, such as transport processes in gases, charging of small particles in gases, chemical processes, atom attachment and quenching of excited atomic particles on surfaces, nucleation, coagulation, coalescence and growth processes for particles and aggregates. This work pres

  17. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach....... The scale increases from field, manure storage or rumen via herd or farm to country or continent. The scope may be restricted to a single GHG or include all gases. Multidisciplinary models may include nutrients, other substances or socio-economic parameters. Mechanistic process-based models have been...

  18. Spherulite Growth in GaSe Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hidenori; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    1982-12-01

    Thin film spherulites were crystallized by heating above 370°C in vacuum from the amorphous GaSe films prepared by flash evaporation. The spherulites are a sort of polycrystalline GaSe and the c-axes are formed finely along the radial direction of the spherulites. Activation energies of crystallization depended on film thickness of the spherulites and were 0.79 eV for 200 nm and 0.32 eV for 550 nm film thickness.

  19. Measurement of sulphur gases in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y K

    1989-08-01

    A gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector is set up for the direct analysis of COS, H2S, CS2, SO2, CH3SH, C2H5SH in ambient air.Logarithmic transformation is used to counterbalance the non-linear nature of the detector response for the individual sulphur gases. A quality assurance procedure is described to compensate any variation of response during field measurement. The use of Tedlar bags for sampling COS, CS2, CH3SH, C2H5SH is acceptable despite the general conception that sulphur gases are unstable in Tedlar bags.

  20. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua presents three major topics, which are the fourth to sixth parts of this volume. These topics are the remarks on units of physical quantities; kinetic theory of gases and gaseous flow; and theory of vacuum diffusion pumps. The first topic aims to present concisely the significance of units of physical quantities, catering the need and interest of those who take measurements and make calculations in different fields of vacuum sciences. The technique and applications of this particular topic are also provided. The second main topic focuses sp

  1. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    result of waste processing. A number of ceramic waste forms have been developed that minimize these problems and provide a potentially useful host for radionuclides. For ceramics, the mineralogy can be tailored to the waste stream by selecting solid mineral phases with structural sites that can accommodate the waste elements, as well as newly formed radioactive decay elements. Radiation damage can be minimized by selecting mineral phases that allow atoms to renew or regain their original crystalline structure, a process known as annealing. For example, actinide phosphate minerals anneal more readily than actinide silicate minerals. Despite the superior thermodynamic stability of crystalline materials, borosilicate glasses have become the preferred waste forms. One reason is that the processing technologies associated with this glass are believed to be easier to adapt to handling highly radioactive material.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists ... Serpents are mythologically associated with the origin of the world and creation .... philosophy, became influential in suggesting that the planet. Mercury (Hermes) was vitally important to earth. The name mercurius philosophorum was subsequently given by the.

  3. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He and 40Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water that penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic He and 40Ar formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 - 30%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 - 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 - 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as C1 or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range. ?? 1984.

  4. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  5. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  7. Infrared scintillation in gases, liquids and crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belogurov, S.; Bressi, G; Carugno, G.; Conti, E; Iannuzzi, D; Meneguzzo, AT

    2000-01-01

    We report about experimental evidences of infrared scintillation in gaseous, liquid and crystal samples. We firstly studied noble gases at room temperature and near atmospheric pressure in the wavelength range between 0.7 and 1.81 mum. Ar gas emits infrared photons when irradiated by a proton beam.

  8. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    health effects, including melting polar ice caps, rising sea levels, changing weather patterns and damage to fragile ecological systems. The major perpetrators of climate change include known greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)1 arising.

  9. Cold and trapped metastable noble gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassen, W.; Cohen-Tannoudji, C.; Leduc, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C.I.; Truscott, A.; Baldwin, K.; Birkl, G.; Cancio, P.; Trippenbach, M.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental work on cold, trapped metastable noble gases is reviewed. The aspects which distinguish work with these atoms from the large body of work on cold, trapped atoms in general is emphasized. These aspects include detection techniques and collision processes unique to metastable atoms.

  10. Residual Gases in Crystal Growth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Residual gases present in closed ampoules may affect different crystal growth processes. That seems to be particularly true under microgravity conditions where, due to weightlessness of the melt, the gases may lead to detached solidification and/or formation of voids and bubbles, as observed in the past. For that reason a good understanding and control of formation of residual gases is important for an optimum design and meaningful interpretation of crystal growth experiments. Our extensive experimental and theoretical studies of the subject, summarized in this paper, include degassing of silica glass and generation of gases from different source materials. Different materials processing conditions, like outgassing under vacuum, annealing in hydrogen, resublimation, different material preparation procedures, multiple annealings, different processing times, and others were applied and their effect on the amount and composition of gas were analyzed. The experimental results were interpreted based on theoretical calculations on diffusion in silica glass and source materials and thermochemistry of the system. Procedures for a reduction of the amount of gas are also discussed.

  11. Eco gases for future particle gas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kjølbro, Jógvan Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Due to global regulations of non environmental refrigerants, some of the gas mixtures used in gas detectors at CERN has to be replaced. This report is a review that summarises and predicts some properties that are important when selecting new gases to operate in the gas detectors.

  12. Fullerenes and the Nature of Planetary Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Nuth, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Over the past several decades, two issues have dominated the discussion of planetary noble gas patterns: 1) the general resemblance of the noble gas abundances in carbonaceous chondrites to those measured in the Earth s atmosphere and; 2) atmospheric inventories of argon and neon that fall off significantly with increasing distance from the Sun. The recognition of the latter has led to the conclusion that the planetary component is not found on planets. In particular, the inability to explain the missing xenon reservoir, once thought to be sequestered in crustal rocks has been extremely troublesome. Some models have focused on various fractionations of solar wind rather than condensation as the process for the evolution of noble gases in the terrestrial planets. However, these models cannot explain the observed gradient of the gases, nor do they account for the similar Ne/Ar ratios and the dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have focused on hydrodynamic escape to explain the fractionation of gases, like neon, in the atmosphere and the mantle. Escape theory also seems to explain, in part, the isotopically heavy argon on Mars, however, it does not explain the discrepancies observed for the abundances of argon and neon on Venus and the Earth. This has led to the assumption that some combination of solar wind implantation, absorption and escape are needed to explain the nature of planetary noble gases.

  13. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  14. Deviations from Fick's law in Lorentz gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe, C.P.; Frenkel, D.; Hoef, M.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    We have calculated the self-dynamic structure factorF(k,t) for tagged particle motion in hopping Lorentz gases. We find evidence that, even at long times, the probability distribution function for the displacement of the particles is highly non-Gaussian. At very small values of the wave vector this

  15. Quantum kinetic theory of trapped atomic gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We pesent a general framework in which we can accurately describe the non-equilibrium of trapped atomic gases. This is achieved by deriving a single Fokker-Planck equation for the gas. In this way we are able to discuss not only the dynamics of an interacting gas above and below the critical

  16. Escape of atmospheric gases from the Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The escape rate of atmospheric molecules on the Moon is calculated.Based on the assumption that the rates of emission and escape of gases attain equilibrium, the ratio of molecular number densities during day and night, 0/0, can be explained. The plausible emission rate of helium and radioactive elements present ...

  17. Elimination of gases and contamination from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, A. P.

    1970-01-01

    Filtration system with membrane type hydrophilic and hydrophobic filters gives absolute filtration with automatic venting of freed gases, and prevents backward transmission of contamination with no bacterial growth through the filters. Filter aids in degassing industrial solutions and in removing oxygen from sea water.

  18. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 12. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols. J Srinivasan. General Article Volume 13 Issue 12 December 2008 pp 1146-1155. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and their roles in determining current continental-scale budgets and future trends in biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) for North America. Understanding the current magnitude and forecasting future trajectories of atmospheric GHG concent...

  20. Collective modes in cold paramagnetic gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, T L; Rubin, P L [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-28

    We have obtained a condition for the emergence of spin waves in paramagnetic gases Re >> ImÂ, which is fulfilled only at temperatures of the order of 1 μK. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  1. Noble gases as cardioprotectants - translatability and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Kirsten F.; Weber, Nina C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert a tissue-protective effect in different experimental models when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a post-conditioning stimulus or when given in combination before,

  2. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  3. Mixed Waste Management Options: 1995 Update. National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirner, N.; Kelly, J.; Faison, G.; Johnson, D. [Foster Wheeler Environmental Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    In the original mixed Waste Management Options (DOE/LLW-134) issued in December 1991, the question was posed, ``Can mixed waste be managed out of existence?`` That study found that most, but not all, of the Nation`s mixed waste can theoretically be managed out of existence. Four years later, the Nation is still faced with a lack of disposal options for commercially generated mixed waste. However, since publication of the original Mixed Waste Management Options report in 1991, limited disposal capacity and new technologies to treat mixed waste have become available. A more detailed estimate of the Nation`s mixed waste also became available when the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published their comprehensive assessment, titled National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste (National Profile). These advancements in our knowledge about mixed waste inventories and generation, coupled with greater treatment and disposal options, lead to a more applied question posed for this updated report: ``Which mixed waste has no treatment option?`` Beyond estimating the volume of mixed waste requiring jointly regulated disposal, this report also provides a general background on the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It also presents a methodical approach for generators to use when deciding how to manage their mixed waste. The volume of mixed waste that may require land disposal in a jointly regulated facility each year was estimated through the application of this methodology.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES . -. RISK FACTORS FOR TEENAGE. PREGNANCY AMONG SEXUALLY. ACTIVE BLACK ADOLESCENTS IN. CAPETOWN. A case control study. Caesar Vundule, Fidelia Maforah, Rachel Jewkes, Esme. Jordaan. Motivation. Teenage pregnancy is an important health and social problem in South ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. REVIEW ARTICLE. THE INDIVIDUALISED NEEDS FOR. SERVICE ASSESSMENT (INSA). FOR CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS WITH SERIOUS. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. Alan JFlisher, Rent? C Grosser, Christina W Haven. The Individualised Needs for Service Assessment (INSA) for.

  6. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  7. Process for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion gases by gas reactions with reduction substances containing nitrogen. Verfahren zur Minderung von Stickoxiden in Verbrennungsgasen durch Gasreaktionen mit stickstoffhaltigen Reduktionsmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.; Huebner, K.

    1986-03-06

    In the process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in waste gases from combustion, according to the invention the waste gas flow is brought into contact with quaternary alkyl ammonium hydroxides and/or salts of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and/or tertiary amines. Triethylamine, monoethanol amine sulphide, methylamine formate, hydrazene sulphate or a mixture of tetramethyl ammonium chloride/hydroxide are used as means of reduction.

  8. Size or check waste heat boilers quickly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V.

    1984-09-01

    Fire tube boilers are widely used to recover energy from waste gas streams commonly found in chemical plants, refineries and power plants. Typical examples are exhaust gases from gas turbines and diesel engines, and effluents from sulfuric acid, nitric acid and hydrogen plants. Generally, they are used for low-pressure steam generation. Typical arrangement of a fire tube boiler is shown. Sizing of waste heat boilers is quite an involved procedure. However, using the method described here one can estimate the performance of the boiler at various load conditions, in addition to designing the heat transfer surface for a given duty. Several advantages are claimed for this approach.

  9. Establishing the propensity for dioxin formation using a plume temperature model for medical waste incinerator emissions in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution control devices (APCDs) are not compulsory for medical waste incinerators (MWIs) in developing countries. In South Africa, combustion gases are usually vented directly to the atmosphere at temperatures greater than the formation...

  10. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M. (comp.)

    1992-04-01

    The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

  11. The Use of Amine Reclaimer Wastes as a NOx Reduction Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botheju, Deshai; Glarborg, Peter; Tokheim, Lars-Andre

    2013-01-01

    of thermo-gravimetric analyses provided important information on vaporization characteristics of amine reclaimer bottom wastes. The proposed methodology can lead to simultaneous energy and material resource recovery while primarily solving two environmental pollution problems, i.e. toxic ARW wastes...... generated in CCS, and emission of NOx a class of highly active greenhouse gases....

  12. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  13. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: International Emissions and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA August 2011 report on global non-CO2 emissions projections (1990-2030) for emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated greenhouse gases) from more than twenty emissions sources.

  14. Feedstock recycling of plastic wastes in cokemaking

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, Maria A.; Alvarez, Ramon; Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    The carbonization of coal to produce metallurgical coke is an alternative route for the feedstock recycling of plastic wastes of different structures and origins. The effects of the composition of the plastic wastes on the thermoplastic properties of coal, coking pressure generation and the quality of the cokes produced at a semi-pilot scale are discussed. The plastic wastes studied were chosen because cover a wide spectrum in terms of polymer structure and composition (single and multicom...

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  16. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... of pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...

  17. Donor acceptor complexes of noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mück, Leonie Anna; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; von Hopffgarten, Moritz; Frenking, Gernot

    2009-03-25

    Donor-acceptor (DA) complexes of noble gases (Ng) of the general type A noble gas, a lone pair of the donor molecule and a vacant orbital of the acceptor molecule. Detailed bonding analysis of the model compounds F(3)Al-Ng-NH(3) reveals that Ng-ammonia interaction is repulsive due to Pauli repulsion. Bonding interaction between Ng and N is mostly electrostatic. In contrast, strong orbital interactions are responsible for the attractive interactions between Ng and AlF(3). Due to the repulsive interactions with the donor molecule and a sizable reorganization energy of the acceptor molecule, optimization attempts of the A noble gases. These are the first examples of the thermodynamically stable Ar and Kr compounds. Application of the push-pull cryptand ligands featuring multiple (two and three) donor-acceptor induced chemical bonds is expected to yield stable complexes with virtually any electron-rich element in the periodic table.

  18. Scale-invariant nonlinear optics in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Heyl, C M; Miranda, M; Louisy, M; Kovacs, K; Tosa, V; Balogh, E; Varjú, K; L'Huillier, A; Couairon, A; Arnold, C L

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear optical methods are becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern photonics. They are, however, often limited to a certain range of input parameters, such as pulse energy and average power, since restrictions arise from, for example, parasitic nonlinear effects, damage problems and geometrical considerations. Here, we show that many nonlinear optics phenomena in gaseous media are scale-invariant if spatial coordinates, gas density and laser pulse energy are scaled appropriately. We develop a general scaling model for (3+1)-dimensional wave equations, demonstrating the invariant scaling of nonlinear pulse propagation in gases. Our model is numerically applied to high-order harmonic generation and filamentation as well as experimentally verified using the example of pulse post-compression via filamentation. Our results provide a simple recipe for up-or downscaling of nonlinear processes in gases with numerous applications in many areas of science.

  19. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in Ultracold Fermi Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC. Thermodyna......Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC...... for effective separation of large ferromagnetic domains. Collective modes are predicted and tri-critical points are calculated for multi-component systems....

  20. Greenhouse gases, environmental stress and ecological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, J.S.; Moghe, S.; Khanna, P. (National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India). Computer Applications Division)

    1992-01-01

    It has been observed that ozone formation in the troposphere is predominantly restricted to late spring and summer. Ozone along with additional air pollutants induces long-lasting physiological and biochemical disturbances. During last few decades there has been tremendous increase in forest damage and decline in forest area all over the globe. Well known damage symptoms and empirical data on the physiological responses of plants to pollutants including greenhouse gases, have established the importance of role played by greenhouse gases in regard to growth and development of a tree. The complex interactions and resulting environmental stress have been studied and analysed through application of sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out for leaf, stem and root (state variables representing a tree) in terms of changes in conversion efficiency parameter for the foliage, assimilate partitioning coefficients, and co-efficients dependent upon losses due to mortality, grazing and litter fall. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  2. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence o...

  3. Noble Gases in the Chelyabinsk Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Makiko K.; Sumino, Hirochika; Nagao, Keisuke; Mikouchi, Takashi; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite fell in Russia on February 15, 2013 and was classified as LL5 chondrite. The diameter before it entered the atmosphere has been estimated to be about 20 m [1]. Up to now, numerous fragments weighing much greater than 100 kg in total have been collected. In this study, all noble gases were measured for 13 fragments to investigate the exposure history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite and the thermal history of its parent asteroid.

  4. Thermodynamics of dilute gases in shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, D.; Criado-Sancho, M.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the effect of shear and normal viscous pressures on the non-equilibrium entropy of ideal gases in Couette flow. These results extend the previous ones (Bidar et al., Physica A 233 (1996) 163), where normal pressure effects were ignored. Furthermore, we analyze the non-equilibrium contributions to the chemical potential, which may be useful in the analysis of shear-induced effects on colligative properties and chemical equilibrium.

  5. Physics Utilizing Spin-Polarized Gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Happer, W

    1997-01-01

    .... A very important consideration in the use of laser-polarized 3He and 129Xe is that the nuclear spins of these gases do not relax at the surface of the container in which they are pumped or stored. This research has shown that in the case of 129Xe in cells with polymer wall coatings, much of the relaxation is due to unusually long trapping of the 129Xe atoms at sites surrounded by protons in the polymer.

  6. Characterizing Soldier Responses to Irritant Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-16

    success, the performance decrement from various drugs in terms of alcohol dosage. in the second (O’Hanlon et &l., 1986), a benzodiazepine ( Lorazepam ...in this case alcohol , are f*irst calikrated agF-nst that agent. Then decrements in performance in the presence of irritant gases can bt calibrated in...terms of their dose equivalence relative to the effects of alcohol . Tr quantify the human mental acuity functions which are related to military 0’r

  7. Escape of atmospheric gases from the Moon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the rates of emission and escape of gases attain equilibrium, the ratio of molecular number densities during day and night, n0d/n0n, can ... with a number density of n0d = 3 × 10. 9 m. −3 during day and n0n = 6 × 10. 10 m ..... y, much greater than tM and only a small fraction of mole- cules would escape. Therefore, the ...

  8. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Bodhaditya; Ott, Herwig

    2015-06-01

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  10. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  11. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  12. Description of different techniques and their potentials of development for the reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption; Beschreibung unterschiedlicher Techniken und deren Entwicklungspotentiale zur Minderung von Stickstoffoxiden im Abgas von Abfallverbrennungsanlagen und Ersatzbrennstoff-Kraftwerken hinsichtlich Leistungsfaehigkeit, Kosten und Energieverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    On 22nd July, 2002 the European Parliament passes the sixth Environmental Action Programme of the European Community. According to this Programme, the environmental pollution can be reduced to a level at which adverse effects on human health have to be reduced. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration describes various techniques and their development potential for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust of waste incinerators and refuse-derived fuel-fired power plants in terms of performance, cost and power consumption. Primary measures (air staging, flue gas recirculation) and secondary measures (SNCR, SCR process, combined procedure) were used as techniques.

  13. Possibilities for gas turbine and waste incinerator integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobitsyn, M.A.; Jellema, P.; Hirs, Gerard

    1999-01-01

    The aggressive nature of the flue gases in municipal waste incinerators does not allow the temperature of steam in the boiler to rise above 400°C. An increase in steam temperature can be achieved by external superheating in a heat recovery steam generator positioned behind a gas turbine, so that

  14. Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no significant difference between the working groups in their perception of the adverse effects of wastes, except as it concerned death, birth defect or cancer, environmental degradation, blocking of drainage and emission of greenhouse gases. We found a number of health hazards, ranging from pollution to ...

  15. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omran

    Original Article. Laparoscopic repair of penetrating injury of the diaphragm: an experience from a district hospital ... of eight patients with diaphragmatic injury, and thereby laparotomy was avoided. The procedure converted to open surgery in one .... The splenic laceration was minor and superficial and did not require any.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the nectar(s) from which it originates. December 2004, Vol. 94, No. 12 SAMJ. The Nigerian citrus honey sample used in this study contains about 40% fructose and 31% glucose. These figures compare well with those for honey produced in Spain and the USA (Table 1). The honey sample promoted the clearance of alcohol ...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin. The gestational age was recorded if it was regarded as accurate, namely early ultrasound measurements were available or. ~ the estimation of uterine size coincided with the estimated gestational age according ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table IlL Type of sharp object, procedure, and mechanism of percutaneous injury among interns. Sharp object (N = 168)*. Hollow needle. Suturing needle. Other. Procedure (N = 177). Phlebotomy. Suturing. Intravenous catheterisation. Arterial puncture. Capillary puncture. Other. Could not recall.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. SOUTH AFRICAN CAUSE-OF-. DEATH PROFILE IN TRANSITION -. 1996 AND FUTURE TRENDS. Debbie Bradshaw, Michelle Schneider, Rob Darrington,. David E Bourne, Ria Laubscher. This paper describes the South African cause-of-death profile in 1996, the latest year for which routine data ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. M. Adjei-Frempong1, B. Minkah2, L. Quaye3, S.E.K. Acquah4, A. Opoku2 and M. Imrana2. Correspondence: M. Adjei-Frempong, Department of Mo- lecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah. University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: drfrempong@yahoo.com.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A. Boakye-Yiadom1, S. O. Shittu2, J. B. Dutt2, P. P. M. Dapare3 and A. Alhassan4. Correspondence: A. Boakye-Yiadom, Department of. Community Health, School of Allied Health Sciences, Uni- versity for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jmbs.v4i2.5. INTRODUCTION.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. V. Mogre1, J. A. Atibilla2 and B. N-A. Kandoh2. Correspondence: Mr. Victor Mogre, Department of Human Biology, School of Medicine and Health. Science, University for Development Studies, Tama- le, Ghana E-mail: mogrevictor@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION. Breakfast is crucial to all humans since ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    equivalence of an innovator versus a generic formulation of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in adults with moderate asthm.a. Few studies comparing generic inhaled formulations and the original products have been reported.15. P ATIENTS AND METH ODS. Patients. Thirty-six non-smoking moderate-to-severe ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vague knowledge of why they are given, and for what illnesses. The most common knowledge was of measles and polio, but there was only limited knowledge of BCG, DPT and other immunisations. Childhood illnesses were seen as multi-causal in origin, but there was a marked absence of germ theory in explaining them.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES m:R. ~. UNDERRECOGNITION AND. UNDERTREATMENT OF ASTHMA. IN CAPE TOWN PRIMARY SCHOOL. CHILDREN. R I Ehrlich, E Jordaan, D du Toit, J A Volmink,. E Weinberg, M Zwarenstein. Background. In view of the high local prevalence of asthma, the extent of recognition and appropriate ...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. The NMSS rationale is similar to that for public health surveillance generally, and the procedure consists of four activities.• These are: (I) the ongoing and systematic collection of data; (il) the consolidation and analysis of collected data;. (iiz) the dissemination of ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. FIREARM-RELATED INJURIES AND. DEATHS AMONG CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS IN CAPE TOWN -. 1992 -1996. Alyssa Wigton. Objective. To determ.i.lle the epidemiological profile of fireann- related injuries among children and adolescents in Cape. Town during recent years in order to ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. MOLECULAR GENETICS. IMPROVES THE MANAGEMENT OF. HEREDITARY NON-POLYPOSIS. COLORECTALCANCER. R S Ramesar, M V Madden, R Felix, C J Harocopos,. C A Westbrook, G Jones, J P Cruse, P A Goldberg. Background. The syndrome of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. SPECIAL ARTICLE. SOCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE AND. TAX-BASED FUNDING OF HEALTH. Olive Shisana. The changes likely to occur in South Africa's health care funding have been outlined elsewhere.' Indeed, South Africa is going through major transformation of the health care system.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. BARRIERS TO ACCESSING FREE. CONDOMS AT PUBLIC HEALTH. FACILITIES ACROSS SOUTH. AFRICA. Francesca Little, Landon Myer, Catherine Mathews. Objectives. Lack of access to public sector condoms still presents a fundamentalbarrier to condom use in most of. South Africa. This study ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. CRITICAL CARE FOCUS. AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME OF. SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED. PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN. ADMITTED TO A PAEDIATRIC. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. S D Delport, T Brisley. Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES detectable cause of curable 'essential' hypertension. JAMA 1965; 193: 100-106. 7. Hiramatsu K~ Yamada T, Yukimura Y, et al. A screening test to identify aldosterone-producing adenoma by measuring plasma renin activity. Results in hypertensive patients. Arch Intern. Med 1981; 141' 1589-1593. 8.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Death and injury on duty- a study of South African police officers. Frank Plani, Douglas M Bowley, Jacques Goosen. Objectives. Sections of contemporary South African society are characterised by high levels of crime and interpersonal conflict. The South African Police Service (SAPS) is in the.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. WHAT IS THE INFANT MORTALITY. RATE IN SOUTH AFRICA? THE NEED FOR IMPROVED DATA. Nadine Nannan, Debbie Bradshaw, Robert Mazur, Sim.phiwe. Maphumulo. Objectives. To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. NON-FATAL SUICIDAL BEHAVIOUR. IN WOMEN - THE ROLE OF. SPOUSAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND. MARITAL VIOLENCE. A L Pillay, M B W van der Veen, D R Wassenaar. Objective. To investigate the precipitants of non-fatal suicidal behaviour in women using a gender-based comparison.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Health financing reform in Kenya- assessing the social health insurance proposal. Guy Carrin, Chris James, Michael Adelhardt, Ole Doetinchem, Peter Eriki, Mohammed Hassan, Henri van den Hombergh,. Joses Kirigia, Burkard Koemm, Rolf Korte, Rudiger Krech, Cristopher Lankers, Jan van Lente, ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Q. MEASLES ELIMINATION - IS IT. ACHIEVABLE? LESSONS FROM AN. IMMUNISATION COVERAGE. SURVEY. D N Durrheim, G A Ogunbanjo. Objectives. To detennine routine measles coverage at district level and to explore reasons for immunisation failure in. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-08-06

    Aug 6, 2000 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. Nath H. When does bronchial arterial embolisation fail to control haemoptysis? .... has already recommended the development of DTP-hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) combinations ... clear, particularly in developing countries where the disease occurs in young children, with.

  20. Cultural Originality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropology: The Study of Social and. Cultural Originality. Prologue. I was invited to reflect on the theoretical foundations of anthropology, as prac- ticed in Africa 'over the last century', but found intellectual artisanship to be a more compelling topic. As Gupta and Ferguson (1997) point out, adherence to a particular logic of ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. A mass campaign too often? Results of a vaccination coverage survey in the Dikgale-Soekmekaar district. Carla van Turennout, ]oris Vandelanotte, Marjan van den Akker, AnneMarie Depoorter. Objectives. To determine the routine and mass immunisation coverage in children aged between 12 and ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cochrane systematic review in order to ascertain its efficacy and safety and to ... eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin. The gestational age was recorded if it was regarded as accurate, namely early ultrasound measurements were available or. ~.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Dual protection in sexually active women. Immo Kleinschmidt, Baker Ndugga Maggwa, Jennifer Smit,Mags E Beksinska, Helen Rees. Objective. To determine the prevalence and co-factors associated with the practice of dual protection against sexually transmitted infections (STis) and unwanted.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES failure, breath-holding spells and even strokeY The decreased attention span and learning associated with iron deficiency may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor development.'-' Furthermore, appropriate treatment of iron deficiency is effective and safe, It would therefore seem worth.

  5. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013 Sep;6(3):169-72. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Affective disorders, particularly depression, are the commonest and probably the most important psychopathological complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Depression has the potential to alter adversely the medical outcome of ESRD patients.

  6. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the teaching of this new knowledge to health workers, and finally making the ... use in developing countries and again in 19952 to include the concept of ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table I. Basic data and perinatal care indices for the PPIP sentinel sites, 2000 - 2002. Metropolitan. Cities and towns. Rural areas areas (N). (N).

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES c(~rvical spine injury outcome- a review of 101 cases treated in a tertiary referral unit. K Friielingsdorf, R N Dunn. Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for the patient and family. It has a huge impact on society because of the intensive resources required to manage the patient in both.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Key issues in clinic functioning - a case study of two ... Department of Behavioural Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Univer- sity of KwaZulu-Natal. B M Harvey, BA Hons, MA ... Conclusions. This research provides lessons regarding key issues in clinic functioning which can make a ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Sexual behaviour of Cape Town high-school students. Alan J Flisher, Priscilla Reddy, Martie Muller, Carl Lombard. Objectives. To document prevalence rates for selected aspects of sexual behaviour among Cape Town high-school students and to conduct a survival analysis of age at first intercourse.

  11. -( ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-12-12

    Dec 12, 1997 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. «. SPECIAL ARTICLE which are situated in rural areas, has aimed to build the ... a Significant rise in public sector salaries for doctors in 1995, the deployment of 300 Cuban doctors in ..... The transport of patients and referral system need particular attention. Retention of CS doctors in ...

  12. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-12-23

    Dec 23, 2014 ... 2School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia ... beings also consume. However, the nutritional merit of the fruits as livestock feed, particularly for pigs' was not studied yet. There was. Original Research .... The pork sample for sensory test was taken from.

  13. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    woman from Abdera who had a breast tumour and a bloody ... our modem concepts, which originated as late as the 19th .... Phumata empua were suppurating lesions (possibly even tuberculous lymph nodes). Phumata sklera were hard tumours in the breast which did not suppurate, but became increasingly harder and ...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of microbial origin are a major health problem associated ... mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food .... liquid food or per g for solid food sample analyzed. Bacterial identification. The MacConkey and Blood agar plates were examined for bacterial growth. Growth ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. UNPAID COMMUNITY. VOLUNTEERS - EFFECTIVE. PROVIDERS OF DIRECTLY. OBSERVED THERAPY (DOT) IN. RURAL SOUTH AFRICA. R D Barker, F J C Millard, M E Nthangeni. Objective. To il).ustrate successes and difficulties for the South. African National Tuberculosis Progranune in a ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccination against hepatitis B virus is an important means of controlling the infection, but its role ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious complication for the haemodialysis patient and the unit in which he or .... black patients, 35% in those of mixed racial origin, and 0% in white patients. There was no difference in the ...

  17. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    www.ljm.org.ly. Libyan J Med, AOP: 081122. Page 23. Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic. Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study. Elmehdawi RR1, Elmajberi SJ2, Behieh A(3), Elramli A3. 1Department of internal medicine, Al-Arab medical University. 2Benghazi diabetes ...

  18. Cyclic Carbonation Calcination Studies of Limestone and Dolomite for CO2 Separation From Combustion Flue Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Sivalingam, S.;Gleis, S.;Hartmut, S.;Yrjas, P.;Hupa, M.

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring limestone and dolomite samples, originating from different geographical locations, were tested as potential sorbents for carbonation/calcination based CO2 capture from combustion flue gases. Samples have been studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer under simulated flue gas conditions at three calcination temperatures,viz., 750textdegreeC, 875textdegreeC, and 930textdegreeC for four carbonation calcination reaction (CCR) cycles. The dolomite sample exhibited the highest rat...

  19. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  20. Waste to energy--key element for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  2. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  3. Designing Advanced Ceramic Waste Forms for Electrochemical Processing Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, C. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Riley, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the scientific basis underlying the approach being followed to design and develop “advanced” glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form (ACWF) materials that can (1) accommodate higher salt waste loadings than the waste form developed in the 1990s for EBR-II waste salt and (2) provide greater flexibility for immobilizing extreme waste salt compositions. This is accomplished by using a binder glass having a much higher Na2O content than glass compositions used previously to provide enough Na+ to react with all of the Cl– in the waste salt and generate the maximum amount of sodalite. The phase compositions and degradation behaviors of prototype ACWF products that were made using five new binder glass formulations and with 11-14 mass% representative LiCl/KCl-based salt waste were evaluated and compared with results of similar tests run with CWF products made using the original binder glass with 8 mass% of the same salt to demonstrate the approach and select a composition for further studies. About twice the amount of sodalite was generated in all ACWF materials and the microstructures and degradation behaviors confirmed our understanding of the reactions occurring during waste form production and the efficacy of the approach. However, the porosities of the resulting ACWF materials were higher than is desired. These results indicate the capacity of these ACWF waste forms to accommodate LiCl/KCl-based salt wastes becomes limited by porosity due to the low glass-to-sodalite volume ratio. Three of the new binder glass compositions were acceptable and there is no benefit to further increasing the Na content as initially planned. Instead, further studies are needed to develop and evaluate alternative production methods to decrease the porosity, such as by increasing the amount of binder glass in the formulation or by processing waste forms in a hot isostatic press. Increasing the amount of binder glass to eliminate porosity will decrease

  4. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  5. Adsorption properties of fission gases Xe and Kr on pristine and doped graphene: A first principle DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhappilly, Tijo; Ghanty, Tapan K.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene has excellent adsorption properties due to large surface area and has been used in applications related to gas sorption and separation. The separation of radioactive noble gases using graphene is an interesting area of research relevant to nuclear waste management. Radioactive noble gases Xe and Kr are present in the off-gas streams from nuclear fission reactors and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The entrapment of these volatile fission gases is important in the context of nuclear safety. The separation of Xe from Kr is extremely difficult, and energy intensive cryogenic distillation is generally employed. Physisorption based separation techniques using porous materials is a cost effective alternative to expensive cryogenic distillation. Thus, adsorption of noble gases on graphene is relevant for fundamental understanding of physisorption process. The properties of graphene can be tuned by doping and incorporation of defects. In this regard, we study the binding affinity of Xe and Kr in pristine and doped graphene sheets. We employ first principle calculations using density functional theory, corrected for dispersion interactions. The structural parameters obtained from the current study show excellent agreement with the available theoretical and experimental observations on similar systems. Noble gas adsorption energies on pristine graphene match very well with the available literature. Our results show that the binding energy of fission gases Xe and Kr on graphene can be considerably improved through doping the lattice with a heteroatom.

  6. Climate relevance of the waste management sector. Background; Klimarelevanz der Abfallwirtschaft. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-01-15

    Waste management measures make a major contribution to cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gases. The necessary steps for restructuring towards a ''climate-friendly waste management sector'' are known, and reliable recycling and waste treatment techniques are available. A phase-out of the landfill of untreated waste, accompanied by an increase in recycling rates and energy-efficient treatment of residual waste, immediately results in successes in greenhouse gas reduction. In 1990, the German municipal waste management sector burdened the climate with nearly 38 million tonnes of climate-damaging gases. Today, it relieves the climate actively of 18 million tonnes - every year. The resultant savings of 56 million tonnes of C02 equivalents achieved by the sector compared to 1990 correspond to about one-quarter of the total reduction in greenhouse gas emissions achieved in Germany up to 2006. Unlike Germany, which banned landfilling of municipal waste without pre-treatment in 2005, most other countries still landfill untreated waste in significant volumes. In 2007 the proportion of municipal waste going to landfill was 42 percent in EU 27 and even 54 percent in the USA. Since waste volumes are rising in developing and transition countries and the waste sector is still developing in those countries, huge potential for avoiding greenhouse gas emissions remains to be tapped in waste management worldwide. (orig.)

  7. MEDIAMUSIC ORIGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the origins of music in electronic regular broadcasting, which conditions have appeared in the XIX century. They stand out in the "telephone concerts", "phonograph concerts" and the proto-sound films (T.Edison, W.Dickson, Ch.Pathé, O.Messter. In the early twentieth century, a clear prototype of mediamusic playing by the music of "silent" films, which has been divided on the on-screen and offscreen sound layers, the method of compilation, the basics of synchronization between musical sound and off-music montage-structures. In addition, the origins of music of electronic mass media can be regarded as attempts to understand the "musical" noise features, which subsequently materialize in the phenomenon of "noisemusic" of media audio-score (L.Russolo, Ars.Avraamov, D.Vertov, W.Ruttmann, N.Voinov, P.Schaeffer. Are considered Russian, European and North American experiences.

  8. TRU waste-sampling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  10. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  11. The problem of food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, Harry; Meulen, van der Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews, building on legal-systematic and economic analysis, the origins for food waste vested in food law and states possible remedies. Several causes are identified: A policy of 'zero-tolerance', food information requirements, bans on use of hazardous materials, a policy of

  12. Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis. Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years.

  13. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Lim, Sooking [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  14. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) WasteWise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA??s WasteWise encourages organizations and businesses to achieve sustainability in their practices and reduce select industrial wastes. WasteWise is part of EPA??s sustainable materials management efforts, which promote the use and reuse of materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. All U.S. businesses, governments and nonprofit organizations can join WasteWise as a partner, endorser or both. Current participants range from small local governments and nonprofit organizations to large multinational corporations. Partners demonstrate how they reduce waste, practice environmental stewardship and incorporate sustainable materials management into their waste-handling processes. Endorsers promote enrollment in WasteWise as part of a comprehensive approach to help their stakeholders realize the economic benefits to reducing waste. WasteWise helps organizations reduce their impact on global climate change through waste reduction. Every stage of a product's life cycle??extraction, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal??indirectly or directly contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere and affects the global climate. WasteWise is part of EPA's larger SMM program (https://www.epa.gov/smm). Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) is a systemic approach to using and reusing materials more productively over their entire lifecycles. It represents a change in how our society thinks about the use of natural resources

  15. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  16. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons...

  17. A Complex Exposure History of the Gold Basin L4-Chondrite Shower from Cosmogenic Radionuclides and Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Masarik, J.; Wieler, R.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic radionuclides and noble gases in samples of the Gold Basin L-chondrite shower indicate a complex exposure history, with a first stage exposure on the parent body, followed by a second stage of approx. 19 Myr in a meteoroid 3-4 m in radius. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Normativa sobre el impuesto sobre los gases efecto hivernadero (Green house gases tax)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Larrucea, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Como dice el apartado V de la Exposición de motivos de la Ley 16/2013, se crea un nuevo impuesto sobre los gases de efecto invernadero, relativo a los gases fluorados que se utilizan habitualmente en numerosos sectores como refrigerantes, disolventes, agentes espumantes o agentes extintores de incendios, para paliar de alguna manera su negativa contribución al calentamiento de la atmósfera, con un potencial de calentamiento global mucho más elevado que el CO2.

  19. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  20. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  1. Cadmium complexation by solid waste leachates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu Ze Lun; Christensen, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    A previously reported method for determination of Cd species in solid waste leachates has been applied to ten leachate samples representing five different types of solid waste: refuse compost, flyash from coal combustion, sewage sludge, refuse incineration residues and landfilled municipal waste....... The leachates were spiked with Cd (separated into labile complexes......, slowly labile complexes and stable complexes. Leachates originating from the same type of solid waste showed different fractions of Cd, in particular with respect to free divalent Cd and stable Cd complexes. Only coal flyash showed almost identical fractions of Cd in the two leachates. The latter is due...

  2. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    2009-05-28

    High (3)He/(4)He ratios sampled at many ocean islands are usually attributed to an essentially undegassed lower-mantle reservoir with high (3)He concentrations. A large and mostly undegassed mantle reservoir is also required to balance the Earth's (40)Ar budget, because only half of the (40)Ar produced from the radioactive decay of (40)K is accounted for by the atmosphere and upper mantle. However, geophysical and geochemical observations suggest slab subduction into the lower mantle, implying that most or all of Earth's mantle should have been processed by partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges and hotspot volcanoes. This should have left noble gases in both the upper and the lower mantle extensively outgassed, contrary to expectations from (3)He/(4)He ratios and the Earth's (40)Ar budget. Here we suggest a simple solution: recycling and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby decreasing the rate of mantle degassing and leaving significant amounts of noble gases in the processed mantle. As a result, even when the mass flux across the 660-km seismic discontinuity is equivalent to approximately one lower-mantle mass over the Earth's history, high (3)He contents, high (3)He/(4)He ratios and (40)Ar concentrations high enough to satisfy the (40)Ar mass balance of the Earth can be preserved in the lower mantle. The differences in (3)He/(4)He ratios between mid-ocean-ridge basalts and ocean island basalts, as well as high concentrations of (3)He and (40)Ar in the mantle source of ocean island basalts, can be explained within the framework of different processing rates for the upper and the lower mantle. Hence, to preserve primitive noble gas signatures, we find no need for hidden reservoirs or convective isolation of the lower mantle for any length of time.

  3. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  4. Mean free path in soccer and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzuriaga, J, E-mail: luzuriag@cab.cnea.gov.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche - CNEA, Instituto Balseiro UNC (8400), Bariloche (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could be suitable for an introductory course in vacuum techniques or undergraduate courses in kinetic theory of gases. Without going into the slightly harder quantitative results, the analysis presented might be used for introducing some ideas of kinetic theory qualitatively to high school students.

  5. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  6. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua provides information on the many aspects of vacuum technology, from material on the quantum theoretical aspects of the complex semi-conductors used for thermionic and photo-electric emission to data on the performance of commercially available pumps, gauges, and high-vacuum materials. The handbook satisfies the need of workers using vacuum apparatuses or works on the diverse applications of high-vacuum technology in research and industry. The book is a compilation of long articles prepared by experts in vacuum technology. Sufficient theoret

  7. Eigenvalue statistics in quantum ideal gases

    CERN Document Server

    Eckhardt, B

    1998-01-01

    The eigenvalue statistics of quantum ideal gases with single particle energies $e_n=n^\\alpha$ are studied. A recursion relation for the partition function allows to calculate the mean density of states from the asymptotic expansion for the single particle density. For integer $\\alpha>1$ one expects and finds number theoretic degeneracies and deviations from the Poissonian spacing distribution. By semiclassical arguments, the length spectrum of the classical system is shown to be related to sums of integers to the power related to sums of cubes, for which one again expects number theoretic degeneracies, with consequences for the two point correlation function.

  8. Noble gases as cardioprotectants - translatability and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Kirsten F; Weber, Nina C; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt

    2015-04-01

    Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert a tissue-protective effect in different experimental models when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a post-conditioning stimulus or when given in combination before, during and/or after ischaemia. A wide range of organs can be protected by these inert substances, in particular cardiac and neuronal tissue. In this review we summarize the data on noble gas-induced cardioprotection, focusing on the underlying protective mechanisms. We will also look at translatability of experimental data to the clinical situation. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Hydrogen isotope composition of natural gases from the Tarim Basin and its indication of depositional environments of the source rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.Y.; Dai, J.X.; Li, J.; Zhou, Q.H. [PetroChina, Beijing (China). Research Institute Petrology Exploration & Development

    2008-02-15

    By measuring carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions for C-1, C-2 and C-3 of 74 gas samples, natural gases from the Tarim Basin can be divided into six groups on the basis of their origins: (1) coal-type gas derived from coal measures; (2) coal-type gas generated from the T-J lacustrine mudstones; (3) oil-type gas derived from the Cambrian and low Ordovician marine source rocks; (4) oil-type gas from the source rocks deposited in the marine-transitional facies; (5) mixing gas between gas derived from the Carboniferous transitional source rocks and the Mesozoic humic gas, and (6) mixing gases of thermal genetic gas and little deep gas in the Southwest depression of the Tarim Basin. The {delta} D values of methane in natural gases originating from different type kerogens are affected by both palaeo-environments of the source rock formation (kerogen types) and thermal maturity, with sedimentary environment (kerogen type) as the main controlling factor. With the increase of thermal maturity and the increase of carbon atomic numbers of gaseous alkanes, the hydrogen isotopes become enriched in deuterium. The {delta} D values of ethane and propane are controlled mainly by thermal maturity and to a lesser degree by sedimentary environment of the source rock formation. The partial reversal of hydrogen isotopes for gaseous alkanes would be related to the microbial oxidation, mixing of sapropelic and humic gases and/or mixing of gases from similar kerogen sources with various thermal maturities.

  10. Gas Retention and Release from Hanford Site Sludge Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meacham, Joseph E.; Follett, Jordan R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2015-02-18

    Radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Solid wastes can be divided into saltcake (mostly precipitated soluble sodium nitrate and nitrite salts with some interstitial liquid consisting of concentrated salt solutions) and sludge (mostly low solubility aluminum and iron compounds with relatively dilute interstitial liquid). Waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, radio-thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank’s carbon steel walls. Nonflammable gases, such as nitrous oxide and nitrogen, are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., ammonia and methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks.

  11. A NEW WASTE CLASSIFYING MODEL: HOW WASTE CLASSIFICATION CAN BECOME MORE OBJECTIVE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcea Stefan Gabriel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The waste management specialist must be able to identify and analyze waste generation sources and to propose proper solutions to prevent the waste generation and encurage the waste minimisation. In certain situations like implementing an integrated waste management sustem and configure the waste collection methods and capacities, practitioners can face the challenge to classify the generated waste. This will tend to be the more demanding as the literature does not provide a coherent system of criteria required for an objective waste classification process. The waste incineration will determine no doubt a different waste classification than waste composting or mechanical and biological treatment. In this case the main question is what are the proper classification criteria witch can be used to realise an objective waste classification? The article provide a short critical literature review of the existing waste classification criteria and suggests the conclusion that the literature can not provide unitary waste classification system which is unanimously accepted and assumed by ideologists and practitioners. There are various classification criteria and more interesting perspectives in the literature regarding the waste classification, but the most common criteria based on which specialists classify waste into several classes, categories and types are the generation source, physical and chemical features, aggregation state, origin or derivation, hazardous degree etc. The traditional classification criteria divided waste into various categories, subcategories and types; such an approach is a conjectural one because is inevitable that according to the context in which the waste classification is required the used criteria to differ significantly; hence the need to uniformizating the waste classification systems. For the first part of the article it has been used indirect observation research method by analyzing the literature and the various

  12. Researches of odour emitted by household waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Marčiulaitienė

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with odour emitted by household waste, the chemical composition of household waste. The experiment was made with food waste (1000 g placed in 5 litter containers. Food waste was containing products of animal origin (meat, fish, dairy products and plant origin (vegetables, fruit waste. Time of the experiment was 14 days 19±3 °C at environment temperature. Odour concentration is determined by dynamic olfactometry method. Studies have shown that the strongest odour of all household waste used in this experiment was emitted by meat and fish waste (76 444 OUE/m3. Meat and fish waste emits the strongest odour as waste contains proteins, their decomposition releases into the environment a strong unpleasant odour, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. Protein degradation releases into the environment are, characterized by a strong unpleasant smell of hydrogen sulphide and ammonia gas. During the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter a variety of other fragrant compounds: alcohols (e.g., ethanol and methanol, vinegar, formic acid, etc. is found.

  13. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  14. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  15. Holocene Greenhouse Gases And Asian Monsoon Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Wu, H.; Guo, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric methane concentration gradually decreased during the first half of the Holocene and then reversed the trend since ~5,000 years ago. This has been variously attributed to natural or/and anthropogenic factors. The development of early rice farming in the world was roughly consistent in time with the methane reverse while the extent of irrigated lands and the amount of methane emission remain to be determined. It was also proposed that the late Holocene increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases would have offset part of the cooling trend due to decreased northern insolation and may have prevented the onset of the early stage of a new glaciation, as is supported by some climate model experiments. If this cooling occurred, it would have been equally catastrophic to the development of human civilization. As one of the tests to this hypothesis, we synthesized climate data from the Asian monsoon zone to examine the Holocene trends of monsoon precipitation and temperature changes: if the late Holocene changes of greenhouse gases had significant climate effects, we would expect a relatively stable temperature associated with a declined trend of monsoon rainfall in response to the insolation changes. The results effectively showed divergent trends of precipitation and temperature in the late Holocene for a number of the reconstructions, but regional complexity is also clear and the cause remains to be addressed. More accurate reconstructions of climate parameters are of particular importance.

  16. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  17. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  18. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  19. Dairy Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Summary of Waste Calcination at INTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Barry Henry; Newby, Bill Joe

    2000-10-01

    Fluidized-bed calcination at the Idaho Nuclear Technologies and Engineering Center (INTEC, formally called the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) has been used to solidify acidic metal nitrate fuel reprocessing and incidental wastes wastes since 1961. A summary of waste calcination in full-scale and pilot plant calciners has been compiled for future reference. It contains feed compositions and operating conditions for all the processing campaigns for the original Waste Calcining Facility (WCF), the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) started up in 1982, and numerous small scale pilot plant tests for various feed types. This summary provides a historical record of calcination at INTEC, and will be useful for evaluating calcinability of future wastes.

  1. Ceiba Pentradenta wood waste activated carbon for waste water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for waste water treatment over the last decades. The low materials originated from various sources such as agricultural sources and byproducts, agricultural residues and wastes, low-cost sources from which most complex adsorbents will be produced .The farming waste material has to be disposed either safely or must be reused for some valuable purpose. In this consent Ceiba Pentradenta Wood waste, an agricultural waste material which is being converted as Activated carbon in presence of Nitrogen atmosphere at 7000 C is used as an adsorbent for dye removal. The portrayal studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, soluble matter (water, acid, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, ion exchange capacity, percentage content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in treatment of the water and wastewater. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  2. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  3. Thermodynamic models of the chemistry of lunar volcanic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Thermodynamic models and mass-balance arguments are used to constrain the chemistry of lunar volcanic gases. The results predict that lunar gases were dominated by reduced C and S gases such as CO, COS, CS2, S2. The more oxidized gases CO2 and SO2 were also important, but only in limited temperature ranges. Gases such as Cl2, CCl4, and CF4 were more abundant than HF and HCl, which were the two major H compounds in the lunar gases. Chlorides and fluorides were important species for transporting many volatile and ore-forming metals, and the implications for fractionating and concentrating metals into lunar ore-deposits merit further study.

  4. [Regulations on gases for medical use in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitou, P; Fouret, C; Duffau, E

    2002-09-01

    In 1989, a European directive extended the definition of proprietary medicinal products, and consequently the necessity to hold a marketing authorization (MA), for all industrially manufactured products, including medicinal gases. In France, the directive 89/341/CEE was transposed in the French law on December 8(th), 1992 and France was the first Member State to implement provisions for the obtention of MAs for gases for medical use. Since then, France has stayed at the forefront in this area. Following the inclusion of gases in the scope of pharmaceutical products, gases require on MA obtained following the same methods as for drugs and be manufactured and distributed in authorized sites. Moreover, the European directive has led the French authorities to classify gases according to their use. Gases for medical use are thus considered either as medicinal products or as medical devices.

  5. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting July 9--1, 1991. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M. [comp.

    1992-04-01

    The fifth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held July 9--11, 1991, in Atlanta, Georgia. The subject areas included the generation, retention, and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the chemistry of ferrocyanide wastes.

  6. Management of C&D waste from generation to final sink - do we forget the volatile harmful substances?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    Large quantities of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) are produced. Buildings in many countries are thermally insulated by insulation foam containing large amounts of CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), which are both strong ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases. The CFCs are released...

  7. Wood waste in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, O.; Ribeiro, R. [Biomass Centre for Energy - CBE, Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)

    1997-12-31

    The energy policy of the EC, as well as most of member states points to a sizeable increase of energy production based on renewable energy sources, wood, wood residues, agricultural residues, energy crops including SRF, organic sludges, solid residues, etc. Most recent goals indicate a desirable duplication of today`s percentage by 2010. The reasons for this interest, besides diversification of sources, less dependence on imported fuels, use of endogenous resources, expected decrease of fossil fuel reserves, use of available land, additional employment and income for rural communities, etc., are related to important environmental benefits namely in terms of emissions of hot house gases. Wood waste, resulting from forest operations, cleaning, cultural and final cuttings, and from wood based industries, constitute a special important resource by reason of quality and availability. In addition to this they do not require additional land use and the removal is beneficial. In the run-up to the becoming December`s 1997 `Climate Change Summit` in Kioto, there is mounting pressure on companies to plan on carbon cuts. (author) 6 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Nature of oils and gases in the North Tyumen Oblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, I.V.; Krashin, D.I.; Shpilman, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of the features of isotope and component composition of gases and oils in the North Tyumen Oblast. It is indicated that processes of thermal catalytic destruction of kerogen cannot result in the observed laws governing the changes in the composition. The assumption is drawn that the formation of isotope and hydrocarbon composition of gases is based on the mechanism for biochemical hydration of the carbon dioxide. Similarity and differences are revealed with the composition of gases of other regions.

  9. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  10. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  11. Comment on "Radiative forcings for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases" by Byrne and Goldblatt (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanov, R. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Sharpe, S. W.; Johnson, T. J.; Sams, R. L.

    2015-08-01

    In the recent article by Byrne and Goldblatt, "Radiative forcing for 28 potential Archean greenhouse gases", Clim. Past. 10, 1779-1801 (2014), the authors employ the HITRAN2012 spectroscopic database to evaluate the radiative forcing of 28 Archean gases. As part of the evaluation of the status of the spectroscopy of these gases in the selected spectral region (50-1800 cm-1), the cross sections generated from the HITRAN line-by-line parameters were compared with those of the PNNL database of experimental cross sections recorded at moderate resolution. The authors claimed that for NO2, HNO3, H2CO, H2O2, HCOOH, C2H4, CH3OH and CH3Br there exist large or sometimes severe disagreements between the databases. In this work we show that for only three of these eight gases a modest discrepancy does exist between the two databases and we explain the origin of the differences. For the other five gases, the disagreements are not nearly at the scale suggested by the authors, while we explain some of the differences that do exist. In summary, the agreement between the HITRAN and PNNL databases is very good, although not perfect. Typically differences do not exceed 10 %, provided that HITRAN data exist for the bands/wavelengths of interest. It appears that a molecule-dependent combination of errors has affected the conclusions of the authors. In at least one case it appears that they did not take the correct file from PNNL (N2O4 (dimer)+ NO2 was used in place of the monomer). Finally, cross sections of HO2 from HITRAN (which do not have a PNNL counterpart) were not calculated correctly in BG, while in the case of HF misleading discussion was presented there based on the confusion by foreign or noise features in the experimental PNNL spectra.

  12. Properties of gases, liquids, and solutions principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2013-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume ll-Part A: Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solutions ponders on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as effective tools in examining the molecular, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first offers information on the transmission of sound waves in gases at very low pressures and the phenomenological theory of the relaxation phenomena in gases. Topics include free molecule propagation, phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes, and simultaneous multiple relaxation pro

  13. Particle number counting statistics in ideal Bose gases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christoph Weiss; Martin Wilkens

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the exact particle number counting statistics of degenerate ideal Bose gases in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand-canonical ensemble, respectively, for various trapping potentials...

  14. Architects' perspectives on construction waste reduction by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmani, M; Glass, J; Price, A D F

    2008-01-01

    The construction, demolition and excavation waste arising in England was estimated at 91 million tonnes in 2003. The current thinking on construction waste minimisation is heavily focussed on several issues relating to physical construction waste and recycling guides. Indeed, much had been published on ways to improve on-site waste management and recycling activities but very few attempts made to address the effect of design practices on waste generation. However, there is a consensus in the literature that the architect has a decisive role to play in helping to reduce waste by focussing on designing out waste. This paper examines previous studies on architects' approach towards construction waste minimisation; and by means of a postal questionnaire, investigates: the origins of waste; waste minimisation design practices in the UK; and responsibilities and barriers within the UK architectural profession. The findings reveal that waste management is not a priority in the design process. Additionally, the architects seemed to take the view that waste is mainly produced during site operations and rarely generated during the design stages; however, about one-third of construction waste could essentially arise from design decisions. Results also indicate that a number of constraints, namely: lack of interest from clients; attitudes towards waste minimisation; and training all act as disincentives to a proactive and sustainable implementation of waste reduction strategies during the design process.

  15. HANFORD FACILITY ANNUAL DANGEROUS WASTE REPORT CY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKOLRUD, J.O.

    2006-02-15

    The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCR4 Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. An electronic database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes, In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, the report is also transmitted electronically to a web site maintained by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  16. The Effect of Firearm Muzzle Gases on the Backspatter of Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.C.; Laber, T.L.; Epstein, B.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Baldwin, D.P.

    2010-05-12

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as 'backspatter.' Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  17. The effect of firearm muzzle gases on the backspatter of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael C; Laber, Terry L; Epstein, Barton P; Zamzow, Dan S; Baldwin, David P

    2011-09-01

    Injuries caused by gunshots can produce what bloodstain pattern analysts know as "backspatter." Observations about the presence or absence of backspatter on an individual may be used in court as evidence of guilt or innocence. The discharge of three firearms (.22 caliber revolver, .38 caliber revolver, and .308 caliber rifle) and the resulting impact of bullets on a blood source were recorded using high-speed digital video imaging. Blood droplets, firearm muzzle gases, and ballistic shock waves were visualized using standard reflected light and shadowgraphy imaging techniques. A significant interaction between air currents, muzzle gases, and particulate material emanating from the firearms upon discharge with backspattered blood was observed. Blood droplets, initially spattered back toward the firearm and the shooter, were observed to change direction under the influence of firearm-induced air currents and were blown forward toward and beyond their original source location. Implications for experts testifying in court and for bloodstain pattern instructors are discussed.

  18. String-nets, single- and double-stranded quantum loop gases for non-Abelian anyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velenich, Andrea; Chamon, Claudio [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Wen Xiaogang, E-mail: velenich@bu.ed [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-04-30

    String-nets and quantum loop gases are two prominent microscopic lattice models to describe topological phases. String-net condensation can give rise to both Abelian and non-Abelian anyons, whereas loop condensation usually produces Abelian anyons. It has been proposed, however, that generalized quantum loop gases with non-orthogonal inner products could support non-Abelian anyons. We detail an exact mapping between the string-net and these generalized loop models and explain how the non-orthogonal products arise. We also introduce an equivalent loop model of double-stranded nets where quantum loops with an orthogonal inner product and local interactions supports non-Abelian Fibonacci anyons. Finally, we emphasize the origin of the sign problem in systems with non-Abelian excitations and its consequences on the complexity of their ground state wavefunctions. (fast track communication)

  19. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  20. Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alwyn G

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between 1894 and 1898, he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize.

  1. A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.

  2. Biomedical imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gases (HNGs), polarized to approximately 50% or higher, have led to major advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of porous structures and air-filled cavities in human subjects, particularly the lung. By boosting the available signal to a level about 100 000 times higher than that at thermal equilibrium, air spaces that would otherwise appear as signal voids in an MR image can be revealed for structural and functional assessments. This review discusses how HNG MR imaging differs from conventional proton MR imaging, how MR pulse sequence design is affected and how the properties of gas imaging can be exploited to obtain hitherto inaccessible information in humans and animals. Current and possible future imaging techniques, and their application in the assessment of normal lung function as well as certain lung diseases, are described.

  3. Gender and Boyle's law of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Gender and Boyle''s Law of GasesElizabeth PotterRe-examines the assumptions and experimental evidence behind Boyle''s Law.Boyle''s Law, which describes the relation between the pressure and volume of a gas, was worked out by Robert Boyle in the mid-1600s. His experiments are still considered examples of good scientific work and continue to be studied along with their historical and intellectual contexts by philosophers, historians, and sociologists. Now there is controversy over whether Boyle''s work was based only on experimental evidence or whether it was influenced by the politics and religious controversies of the time, including especially class and gender politics.Elizabeth Potter argues that even good science is sometimes influenced by such issues, and she shows that the work leading to the Gas Law, while certainly based on physical evidenc...

  4. Performance test of PPAC in different gases

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Meng; Zhan Wen Long; Xiao Guo Qing; Xu Hu Shan; Mao Rui Shi; Hu Zheng Guo; Chen Zhi Qiang; Sun Zhi Yu; Li Jia Xing; Wang Wu Sheng; Chen Li Xin; Li Chen; Bai Jie; Zhang Xia; Zhang Jin Xia; Li Cun Fan

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimension position sensitive parallel-plate avalanche (PPAC) detector has been developed for RIBLL. The detector consists of one anode and two cathodes. In each cathode a resistance chain is used to readout position signals. The detector has been tested in different operating gases with an alpha source. When the detector is at 7 mb flowing rate of isobutane and + 500 V on anode, the position resolution of 0.76 mm is obtained. For 7 mb C sub 3 F sub 8 and +595 V on anode, the position resolution is 0.64 mm. The efficiencies are around 99.1% in the cases of C sub 3 F sub 8 and isobutane

  5. Monolayer adsorption of noble gases on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Sidi M.; Gatica, Silvina M.

    2018-02-01

    We report our results of simulations of the adsorption of noble gases (Kr, Ar, Xe) on graphene. For Kr, we consider two configurations: supported and free-standing graphene, where atoms are adsorbed only on one or two sides of the graphene. For Ar and Xe, we studied only the case of supported graphene. For the single-side adsorption, we calculated the two-dimensional gas-liquid critical temperature for each adsorbate. We determined the different phases of the monolayers and constructed the phase diagrams. We found two-dimensional incommensurate solid phases for krypton, argon and xenon, and a two-dimensional commensurate solid phase for krypton. For double side adsorption of Kr, we do not see evidence of an ordering transition driven by the interlayer forces.

  6. Electrochemical sensor monitoring of volcanic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tjarda; Freshwater, Ray; Oppenheimer, Clive; Saffell, John; Jones, Rod; Griffiths, Paul; Braban, Christine; Mead, Iqbal

    2010-05-01

    Advances in instrumentation have fuelled a recent growth of interest in using portable sensor systems for environmental monitoring of pollution. Developments in wireless technology are enabling such systems to operate remotely and autonomously, generating a wealth of environmental data. We report here on the application of miniature Alphasense electrochemical sensors to the detection and characterisation of gases in volcanic plumes. A highly portable sensor system was developed to operate an array of 6 low cost electrochemical sensors to detect CO, H2, HCl, SO2, H2S and NO2 at 1 Hz. A miniature pump draws air over all sensors simultaneously (i.e. sensors arranged in parallel). The sensor output in these campaigns was logged on PDAs for real-time viewing, and later download (with a view to future data-streaming). The instrument was deployed at a number of volcanoes and was subject to extremely harsh conditions including highly acidic environments, low (Antarctic) temperatures, and transport over rough terrain. Analysis methods are demonstrated that consider calibration, cross-sensitivities of the sensors to multiple gases, differing sensor response times, temperature dependence, and background sensor drift with time. The analysis is applied to a range of plume field-measurements to extract gas concentrations ranging from 100's ppmv to sub-ppmv and to characterise the individual volcano emissions. Applications of similar sensor systems for real-time long-term monitoring of volcanic emissions (which may indicate and ultimately predict eruptive behavior), and UAV and balloon-borne plume sampling are now already being realised. This work focused on demonstrating the application of electrochemical sensors to monitoring of environmental pollution from volcanoes. Other applications for similar sensors include the near-source monitoring of industrial emissions, and of pollutant levels enhanced by traffic emissions in the urban environment.

  7. Transit Spectroscopy of Biosignature Gases: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn David; Arney, Giada; Meadows, Victoria; Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Sellers Exoplanet Environments Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Transit spectroscopy should provide astronomers with their first opportunities to search for signs of life on exoplanets: first with JWST, then with ground-based extremely large telescopes, and eventually with purpose-designed missions such as the Origins Space Telescope. However, given this exciting opportunity, there are challenges to observing these signatures. The transit observation technique will carry observational biases towards planets orbiting cool (M-type) stars. These planets have challenges for habitability, including the potential for tidal locking and for planetary atmospheres to be loss to high-energy radiation from the host star. These observations will also have a bias towards spectral information from the uppermost of planetary atmospheres, where strictly abiotic photochemical processes can efficiently produce some biosignature gases, in particular as oxygen and ozone. Here, we will discuss these challenges, and how future missions/telescopes can account for them in their instrument design and observation strategies. We will also discuss how, even if some of the concerns above are warranted, such observations are justified astrobiological explorations of rocky planets around other stars.

  8. Turbomolecular Pumps for Holding Gases in Open Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Lorenz, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Proposed special-purpose turbomolecular pumps denoted turbotraps would be designed, along with mating open containers, to prevent the escape of relatively slowly (thermal) moving gas molecules from the containers while allowing atoms moving at much greater speeds to pass through. In the original intended applications, the containers would be electron-attachment cells, and the contained gases would be vapors of alkali metal atoms moving at thermal speeds that would be of the order of a fraction of 300 meters per second. These cells would be parts of apparatuses used to measure fluxes of neutral atoms incident at kinetic energies in the approximate range of 10 eV to 10 keV (corresponding to typical speeds of the order of 40,000 m/s and higher). The incident energetic neutral atoms would pass through the cells, wherein charge-exchange reactions with the alkali metal atoms would convert the neutral atoms to negative ions, which, in turn, could then be analyzed by use of conventional charged-particle optics.

  9. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  10. Carbon isotopes of Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-derived alkane gases from the major basins of northwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jinxing [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Earth Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Faculty of Natural Resources and Information Technology, University of Petroleum, Beijing, 102200 (China); Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Liu, Quanyou; Yang, Chun [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jian; Hu, Guoyi [PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development-Langfang Branch, Hebei 065007 (China); Zhang, Xiaobao [Lanzhou Institute of Geology, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hu, Anping [Department of Earth Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2009-11-01

    Coal-derived hydrocarbons from Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata in northwestern China are distributed in the Tarim, Junggar, Qaidam, and Turpan-Harmi basins. The former three basins are dominated by coal-derived gas fields, distributed in Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Turpan-Harmi basin is characterized by coal-derived oil fields which occur in the coal measures. Based on analysis of gas components and carbon isotopic compositions from these basins, three conclusions are drawn in this contribution: 1) Alkane gases with reservoirs of coal measures have no carbon isotopic reversal, whereas alkane gases with reservoirs not of coal measures the extent of carbon isotopic reversal increases with increasing maturity; 2) Coal-derived alkane gases with high {delta}{sup 13}C values are found in the Tarim and Qaidam basins ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1}: - 19.0 to - 29.9 permille; {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2}: - 18.8 to - 27.1 permille), and those with lowest {delta}{sup 13}C values occur in the Turpan-Harmi and Junggar basins ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub 1}: - 40.1 to - 44.0 permille; {delta}{sup 13}C{sub 2}: - 24.7 to - 27.9 permille); and 3) Individual specific carbon isotopic compositions of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 5-8}) in the coal-derived gases are lower than those in the oil-associated gases. The discovered carbon isotopic reversal of coal-derived gases is caused by isotopic fractionation during migration and secondary alteration. The high and low carbon isotopic values of coal-derived gases in China may have some significance on global natural gas research, especially the low carbon isotope value of methane may provide some information for early thermogenic gases. Coal-derived methane typically has much heavier {delta}{sup 13}C than that of oil-associated methane, and this can be used for gas-source rock correlation. The heavy carbon isotope of coal-derived ethane is a common phenomenon in China and it shed lights on the discrimination of gas origin. Since most giant gas

  11. Howardite Noble Gases as Indicators of Asteroid Surface Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Herrin, J. S.; Ott, U.

    2011-01-01

    The HED (Howardite, Eucrite and Diogenite) group meteorites likely or iginate from the Asteroid 4 Vesta - one of two asteroid targets of NA SA's Dawn mission. Whilst Howardites are polymict breccias of eucriti c and diogenitic material that often contain "regolithic" petrologica l features, neither their exact regolithic nature nor their formation processes are well defined. As the Solar Wind (SW) noble gas compon ent is implanted onto surfaces of solar system bodies, noble gas anal yses of Howardites provides a key indicator of regolithic origin. In addition to SW, previous work by suggested that restricted Ni (300-12 00 micro g/g) and Al2O3 (8-9 wt%) contents may indicate an ancient we ll-mixed regolith. Our research combines petrological, compositional and noble gas analyses to help improve understanding of asteroid reg olith formation processes, which will play an intergral part in the i nterpretation of Dawn mission data. Following compositional and petrological analyses, we developed a regolith grading scheme for our sampl e set of 30 Howardites and polymict Eucrites. In order to test the r egolith indicators suggested by, our 8 selected samples exhibited a r ange of Ni, Al2O3 contents and regolithic grades. Noble gas analyses were performed using furnace stepheating on our MAP 215-50 noble gas mass spectrometer. Of our 8 howardites, only 3 showed evidence of SW noble gases (e.g approaching Ne-20/Ne-22 approximately equals 13.75, Ne-21/Ne-22 approximately equals 0.033). As these samples display low regolithic grades and a range of Ni and Al2O3 contents, so far we are unable to find any correlation between these indicators and "regolit hic" origin. These results have a number of implications for both Ho wardite and Vesta formation, and may suggest complex surface stratigr aphies and surface-gardening processes.

  12. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  13. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  14. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  15. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-02-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation. The oxidant, or mediator, is a multivalent transition metal ion which is cleanly recycled in a number of charge transfer steps in an electrochemical cell. The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70{degrees}C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques. Although the oxidation of organics and the dissolution of transuranics by higher valency metal ions has been known for some time, applying the MEO technology to waste treatment is a relatively recent development. Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and

  16. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  17. Potential of waste heat in Croatian industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bišćan Davor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery in Croatian industry is of the highest significance regarding the national efforts towards energy efficiency improvements and climate protection. By recuperation of heat which would otherwise be wasted, the quantity of fossil fuels used for production of useful energy could be lowered thereby reducing the fuel costs and increasing the competitiveness of examined Croatian industries. Another effect of increased energy efficiency of industrial processes and plants is reduction of greenhouse gases i.e. the second important national goal required by the European Union (EU and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. Paper investigates and analyses the waste heat potential in Croatian industrial sector. Firstly, relevant industrial sectors with significant amount of waste heat are determined. Furthermore, significant companies in these sectors are selected with respect to main process characteristics, operation mode and estimated waste heat potential. Data collection of waste heat parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition is conducted. Current technologies used for waste heat utilization from different waste heat sources are pointed out. Considered facilities are compared with regard to amount of flue gas heat. Mechanisms for more efficient and more economic utilization of waste heat are proposed. [Acknoledgment. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE FUND (UKF of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia and the World Bank, under the Grant Agreement No. 89/11.

  18. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste.......In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...

  19. Global capacity, potentials and trends of solid waste research and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael A; Ronald, Mersky; Feng, Huan

    2017-09-01

    In this study, United States, China, India, United Kingdom, Nigeria, Egypt, Brazil, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Australia, Canada and Mexico were selected to represent the global community. This enabled an overview of solid waste management worldwide and between developed and developing countries. These are countries that feature most in the International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management (ICSW) over the past 20 years. A total of 1452 articles directly on solid waste management and technology were reviewed and credited to their original country of research. Results show significant solid waste research potentials globally, with the United States leading by 373 articles, followed by India with 230 articles. The rest of the countries are ranked in the order of: UK > Taiwan > Brazil > Nigeria > Italy > Japan > China > Canada > Germany >Mexico > Egypt > Australia. Global capacity in solid waste management options is in the order of: Waste characterisation-management > waste biotech/composting > waste to landfill > waste recovery/reduction > waste in construction > waste recycling > waste treatment-reuse-storage > waste to energy > waste dumping > waste education/public participation/policy. It is observed that the solid waste research potential is not a measure of solid waste management capacity. The results show more significant research impacts on solid waste management in developed countries than in developing countries where economy, technology and society factors are not strong. This article is targeted to motivate similar study in each country, using solid waste research articles from other streamed databases to measure research impacts on solid waste management.

  20. [Simulation of polluted atmospheres for animal experimentation: toxic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, J; Boudène, C

    1976-09-20

    A process for the generation of standardized polluted atmospheres usable for animal exposure is described. It is based on the diffusion of compressed gases across a silicone membrane. This device has been tested with four gases of particular importance in the field of atmospheric pollution (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and ammoniac).

  1. Fullerenes and Noble Gases in the Murchison and Allende Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bunch, Ted E.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we report the detection of fullerenes (C60 to C250) in the Murchison and Allende meteorites. By exploiting the unique ability of these molecules to trap noble gases, we have determined that fullerene is indeed a new carrier phase for noble gases in meteorites.

  2. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  3. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  4. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wuebbles, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., is equal to or greater than the elapsed time between the start and termination of travel. This... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 2 (gases) materials. 177.840 Section 177.840... and Unloading § 177.840 Class 2 (gases) materials. (See also § 177.834 (a) to (j).) (a) Floors or...

  6. Solubility of non-polar gases in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. L., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Solubility theory describes the effects of both concentration and temperature on solute activity coefficients. It predicts the salting-out effect and the decrease in solubility of non-polar gases with increased electrolyte concentration, and can be used to calculate heats of solution, entropies, and partial molal volumes of dissolved gases

  7. Incineration or autoclave? A comparative study in isfahan hospitals waste management system (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsi, Ali; Ferdosi, Masoud; Mehrani, Mohammd Javad

    2013-03-01

    Medical wastes are among hazardous wastes and their disposal requires special methods prior to landfilling. Medical wastes are divided into infected and non-infected wastes and the infected wastes require treatment. Incineration is one of the oldest methods for treatment of medical wastes, but their usage have faced wide objections due to emission of hazardous gases such as CO2 and CO as well as Carcinogenic gases such as Dioxins and Furans which are generated as a result of incomplete combustion of compositions like PVCs. Autoclave is one the newest methods of medical wastes treatment which works based on wet disinfection. The statistical population in this descriptive, comparative study includes hospitals located in Isfahan city and the sample hospitals were selected randomly. To environmentally evaluate the Autoclave method, TST (time, steam, temperature) and Spore tests were used. Also, samples were made from incinerator's stack gases and their analyses results were compared with WHO standards. TST and spore tests results were negative in all cases indicating the success of treatment process. The comparison of incinerator's stack gases with WHO standards showed the high concentration of CO in some samples indicating the incomplete combustion. Also, the incineration efficiency in some cases was less than 99.5 percent, which is the efficiency criterion according to the administrative regulations of wastes management law of Iran. No needle stick was observed in Autoclave method during the compaction of bags containing wastes, and the handlers were facing no danger in this respect. The comparison of costs indicated that despite higher capital investment for purchasing autoclave, its current costs (e.g. maintenance, etc) are much less than the incineration method. Totally, due to inappropriate operation of incinerators and lack of air pollution control devices, the use of incinerators doesn't seem rational anymore. Yet, despite the inefficiency of autoclaves in

  8. IMPREGNATED FIBROUS CHEMOSORBENTS OF ACID GASES FOR RESPIRATORY PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present review is dedicated to the analysis of scientific works carried out in Physico- Chemical Institute of Environment and Human Protection (Odessa, Ukrainie and directed to the development of import-substituting sorption-filtering materials for respiratory purposes – impregnated fibrous chemisorbents (IFCS of acid gases, which are manufactured using standard equipment, as well as affordable and inexpensive chemical reagents and carriers of domestic origin. The process of chemisorption of sulphur dioxide by hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA modified nonwoven fibrous material resulted acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of HMTA to form aminomethanesulfonic acid and toxic formaldehyde. The IFCS with HMTA carried was recommended to use for air purification only from SiF4, HF, HCl and Cl2. Chemisorption of sulphur dioxide by fibrous materials impregnated by ethanolamines (monoethanolamine, diethanomamine, triethanomamine and N-methylethanolamine and polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA occurs only in the presence of “free” water with formation of “onium” sulphites, hydrosulphites and pyrosulphites. IFCS-PEPA (dynamic activity is 1,38 mmol(SO2/g are not inferior to the protective characteristics of IFCS with Na2CO3, HMTA, ethanolamines and the best foreign ionexchange fibrous chemisorbents brand VION and FIBAN (dynamic activity is 0,263 ÷0,422 mmol(SO2/g under conditions of respirators actual use (jAGM = 60 ÷ 90 %, TAGM = 297 K, VAGM = 2,0 sm/s, СSO2 = 20 ÷ 1000 mg/g3, QPEPA = 3,45 mmol/g. It is recommended to use the condensation products of primary alkylamines with formaldehyde (with large molar masses than the bases, complex compounds of amines with 3d-metals (Ni(II and Cu(II, salts of amine with aminoacids (glycine and polybasic acids (orthophosphoric acid (pKa1 = 2,12 and citric acid (pKa1 = 3,13 for manufacturing of IFCS of acid gases The IFCS with indication of dynamic absorptive capacity “wearing” (IVKS-I was developed.

  9. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  10. Deep Inelastic Scattering on Ultracold Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    We discuss Bragg scattering on both Bose and Fermi gases with strong short-range interactions in the deep inelastic regime of large wave vector transfer q , where the dynamic structure factor is dominated by a resonance near the free-particle energy ℏω =ɛq=ℏ2q2/2 m . Using a systematic short-distance expansion, the structure factor at high momentum is shown to exhibit a nontrivial dependence on frequency characterized by two separate scaling regimes. First, for frequencies that differ from the single-particle energy by terms of order O (q ) (i.e., small deviations compared to the single-particle energy), the dynamic structure factor is described by the impulse approximation of Hohenberg and Platzman. Second, deviations of order O (q2) (i.e., of the same order or larger than the single-particle energy) are described by the operator product expansion, with a universal crossover connecting both regimes. The scaling is consistent with the leading asymptotics for a number of sum rules in the large momentum limit. Furthermore, we derive an exact expression for the shift and width of the single-particle peak at large momentum due to interactions, thus extending a result by Beliaev [J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 7, 299 (1958)] for the low-density Bose gas to arbitrary values of the scattering length a . The shift exhibits a maximum around q a ≃1 , which is connected with a maximum in the static structure factor due to strong short-range correlations. For Bose gases with moderate interaction strengths, the theoretically predicted shift is consistent with the value observed by Papp et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 135301 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.135301]. Finally, we develop a diagrammatic theory for the dynamic structure factor which accounts for the correlations beyond Bogoliubov theory. It covers the full range of momenta and frequencies and provides an explicit example for the emergence of asymptotic scaling at large momentum.

  11. Environmental assessment of waste management in Greenland: current practice and potential future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    waste are collected separately and exported to Europe. The impacts from the current waste management system were modelled from a life-cycle perspective using the LCA-waste model EASEWASTE. Impacts with regard to global warming, acidification, etc. are small (a few hundred person-equivalents (PE...... for district heating and separation of hazardous waste probably could improve Greenland’s waste management system. Segregation of recyclable materials as paper, cardboard and biowaste will do little to environmentally improve the waste management system due to loss of energy recovery from incineration......The majority of the waste in Greenland is disposed of in open dumps or incinerated in simple small-scale incinerators. There are relatively few environmental regulations that control the emissions of leachate, landfill gas and/or flue gases from incineration. Only some scrap metal and hazardous...

  12. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  13. Household Waste Recycling: Economics and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ankinée Kirakozian

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a review of economic studies that analyse the use of multiple policies to cope with waste management problems. We discuss the factors that influence selective sorting behaviour, and the most appropriate policies for their promotion. Based on the works analysed, our survey shows the original features of waste as an environmental problem requiring regulation. The traditional approach in which decisions respond to rational behaviour, particularly cost savings, has some limits...

  14. Waste Reduction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help solid waste planners and organizations track/report GHG emissions reductions from various waste management practices. To assist in calculating GHG emissions of baseline and alternative waste management practices and provide the history of WARM.

  15. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  16. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  17. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  18. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  19. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  20. Rare gases, water, and carbon in kaersutites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreda, Robert J.; Basu, Asish R.

    1984-07-01

    Kaersutites from Kakanui, New Zealand and from three localities in the southwestern United States have been analyzed for rare gases, water and carbon to investigate the volatile signature of the sub-continental mantle. This study does not confirm the high 3He/ 4He and 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios reported by Saito et al. [1] for the Kakanui kaersutite. Instead, a 3He/ 4He ratio of 6 RA and atmospheric 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios were measured which are consistent with our current knowledge of the earth's mantle. A low 40Ar/ 36Ar of 320 and more than 10 -8 cm 3/g of 36Ar confirms the argon results of Saito et al. and indicates that significant quantities of 36Ar reside in this portion of the mantle. Kaersutites from the southwestern United States (Arizona) have a heterogeneous helium isotope signature, ranging from 8.8 RA at San Carlos to 0.46 at Hoover Dam. All D/H ratios for the water in kaersutites (-56‰ to -78‰) represent typical mantle values with no apparent correlation with 3He/ 4He. The correlation of increasing carbon content (140-400 ppm) with increasing δ 13C (-24.5‰ to -16.7‰) may reflect differences in the proportions of oxidized and reduced carbon in these samples.

  1. Quantum Degenerate Gases of Atomic Strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, T. C.

    2010-03-01

    This talk will describe the production and properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate of ^84Sr and a quantum degenerate mixture of ^87Sr (fermion) and ^88Sr (boson). ^88Sr has a small negative scattering length leading to a maximum condensate size for our trapping conditions of about 10^4 atoms. ^87Sr is used to sympathetically cool ^88Sr, but it is also of interest for study of quantum degenerate Fermi gases because it has a large nuclear spin (I=9/2). Alkaline-earth metal atoms and atoms with similar electronic structure are of interest for quantum computing proposals, cold collision studies, and investigation of quantum fluids. There are a wealth of isotopes that allow mass-tuning of interactions and creation of various quantum mixtures. The two-valence electrons lead to a singlet ground state and narrow intercombination transitions to metastable triplet states, offering the promise of low-loss optical Feshbach resonances for manipulating scattering lengths. Fermions often have large nuclear spin, which is decoupled from electronic degrees of freedom and leads to a large degree of symmetry and degeneracy in the interaction Hamiltonian. Work done in collaboration with Y.N. Martinez de Escobar, P.G. Mickelson, M. Yan, B.J. DeSalvo, and S.B. Nagel, Rice University.

  2. High-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at oxide interfaces: Origins and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Sun, Ji-Rong

    2013-01-01

    at the SrTiO3 surface, metallic conduction can be created at room temperature in perovskite-type interfaces when the overlayer oxide ABO3 has Al, Ti, Zr, or Hf elements at the B sites. Furthermore, relying on interface-stabilized oxygen vacancies, we have created a new type of 2DEG at the heterointerface...

  3. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  5. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  6. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: a potential solution for the disposal of transuranic waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1996-01-01

    ... Isolation Pilot Plant Board on Radioactive Waste Management Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting been have may original from the errors not typographic original retained, and from the c...

  7. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  8. Development of Optical Parametric Amplifier for Lidar Measurements of Trace Gases on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephen R.; Krainak, Michael; Abshire, James

    2011-01-01

    Trace gases in planetary atmospheres offer important clues as to the origins of the planet's hydrology, geology. atmosphere. and potential for biology. Wc report on the development effort of a nanosecond-pulsed optical parametric amplifier (OPA) for remote trace gas measurements for Mars and Earth. The OP A output light is single frequency with high spectral purity and is widely tunable both at 1600 nm and 3300 nm with an optical-optical conversion efficiency of approximately 40%. We demonstrated open-path atmospheric measurements ofCH4 (3291 nm and 1651 nm). CO2 (1573 nm), H20 (1652 nm) with this laser source.

  9. Evaluation of a process for the removal of gases contained in geothermal steam through condensation and re-evaporation; Evaluacion de un proceso de remocion de gases contenidos en el vapor geotermico, por medio de la condensacion y de revaporacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulo C, Raul; Lam Rea, Luis; Garmino, Hector; Jimenez, Humberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto I Geothermal Field, developed and operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has currently an installed electric power generation capacity of 180 MW and is at a very advanced stage in the development of Cerro Prieto II and III, which will allow to raise the generation capacity to 620 MW. During the exploitation of a geothermal field, in producing steam with the purpose of generating electricity, brines and waste gases are obtained. The hydrogen sulfide exhaust to the environment implies pollution problems, for this reason processes have been developed for the oxidation of these gases downstream the turbogenerator either in the flow of separated gases in the steam condensation or in the condensate produced. The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has collaborated with CFE in the evaluation of the environmental impact of this gas and in the development of the processes for its abatement. [Espanol] El campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto I, desarrollado y operado por la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), actualmente tiene una capacidad instalada de generacion de energia electrica de 180 MW, y se encuentra en etapa muy avanzada, el desarrollo de Cerro Prieto II y III, lo que permitira incrementar la capacidad de generacion a 620 MW. Durante la explotacion de un campo geotermico, al producir vapor con el proposito de generar electricidad, se obtienen salmueras y gases de desecho. La descarga de acido sulfhidrico a la atmosfera implica problemas de contaminacion, por esta razon se han desarrollado procesos para la oxidacion de este gas aguas abajo de la turbina generadora, ya sea en la corriente de gases que se separan en la condensacion del vapor o en el condensado producido. El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha colaborado con la CFE en la evaluacion del impacto ambiental de este gas y en el desarrollo de sus procesos de abatimiento.

  10. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  11. Solar wind noble gases and nitrogen in metal from lunar soil 68501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Richard H.; Pepin, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    Noble gases and N were analyzed in handpicked metal separates from lunar soil 68501 by a combination of step-wise combustions and pyrolyses. Helium and Ne were found to be unfractionated with respect to one another when normalized to solar abundances, for both the bulk sample and for all but the highest temperature steps. However, they are depleted relative to Ar, Kr and Xe by at least a factor of 5. The heavier gases exhibit mass-dependent fractionation relative to solar system abundance ratios but appear unfractionated, both in the bulk metal and in early temperature steps, when compared to relative abundances derived from lunar ilmenite 71501 by chemical etching, recently put forward as representing the abundance ratios in solar wind. Estimates of the contribution of solar energetic particles (SEP) to the originally implanted solar gases, derived from a basic interpretation of He and Ne isotopes, yield values of about 10%. Analysis of the Ar isotopes requires a minimum of 20% SEP, and Kr isotopes, using our preferred composition for solar wind Kr, yield a result that overlaps both these values. It is possible to reconcile the data from these gases if significant loss of solar wind Ar, Kr and presumably Xe has occurred relative to the SEP component, most likely by erosive processes that are mass independent, although mass-dependent losses (Ar greater than Kr greater than Xe) cannot be excluded. If such losses did occur, the SEP contribution to the solar implanted gases must have been no more than a few percent. Nitrogen is a mixture of indigenous meteoritic N, whose isotopic composition is inferred to be relatively light, and implanted solar N, which has probably undergone diffusive redistribution and fractionation. If the heavy noble gases have not undergone diffusive loss, then N/Ar in the solar wind can be inferred to be at least several times the accepted solar ratio. The solar wind N appears, even after correction for fractionation effects, to have a minimum

  12. Mid-Infrared OPO for High Resolution Measurements of Trace Gases in the Mars Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Numata,Kenji; Riris, haris; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham; Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere is composed primarily (>95%) of CO2 and N2 gas, with CO, O2, CH4, and inert gases such as argon comprising most of the remainder. It is surprisingly dynamic with various processes driving changes in the distribution of CO2, dust, haze, clouds and water vapor on global scales in the meteorology of Mars atmosphere [I]. The trace gases and isotopic ratios in the atmosphere offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of the planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. In the search for life on Mars, an important process is the ability of bacteria to metabolize inorganic substrates (H2, CO2 and rock) to derive energy and produce methane as a by-product of anaerobic metabolism. Trace gases have been measured in the Mars atmosphere from Earth, Mars orbit, and from the Mars surface. The concentration of water vapor and various carbon-based trace gases are observed in variable concentrations. Within the past decade multiple groups have reported detection of CH4, with concentrations in the 10's of ppb, using spectroscopic observations from Earth [2]. Passive spectrometers in the mid-infrared (MIR) are restricted to the sunlit side of the planet, generally in the mid latitudes, and have limited spectral and spatial resolution. To accurately map the global distribution and to locate areas of possibly higher concentrations of these gases such as plumes or vents requires an instrument with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution that also has global coverage and can measure during both day and night. Our development goal is a new MIR lidar capable of measuring, on global scales, with sensitivity, resolution and precision needed to characterize the trace gases and isotopic ratios of the Martian atmosphere. An optical parametric oscillator operating in the MIR is well suited for this instrument. The sufficient wavelength tuning range of the OPO can extend the measurements to other organic molecules, CO2, atmospheric water

  13. Chemical Waste and Allied Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yung-Tse; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Ramli, Siti Fatihah; Yeh, Ruth Yu-Li; Liu, Lian-Huey; Huhnke, Christopher Robert

    2016-10-01

    This review of literature published in 2015 focuses on waste related to chemical and allied products. The topics cover the waste management, physicochemical treatment, aerobic granular, aerobic waste treatment, anaerobic granular, anaerobic waste treatment, chemical waste, chemical wastewater, fertilizer waste, fertilizer wastewater, pesticide wastewater, pharmaceutical wastewater, ozonation. cosmetics waste, groundwater remediation, nutrient removal, nitrification denitrification, membrane biological reactor, and pesticide waste.

  14. Modeling Thermal Changes at Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: A Case Study of the Co-Disposal of Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reaction of secondary aluminum processing waste (referred herein to as salt cake) with water has been documented to produce heat and gases such as hydrogen, methane, and ammonia (US EPA 2015). The objective of this project was to assess the impact of salt cake disposal on MS...

  15. Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y

  16. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  17. Critical Temperature Differences of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Prime Mover with Various Helium-Based Binary Mixture Working Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Ikhsan; Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi

    2015-06-01

    Thermoacoustic prime movers are energy conversion devices which convert thermal energy into acoustic work. The devices are environmentally friendly because they do not produce any exhaust gases. In addition, they can utilize clean energy such as solar-thermal energy or waste heat from internal combustion engines as the heat sources. The output mechanical work of thermoacoustic prime movers are usually used to drive a thermoacoustic refrigerator or to generate electricity. A thermoacoustic prime mover with low critical temperature difference is desired when we intend to utilize low quality of heat sources such as waste heat and sun light. The critical temperature difference can be significantly influenced by the kinds of working gases inside the resonator and stack's channels of the device. Generally, helium gas is preferred as the working gas due to its high sound speed which together with high mean pressure will yield high acoustic power per unit volume of the device. Moreover, adding a small amount of a heavy gas to helium gas may improve the efficiency of thermoacoustic devices. This paper presents numerical study and estimation of the critical temperature differences of a standing wave thermoacoustic prime mover with various helium-based binary-mixture working gases. It is found that mixing helium (He) gas with other common gases, namely argon (Ar), nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), at appropriate pressures and molar compositions, reduce the critical temperature differences to lower than those of the individual components of the gas mixtures. In addition, the optimum mole fractions of Hegas which give the minimum critical temperature differences are shifted to larger values as the pressure increases, and tends to be constant at around 0.7 when the pressure increases more than 2 MPa. However, the minimum critical temperature differences slightly increase as the pressure increases to higher than 1.5 MPa. Furthermore, we found that the lowest

  18. Preliminary study for the management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpanis, B; Papadopoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Stylianou, M; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper refers to the management of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste since, according to the EU Waste Strategy, C&D waste is considered to be one of the priority waste streams and appropriate actions need to be taken with respect to its effective management. Initially, the paper presents the state-of-the-art of the problem of C&D waste, including the amount and composition of C&D waste in EU countries, differences in the characteristics of this waste stream depending on its origin, as well as collection and management practices that are applied. A methodology is described for the estimation of the quantities of the waste stream under examination, since in most cases quantitative primary data is not available. Next, the fundamentals for the development of an integrated scheme for the management of C&D waste are presented and discussed, such as appropriate demolition procedures and location of waste management (off-site waste management, on-site waste management, direct on-site recovery, centralized on-site recovery). Finally, taking into consideration all relevant parameters, alternative systems that could be applied for the management of the C&D waste are suggested.

  19. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated... Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... greenhouse gas emissions from additional sources of fluorinated greenhouse gases, including electronics...

  20. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphic matrix for the waste forms. The approach involves the low temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior t the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package.

  1. Local Instruction Theory on Division in Mathematics GASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rully Charitas Indra Prahmana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on learning mathematics for rural area's student indicate that students have difficulty in understanding the concept of division operation. Students are more likely to be introduced by the use of the formula without involving the concept itself and learning division separate the concrete situation of learning process. This underlies the researcher to design division operation learning in the Mathematics of GASING (Math GASING, which always starts from concrete to abstract level. The research method used is a design research which describes how the Math GASING make a real contribution of students understanding in the concept of division operation.

  2. Fluoride gases damages on agricultural and ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, V.; Padalino, O.

    1968-01-01

    Reports are presented concerning fluoride gases from a brick furnace, damaging agricultural and ornamental plants: Prunus armeniaca L. var. Reale d'Imola, Vitis vinifera L. var. Cardinal, Gladiolus spp., Pinus pinea L., Iris germanica L., that are particularly sensitive to these gases. There are descriptions of the morphological alterations and the authors have proven the presence of fluoride in the chemically analyzed samples. There is a list of plants found near the brick furnace that have been classified as (I) highly sensitive; (II) moderately sensitive; (III) very little sensitivity; (IV) immune to fluoride gases. 10 references, 9 figures.

  3. Biogenic gases in tropical floodplain river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victória Ramos Ballester

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the distribution of biogenic gases in the floodplain of the Mogi-Guaçu River (São Paulo, Brazil enabled the establishment of a "redox hierarchy", in which the main channel was the most oxidizing environment, followed by Diogo Lake, with Infernão Lake having the most reducing conditions of the subsystems evaluated. Diogo Lake exported about 853.4 g C.m-2.year-1, of which, 14.6% was generated from methanogenesis and 36.7% by aerobic respiration. For Infernão Lake, these values were 2016 g C.m-2.year-1, 1.8 % and 41.5 %, respectively. Carbon export by these systems was predominantly in the form of CO2, which was responsible for the release of 728.78 g C.m-2.year-1 at Diogo Lake and 1979.72 g C.m-2. year-1 at Infernão Lake. Such patterns may result from the nature of the hydrological conditions, the action of the hydroperiod, and morphological characteristics of the environment.A análise da distribuição de gases biogênicos na planície de inundação do Rio Mogi Guaçu (São Paulo, Brasil possibilitou o estabelecimento de um gradiente redox para os sistemas aquáticos avaliados, em que o canal principal do rio apresentou-se como o ambiente mais oxidado, seguido da Lagoa do Diogo, e a Lagoa do Infernão apresentando as condições mais redutoras entre os ambientes em questão. A Lagoa do Diogo exporta um total de 853,4 g C.m-2.ano-1, do qual 14,6% é produzido pela metanogênese e 36,7% pela respiração aeróbia. Para a Lagoa do Infernão estes valores foram respectivamente de 2.016 g C.m-2.ano-1, 1,8% e de 41,5%. A exportação de carbono por estes sistemas é realizada, predominantemente na forma de CO2, nos valores de 728,78 g C.m-2.ano-1 para a Lagoa do Diogo e 1.979,72 g C.m-2.ano-1 para a Lagoa do Infernão. Estes padrões parecem estar relacionados com a natureza das condições hidrológicas, com a ação do hidroperíodo e com as características morfológicas do ambiente.

  4. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  5. Temporal dynamics of Bose-condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Martinez, Mauricio

    2014-03-19

    We perform a detailed quantum dynamical study of non-equilibrium trapped, interacting Bose-condensed gases. We investigate Josephson oscillations between interacting Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a finite size double-well trap and the non-trivial time evolution of a coherent state placed at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice. For the Josephson oscillations three time scales appear. We find that Josephson junction can sustain multiple undamped oscillations up to a characteristic time scale τ{sub c} without exciting atoms out of the condensates. Beyond the characteristic time scale τ{sub c} the dynamics of the junction are governed by fast, non-condensed particles assisted Josephson tunnelling as well as the collisions between non-condensed particles. In the non-condensed particles dominated regime we observe strong damping of the oscillations due to inelastic collisions, equilibrating the system leading to an effective loss of details of the initial conditions. In addition, we predict that an initially self-trapped BEC state will be destroyed by these fast dynamics. The time evolution of a coherent state released at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice shows a ballistic expansion with a decreasing expansion velocity for increasing two-body interactions strength and particle number. Additionally, we predict that if the two-body interactions strength exceeds a certain value, a forerunner splits up from the expanding coherent state. We also observe that this system, which is prepared far from equilibrium, can evolve to a quasistationary non-equilibrium state.

  6. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  7. AIR POLLUTION FROM ANIMAL AND MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER: ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION AND RELEASE OF NOXIOUS GASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Xiaorong

    studies of enzymatic degradation process in manure, and the obtained enzyme-kinetic parameters can be utilized in prediction modeling of ammonia production rates and thus ammonia release from animal productions. The results of the acidification study showed that slurry acidification can reduce ammonia...... from animal manure (mixture of urine and feces) by hydrolysis of urinary urea catalyzed by microbial urease present in feces. To better understand the enzymatic process of ammonia formation in manure, experiments based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics were conducted to obtain accurate estimates...... quantification and release behavior of pollutant gases from various waste sources, NH3, CO2, H2S, and SO2 emissions during storage of five types of wastewater (i.e., swine manure, dairy manure, beef manure, layer hen manure and municipal wastewater) were studied and compared. Ammonia is a gas pollutant generated...

  8. Comparative Analysis of Monitoring Devices for Particulate Content in Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Castellani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The installation and operation of continuous particulate emission monitors in industrial processes has become well developed and common practice in industrial stacks and ducts over the past 30 years, reflecting regulatory monitoring requirements. Continuous emissions monitoring equipment is installed not only for regulatory compliance, but also for the monitoring of plant performance, calculation of emissions inventories and compilation of environmental impact assessments. Particulate matter (PM entrained in flue gases is produced by the combustion of fuels or wastes. The size and quantity of particles released depends on the type of fuel and the design of the plant. The present work provides an overview of the main industrial emission sources, a description of the main types of monitoring systems offered by manufacturers and a comparative analysis of the currently available technologies for measuring dust releases to atmosphere.

  9. The terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Ciais, Philippe; Michalak, Anna M; Canadell, Josep G; Saikawa, Eri; Huntzinger, Deborah N; Gurney, Kevin R; Sitch, Stephen; Zhang, Bowen; Yang, Jia; Bousquet, Philippe; Bruhwiler, Lori; Chen, Guangsheng; Dlugokencky, Edward; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Melillo, Jerry; Pan, Shufen; Poulter, Benjamin; Prinn, Ronald; Saunois, Marielle; Schwalm, Christopher R; Wofsy, Steven C

    2016-03-10

    The terrestrial biosphere can release or absorb the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and therefore has an important role in regulating atmospheric composition and climate. Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, agriculture and waste management have altered terrestrial biogenic greenhouse gas fluxes, and the resulting increases in methane and nitrous oxide emissions in particular can contribute to climate change. The terrestrial biogenic fluxes of individual greenhouse gases have been studied extensively, but the net biogenic greenhouse gas balance resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system remains uncertain. Here we use bottom-up (inventory, statistical extrapolation of local flux measurements, and process-based modelling) and top-down (atmospheric inversions) approaches to quantify the global net biogenic greenhouse gas balance between 1981 and 2010 resulting from anthropogenic activities and its effect on the climate system. We find that the cumulative warming capacity of concurrent biogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions is a factor of about two larger than the cooling effect resulting from the global land carbon dioxide uptake from 2001 to 2010. This results in a net positive cumulative impact of the three greenhouse gases on the planetary energy budget, with a best estimate (in petagrams of CO2 equivalent per year) of 3.9 ± 3.8 (top down) and 5.4 ± 4.8 (bottom up) based on the GWP100 metric (global warming potential on a 100-year time horizon). Our findings suggest that a reduction in agricultural methane and nitrous oxide emissions, particularly in Southern Asia, may help mitigate climate change.

  10. The Influence of the Chemical Composition of Selected Waste Materials from the Production of Copper on the Final Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A.W.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents qualitative and quantitative analysis of the waste produced by KGHM Polska Miedź. The waste has been analyzed according to its chemical composition and balanced in order to be reused and recycled. Special attention has been paid to mining industries producing the biggest amount of waste and ore enrichment businesses generating waste, which isn’t reused nowadays. Laboratory reseach has been conducted on floatation waste, different kinds of slags, waste gases and water slag extracts. Attention has been drawn to the possibility of using a computer program SLAG - PROP for analyzing physicochemical features, technological features and the refining of the acquired waste. Consequently, the further way of utilization of waste has been shown. From this point of view, analyses of DTA and TG slags in an oxide coating seem especially interesting. Having a particular composition they can be successfully utillised in the refining processes of copper pyrometallyrgy.

  11. Scori: specialist of the thermal treatment of wastes in cement industry; Scori: specialiste du traitement thermique des dechets en cimenterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Todays, the valorization in cement industry is an integral part of the treatment of industrial wastes in France. This solution, widely developed in other European countries, has been considered as an integral way of wastes elimination by the European directive on special industrial wastes incineration. In this context, with 460000 t processed in France and Belgium and a 600000 t capacity, the SCORI company is considered as the European specialist of the industrial wastes treatment in cement industry thanks to its know-how developed with its partners Ciment Calcia, Lafarge Ciments, Holderbank and Vicat. This paper describes the advantages of cement kilns for the destruction of organic compounds, the part of inorganic and mineral wastes introduced, the purification of combustion gases, the energy valorization of wastes, the pre-treatment of some special wastes before combustion, and the different types of wastes accepted in cement industry (selection, risk assessment, legal aspects and safety). (J.S.)

  12. Upcycling Waste Lard Oil into Vertical Graphene Sheets by Inductively Coupled Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Angjian; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Jian; Du, Changming; Shen, Wangjun; Yan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Vertical graphene (VG) sheets were single-step synthesized via inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using waste lard oil as a sustainable and economical carbon source. Interweaved few-layer VG sheets, H2, and other hydrocarbon gases were obtained after the decomposition of waste lard oil. The influence of parameters such as temperature, gas proportion, ICP power was investigated to tune the nanostructures of obtained VG, which indicated that a proper tem...

  13. The use of ACV in the integrated waste systems of waste management; El uso del ACV en el desarrollo de sistemas integrados de gestion de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, F. R.; Navarro, M

    2000-07-01

    The treatment systems of Solid Wastes must be conceived for minimizing the environment charge originated by them and to be economically assumed by the sectors of a community. The waste integrated management represents a global proposal which implies a wide range of different treatment options for all waste. (Author)

  14. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  15. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  16. Phase Q - A carrier for subsolar noble gases

    OpenAIRE

    Busemann, H.; Baur, H.; R. Wieler

    2002-01-01

    We discuss noble gases in the E-chondrite St. Mark's indicating that the subsolar component does not exclusively reside in enstatite. Element and isotope abundances including He are presented. Fractionation probably took place prior to incorporation.\\ud

  17. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  18. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-03

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal.

  19. Request for Correction 10008 Endangerment Findings for Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for correction by Peabody Energy Company for the EPA to correct temperature data in Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act

  20. Measurement of Trace Gases in the Atmosphere of Venus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop small, lightweight, low power instrumentation for the in situ balloon-borne measurement of several trace gases of importance...