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Sample records for waste frying oils

  1. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  2. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  3. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils and its quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabudak, T; Yildiz, M

    2010-05-01

    The use of biodiesel as fuel from alternative sources has increased considerably over recent years, affording numerous environmental benefits. Biodiesel an alternative fuel for diesel engines is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils or animal fats. However, the high costs implicated in marketing biodiesel constitute a major obstacle. To this regard therefore, the use of waste frying oils (WFO) should produce a marked reduction in the cost of biodiesel due to the ready availability of WFO at a relatively low price. In the present study waste frying oils collected from several McDonald's restaurants in Istanbul, were used to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel from WFO was prepared by means of three different transesterification processes: a one-step base-catalyzed, a two-step base-catalyzed and a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by base transesterification. No detailed previous studies providing information for a two-step acid-catalyzed transesterification followed by a base (CH(3)ONa) transesterification are present in literature. Each reaction was allowed to take place with and without tetrahydrofuran added as a co-solvent. Following production, three different procedures; washing with distilled water, dry wash with magnesol and using ion-exchange resin were applied to purify biodiesel and the best outcome determined. The biodiesel obtained to verify compliance with the European Standard 14214 (EN 14214), which also corresponds to Turkish Biodiesel Standards. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  5. Production of surfactin by bacillus subtilis mtcc 2423 from waste frying oils

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    N. Vedaraman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the obstacles in the way of wide scale industrial application of biosurfactants is the high production cost coupled with a low production rate. In order to lower the production cost surfactin production by Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 was studied in submerged batch cultivation using waste frying oils. It was observed that the decrease in surface tension was 56.32%, 48.5% and 46.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Biomass formation was 4.36 g/L, 3.67 g/L and 4.67 g/L for glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil, respectively. Product yield (g product/g substrate was 2.1%, 1.49% and 1.1% with glucose, waste frying sunflower oil and waste frying rice bran oil as substrates. This process facilitates safe disposal of waste frying oil, as well reducing the production cost of surfactin.

  6. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  7. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya, E-mail: mahardika190@gmail.com; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Jalan Raya Sekaran Gunungpati 50229 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  8. Preliminary economic assessment of the use of waste frying oils for biodiesel production in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Elyssa G; Salam, Darine A

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a method for assessing the costs of biodiesel production from waste frying oils in Beirut, Lebanon, was investigated with the aim of developing an economic evaluation of this alternative. A hundred restaurant and hotel enterprises in Beirut were surveyed for promoting them in participating in the biodiesel supply chain, and for data collection on waste frying oils generation, disposal methods and frequency, and acquisition cost. Also, waste frying oils were collected and converted into biodiesel using a one-step base catalyzed transesterification process. Physicochemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were conforming to international standards. Data produced from laboratory scale conversion of waste frying oils to biodiesel, as well as data collected from the only biodiesel plant in Lebanon was used to determine the production cost of biodiesel. Geographic Information System was used to propose a real-time vehicle routing model to establish the logistics costs associated with waste frying oils collection. Comparing scenarios of the configuration collection network of waste frying oils, and using medium-duty commercial vehicles for collection, a logistics cost of US$/L 0.08 was optimally reached. For the calculation of the total cost of biodiesel production, the minimum, average, and maximum values for the non-fixed cost variables were considered emerging 81 scenarios for possible biodiesel costs. These were compared with information on the commercialization of diesel in Lebanon for the years 2011 through 2017. Although competitive with petroleum diesel for years 2011 to 2014, the total biodiesel cost presented less tolerance to declining diesel prices in the recent years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the acquisition cost of waste frying oils is the key factor affecting the overall cost of biodiesel production. The results of this study validate the economic feasibility of waste frying oils' biodiesel production in the studied

  9. Potential of waste frying oil as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri, Syed M Raza [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)], e-mail: chemicalraza@gmail.com; Wani, Omar Bashir; Athar, Moina [Dept. of Petroleum Studies, Z.H.C.E.T, A.M.U, Aligarh (India)

    2012-11-01

    To face the challenges of climbing Petroleum demand and of climate changes related to Carbon dioxide emissions, interest grows in sustainable fuels made from organic matter. World production of bio fuels has experienced phenomenal growth. The search for alternatives to petroleum based fuel has led to the development of fuels from various renewable sources, including feed stocks, such as fats and oils. Several kinds of fuels can be derived from these feed stocks. One of them is biodiesel, which is mono alkyl esters of vegetables oils and animal fats and produced by transesterification of oil and fats with alcohols in the presence of acid, alkali or enzyme base catalysts. The main hurdle in using the biodiesel is its cost which is mainly the cost of virgin oil. In India every year Millions of liters of waste frying oil are discarded into the sewage system which adds cost to its treatment and add up to the pollution of ground water. This paper proposed the production of Bio-diesel from the very same waste frying oil. The production of Bio-diesel from this waste frying oil offers economic, social, environmental and health benefits. The Bio-diesel produced finds the same use as the conventional diesel but this happens to be cost effective.

  10. Data on kinetic, energy and emission performance of biodiesel from waste frying oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverio Catureba da Silva Filho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article “Environmental and techno-economic considerations on biodiesel production from waste frying oil in São Paulo city” (Silva Filho et al., 2018 [1]. This article presents the variation of the concentration of waste frying oil (WFO with the reaction time and temperature during the transesterification of WTOs collected in the residences and restaurants of the city of São Paulo. Then, the biodiesel samples were mixed with the S-10 diesel oil in order to obtain the B10, B20, B30, B40, B50, B75 and B100 blends, which were tested in a diesel engine and their power, fuel consumption and gas emissions (CO, CO2 and SO2 have been measured to verify their greenhouse effect and energy efficiency. Keywords: Biodiesel, Kinetic curves, Greenhouse gas emission, Energy efficiency

  11. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamamre, Zayed; Yamin, Jehad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of waste frying oil as potential source for Biodiesel production. • Optimization of important reaction parameters. • A high yield and conversion of the feedstock to biodiesel. • Determination of fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from used frying oil. - Abstract: Waste frying oil (WFO) conversion to Biodiesel (Biodiesel) by Alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied. The effect of operating and processing variables e.g. reaction temperature, MeOH/oil ratio, type of catalyst used and its concentration was investigated at different reaction times. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the WFO and the produced methyl ester (Biodiesel) were measured. Results showed that (within the range of variables studied) the optimum conditions for Biodiesel manufacturing were MeOH/oil ratio 0.4 v/v (corresponds to 9.5 M ratio), with 1.0% (% w/v) KOH (corresponds to 0.83% w/w), temperature of 50 °C and reaction time between 20 and 40 min. Under these conditions, the obtained Biodiesel yield was approximately 98%. Results also showed that the viscosity of the obtained Biodiesel was 5.86 mm 2 /s which is close to that of petrodiesel with an average decrease of 69.5% in comparison with WFO. Furthermore, the iodine value (25.36 g I 2 /100 g sample) and the density (0.877 g/cm 3) of the Biodiesel met the values specified by JUS EN14214

  12. Production and characterization of rhamnolipid biosurfactant from waste frying coconut oil using a novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S; Jayachandran, K

    2013-02-01

    To improve biosurfactant production economics by the utilization of potential low-cost materials. In an attempt to utilize cost-effective carbon sources in the fermentative production of biosurfactants, various pure and waste frying oils were screened by a standard biosurfactant producing strain. Considering the regional significance, easy availability and the economical advantages, waste frying coconut oil was selected as the substrate for further studies. On isolation of more competent strains that could use waste frying coconut oil efficiently as a carbon source, six bacterial strains were isolated on cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-methylene blue agar plate, from a soil sample collected from the premises of a coconut oil mill. Among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa D was selected as the potential producer of rhamnolipid. Spectrophotometric method, TLC, methylene blue active substance assay, drop collapse technique, surface tension measurement by Du Nouy ring method and emulsifying test confirmed the rhamnolipid producing ability of the selected strain and various process parameters were optimized for the production of maximum amount of biosurfactant. Rhamnolipid components purified and separated by ethyl acetate extraction, preparative silica gel column chromatography, HPLC and TLC were characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry as a mixture of dirhamnolipids and monorhamnolipids. The rhamnolipid homologues detected were Rha-Rha-C(10) -C(10) , Rha-C(12) -C(10) and Rha-C(10) -C(8) /Rha-C(8) -C(10) . These results indicated the possibility of waste frying coconut oil to be used as a very effective alternate substrate for the economic production of rhamnolipid by a newly isolated Ps. aeruginosa D. Results of this study throws light on the alternate use of already used cooking oil as high-energy source for producing a high value product like rhamnolipid. This would provide options for the food industry other than the recycling and reuse of waste frying

  13. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

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    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  14. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l -1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Semi-scale production of PHAs from waste frying oil by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48

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    Rawia F. Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at developing a strategy to improve the volumetric production of PHAs by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 using waste frying oil (WFO as the sole carbon source. For this purpose, several cultivations were set up to steadily improve nutrients supply to attain high cell density and high biopolymer productivity. The production of PHAs was examined in a 14 L bioreactor as one-stage batch, two-stage batch, and high-cell-density fed-batch cultures. The highest value of polymer content in one-stage bioreactor was obtained after 60 h (33.7%. Whereas, the two-stage batch culture increased the polymer content to 50.1% after 54 h. High-cell-density (0.64 g/L at continuous feeding rate 0.55 mL/l/h of WFO recorded the highest polymer content after 54 h (55.34%. Semi-scale application (10 L working volume increased the polymer content in one-stage batch, two-stage batch and high cell density fed-batch cultures by about 12.3%, 5.8% and 11.3%, respectively, as compared with that obtained in 2 L fermentation culture. Six different methods for biopolymer extraction were done to investigate their efficiency for optimum polymer recovery. The maximum efficiency of solvent recovery of PHA was attained by chloroform-hypochlorite dispersion extraction. Gas chromatography (GC analysis of biopolymer produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens S48 indicated that it solely composed of 3-hydrobutyric acid (98.7%. A bioplastic film was prepared from the obtained PHB. The isolate studied shares the same identical sequence, which is nearly the complete 16S rRNA gene. The identity of this sequence to the closest pseudomonads strains is about 98-99%. It was probably closely related to support another meaningful parsiomony analysis and construction of a phylogenetic tree. The isolate is so close to Egyptian strain named EG 639838.

  16. Improving fatty acid methyl ester production yield in a lipase-catalyzed process using waste frying oils as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Muñoz, Robinson; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-06-01

    The application of waste frying oil (WFO) mixed with rapeseed oil as a feedstock for the effective production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a lipase-catalyzed process was investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the interaction of four variables: the percentage of WFO in the mixed feedstock, the methanol-to-oil ratio, the dosage of Novozym 435 as a catalyst and the temperature. Furthermore, the addition of methanol to the reaction mixture in a second step after 8 h was shown to effectively diminish enzyme inhibition. Using this technique, the model predicted the optimal conditions that would reach 100% FAME, including a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 3.8:1, 100% (wt) WFO, 15% (wt) Novozym 435 and incubation at 44.5 degrees C for 12 h with agitation at 200 rpm, and verification experiments confirmed the validity of the model. According to the model, the addition of WFO increased FAME production yield, which is largely due to its higher contents of monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and free fatty acids (in comparison to rapeseed oil), which are more available substrates for the enzymatic catalysis. Therefore, the replacement of rapeseed oil with WFO in Novozym 435-catalyzed processes could diminish biodiesel production costs since it is a less expensive feedstock that increases the production yield and could be a potential alternative for FAME production on an industrial scale. (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Transesterification of Waste Frying Oil and Soybean Oil by Combi-lipases Under Ultrasound-Assisted Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Jakeline Kathiele; Matte, Carla Roberta; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2018-04-21

    This work describes the use of an ultrasound system for the enzymatic transesterification of oils using combi-lipases as biocatalyst. The reactions were carried out evaluating the individual use of waste oil and fresh soybean oil, and the immobilized lipases CALB, TLL, and RML were used as biocatalysts. It was performed in a mixture design of three factors to obtain the ideal mixture of lipases according to the composition of fatty acids present in each oil, and the main reaction variables were optimized. After 18 h of reaction, ultrasound provided a biodiesel yield of about 90% when using soybean oil and 70% using the waste oil. The results showed that ultrasound technology, in combination with the application of enzyme mixtures, known as combi-lipases, and the use of waste oil, could be a promising route to reduce the overall process costs of enzymatic production of biodiesel.

  18. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzi; Xiang, Hai; Zhang, Guoliang; Cao, Xia; Meng, Qing

    2009-08-15

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O&G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O&G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O&G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O&G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12h was required for removing approximately 95% of O&G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  19. Enhanced treatment of waste frying oil in an activated sludge system by addition of crude rhamnolipid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongzi; Xiang Hai; Zhang Guoliang; Cao Xia; Meng Qing

    2009-01-01

    The presence of high-strength oil and grease (O and G) in wastewater poses serious challenges for environment. Addition of surfactant into the activated sludge bioreactor is feasible in reducing high concentrations of O and G via enhancing its bioavailability. In this paper, an aqueous biosurfactant solution of rhamnolipid as a cell-free culture broth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa zju.um1 was added into a batch of aerobic activated sludge system for treatment of the waste frying oil. This treatment was conducted on both bench and pilot-scales, whereas the removal efficiency of frying oil was determined by analyzing the residue concentration of O and G and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the presence of varying concentrations of rhamnolipid from 22.5 mg/L to 90 mg/L, aerobic treatment for 30 h was enough to remove over 93% of O and G while this biodegradability was only 10% in the control system with the absence of rhamnolipids. The equivalent biodegradability was similarly obtained on COD under addition of rhamnolipid. Compared with bench studies, a higher treatment efficiency with the presence of rhamnolipids was achieved on a pilot-scale of activated sludge system, in which a short time of 12 h was required for removing approximately 95% of O and G while the control treatment attained a low efficiency of 17%. Finally, foaming and biodegradability of rhamnolipids in activated sludge system were further examined in the whole treatment process. It seems that the addition of rhamnolipid-containing culture broth showed great potential for treatment of oily wastewater by activated sludge.

  20. The emission analysis of an IDI diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of waste frying palm oil and its blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380, Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41275, Izmit (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, the exhaust emissions of an unmodified diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of waste frying palm-oil (biodiesel) and its blends with petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF) were investigated at the full load-variable speed condition. The relationships between the fuel properties and the air-fuel equivalence ratio, fuel line pressure, start of injection (SOI) timing, and ignition delay were also discussed to explain their effects on the emissions. The obtained test results were compared with the reference values which were determined by using PBDF. The results showed that when biodiesel was used in the test engine, the fuel line pressure increased while air-fuel equivalence ratio and ignition delay decreased. These behaviors affected the combustion phenomena of biodiesel which caused to reduction 57% in carbon monoxide (CO) emission, about 40% in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission and about 23% in smoke opacity when compared with PBDF. However, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions of the biodiesel have showed different behaviors in terms of the engine speed. (author)

  1. Delay oil oxidation during frying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Shams Eldin, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Blend oil (mixed of refined sunflower and soy beans oils 1:1 w/w) containing add 200 ppm of rosemary leaves methanolic extract (rosemary extract) (RE) and 3% refined rice bran oil (RRBO), were used in frying process at 1800 degree c for 5 hrs/ day, four consecutive days to delay oil oxidation during frying. Therefore, rosemary extract (methanolic extract) was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds (as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil). Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index(RI). Red color unit (R), viscosity, acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV) oxidized fatty acid (OFA), polymer content (PC), total polar components (TPC) and trans fatty acid (TFA) as eliadic acid were determined. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds (hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin). Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition. Also, the results indicated that rosemary extract was more effective in reducing formation of PV, FFA, OFA, PC, TPC and TFA in frying oil than refined rice bran oil

  2. Bio-Detergent oil derivative used frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Jesús Torres Ortega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the global trend towards sustainable development for environmental friendly products such as biosurfactants shows an excellent performance. Anionic surface active agents can be produced from renewable natural raw materials such as vegetable oils mainly derived from palm oil. Methyl ester sulfonate is an active component of highly biodegradable detergents, one advantage compared with detergents derived from petrochemicals which generate a high pollutant load. This paper proposes the study of sulfonation with sulfur trioxide of esters derived from waste cooking oil which main component is palm oil. The falling film reactor allows determining the conditions of the process at pilot scale. The experimentation allowed an enhancement of empirical equations in the equipment implemented for this purpose and to determine some physicochemical properties. The comparison obtained for this same process with petrochemicals compounds indicates that the model could be applied to any film sulfonation but adjusting the parameters and specific conditions, such as the physicochemical properties of the compounds used, since the sulfonation process described in this work is one of the more complicated cases. The technological development presented here seeks to contribute with the industrial needs to promote green chemical industry for the production of biosurfactant from waste frying oil.

  3. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [es

  4. Enhancement of biofuels production by means of co-pyrolysis of Posidonia oceanica (L.) and frying oil wastes: Experimental study and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Kaouther; Ben Hassen Trabelsi, Aida; Krichah, Samah; Ouerghi, Aymen; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Claumann, Carlos Alberto; André Wüst, Zibetti; Naoui, Silm; Bergaoui, Latifa; Hamdi, Moktar

    2016-05-01

    Energy recovery from lignocellulosic solid marine wastes, Posidonia oceanica wastes (POW) with slow pyrolysis responds to the growing trend of alternative energies as well as waste management. Physicochemical, thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) and spectroscopic (FTIR) characterizations of POW were performed. POW were first converted by pyrolysis at different temperatures (450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C) using a fixed-bed reactor. The obtained products (bio-oil, syngas and bio char) were analyzed. Since the bio-oil yield obtained from POW pyrolysis is low (2wt.%), waste frying oil (WFO) was added as a co-substrate in order to improve of biofuels production. The co-pyrolysis gave a better yield of liquid organic fraction (37wt.%) as well as syngas (CH4,H2…) with a calorific value around 20MJ/kg. The stoichiometric models of both pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis reactions were performed according to the biomass formula: CαHβOγNδSε. The thermal kinetic decomposition of solids was validated through linearized Arrhenius model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic transesterification of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, S.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (HU)), Email: hancsokj@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    The research of converting used frying oils to less harmful products with much higher value was forced by environmental, human biological and economical reasons. One possible pathway of the transformation is the enzymatic transesterification. Through the research work used frying oils (UFO) and sunflower oils (SO) from different origins were first properly pre-treated. Then the previously mentioned feeds and different mixtures of them were transesterified in the presence of Novozym 435 enzyme catalyst under different process conditions. Characteristics of the produced methyl esters were evaluated according to the requirements of EN 14214:2009 standard. We determined that the transesterification of used frying oils is not expediential in the presence of enzyme catalyst because the significant decreasing of catalyst activity. We have found proper UFO and SO mixtures and combination of process conditions (pressure: atmospheric, temperature: 54 +-1 deg C; methanol to triglyceride molar ratio: 4:1; reaction time: 16 hours) resulting in high (>90 %) yield of monoesters. We clearly established that the best results through the enzymatic transesterification were obtained with the improved sunflower oils containing the highest amount (>88 %) of oleic acid and the used frying oils originated from this source. (orig.)

  6. Synthesis, characterization and application of lipase-conjugated citric acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles for ester synthesis using waste frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Unisha; Chauhan, Kishor; Gupte, Shilpa

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by chemical precipitation of trivalent and divalent iron ions which were functionalized using citric acid. The bacterial isolate Staphylococcus epidermidis KX781317 was isolated from oil-contaminated site. The isolate produced lipase, which was purified and immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for ester synthesis from waste frying oil (WFO). The characterization of MNPs employed conventional TEM, XRD and FTIR techniques. TEM analysis of MNPs showed the particle size in the range of 20-50 nm. FTIR spectra revealed the binding of citric acid to Fe 3 O 4 and lipase on citric acid-coated MNPs. The citric acid-coated MNPs and lipase-conjugated citric acid-coated MNPs had similar XRD patterns which indicate MNPs could preserve their magnetic properties. The maximum immobilization efficiency 98.21% of lipase-containing citric acid-coated MNPs was observed at ratio 10:1 of Cit-MNPs:lipase. The pH and temperature optima for lipase conjugated with Cit-MNPs were 7 and 35 °C, respectively. Isobutanol was found to be an effective solvent for ester synthesis and 1:2 ratio of oil:alcohol observed significant for ester formation. The ester formation was determined using TLC and the % yield of ester conversion was calculated. The rate of ester formation is directly proportional to the enzyme load. Formed esters were identified as isobutyl laurate ester and isobutyl myristate ester through GC-MS analysis.

  7. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on Jatropha curcas fruit shell activated carbon (KOH/JS was studied. The catalyst systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET method. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst bed height in packed bed reactor (PBR on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. SEM images showed that KOH was well distributed on the catalyst support. The optimum conditions for achieving the conversion yield of 86.7% consisted of a residence time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 60 °C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 16 and catalyst bed height of 250 mm. KOH/JS could be used repeatedly five times without any activation treatment, and no significant activity loss was observed. The results confirmed that KOH/JS catalyst had a great potential to be used for industrial application in the transesterification of WFO. The fuel properties of biodiesel were also determined.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in frying oils and snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Navas, José A; Guardiola, Francesc; Conte, Lanfranco S; Moret, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    The high incidence of lung cancer observed among Chinese women has been associated with exposure to fumes from cooking oil. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of potentially mutagenic substances emitted from cooking oils heated at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate whether deep frying with different oils under different conditions leads to the development of PAHs either in the oil or in the fried product (snacks). PAH analysis was carried out with solid-phase extraction followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrofluorometric detection. Different oils were used to fry chips and extruded snacks in different industrial plants (continuous frying) at temperatures between 170 and 205 degrees C, and peanut oil was used to fry French fries and fish (discontinuous frying) at temperatures between 160 and 185 degrees C. No appreciable differences in PAH load was observed in the same oil before and after frying. Both before and after frying, the benzo[a]pyrene concentration in oils ranged from trace to 0.7 ppb. All the analyzed samples, including oils from fried snacks, had benzo[a]pyrene concentrations well below the 2 ppb limit recently proposed by the European Community.

  9. Measurement of Deterioration of Frying Oil Using Electrical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    羽倉, 義雄; 佐々木, 芳浩; 鈴木, 寛一

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between the electrical properties of frying oil (relative dielectric constant and conductance) and its deterioration indicators (acid value, amounts of polymerized triacylglycerols and chromaticity) were examined, focusing on the changes in electrical properties that accompany deterioration. The samples of frying oil used in this experiment were collected from fried food processing sites (school, hospital and factory feeding centers) and were collected at closi...

  10. Effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar lipids components and their retention in French fries over deep-frying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Yong; Cao, Peirang; Liu, Yuanfa

    2017-12-15

    The effects of frying oils' fatty acids profile on the formation of polar components and their retention in French fries and corresponding deep-fried oils were investigated in the present study, using oils with different fatty acids composition. Our analysis showed that the total polar compounds (TPCs) content in French fries was only slightly lower than that in deep-fried oils, indicating that there was no significant difference considering the amounts of TPCs in French fries and deep-fried oils. Our further analysis showed that different polar components in TPCs distributed differently in deep-fried oils and oils extracted from French fries. Specifically, the level of oligomeric and dimeric triacylglycerols was higher in French fries while oxidized triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols content was higher in deep-fried oils. The different retention of TPCs components in French fries may be explained by their interactions with carbohydrates, which are shown to enhance with the increase of hydrophobic property. Chemometric analysis showed that no correlation between the polar compounds level and saturated fatty acids profile was observed. Meanwhile, the polar compounds content was highly correlated with the formation of trans-C18:1, and a highly positive association between polar compounds and C18:2 content was also observed in palm oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Active Cooling of Oil after Deep-frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Yasaki, Naoko; Doi, Rena; Hasegawa, Etsuko

    2017-10-01

    Oil used for deep-frying is often left to stand after cooking. A major concern is oxidation during standing that might be avoidable, especially in the case of oil used repeatedly for commercial deep-frying as this involves large volumes that are difficult to cool in a conventional fryer. This paper describes a method to minimize oil oxidation. French fries were deep-fried and the oil temperature decreased in a manner typical for a commercial deep-fryer. The concentration of polar compounds generated from thermally oxidized oil remarkably increased at temperature higher than 100°C but little oxidation occurred below 60°C. Heating the oil showed that the peroxide and polar compound content did not increase when the oil was actively cooled using a running water-cooled Graham-type condenser system to cool the oil from 180°C to room temperature within 30 min. When French fries were fried and the oil was then immediately cooled using the condenser, the polar compound content during cooling did not increase. Our results demonstrate that active cooling of heated oil is simple and quite effective for inhibiting oxidation.

  12. Impact of vacuum frying on quality of potato crisps and frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Beverly; Hradecky, Jaromir; Hurkova, Kamila; Forstova, Veronika; Vaclavik, Lukas; Hajslova, Jana

    2018-02-15

    This research was focused on a critical assessment of vacuum frying as a technology enabling minimization of acrylamide formation in potato crisps and reducing undesirable chemical changes that occur in frying oil at high temperatures. The potato slices were fried in rapeseed oil under vacuum at 125°C and atmospheric pressure at 165°C. The experiments were performed on two potato varieties, Saturna and Impala. Vacuum frying reduced the formation of acrylamide by 98% and also other Maillard reaction products, specifically alkylpyrazines. Concurrently a lower extent of oxidative changes was observed in the frying oil, while 3-MCPD esters decreased fairly quickly during conventional frying. Sensory characteristics of the vacuum and conventionally fried potato crisps were evaluated by a 23-member panel. The majority of panellists preferred the flavour of 'conventional crisps', while only a few of them appreciated potato-like fresh flavour of 'vacuum crisps' and classified this product as 'tasty'. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The Making of a Liquid Soap Process From Used Wasted Cooking Oil and Coconut Oil Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    S.T., M.T., Zulkarnain

    2011-01-01

    This Moment, used frying oil has not been used well and only used discarded as household waste or industrial. Therefore, to use of used frying oil as raw material a liquid soap will provide added value for used frying oil. The main purpose of this research is to cultivative used frying oil become a liquid soap way saponification with potassium hidroxide . This research do with variation feed ratio that is used frying oil and coconut oil (0:1; 0,5:1; 1:1; 1,5:1; and 2:1) and time of saponifica...

  14. Synthesis of K2O/Zeolite catalysts by KOH impregnation for biodiesel production from waste frying oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, N.; Husin, H.; Yanti, D.; Pontas, K.; Alam, P. N.; Ridho, M.; Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    K2O/Zeolite compounds were successfully synthesized using KOH as starting material and natural zeolite as support. The catalysts were calcined at 500°C for 3 h and then characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM images reveal that the zeolite and K2O/zeolite particles are irregular in shape (100 to 400 nm). The independent variables were impregnated amounts of KOH (15 - 25%), catalyst to oil ratios of 1.0 - 6.0 wt.%, and reaction time of 2 h. The highest biodiesel yield of 95% was produced from the reaction with 2.1 wt.% catalyst of 25% KOH impregnated. The properties of produced biodiesel complied with SNI. The catalytic stability test showed that the 25% KOH impregnated catalyst was stable.

  15. The effect of food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on oil blend degradation during repeated frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Álvarez, María Del Carmen; Molina-Hernández, Erika F; Hernández-Raya, José Concepción; Sosa-Morales, María Elena

    2012-11-01

    Oil that is reused multiple times for deep frying goes through changes in chemical composition and physical characteristics, affecting the quality of the fried foods. In this study, the effect of the food type (fish nuggets or French fries) on the degradation of an oil blend during the deep-fat frying of each food at 180°C during 12 days was determined, and the characteristics of the fried products were evaluated. The degradation of oil during repeated use was relatively faster when fish nuggets were fried than when French fries were fried, as higher values of total polar compounds were obtained. The results are useful for producers of French fries and fish nuggets, such as restaurants or fast foods sellers, providing them with practical guidelines within the permitted values established by the regulatory authorities. The studied foods have high economic importance and are different in their composition. Under the studied conditions, the tested oil blend may be used during 4 d (4 h per day) with a daily replenishment, without discarding the oil when frying fish nuggets, and must be discarded after 8 d when French fries are processed. This suggestion allows preparing safe fried foods for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  17. Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, A; Salta, F N; Kalogeropoulos, N; Mylona, A; Ntalla, I; Andrikopoulos, N K

    2007-10-01

    Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated (1.25 g/kg olive leaves). All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type.

  18. A study on the production of biodiesel from used frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, M.; Ali, A.S.; Farhan, M.; Shabbir, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study was carried out to utilize waste frying oil for biodiesel production because it is cheap, easily available and renewable raw material. The used frying oil was analysed for water contents (0.43%) iodine value (52), sponification value (205), free fatty acids 8.7 (Xo) and acid value (0.8 mg KOH/g). Esterification and transesterification were conducted to convert free Fatty acids and triglycerides to methyl ester (biodiesel), respectively. One-step and two-step transertification reactions were carried out to measure the efficiency of these processes for biodiesel production. The biodiesel produced from used frying oil was examined for flash point (185 degree C) kinematic viscosity (4.86 mm/sup 2/s) and specific gravity (0.884 g/mL) that were meeting the limits of ASTM and Thai standards. Hence, it was proved to be a useful technique for biodiesel production at commercial scale. (author)

  19. Comparison of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils in continuous frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantzaris, T. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Some work carried out by the Turbitak Marmara Research Centre and the Yildiz Technical University in Istanbul, in collaboration with the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, involved large scale laboratory frying trials of two monounsaturated oils (olive oil and palm olein and two polyunsaturated oils (sunflower and soyabean on potato chips (French fries. The oils were tested in parallel in separate 6-litre fryers on five consecutive days of eight hours and 14 batches of 150g potatoes each. At the end of each day the fryers were cleared of any sediment and topped up with fresh oil (about 250g. The performance of the oils was assessed by 11 physical and chemical tests viz. colour, smoke-point, foam height, free fatty acid content, fatty acid composition, iodine value, peroxide value, anisidine value, totox, polymer content and polar compounds. The monounsaturated oils scored higher in most tests and were clearly superior but in some tests such as colour and FFA the polyunsaturated oils scored higher. Single, simple tests as practised in many commercial establishments can be misleading and multiple tests need careful interpretation. The shelf-life of the chips was not assessed as this food is normally eaten within a short time of preparation. But the tests indicate that fried products intended for longer storage and wide distribution, will have a better shelf-life if fried in monounsaturated oils.

  20. Japan FRI research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Introduction of research activities on oil tank/spilled oil fire at FRI, Japan is done. FRI has a long history of studying oil tank and spilled oil fires. Many large oil fire tests were done. The purpose of these studies is different with research of response of oil spill, but the accumulation of this knowledge is useful for conducting elimination of spilled oil on the sea with burning. Therefore to do collaboration with fire science research groups, such as FRI is useful for future activities for response to oil spills

  1. Performance of Different Natural Antioxidant Compounds in Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Aydenız

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the natural green tea extract, purified lycopene, purified resveratrol and purified γ-oryzanol were added into peanut oil and their antioxidant performances were evaluated during frying. Moreover, the sensory properties of fried dough were evaluated to determine the consumption feasibility. All natural antioxidants led to significant increase in the stability of the oil samples. The ranges of measurements in the treatment groups were as follows: free acidity 0.1–2.9 g of oleic acid per 100 g of oil, conjugated dienes 0.01–0.40 g per 100 g of oil, total polar material 8.8–73.8 g per 100 g of oil, total phenolics 0.1–4.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of oil, and antioxidant capacity 0.5–11.0 mM of Trolox equivalents per 100 g of oil. The fatty acid and sterol compositions indicated that antioxidant supplementation could slow the oxidative degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and reduce trans-acid formation. Frying oil enriched with purified γ-oryzanol had higher sterol levels than the other enriched oil samples. The obtained quality of oil protection was in descending order: purified γ-oryzanol, green tea extract and purified lycopene.

  2. Effects of pan frying with different oils on some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in chemical composition, cholesterol and fatty acids have been determined in raw and fried rainbow trout. Olive oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, margarine and butter were used in the frying process. Moisture content was decreased and protein, fat, ash and cholesterol contents were increased after frying. Differences ...

  3. Effect of Type of Food on the Trans Fatty Acids Formation and Characteristic of Oil during Frying Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, N.M.M.; Esmail, A.E.; Shams El Din, N.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physical and chemical changes which take place in blended oil (sunflower oil: soy bean oil 75: 25 w/w), therefore frying different types of food, such as fresh foods (potatoes, falafel, fish, meat and chicken) and semi-fried Foods (chicken bites koki (nuggets), shish pan koki and farm frites potato) during frying process for 20, 40 and 60 minutes at (180±5 degree C), also studying the effect of different types of food on the oil uptake and formation of trans fatty acids in oils during frying process. The obtained results as follows: the color (red unit), viscosity, acidity and peroxide value of investigated oils were increased during frying all foods (fresh and semi-fried foods), but the increase was more pronounced in case of frying semi-fried foods, while the refractive index of frying oil of semi-fried foods was decreased compared with control oil and frying oils of fresh food. The results indicated that a considerable range of oil uptake quantities during frying as a result of variation type of foods, among all food, finger potato extensive absorption of the frying oil during frying process compared with the other fresh foods, as a results the semi-fried foods will contain a higher percent of oil included the oil of its formation, that during its frying, it was absorbed a few amount of oil. These results indicated that, the percentage of formation trans fatty acid (eliadic acid) in frying oils after 20 and 60 minutes during frying semi-fried foods was more that than frying fresh foods. Also, the results observed that, the percentage of eliadic acid in frying oil of fresh potato was lower than the other frying oils of fresh food, additionally the quality of frying oil of fresh potato finger was the best compared to frying oil of the other food material

  4. Deterioration of natural antioxidant species of vegetable edible oils during the domestic deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Dedoussis, George V Z; Falirea, Ageliki; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Hatzinikola, Haristoula S

    2002-07-01

    In the present work, virgin olive oil, sunflower oil and a vegetable shortening were used as cooking oils for the deep-frying and pan-frying of potatoes, for eight successive sessions, under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical and physicochemical parameters (acidic value, peroxide value, total polar artefacts, total phenol content and triglyceride fatty acyl moiety composition) were assayed during frying operations in order to evaluate the status of the frying oils, which were found within expected ranges similar to those previously reported. The oil fatty acids were effectively protected from oxidation by the natural antioxidants. The frying oil absorption by the potatoes was quantitated within 6.1-12.8%, depending on the oil type and the frying process. The retention of alpha- and (beta + gamma)-tocopherols during the eight fryings ranged from 85-90% (first frying) to 15-40% (eighth frying), except for the (beta + gamma)-tocopherols of sunflower oil, which almost disappeared after the sixth frying. The deterioration during the successive frying of several phenolic species present in virgin olive oil is reported for the first time. The retention of total phenolics ranged from 70-80% (first frying) to 20-30% (eighth frying). Tannic acid, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid dialdeydic form showed remarkable resistance in all frying sessions in both frying methods, while hydroxytyrosol and hydroxytyrosol-elenolic acid were the faster eliminated. The deterioration of the other phenolic species account for 40-50% and 20-30% for deep-frying and pan-frying, respectively, after three to four frying sessions, which are the most usual in the household kitchen. Deep-frying resulted in better recoveries of all the parameters examined. The correlation of the deterioration rate of the phenolic compounds and tocopherols during frying is discussed and the nutritional aspects of the natural antioxidant intake, through the oil absorbed by the potatoes, are

  5. Production of bio diesel from chicken frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, E.T.; Fadhil, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken fried oil was converted into different bio diesels through single step transesterification and two step transesterification, namely acid-base and base-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The results showed that two step base catalyzed transesterification was better compared to other methods. It resulted in higher yield and better fuel properties. Transesterification of fried chicken oil was monitored by TLC technique and compared with that of the parent oil. Fuel properties of the products have been measured and found markedly enhanced compared to those of the parent oil. Also, the values satisfied the standard limits according to the ASTM standards. Blending of the better bio diesel sample with petro diesel was made using three volume percentages (10, 30 and 50% v/v). The results disclosed that blending had slight effect on the original properties of petro diesel.

  6. A comparison of cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from virgin and used frying oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shanableh, Filiz [Food Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Evcil, Ali; Govsa, Cemal [Mechanical Engineering Department, Near East University (Cyprus); Savasdylmac, Mahmut A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Booazici University (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Bio-diesel can be produced from different kinds of feedstock. The purpose of this paper is to research and make the comparison of the cold flow properties of bio-diesel produced from refined-virgin frying vegetable oil (RVFVO) and waste frying vegetable oil (WFVO). As is known, bio-diesel fuel will have higher cloud points (CP), cold filter plugging points (CFPP) and pour points (PP) if it is derived from fat or oil which consists of significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds. Both RVFVO and WFVO were derived from the same cafeteria on a Near East University campus and converted to biodiesel fuel through base catalyzed transesterification reaction. As the current results show, there is no considerable difference in cold flow properties of the bio-diesel produced from RVFVO and WFVO. So WFVO seems be better positioned to serve as raw material in biodiesel production because of its lower cost and its environmental benefits.

  7. Nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil can be used as a deep fat frying medium to reduce trans-fatty acid content in french fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Darla R; Thompson, Leslie D; Shriver, Brent J; Wu, Chih-Kang; Hoover, Linda C

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile, in particular trans-fatty acids, of french fries fried in nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as compared with french fries fried in partially hydrogenated canola oil and french fries fried in partially hydrogenated soybean oil. Cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated canola oil, and partially hydrogenated soybean oil were subjected to a temperature of 177 degrees C for 8 hours per day, and six batches of french fries were fried per day for 5 consecutive days. French fries were weighed before frying, cooked for 5 minutes, allowed to drain, and reweighed. Oil was not replenished and was filtered once per day. Both the oil and the french fries were evaluated to determine fatty acid profiles, trans-fatty acids, and crude fat. A randomized block design with split plot was used to analyze the data collected. Least-squares difference was used as the means separation test. No significant differences were found between fries prepared in the three oil types for crude fat. Fatty acid profiles for the french fries remained stable. The french fries prepared in cottonseed oil were significantly lower in trans-fatty acids. The combined total of the trans-fatty acid content and saturated fatty acid content were lower in french fries prepared in cottonseed oil. Because deep fat frying remains a popular cooking technique, health professionals should educate the public and the food service industry on the benefits of using nonhydrogenated cottonseed oil as an alternative to the commonly used hydrogenated oils.

  8. Frying performance of two virgin oils from Cornicabra olives with different ripeness indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero-David, R.; Mena, C.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J.; Pérez-Jiménez, M.A.; Holgado, F.; Bastida, S.; Velasco, J.

    2017-01-01

    The frying performance of two virgin olive oils (VOO) from Cornicabra olives of different ripeness indices, 2.08 for VOO1 and 4.13 for VOO2, was evaluated. Thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic alterations were determined throughout 40 frying operations with potatoes. The initial oils showed similar fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability indices as determined by Rancimat, but VOO1 presented higher amounts of total polyphenols and tocopherols. The oils showed high and similar frying performance. No significant differences in the levels of polar compounds (PC) were found between the two oils during frying. Therefore, the frying stability of Cornicabra VOOs appears to be unconnected with olive fruit ripeness. The limit of degradation at 25% PC as established in different countries was calculated to occur at 55 frying operations in the two oils. As oil toxicity is related to the levels of compounds formed, the use of Cornicabra VOOs for frying is highly recommended. [es

  9. Effects of oil-water mixed frying and pure-oil frying on the quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of oil-water mixed frying (OWF and pure-oil frying (POF on changes in quality characteristics of soybean oil and chicken chop during six days of frying were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the changes in specific extinction coefficients, p-anisidine value, carbonyl value, viscosity and color of soybean oil were more pronounced in the case of POF, indicating that oil oxidative and polymeric degradation was retarded by OWF. Concerning fat content of chicken chop, lower (p<0.05 values were observed in the last three days in the case of OWF than POF. Meanwhile, OWF led to lower acrylamide formation in chops during the six days. Sensory evaluation showed that OWF provided chops with five attributes similar to those of chops fried by POF on the first day. As frying days increased, the decreases in scores for color, odor, flavor and overall acceptability were less in the case of OWF. In conclusion, OWF could be a worthwhile alternative for retarding oil deterioration and producing healthier and higher quality fried meat products.

  10. [Laser induced fluorescence spectrum characteristics of common edible oil and fried cooking oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tao-tao; Chen, Si-ying; Zhang, Yin-chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan; Ge, Xian-ying; Gao, Li-lei

    2013-09-01

    In order to detect the trench oil the authors built a trench oil rapid detection system based on laser induced fluorescence detection technology. This system used 355 nm laser as excitation light source. The authors collected the fluorescence spectrum of a variety of edible oil and fried cooking oil (a kind of trench oil) and then set up a fluorescence spectrum database by taking advantage of the trench oil detection system It was found that the fluorescence characteristics of fried cooking oil and common edible oil were obviously different. Then it could easily realize the oil recognition and trench oil rapid detection by using principal component analysis and BP neural network, and the overall recognition rate could reach as high as 97.5%. Experiments showed that laser induced fluorescence spectrum technology was fast, non-contact, and highly sensitive. Combined with BP neural network, it would become a new technique to detect the trench oil.

  11. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  12. Frying temperatures and minor constituents of oils and fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boskou, Dimitrios

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Two important classes of minor constituents of oils and fats are tocopherols and sterols. Both these classes are biologically active and they also affect the stability and performance of an oil at elevated temperatures. Tocopherols are phenolic antioxidants that react with free radicals and their concentration is reduced signifantly when the oil is heated. α-TocopheroI is lost faster during deep-fat frying than the beta, gamma and delta homologues. In the presence of stronger antioxidants, natural or synthetic, losses of α-tocopherol can be eliminated. Unchanged phytosterols naturally present in vegetable oils are believed to be beneficial for the health. Depending on the chemical structure, phytosterols may act as prooxidants or antioxidants. Sterols with an ethylidene group in the side chain have been found effective in retarding polymerisation at temperatures similar to those of deep-fat frying. Under unfavourable conditions (high temperature, presence of air oxidation products are formed from sterols and a marked increase in the oxidation rate of the fat is observed. Oxidation products of the main phytosterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, are: hydrocarbons (3,5-diene and 3,5,22-triene, mono-, di- and triunsaturated ketosteroids (4-en-3-one, 3,5-dien-7-one, 3,5,22-trien-7-one, 5,6-epoxy derivatives, 3,7-diols and pregnane derivatives. Other minor constituents which may affect the rate of degradation of unsaturated triacylglycerols at high temperatures are squalene, pigments and phospholipids. Squalene and phospholipids have both been reported to retard the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids under simulated frying conditions. High chlorophyll levels were found to increase the rate of tocopherol decomposition and formation of polymers in rape seed oil heated at 180°C.

  13. Formation of trans fatty acids during the frying of chicken fillet in corn oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meiyan; Yang, Ying; Nie, Shaoping; Xie, Mingyong; Chen, Feng; Luo, Pengju George

    2014-05-01

    To assess effects of heated edible oils on intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs); the formation of TFAs in cooking conditions was investigated by a frying system model, in which chicken fillet was fried in a commercial corn oil at 170 °C, for 12 frying cycles. The main TFAs detected in chicken fillet were trans C18:2 fatty acids (FAs) and trans C18:3 FAs, which exhibited no significant differences among the frying cycles. Besides, the content of trans C18:1 FAs were very low in all samples on different frying cycles. The intake of TFAs was estimated to be 0.06 g/100 g when chicken fillet fried in this process was consumed. These results suggest that an ordinary frying process upon a commercial corn oil has little impact on the daily TFAs intake.

  14. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF COTTONSEED AND GROUNDNUT OIL USED FOR FRYING BHAJIAS AND ITS SENSORY QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashima Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep fried snacks, which evolved as snacks between meals include bhajia, samosa, etc are very popular in India and commercially exploited on a wide scale.Cottonseed and Groundnut oil frequently used in Gujarat for cooking purpose studied for its intermittent frying stability. Indian fried snack popularly known as ‘Bhajia’ fried for 5 min at an interval of 1 h; 5 times a day for 5 consecutive days and studied for its various sensory attributes using 9-point hedonic scale. Standard AOCS and AOAC methods were used to determine the quality of oil. Peroxide and p-anisidine values of both oils increased significantly p<0.001 during the 25 h of intermittent frying. Iodine value of cottonseed oil did not decrease throughout the intermittent frying period. Polar components increased 257.5% in cottonseed oil (CSO and 142.9% in groundnut oil (GNO.The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid content increased significantly with the increase in frying hours.No significant change was seen in linoleic/palmitic acid ratio of both the oils during bhajias frying. The sensory qualities of bhajia fried at different intervals did not change significantly for various attributes namely flavor, taste, crispness, greasiness, odor, color, appearance and overall acceptability.

  15. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  16. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  17. A new method to determine oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at simulated frying temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure at simulated frying conditions in our laboratory was developed to monitor frying stability of fats and oils. Water-conditioned silica was prepared and added to the fresh vegetable oil, which was heated for two hours at 170°C. The oil stability at frying temperature was then evaluated by determining the amount of formed dimeric triglycerides The results obtained showed that the stability of the vegetable oils at frying temperature could not be explained by the fatty acid composition alone. Corn oil was observed to be more stable than soybean oil, and rapeseed oil was better than olive oil. It was also observed that crude, non-refined oils were found to have a better heat stability than refin-ed oils. To estimate the effectiveness of synthetic and naturally occurring antioxidants, namely various tocopherols, tocopherol acetate and phytosterol fractions, phenolic compounds like quercetin, oryzanol, ferulic acid, gallates, BHT, BHA and other compounds like ascorbic acid 6-palmitate and squalene were added to refined sunflower and rape seed oil, and their oxidative stability at elevated temperature (OSET values determined. Both linoleic and oleic rich oils gave comparable results for the activity of the various compounds. alpha-tocopherol, tocopherol esters and BHA had low effects on oil stability at frying temperature, while ascorbyl palmitate and some phytosterol fractions were found to have the most stabilizing activity under frying conditions.

  18. Formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids in thermoxidized olive and sunflower oils and quantitation in used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Joaquín; Marmesat, Susana; Bordeaux, Olivier; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Dobarganes, Carmen

    2004-07-14

    The formation and evolution of monoepoxy fatty acids, arising from oleic and linoleic acids, were investigated in olive oil and conventional sunflower oil, representatives of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated oils, respectively, during thermoxidation at 180 degrees C for 5, 10, and 15 h. Six monoepoxy fatty acids, cis-9,10- and trans-9,10-epoxystearate, arising from oleic acid, and cis-9,10-, trans-9,10-, cis-12,13-, and trans-12,13-epoxyoleate, arising from linoleic acid, were analyzed by gas chromatography after oil derivatization to fatty acid methyl esters. Considerable amounts, ranging from 4.29 to 14.24 mg/g of oil in olive oil and from 5.10 to 9.44 mg/g of oil in sunflower oil, were found after the heating periods assayed. Results showed that the monoepoxides quantitated constituted a major group among the oxidized fatty acid monomers formed at high temperature. For similar levels of degradation, higher contents of the monoepoxides were found in olive oil than in sunflower oil. Ten used frying oils from restaurants and fried-food outlets in Spain were analyzed to determine the contents of the monoepoxides in real frying oil samples. Levels ranged from 3.37 to 14.42 mg/g of oil. Results show that, for similar degradation levels, the monoepoxides were more abundant in the monounsaturated oils than in the polyunsaturated oils.

  19. Bioremediation of cooking oil waste using lipases from wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Hamaio Okino-Delgado

    Full Text Available Cooking oil waste leads to well-known environmental impacts and its bioremediation by lipase-based enzymatic activity can minimize the high cytotoxic potential. In addition, they are among the biocatalysts most commercialized worldwide due to the versatility of reactions and substrates. However, although lipases are able to process cooking oil wastes, the products generated from this process do not necessarily become less toxic. Thus, the aim of the current study is to analyze the bioremediation of lipase-catalyzed cooking oil wastes, as well as their effect on the cytotoxicity of both the oil and its waste before and after enzymatic treatment. Thus, assessed the post-frying modification in soybean oil and in its waste, which was caused by hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by commercial and home-made lipases. The presence of lipases in the extracts obtained from orange wastes was identified by zymography. The profile of the fatty acid esters formed after these reactions was detected and quantified through gas chromatography and fatty acids profile compared through multivariate statistical analyses. Finally, the soybean oil and its waste, with and without enzymatic treatment, were assessed for toxicity in cytotoxicity assays conducted in vitro using fibroblast cell culture. The soybean oil wastes treated with core and frit lipases through transesterification reaction were less toxic than the untreated oils, thus confirming that cooking oil wastes can be bioremediated using orange lipases.

  20. Controlling the frying stability of vegetable oils with tocopherols and phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyunsaturated vegetable oils are usually oxidatively stable for salad oils; however, in high stability applications such as frying, these oils are not resistant to the deteriorative processes of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization. To solve this problem in the past, oils were hydrogenated an...

  1. Authentication of edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Zhijian; Hu, Xiaosong; Shen, Qun; Wu, Jihong

    2012-06-01

    The application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy to authenticate edible vegetable oils (corn, peanut, rapeseed and soybean oil) adulterated with used frying oil was introduced in this paper. The FTIR spectrum of oil was divided into 22 regions which corresponded to the constituents and molecular structures of vegetable oils. Samples of calibration set were classified into four categories for corn and peanut oils and five categories for rapeseed and soybean oils by cluster analysis. Qualitative analysis of validation set was obtained by discriminant analysis. Area ratio between absorption band 19 and 20 and wavenumber shift of band 19 were treated by linear regression for quantitative analysis. For four adulteration types, LODs of area ratio were 6.6%, 7.2%, 5.5%, 3.6% and wavenumber shift were 8.1%, 9.0%, 6.9%, 5.6%, respectively. The proposed methodology is a useful tool to authenticate the edible vegetable oils adulterated with used frying oil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahren, A Hope; Schubert, Brian A

    2010-02-02

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's, Arby's, and Jack in the Box), and paired this with a similar number of small businesses (n = 66) to calculate minimum percent contribution of corn to total fry oil. We found that the majority (69%) of the national chain restaurants served fries containing corn oil, whereas this was true for only a minority (20%) of the small businesses. Corn oil is more expensive than soybean oil (for example) when purchased from a small business supplier, suggesting that large-scale corporate agreements are necessary to make corn oil frying cost-effective. When considering French fry oil along with corn-fed beef and chicken, as well as high-fructose corn syrup-sweetened soda, we see the pervasive influence of corn as an ingredient in national chain fast food.

  3. COMPARISON OF THE QUALITY OF VEGETABLE OILS DESIGNED FOR THE FRYING FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Mura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research was to investigate the quality of vegetable oils for cooking food. The analysis used two types of oils - oil Fritol and Promienna. Both oils were purchased commercially. Oil changes were observed at frying French fries. At the same changes were observed oil stored at room temperature and the temperature in the refrigerator. The determined parameters included the measurement of polar materials in oil with electronic device Testo 265 for measuring the quality of cooking oil. Determination of change in the texture of oil during the oil deterioration by device Texturometer TA.XT Plus and determination the peroxide value by STN EN ISO 3960:2007. The work is also evaluating the results of the studied parameters. In all compared cases based on the content of the TPM showed higher heat resistance oil Fritol and sample of oil stored in the refrigerator.doi:10.5219/210

  4. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Azizah; Pak Dek, Mohd Sabri; Tan, Chin Ping; Mohd Zainudin, Mohd Asraf; Wee Fang, Evelyn Koh

    2014-01-01

    Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO) and rice bran oil (RBO) during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α)-tocopherol, gamma (γ)-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p -oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying. PMID:26785067

  5. Effect of fish and oil nature on frying process and nutritional product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Guembe, A. (Ainhoa); Mendizabal, T. (Tatiana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2010-01-01

    The modifications on a lean fish (cod-Gadus morhua) and a fatty fish (farmed salmon-Salmo salar) after the application of pan-frying using 2 types of oil with different lipid profile (extra virgin olive oil and sunflower oil) was the aim of this study. Fat content and total energetic value increased significantly after the frying process only in the lean fish, without relevant changes in the fatty fish. Extra virgin olive oil led to a higher fat absorption rate than sunflower oil in both fish...

  6. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  7. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: formation, toxicological significance and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydic acids are generated in oxidized lipids as a result of decomposition of hydroperoxides by (β-scission reactions. Aldehydes are known to interact with proteins and DNA and to impair enzymatic functions. Aldehydic esters from oxidized lipids were reabsorbed to a significant extent in rats. This paper reviews the mechanism of formation of esterified aldehydic acids in frying oils and their physiological/toxicological effects. The paper also gives an overview of relevant basic analytical techniques that needs to be improved to establish reliable quantitative method (s.

    Ácidos aldehídicos son producidos en lípidos oxidados como resultado de la descomposición de hidroperóxidos por reacciones de (β-escición. Es conocido que los aldehídos interaccionan con las proteínas y el ADN y debilitan las funciones enzimáticas. Los esteres aldehídicos de lípidos oxidados fueron reabsorbidos en una cantidad significativa en ratas. Este artículo revisa los mecanismos de formación de ácidos aldehídicos esterificados en aceites de fritura y sus efectos fisiológicos/toxicológicos. El artículo también ofrece una visión de conjunto de las técnicas analíticas básicas que necesitan ser mejoradas para establecer métodos cuantitativos fiables.

  8. Effect of Guar Gum with Sorbitol Coating on the Properties and Oil Absorption of French Fries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo; Fan, Daming; Li, Jinwei; Duan, Zhenhua; Fan, Liuping

    2017-12-13

    This paper investigated the effects of guar gum with sorbitol coating on the oil absorption of French fries by combined dye oil methods, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that pretreatment of blanching with calcium ions and coating with guar gum and sorbitol could significantly reduce the structural oil (STO) and penetrated surface oil (PSO) of French fries and have no negative effects on its texture and also effectively control the final moisture content ( p French fries with guar gum and sorbitol reduced by 50.8%, 33.1% and 30.6%, respectively. CLSM photographs confirmed that STO significantly reduced after coating with guar gum and sorbitol, followed by PSO. In the process of frying, the coatings of guar gum or guar gum with sorbitol could effectively prevent oil from infiltrating the potato tissue, which can be seen in the SEM photographs. The barrier properties of French fries were enhanced by coating guar gum, and sorbitol was added to avoid pores and cracks. Blanching with calcium ion can significantly reduce the final moisture content of coating French fries.

  9. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Color and chemical properties of oil used for deep frying on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Tateishi, Sayuri; Chiue, Hiroko; Mori, Terutosi

    2012-01-01

    Acid value (AV), polar compound content (PC), carbonyl value (CV) and Gardner color of oil used for deep-frying in kitchens at a supermarket, lunch chain store, restaurant, eating house, and hospital were analyzed. All AVs obtained but one (3.38) were within the limit set by the Food Sanitation Act of Japan (AV ≤ 3, peroxide value ≤ 30). However, some oil samples had a PC over 25%, which is beyond the limit legislated by some European countries. When the relation between the Gardner color and the AV, PC, or CV of the oil was investigated, well correlated logarithmic regression curves were obtained from the oil of all kitchens except the hospital kitchen. However, the use of lard-containing canola oil without oil replenishment in the eating house increased color values rapidly. All of the values obtained from pure vegetable oil used almost daily were plotted on a graph. It was found that kitchen-by-kitchen differences in fryer, vegetable oil, frying temperature, heating time, and amounts and kinds of foods fried did not influence the relation between Gardner color value versus AV, PC or CV. In conclusion, frying vegetable oil used in large-scale kitchens without official inspection can be better controlled with Gardner color determination by the operators and administrators. This would improve the quality of the oil ingested by facility patrons.

  11. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rezende Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical and chemical alterations in palm oil during continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks were evaluated using a pseudo first-order kinetic model. The acidity index, refractive index, concentration of polar compounds, viscosity, color, and absorbance (232 and 268 nm of 238 samples of the frying oil collected during 26 days of production were analyzed. For all of the analyses, the results of the oil were below the limits recommended for oil disposal, indicating that the processing conditions were safe and that under these experimental conditions the oil remained suitable for frying. The linear regressions were significant for refractive index, content of polar compounds, and lightness (L*. The content of polar compounds was determined using a cooking oil tester, and it had the best fit to the proposed model and can be used as an effective index for monitoring palm oil during the continuous par frying of breaded chicken snacks. The high turnover rate of the oil was important for maintaining the oil in good running conditions.

  12. Effect of deep frying on physicochemical properties of some edible oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of heating on some quality characteristics of sunflower oil, cotton seed oil and a mixture (1:1) of both oils have been investigated. Every sample was heated for up to 10 hours. The study included changes in colour, viscosity, some chemical properties (acid value, peroxide value, saponification number and iodine value), fatty acids and hydrocarbons composition. The colour of the three studied oils was changed as a result of deep frying at 180 degree C for up to 10 hours. Also, the viscosity of all oil samples showed gradual increase from the 1st up to the 10th hour of frying. The acid, peroxide and saponification values of oil samples were increased by extending the frying periods whereas iodine value was decreased up to 10 hours frying. The fatty acids composition was unstable and changed as a result of heat treatments. Saturated fatty acids were increased while unsaturated fatty acids were decreased. Furthermore, the hydrocarbon contents of the three oils showed obvious change after 10 hours of boiling. According to the data obtained, it could be concluded that extending the time of heating resulted in significant changes in the physicochemical properties of the oil and sunflower oil appear to be the most resistant to thermal treatment (2-3 hours

  13. Corn content of French fry oil from national chain vs. small business restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Jahren, A. Hope; Schubert, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Several issues, ranging from sustainability to health, may interest the consumers in the corn content of their food. However, because restaurants are excluded from the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, national chain restaurants provide nonspecific ingredient information and small businesses supply none. We measured the carbon isotope composition of fry oil in French fries purchased from 68 (67%) of the 101 national chain fast food restaurants on Oahu (i.e., McDonald’s, Burger Kin...

  14. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during deep frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rehab, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA, Peroxide Value (PV, thiobarbituric acid value (TBA, iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC, color and viscosity were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 °C ± 5 °C, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25; while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24. Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05 decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process.

    Aceites de girasol se mezclaron con diferentes niveles de aceite de chufa prensado en frío. Se obtuvieron mezclas de aceite de chufa con girasol en las proporciones: 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30

  15. KIT RELIABILITY FOR CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF OILS IN FOOD FRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oloni Kotchoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Benin, West Africa, frying is one of the major ways of cooking. However, the chemical composition of the oil used in the food frying process contains unsaturated fatty acids and other by-products that compromise the oil quality making it toxic and often carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to check the reliability of kits in controlling three frying yams oil quality. The food frying was performed using oil in a discontinuous heating period of 15 min followed by three hours of cooling period for two experimental days. The temperature, and the oil chemical samplings were assessed with the kit every thirty minutes. In addition, selected oil chemical characteristics were determined to quantitatively and qualitatively appreciate the chemical modifications during the fast food versus the rapid food processing methods. Our findings indicate that water and volatile chemical compounds vary significantly for the first day of analysis from 0.18% to 1.6% for groundnut oil; from 0.14% to 1.4% for palm oil and from 0.17% to 1.6% for cotton oils. We detected a decrease of iodine index to 25%; 35.31% and 27.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. However, the peroxide index increases to 55.33%; 61.90% and 57.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. The increases of acid and saponification indices were also observed. Under conjugated effect of water temperature contained in the yam and air contact, the chemical characteristics of oil vary with the frying time. Our results reveal concordance consistent data with both the rapid methods and laboratory data set analysis.

  16. On the mechanism by which oil uptake decreases crispy/crunchy behaviour of fried products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Visser, J.E.; Luyten, J.M.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    A large problem for fried snack products with a crispy crust and a soft moist interior is that the crust often loses its crispy character fast, in the order of 3¿20 min. As known during cooling of these snacks adherent oil will be sucked into the crust. The presence of oil in a cellular solid crispy

  17. Changes of Major Antioxidant Compounds and Radical Scavenging Activity of Palm Oil and Rice Bran Oil during Deep-Frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Abdul Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Changes in antioxidant properties and degradation of bioactives in palm oil (PO and rice bran oil (RBO during deep-frying were investigated. The alpha (α-tocopherol, gamma (γ-tocotrienol and γ-oryzanol contents of the deep-fried oils were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was determined using 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity. Results revealed that the antioxidant activity of PO decreased significantly (p < 0.05, while that of RBO was preserved after deep-frying of fries. As expected, the concentration of α-tocopherol in PO and γ-tocotrienol in both PO and RBO decreased significantly (p < 0.05 with increased frying. Results also showed that γ-tocotrienol was found to be more susceptible to degradation compared to that of α-tocopherol in both PO and RBO. Interestingly, no significant degradation of α-tocopherol was observed in RBO. It is suggested that the presence of γ-oryzanol and γ-tocotrienol in RBO may have a protective effect on α-tocopherol during deep-frying.

  18. [Efficiency evaluation of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oils from edible vegetable oils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lisha; Liu, Honghe; Kang, Li; Jiang, Jie; Liao, Shicheng; Liu, Guihua; Deng, Pingjian

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of capsaicinoids to discriminate bio-waste oil from edible vegetable oil. 14 raw vegetable oils, 24 fried waste oils, 34 kitchen-waste oils, 32 edible non-peanut vegetable oil, 32 edible peanuts oil, 16 edible oil add flavorand and 11 refined bio-waste oils were prepared and examined for capsaicinoids including capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and nonylic acid vanillylamide. The detection results of the above samples were statistically tested based on sample category to assessment identify the effectiveness of the bio-waste oils with capsaicinoids. As a indicator, capsaincin was possessed of high detection sensitivity and has the highest efficiency to discern kitchen-waste oils and refined bio-waste oils samples from edible non-peanut vegetable oil correctly. The accuracy rate of identification were 100% and 90.1% respectively. There is the background in peanut oil. CONCLUSION Capsaicin added in cooking process can be retained in the refining process and hardly be removed in the refining process. In the case of fully eliminating the background interference, capsaicinoids can effectively identify bio-waste oils and edible vegetable oil in combination.

  19. Quality assessment of biodiesels obtained from pure cooking oils of some feedstocks and their waste oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Ansari, T.M.; Manzoor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel being a renewable energy resource possesses compositional variability based on the type of feedstock. Biodiesel is considered a cleaner burning fuel and can be used as pure B100 or blended with petro-diesel. In this study, biodiesel was prepared from pure cooking oils (soybean oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil) and their waste frying oils by base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol in presence of sodium hydroxide. The optimized experimental parameters were applied to achieve the maximum yield of biodiesel. Various fuel properties like kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, total acid number, specific gravity, water and sediments, conradson carbon residue, sulfur contents, phosphorous contents, sulphated ash, cetane and copper corrosion were determined and found comparable to ASTM standards. Pure cooking oils, their waste frying oils and prepared biodiesels were characterized by FT-IR. The study showed that the biodiesel derived from waste frying oils can be a promising alternative of the biodiesel from pure cooking oils. (author)

  20. Anti-oxidative effect of turmeric on frying characteristics of soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Santinath; Ghosh, Mahua

    2015-03-01

    Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric, is known to act as an anti-oxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-carcinogen. This study aimed to find out the thermal and oxidative stability of soybean oil when potatoes marinated with turmeric were deep fried in the oil. Two sets of experiment were carried out. In one set, 1 L of oil was heated for 24 h (8 h daily for 3 consecutive days) and 200 g of potato chips without any marination were fried each time twice daily. Foods were fried in batches to replicate the commercial practice of the food industries. The temperature maintained during the whole experiment was at 180-190 °C i.e. at the frying temperature. About 50 ml of the oil sample was collected after every 4 h. In the second set, another 1 L of soybean oil was heated for 24 h in the similar manner and potato chips marinated with turmeric was fried twice daily. Oil samples were collected as before and comparative studies were done. The chemical parameters like acid value, peroxide value, content of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) and fatty acid composition for all the oil samples of each set were determined. The comparative studies on peroxide value and content of HNE revealed that the antioxidant property of curcumin in turmeric helped in reducing the oxidation of the oil initially, but with increase in duration of time, the antioxidant potency got gradually reduced. The loss of unsaturated fatty acids were calculated from the fatty acid composition and it was found that loss of unsaturation in soybean oil where turmeric marinated potatoes were fried was 6.37 % while the controlled one showed 7.76 % loss after 24 h of heating. These results indicated higher thermal and oxidative stability of the soybean oil in presence of turmeric. However, the antioxidant effect gradually decreased with increase in duration of heating.

  1. Alcohol biodiesel from frying oil residues; Biodiesel etilico a partir de oleo de fritura residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, Brunna Simoes; Marques, Luiz Guilherme da Costa [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IVIG/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Inst. Virtual Internacional de Mudancas Globais], E-mail: lguilherme@ivig.coppe.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the reaction optimization and production of biodiesel through the use of frying residual oil made available by the restaurant placed at the PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES-RJ), using ethanol, so that to permit the production of sustainable bio diesel. The environmental gains obtained by the utilization of residual oil, avoiding that this oil be released in the nature, and the economic gains coming from the generation and utilization of ethanol allowing the production of biodiesel be an viable alternative. The obtained results during laboratory tests shown that biodiesel produced from the transesterification in alkaline medium, of the frying residual oil collected presented a reaction yield of approximately 80% considering in mass.

  2. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Sutherland, W H; McCormick, M P; Yeoman, D; de Jong, S A; Walker, R J

    2001-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fats are more susceptible to oxidation during heating than monounsaturated fats but their effects on endothelial function when heated are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of meals rich in heat-modified safflower and olive oils on postprandial flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in healthy men. Flow-mediated EDD and glyceryltrinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design. There were high levels of lipid oxidation products (peroxides and carbonyls) in both heated oils. Plasma triglycerides were markedly increased at 4 hours after heated olive oil (1.26 +/- 0.43 vs 2.06 +/- 0.97 mmol/L) and heated safflower oil (1.44 +/- 0.63 vs 1.99 +/- 0.88 mmol/L). There was no change in EDD between fasting and postprandial studies and the response during the postprandial period was not significantly (p = 0.51) different between the meals (heated olive oil: 4.9 +/- 2.2% vs 4.9 +/- 2.5%; heated safflower oil: 5.1 +/- 3.1% vs 5.6 +/- 3.4%). Meals rich in olive and safflower oils previously used for deep frying and containing high levels of lipid oxidation products increase postprandial serum triglycerides without affecting endothelial function. These findings suggest that relatively short-term use of these vegetable oils for frying may not adversely affect postprandial endothelial function when foods containing the heat-modified oils are consumed.

  3. A Comparative Study on Formation of Polar Components, Fatty Acids and Sterols during Frying of Refined Olive Pomace Oil Pure and Its Blend Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Triki, Mehdi; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2018-04-04

    The frying performance of pure refined olive-pomace oil (ROPO) and blended with refined coconut oil (RCO) (80:20) was compared during a frying operation of French fries at 180 °C. Blending polyunsaturated oils with highly saturated or monounsaturated oils has been studied extensively, however in literature there is no study has been reported so far on blending ROPO (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) with RCO (rich in saturated fatty acids) to formulate new frying oils. At the end of the frying process, the blend of ROPO/RCO exhibited a higher chemical stability than the pure ROPO based on total polar compounds (TPC), and polymers. The rate of TPC formation was achieved 23.3% and 30.6% for the blend and the pure oil, respectively. Trans and free fatty acids content, as well as anisidine value were also observed to be the highest in the pure ROPO. This study evaluated the frying performance in the search for appropriate frying oils to deliver healthy fried products with optimized nutritional qualities.

  4. Biodiesel Production from Spent Fish Frying Oil Through Acid-Base Catalyzed Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrahman B. Fadhil

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuels were prepared from a special type of frying oil namely spent fish frying oil through two step transesterification viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification. Hydrochloric acid and potassium hydroxide with methanol were used for this purpose. The oil was pre-treated with (1.0 wt% HCl and methanol to reduce free fatty acids content of the oil. Then, conditions of the base catalyzed step such as base concentration, reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time were optimized. The study raveled that, 0.50% KOH w/w of oil; a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio; a reaction temperature of 60°C and a duration of 1h were the optimal conditions because they resulted in high biodiesel yield. Fuel properties of the products were assessed and found better than those of the parent oil. Furthermore, they met the specified limits according to the ASTM standards. Thin layer chromatography was used as a simple technique to monitor the transesterification of the oil. Blending of the optimal biodiesel sample with petro diesel using specified volume percentages was done as well. The results indicated that biodiesel had slight effect on the values of the assessed properties.

  5. Effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnanç, T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils deteriorate physically and chemically at frying temperatures due to several reasons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during a repeated frying process. Potatoes were serially fried in carvacrol-added palm oil, BHT-added palm oil and a control oil (without any antioxidants. After each tenth frying cycle, several chemical analyses were carried out on collected samples to evaluate deterioration in the oils. The free fatty acid, para-anisidine, iodine, and total polar component values of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.85, 57.1 and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.165, 11.80, 46.7, 11.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.151, 11.28, 49.2 and 10.5 for BHT-added oil; 0.140, 7.19, 51.7, 10.0 for carvacrol-added oil after 40 frying cycles. The results revealed that the use of carvacrol could significantly improve the oxidative stability of palm oil when compared to the control samples. This effect was also comparable to BHT. Using carvacrol in frying oil slowed down the rate of the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes compared to the oil with BHT and the control. The frying process significantly changed the viscosity of the oil samples.Las grasas y aceites se deterioran física y químicamente a las temperaturas de fritura debido a diferentes razones. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del carvacrol en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de palma durante el proceso de fritura repetida. Se sometió a fritura repetida patatas en el aceite de palma con carvacrol agregado, en aceite de palma con BHT agregado y en aceite control (sin antioxidante. Después de cada décimo ciclo de fritura, se realizaron diferentes análisis sobre las muestras recogidas para evaluar el deterioro de los aceites. Ácidos grasos libre, para-anisidina, índice de yodo y componentes polares totales del aceite fresco fueron: 0,080, 2,85, 57,1 y 7,5, respectivamente

  6. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT

  7. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of oil-contaminated prey on the feeding, growth, and related energetics on pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum, fry were exposed to oil contaminated prey (OCP) in a series of experiments to determine the effect of oil exposure via the diet on the ability of pink fry to survive. Brine shrimp, Artemia salina, nauplii were contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons by exposure to the water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Cook Inlet crude oil and fed to the fish. Feeding rates were measured for 10 days using OCP and for 5 days using uncontaminated prey (post-exposure period). In a separate experiment, fry growth was measured over a 50 day period. In another experiment, fry oxygen consumption, food absorption and utilization, and ammonia excretion was measured to determine the effects of OCP on fry metabolic activity. Results indicate that exposure to OCP can reduce fry growth primarily by reducing food intake, but additional nutrition is lost from the non-absorption of ingested food. Reductions in growth could decrease fry survival, and thereby reduce the number of returning adult pink salmon

  9. Hydrocolloid-Based Coatings are Effective at Reducing Acrylamide and Oil Content of French Fries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Al-Asmar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available French fries are popular products worldwide. However, this product is a sufferable source of high acrylamide due to high temperature and low moisture. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grass pea flour (GPF, transglutaminase (TGase-treated (GPF + TGase, chitosan (CH, and pectin (PEC hydrocolloid coating solutions on the formation of acrylamide, water retention as well as on oil content. In addition, the Daily Intake (DI and Margin of Exposure (MOE were calculated to estimate variations in risk assessment by applying coating solutions before frying. Our results showed that the highest acrylamide content was detected in the control sample, reaching a value of 2089 µg kg−1. Hydrocolloid coating solutions were demonstrated to be an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation, with the percentage of acrylamide reduction equal to 48% for PEC, >38% for CH, ≥37% for GPF + TGase, and >31% for GPF, respectively. We hypothesized that the coatings were able to increase the water retention and, thus reduce the Maillard reaction, which is responsible for acrylamide formation. In fact, the MOE value for coated French fries was increase, resulting in being closer to the safety level to avoid carcinogenic risk. Moreover, our coatings were effective in reducing oil uptake.

  10. Status of the bioactive phytoceuticals during deep-fat frying of snack food using nutra-coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesh Kumar, M; Faiza, Sheema; Debnath, Sukumar; Nasirullah

    2017-10-01

    The present study was carried out to study the physico-chemical changes that take place in both product and oil during the deep fat frying of a traditional savoury snack 'kodubale', at 120-160 °C for 120-600 s using coconut oil (CO) and nutra-coconut oil (NCO). Further, kinetic studies on moisture loss, oil uptake, color and degradation of β-carotene, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity for kodubale was carried out during frying as a function of temperature and time. The study showed that the kinetic coefficients for above parameters increased with temperature and time and the data obtained were well fitted with first order kinetic model. The results also revealed that NCO fried product retained major phenolic acids due to the presence of antioxidants in the NCO which was enriched with flaxseed oil concentrate. The fatty acids profile of oil extracted from products obtained by frying using NCO was characterized with higher ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids content as compared to same obtained using CO. However, the breaking strength and sensory characteristics of CO and NCO fried kodubale was found to have no significant difference ( p  < 0.05).

  11. Potential of used frying oil in paving material: solution to environmental pollution problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Ackbarali, Dimple; Maharaj, Rean; Mohamed, Nazim; Ramjattan-Harry, Vitra

    2017-05-01

    The improper disposal of used frying oil (UFO) presents numerous ecological, environmental and municipal problems. Of great concern is the resultant blockage of municipal drainage systems and water treatment facilities, harm to wildlife when they become coated in it and detriment to aquatic life and ecosystems due to the depletion of the oxygen content in water bodies such as rivers and lakes that have become contaminated. Statistics show that in Trinidad and Tobago, in excess of one million liters of used cooking oil is collected annually from various restaurant chains. This paper investigated the potential of using UFO as a performance enhancing additive for road paving applications utilizing Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA) and Trinidad Petroleum Bitumen (TPB) as a mitigation strategy for improper UFO disposal. Modified blends containing various additions of UFO (2-10% wt) were prepared for the TLA and TPB asphaltic binders. Results demonstrated in terms of stiffness, increasing the dosage of UFO in TLA and TPB base binders resulted in a gradual decrease in stiffness (G* value decreased). In terms of elasticity, increasing the dosage of the UFO additive in TLA resulted in a general decrease in the elasticity of the blends indicated by an increase in phase angle or phase lag (δ). Increasing dosages of the UFO additive in TPB resulted in a significant decrease in δ where the most elastic blend was at the 6% UFO level. TLA and UFO-TLA modified blends exhibited significantly lower values of δ and higher values of G* confirming the superiority of the TLA material. Incorporation of the UFO in the blends led to a decrease in the rutting resistance and increase in the fatigue cracking resistance (decrease in G*/sinδ and G*sinδ, respectively). This study highlighted the potential for the reuse of UFO as an asphalt modifier capable of producing customized UFO modified asphaltic blends for special applications and confirms its feasibility as an environmentally attractive

  12. Changes in extra-virgin olive oil added with Lycium barbarum L. carotenoids during frying: Chemical analyses and metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, F; Rocchetti, G; Montesano, D; Lucini, L; Chiodelli, G; Ghisoni, S; Baccolo, G; Simonetti, M S; Cossignani, L

    2018-03-01

    In this work, an Italian extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) sample and the same sample added with a carotenoid-rich nutraceutical extract from Lycium barbarum L. (EVOOCar) were subjected to a frying process to comparatively assess chemical and physical changes and heat stability. Oxidation progress was monitored by measuring oil quality changes such as peroxide value, free acidity, K232, K268, and fatty acid composition as well as minor compound content, phenols, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids. An UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics approach discriminated the two oil samples based on their chemical changes during frying, identifying also the phenolic classes most exposed to statistically significant variations. Partial least square discriminant analysis and volcano analysis were applied together to identify the most significant markers allowing group separation. The decrease in total phenolic content was lower in EVOOCar than in EVOO during frying. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids showed a significant percentage loss, 3.7% and 17.2%, respectively, in EVOO after 180min frying at 180°C, while they remained constant or slightly changed in EVOOCar. Zeaxanthin added to the oil rapidly decreased during the frying process. These findings showed that the addition of a carotenoid extract from L. barbarum can help to improve the oxidative stability of extra-virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, Dimitrios; Chilari, Despina [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants; Bezergianni, Stella [Center for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Environmental Fuels and Hydrocarbons (LEFH)

    2013-06-01

    This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils (UFO). Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel. Particularly, this renewable fuel has an excellent cetane number and cetane index (> 90) justified from its paraffinic character. Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating, these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs. Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel. A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN 590 European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. (orig.)

  14. Measurement and characterization of external oil in the fried waxy maize starch granules using ATR-FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Sun, Binghua; Cai, Canxin; Ma, Rongrong; Jin, Zhengyu

    2018-03-01

    Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform-methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that large amounts of oil were absorbed in or within waxy maize starch, but the majority of oil was located near the surface layer of the starch granules. After defatting, the internal oil was thoroughly removed, while a small amount of external oil remained. As evidenced by the changes of the crystalline characteristics with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the interaction between starch and lipids on the surface was confirmed to form V-type complex compounds during frying at high moisture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Frying stability of high oleic sunflower oils as affected by composition of tocopherol isomers and linoleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-12-01

    The influence of linoleic acid content and tocopherol isomeric composition on the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil was evaluated during a 14-day restaurant style frying operation. At equal linoleic acid content, no significant difference was observed between high oleic sunflower oil containing only α-tocopherol and the sample containing a mixture of α-, γ-, and δ-isomers as measured by the amount of total polar components, oligomers, anisidine value, and free fatty acids. On the contrary, at similar tocopherol isomeric composition, high oleic sunflower oil containing lower amount of linoleic acid showed superior frying stability compared to the sample with a higher content of linoleic acid, suggesting that the frying performance of high oleic sunflower oil is dictated primarily by the level of linoleic acid, with the tocopherol isomeric composition of the oil having no significant influence. In all oil samples, the loss of γ-tocopherol was higher than the corresponding loss of α-tocopherol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of biodiesel production in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor using used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayal, Dyneshwar; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Rathod, Virendra K

    2013-01-01

    The present work demonstrates the application of a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor for the synthesis of biodiesel with used frying oil as a feedstock. The synthesis involved the transesterification of used frying oil (UFO) with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. The effect of geometry and upstream pressure of a cavitating orifice plate on the rate of transesterification reaction has been studied. It is observed that the micro level turbulence created by hydrodynamic cavitation somewhat overcomes the mass transfer limitations for triphasic transesterification reaction. The significant effects of upstream pressure on the rate of formation of methyl esters have been seen. It has been observed that flow geometry of orifice plate plays a crucial role in process intensification. With an optimized plate geometry of 2mm hole diameter and 25 holes, more than 95% of triglycerides have been converted to methyl esters in 10 min of reaction time with cavitational yield of 1.28 × 10(-3) (Grams of methyl esters produced per Joule of energy supplied). The potential of UFO to produce good quality methyl esters has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of the presence of used frying oil as raw material in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobarganes, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of compounds giving information on the use of used frying oils as raw material in the production of biodiesel is of interest to guarantee the quality of the product. In this study, the most characteristic groups of compounds formed after used frying oil transesterification were analyzed by means of the standard technique using gas chromatography at a high temperature (EN 14105. Dimeric fatty acid methyl esters (dimeric FAME is the most important group to be considered as they are present in significant amounts after used frying oil transesterification. On the other hand, they are absent in the bleached oils used for biodiesel production. The concentration of the dimeric FAME in the polar fraction of biodiesel, easily obtained by adsorption chromatography, allowed detection of this group of compounds even in very low concentrations.La detección de compuestos característicos de los aceites de fritura usados como materia prima de bajo coste en la obtención de biodiesel, es de interés para garantizar su calidad. En este estudio, se analizan los grupos de compuestos más característicos obtenidos tras la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura mediante la técnica estándar que utiliza cromatografía de gases a temperatura elevada (European Standard EN 14105. Los dímeros de ésteres metílicos son los compuestos más importantes para detectar el aceite de fritura como materia prima, debido a su presencia en cantidades significativas después de la transesterificación de los aceites de fritura y a su ausencia en los aceites decolorados que se utilizan en la obtención de biodiesel. La concentración de los dímeros en la fracción polar del biodiesel, fácilmente obtenida mediante cromatografía de adsorción, permite detectar los citados compuestos incluso a concentraciones muy bajas.

  18. Waste vegetable oil survey report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, R. [Science enterprise Algoma seA, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-06

    This study was conducted to estimate potential sources of feedstock waste oils for biodiesel production in the Sault Ste. Marie region of Ontario. Two feedstocks were investigated over a period of several months, notably cooking oil and waste vegetable oil. The study was conducted to examine oil throughput, collection practices, and to gauge interest in local initiatives. A distribution list of commercial restaurant listings was developed, and surveys were conducted with members of private enterprises, city government, and non-profit stakeholders in the region. Average volumes of waste vegetable oil were presented for different types of restaurants. The various types of oil used in the restaurants were also quantified. Results of the study showed a positive public response to the idea of a local biodiesel initiative. Steak house, fast food, and Italian establishments generated the largest portion of waste vegetable oil amongst survey respondents. However, the highest response rates came from establishments with little or no oil consumption. Many franchise fast food restaurants are already in contracts with waste oil removal companies. 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  19. Antioxidant activity of amino acids in soybean oil at frying temperature: Structural effects and synergism with tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate amino acids as natural antioxidants for frying. Twenty amino acids were added to soybean oil heated to 180 ºC, and the effects of amino acid structure on the antioxidant activity were investigated. Amino acids containing a thiol, a thioether, or an extra ami...

  20. Evolution of the quality of the oil and the product in semi-industrial frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz, M.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the quality of two commercial brands of cooking oil were studied under the frying conditions traditionally used in the Portuguese hospitality trade. Three hundred rissoles were fried at a temperature of 160-170°C for 1 hour. Values of peroxide, p-anisidine, Totox, acidity and total polar compounds were determined. Isomeric cis and trans fatty acids were quantified using CP-Sil 88-packed capillary column via gas chromatography.

    La evolución de la calidad de dos marcas comerciales de aceite comestible fue estudiada según la forma tradicional de fritura usada en el mercado portugués, por el cual trescientas empanadillas rellenas fueron fritas a temperatura de 160-170°C durante un período de una hora. Se determinaron los índices de peróxido , p-anisidina, Totox, acidez y compuestos polares totales. Los ácidos grasos isoméricos cis y trans fueron cuantificados por cromatografía gaseosa en columna capilar rellena con CP-Sil 88.

  1. Effect of active edible coatings made by basil seed gum and thymol on oil uptake and oxidation in shrimp during deep-fat frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Naimeh; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2016-02-10

    The effect of active coating treatments on oil uptake, moisture loss, lipid oxidation, texture, color, and sensory evaluation of shrimp after deep-fat frying process was investigated. Compared with the uncoated samples, coating treatments decreased the oil uptake and moisture loss of fried shrimp by 34.50 and 13.9%, respectively. Fried shrimp samples were analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The most reduction in lipid oxidation (46.4% for PV and 40.8% for TBA) was observed when shrimp samples were coated with CS4 (containing 10% thyme), while the control samples had the highest values of PV and TBA after deep-fat frying process. Coated fried samples had significantly lower toughness and stiffness than control samples (P0.05). However, for the texture, juiciness, chewiness, and overall acceptability, coated fried samples had higher scores than control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of mixed adsorbents to extend frying oil life cycle in poultry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkun, Patchimaporn; Innawong, Bhundit; Siasakul, Chatchalai; Okafor, Christopher

    2018-05-15

    The effects were studied of two different adsorbent combinations (com I; bentonite: activated carbon: celite = 3:4:1 and com II; bentonite: activated clay: celite = 3:4:1 + 1% citric acid) on the physico-chemical changes of oil used continuously for deep-fat frying of chicken drumsticks. The results showed that the % FFA was reduced by 44.3, PV by 50.2, and FOS reading by 40.1% in com I whereas reductions of 41.6, 44.9, and 32.8%, respectively, were found in com II. The oil treated with com II exhibited a lighter color than with com I. The changes of oil color in com I were L ∗ 30.7, a ∗ 1.7, and b ∗ 31.9%; in com II they were 53.2, 19.1, and 39.5% respectively. The higher the L ∗ observed, the better the oil quality obtained because of the bleaching ability of adsorbents. Therefore, the use of such adsorbents is recommended for poultry processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A simple procedure to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available A standard procedure is proposed to evaluate the performance of fats and oils at frying temperatures, taking the advantages provided by the Rancimat apparatus, i. e., standard vessels, temperature correction and temperature homogenity in all vessels resulting from the particular characteristics of the heating block. The results obtained in oil samples of 8 g heated at 180° C for 10 h in triplicate gave coefficients of variation lower than 6% for total polar compounds and polymers. In case of limited amount of oil, it is additionally proposed to use only 2 g of sample provided that a similar surface-to-oil volume ratio is maintained, and coefficients of variation of the same order than those for 8 g samples were thus obtained. Advantages of the procedure as well as potential applications for evaluation of frying fats and oils are Included. As an example, the effect of α-tocopherol on performance of sunflower oils was analyzed.

    Se propone un procedimiento estándar para evaluar el comportamiento de aceites y grasas a temperaturas de fritura. En este procedimiento se utilizan las ventajas del aparato Rancimat, que permite el uso de tubos estándar, la corrección de la temperatura, en su caso, y la igualdad de temperatura en todos los tubos dadas las características del bloque de calentamiento. De los resultados obtenidos en muestras de 8 g de aceite calentadas a 180° C durante 10 h, analizadas por triplicado, se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación inferiores al 6% para la determinación de compuestos polares y polímeros. En caso de limitación en la cantidad de aceite, se propone utilizar 2 g de muestra, manteniendo similares valores para la relación superficie a volumen de aceite, lo que permite obtener valores de alteración y coeficientes de variación del mismo orden. Se analizan finalmente las ventajas globales del procedimiento y sus distintas posibilidades en la evaluación de grasas de fritura. Como ejemplo, se aplica el

  4. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loh Soh Kheang; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Ravigadevi Sambathamurthi; Mohd Basri Wahid

    2010-01-01

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  5. Long storage stability of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrahim Bouaid; Mercedes Martinez; Jose Aracil [Complutense University, Madrid (Spain). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils. Production of biodiesel has grown tremendously in European Union in the last years. Though the commercial prospects for biodiesel have also grown, there remains some concern with respect to its resistance to oxidative degradation during storage. Due to the chemical structure of biodiesel the presence of the double bond in the molecule produce a high level of reactivity with the oxygen, especially when it placed in contact with air. Consequently, storage of biodiesel over extended periods may lead to degradation of fuel properties that can compromise fuel quality. This study used samples of biodiesel prepared by the process of transesterification from different vegetable oils: high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), high and low erucic Brassica carinata oil (HEBO and LEBO) respectively and used frying oil (UFO). These biodiesels, produced from different sources, were used to determine the effects of long storage under different conditions on oxidation stability. Samples were stored in white (exposed) and amber (not exposed) glass containers at room temperature. The study was conducted for a period of 30-months. At regular intervals, samples were taken to measure the following physicochemical quality parameters: acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), viscosity {nu}, iodine value (IV) and insoluble impurities (II). Results showed that AV, PV, {nu} and II increased, while IV decreased with increasing storage time of biodiesel samples. However, slight differences were found between biodiesel samples exposed and not exposed to daylight before a storage time of 12 months. But after this period the differences were significant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Toxicological assessment of crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. used in deep frying of akara (cowpea paste finger food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felzenszwalb, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Akara is cowpea paste which is deep-fried in crude palm oil (CPO; Elaeis guineensis Jacq. and sold as a street finger food in Brazil and Africa. During the food frying oils can form toxic decomposition products as total polar compounds (TPC, which can determinate oil degradation. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of CPO used in akara frying for 25 hours. Changes in the oil were determined by TPC quantification and mutagenicity using a Salmonella/microssome assay with Salmonella Typhimurium strains TA97, TA98, TA100 and TA102 with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Assuming that 25% TPC is the maximum level permitted in frying oils and it ranged from 14.08 to 29.81%, frying palm oil exceeded the limit. Nonetheless, no cytotoxic, mutagenic or genotoxic activity were detected in CPO used in the traditional akara frying process.Akara es una tapa hecha de pasta de frijol frito en aceite de palma crudo (CPO; Elaeis guineensis, que se vende en las calles de Brasil y África. Durante la fritura de alimentos, los aceites pueden formar productos de descomposición tóxicos como los compuestos polares totales (TPC, que determinan la degradación del aceite. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de CPO utilizado en 25 horas de frituras de akara. Los cambios en el aceite se determinaron mediante la cuantificación de TPC y ensayos de mutagenicidad en Salmonella microsomas usando cepas de Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100 y TA102 con y sin activación metabólica exógena. Se asume que el 25% de TPC es el nivel máximo permitido, los aceites de fritura oscilaron desde 14,08 hasta 29,81%. Ningún CPO utilizado en el proceso de akara tradicional mostró ser citotóxico, ni tener actividad mutagénica o genotóxica.

  7. Used frying oil biodiesel production: experimental factorial design and multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana de Cassia de Souza Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel é derivado de fontes renováveis ereduz significativamente as emissões atmosféricas. Pode serobtido de diversos processos, como a alcoolise. Nestetrabalho, o biodiesel foi produzido através da alcoolise doóleo de fritura usado de indústrias de alimentação. Umplanejamento experimental foi utilizado e os produtos dereação foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa (CGespectroscopia na região do infravermelho com acessório dereflexão total atenuada horizontal (IV-HATR e análiseexploratória por análise de componentes principais (PCA eanálise hierárquica de grupos (HCA. De acordo com ascondições analisadas obteve-se alta conversão em ésteresmetílicos. Por IV-HATR, a conversão máxima foi observadaem condições experimentais de temperatura ( 50 e 60°C,concentração de catalisador (0,6 e 1,2% e a 1:8 de relaçãomolar entre óleo e metanol. Também foi possíveldiscriminar por análise quimiométrica, 4 grupos noplanejamento experimental e determinar as melhorescondições para a produção de biodiesel de óleo de friturausado.Abstract Biodiesel is derived from renewable sources and it significantly reduces atmospheric emissions. It can be obtained byseveral processes, such as alcoholysis. In this work, biodiesel was produced through alcoholysis of used frying oil from a cateringbusiness. An experimental factorial design was used and the reaction products were analyzed through gas chromatography (GC,horizontal attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (HATR/FT-IR spectroscopy and exploratory analysis withprincipal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. Under the conditions analyzed, a high degree ofconversion to methyl ester was found. As shown by HATR/FT-IR, the maximum conversion was obtained when the experimentalconditions had the temperature ( 50 e 60°C, largest catalyst concentration (0,6 e 1,2% and a 1:8 molar proportion of oil tomethanol. It was possible to discriminate

  8. Used frying oils and fats and their utilization in the production of methyl esters of higher fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvengros, J. Jan; Cvengrosova, Zuzana [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2004-08-01

    From the point of view price and available capacity used frying oils or fats (UFO) represent an attractive raw material for the production of methyl esters (ME) of higher fatty acids as alternative fuels for diesel engines. If they are treated such that the required quality, with an acidity number up to 3.0 mg KOH/g and a water content up to 0.1 wt%, is achieved they can be processed to ME using standard techniques of alkali-catalysed transesterification with methanol which are utilized for production of the ME from new oils/fats. The problematic waste can thus be converted to an ecologically friendly fuel. Vacuum distillation of free fatty acids in a film evaporator is an effective method for simultaneously decreasing the content of FFA and water in UFO. Final distillation of raw ME in a film vacuum evaporator results in practically all parameters required by the standard, in the final ME being achieved. Undesirable low-temperature properties of ME derived from UFO, due to higher fraction of saturated acyls, can be adjusted by the addition of depressants-flow improvers for winterization. Some simplified methods for the quality control of UFO and ME are discussed. The conversion of acylglycerols to ME is monitored by GLC with a packed column, where the peak areas of ME in the sample before and after the reaction with an effective methylation agent are compared. The method for the determination of the water content in esters utilizes the reaction of calcium carbide with water, the volume of acetylene being measured. (Author)

  9. Physicochemical studies on sunflower oil blended with cold pressed tiger nut oil during the deep frying process; Estudios fisicoquimicos sobre mezclas de aceite de girasol con aceite de chufa prensado en frio durante el proceso de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rehah, F. M.; Anany, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sunflower oils were blended with different levels of cold pressed tiger nut oil. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with sunflower oil at the volume ratios of 0:100, 10: 90, 20: 80, 30: 70, 40: 60, 50:50 and 100: 0. The effects of deep frying on physico-chemical parameters (Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA), iodine value, Total Polar Compounds (TPC), color and viscosity) were evaluated over 30 hours of the frying process. The total phenolic content of native oils was determined. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of sunflower oil, tiger nut oil and binary mixtures of them as well as their oxidation rates. The pure and blended oils were heated at 180 degree centigrade {+-} 5 degree centigrade, then frozen French fried potatoes were fried every 30 min. Oil samples were taken every 5 h and the entire continuous frying period was 30 h. The results showed that fresh sunflower oil had significantly the highest value of COX (7.25); while tiger nut oil had significantly the lowest (2.24). Mixing sunflower oil with different levels of tiger nut oil led to an increase in its stability against oxidation. The phenolic content of cold pressed tiger nut oil was about 3.3 times as high as that of sunflower oil. The analytical data showed that the lowest deterioration during the frying process occurred in tiger nut oil and the highest in sunflower. The changes in the physico-chemical parameters were controlled and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when tiger nut /sunflower oil (W/W) proportions were varied between 20/80 to 50/50. The obtained results indicate that mixing sunflower oil with cold pressed tiger nut oil increased the stability and hence improved the quality of sunflower oil during the frying process. (Author) 68 refs.

  10. Ecological problems of oil wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsun, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text : Pollution of the environment with different wastes is one the main problems in the world. So that is why this article is devoted to consideration of questions, related to oil and its industry. During oil production (extraction, transportation, refining) different wastes (homogeneous and solid wastes) are taken out from a place of production to the environment and after this environment undergoes the pollution because of these wastes. These wastes contain first of all harmful for environment radioactive elements, then different groups of metals, non-metals and other combinations. All these forms technical pollution zones and can cause serious danger for health of people. So taking into consideration all mentioned above we must make all efforts in order to prevent such accidents

  11. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring the physicochemical features of sunflower oil and French fries during repeated microwave frying and deep-fat frying; Seguimiento de las características fisicoquímicas de aceite de girasol y patatas durante frituras repetidas mediante microondas y freidora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydınkaptan, E.; Barutçu Mazı, I.

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of repeated microwave frying at different power levels (360W, 600W, 900W) and deep-fat frying on sunflower oil and French fries. The intermittent batch frying cycle was repeated 15 times a day during five consecutive days. The fatty acid profile and physicochemical properties including free fatty acid (FFA), extinction coefficient (K270), total polar compound (TPC), color, viscosity, refractive index of the sunflower oil were determined each day. At the end of the frying period, the highest values of viscosity (76.29cp) and refractive index (1.4738) were detected in microwave frying at 900W power level. TPC level exceeded 25% after the third day of microwave frying at all power levels. The FFA values during microwave frying increased progressively from 0.157% to 0.320- 0.379% on the fifth day. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 37-53% more in the case of microwave frying. The oil quality during microwave frying did not have a significant impact on the oil absorption and total color change of the French fries. Microwave frying, even at higher levels, provided lower oil (8.60-12.32%wb) and moisture contents (35.47-41.24%) compared to deep frying. Microwave frying caused longer processing time and significantly higher levels of degradation of the sunflower oil at all power levels compared to deep frying. However, microwave frying has the advantage of reducing oil absorption. The oil content of French fries was lowered by 20-33% (wb) at the highest power level. [Spanish] Se estudia los efectos de frituras repetidas mediante microondas a diferentes niveles de potencia (360W, 600W, 900W) y frituras en freidora sobre la estabilidad del aceite de girasol y la calidad de las patatas fritas. El ciclo de fritura intermitente se repitió 15 veces al día durante cinco días consecutivos. Se determinó el perfil de ácidos grasos y las propiedades fisicoquímicas incluyendo ácidos grasos libre (FFA), coeficiente de extinción (K270

  13. Synthesis of ethyl biodiesel from soybean oil, frying oil and chicken fat, using catalysts based on vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, T.A.; Rodrigues, I.A.; Estrela, T.S.; Nunes, C.N.F.; Machado, L.L.; Leão, K.V.; Barros, I.C.L.; Amorim, F.A.C.; Braga, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, vanadium pentoxide supported on rice husk ash containing 5, 10 and 15 mass% of V_2O_5 were prepared by the urea combustion method. These samples were characterized by FTIR (Fourier – transform infrared spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction) and applied in the reactions of transesterification with ethanol by using different triglycerides sources, namely as soybean oil, frying oil and chicken fat. The XRD data of the V_2O_5/RHA showed reflections associated with the silica, sodium silicate and V_2O_5. The FTIR spectra of the V_2O_5/RHA samples containing 5 to 15 mass% of V_2O_5 presented absorptions related to silica, silicates and possible V–O–Si interactions, also been observed in the 15% V_2O_5/RHA an FTIR band associated to V_2O_5. The "1H NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance) and GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detection) analysis of the transesterification reactions presented conversions of triglycerides for biodiesel over 90% in a period of 6 h, demonstrating the potential of V_2O_5/RHA for the synthesis of ethyl biodiesel. - Highlights: • XRD of V_2O_5/RHA showed peaks associated with silica, sodium silicate and V_2O_5_. • V_2O_5/RHA showed IR bands related to silica, silicates and V-O-Si interactions. • V_2O_5/RHA displays potential for ethyl biodiesel synthesis.

  14. Deep frying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.

    2016-01-01

    Deep frying is one of the most used methods in the food processing industry. Though practically any food can be fried, French fries are probably the most well-known deep fried products. The popularity of French fries stems from their unique taste and texture, a crispy outside with a mealy soft

  15. Quality changes of Moringa oleífera, variety Mbololo of Kenya, seed oil during frying.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The frying performance of Moringa oleífera variety Mbololo of Kenya seed oil (produced by cold pressure, extraction with n-hexane and a mixture of chloroform-methanol was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 ± 5°C for 5 consecutive days. Under such conditions thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oils takes place. The chemical changes occurring in the oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, peroxide value, specific extinction at 232 nm, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine values, smoke points, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol concentration decreased. The effect of the oils on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold pressure produced oil and the highest in n-hexane extracted oil.

    Se ha estudiado el comportamiento frente a la fritura, especialmente en el caso de frituras repetidas de aceite de semilla Moringa oleífera variedad Mbololo de Kenya (producido por presión en frío, extracción con n-hexano y una mezcla de cloroformo-metanol. Los aceites se usaron para la fritura intermitente de rodajas de patatas y filetes de bacalao a temperatura de 175 ± 5°C durante 5 días consecutivos. Bajo estas condiciones tuvo lugar la descomposición térmica y oxidativa de los aceites. Se evaluaron los cambios químicos ocurridos en los aceites. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxido, extinción específica a 232 nm, compuestos polares, color y viscosidad de los aceites aumentaron, en tanto que el índice de iodo, punto de humo, contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, período de inducción y concentración en tocoferol disminuyeron. También se determinó el efecto de los aceites sobre

  16. Adsorption of Metals from FAME of Nigerian Spent Vegetable Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    2018-05-02

    May 2, 2018 ... ... are cooking oils that have undergone several cooking process, presented ..... Recovery and conversion of palm olein-derived used frying oil to methyl ... using waste cooking oil from restaurants, In: Cheng. P (ed) Energy ...

  17. Effect of baking of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and frying of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) in olive and sunflower oil on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotos, Anastasios; Kotaras, Akylas; Mikras, Emmanouil

    2013-02-01

    Quality changes due to oven-baking of sardine for 20, 40, 50 and 60 min and due to deep frying of anchovy for 2, 3, 4 and 5 min in olive and sunflower oil were studied. Linear increase in total losses with the time of processing was observed. A linear inverse relationship was observed between moisture/lipid and moisture/protein due to time of baking of sardines and time of frying of anchovies (wet matter). However, no changes were detected in sardine samples due to time of baking (dry matter), while a reduction in proteins and ash followed by an increase in lipids was detected in fried anchovies due to time of frying (dry matter). The fatty acid profiles indicated that a rich in EPA + DHA (33.16%) and in ω-3/ω-6 ratio (9.40) baked sardines can be produced in 20 min at 200 °C. The fatty acid profiles of fried anchovies tremendously changed, indicating entirely different products. Olive oil is probably a better medium to fry fish products, since either the two beneficial fatty acids (EPA and DHA) detected at higher concentrations in anchovies fried in olive oil or the ω-3/ω-6 ratio remained at higher values (0.71-2.56). An increase of cholesterol and squalene content with increasing the time of baking was detected in sardine samples, probably due to decline of moisture content. On the contrary, cholesterol significantly reduced due to frying of anchovy in olive oil. Simultaneously squalene concentration significantly and linearly increased, from 3.87 mg/100 g in the unprocessed anchovies to 73.25 mg/100 g in the samples fried for 5 min, indicating its existence at beneficial levels, besides low cholesterol concentration detected in fried olive oil and squalene concentration gradually and linearly decreased, confirming the absorption from the anchovy samples. Similar was the changes of cholesterol and squalene in anchovies samples fried in sunflower oil.

  18. Regeneration of Used Frying Palm Oil with Coffee Silverskin (CS), CS Ash (CSA) and Nanoparticles of CS (NCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-Elmonem A; El-Anany, Ayman Mohammed; Ali, Rehab Farouk M

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the efficiency of coffee silverskin (CS), CS ash (CSA) and nanoparticles of CS (NCS) in regeneration the quality of used frying palm oil. The adsorbents were mixed individually with used frying palm oil at level 4% (w/v) for 60 min. The properties of CS, CSA and NCS adsorbents were studied using (SEM) scanning electron microscopy technique. Some of physico-chemical characteristics of used frying palm oil (UFPO) and UFPO treated with adsorbents were determined. The results showed that the CS ash particles composed of irregular spherical and semispherical grains with deep cavities. The size of particles of CS ash ranged in diameter from 1.1 to 1.7 µm. The morphology of NCS consisted of cluster-type spherical nanoparticles and flakes. The particle size of NCS varies from 0.9 to 1.7 µm. Purification treatments caused marked (poil compared to untreated oil. The treatment of UFPO with 4% of adsorbents caused significant reductions in the content of free fatty acids ranged from 51.2 to 65.0%. The lowest level of peroxide (2.1 meq/kg) was recorded for UFPO treated with 4% of NCS. The highest reductions (72.8; 70.0%) in p-anisidine value were observed in UFPO treated with 4% of CSA and NCS, respectively. Treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS significantly lowered the polar content from 13.9% to 6.3, 4.8 and 3.9%, respectively. The results also indicate that CSA and NCS have nearly the same adsorption efficiency in lowering polymer content of UFPO. Filtration treatment of UFPO with 4% of CS, CSA and NCS markedly lowered the viscosity and colour values of treated UFPO.

  19. Food fried in extra-virgin olive oil improves postprandial insulin response in obese, insulin-resistant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetti, Sara; Malandrino, Noemi; Luciani, Davide; Gasbarrini, Giovanni; Capristo, Esmeralda

    2011-03-01

    The benefits of low glycemic load (GL) diets on clinical outcome in several metabolic and cardiovascular diseases have extensively been demonstrated. The GL of a meal can be affected by modulating the bioavailability of carbohydrates or by changing food preparation. We investigated the effect on plasma glucose and insulin response in lean and obese women of adding raw or fried extra-virgin olive oil to a carbohydrate-containing meal. After an overnight fast, 12 obese insulin-resistant women (body mass index [BMI], 32.8 ± 2.2 kg/m(2)) and five lean subjects (BMI, 22.2 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive two different meals (designated A and B). Meal A was composed of 60 g of pasta made from wheat flour and 150 g of grilled courgettes with 25 g of uncooked oil. Meal B included 15 g of oil in the 150 g of deep-fried courgettes and 10 g of oil in the 60 g of stir-fried pasta. Both meals included 150 g of apple. Blood samples were collected at baseline and every 30 minutes over a 3-hour post-meal period and were tested for levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides. The area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. In obese women the AUCs for C-peptide were significantly higher after meal A than after meal B at 120 minutes (W [Wilcoxon sign rank test] = 27.5, P = .0020), 150 minutes (W = 26.5, P = .0039), and 180 minutes (W = 26.5, P = .0039). No differences were found in lean subjects. This study demonstrated that in obese, insulin-resistant women, food fried in extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced both insulin and C-peptide responses after a meal.

  20. Radioactive Waste in Oil Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Graham, G.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material commonly known as NORM composes the majority of the dose received by a person each year at approximately 80% of the total amount. However, there is a noticeably higher concentration of radioisotopes present in technologically enhanced NORM, often called TENORM, which results directly from human industrial activities. NORM is formed in the process of mineral mining including phosphate production, where the end goal is to concentrate high quantities of metals or elements (e.g. phosphorous). However, NORM has also become a widely recognized problem in the oil and gas industry. It is approximately one hundred and fifty years since oil was discovered in the continental United States and the mention of radioactivity in mineral oils and natural gases occurred in 1904, just eight years after the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Bequerel in 1896. In just over three decades the problems from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) wastes arising from the oil and gas industry have been much more scrutinized. In the 1980’s 226Ra began to be noticed when scrap metal dealers would detect unacceptably high levels of radiation from oil-field piping1. In 1991 Raloff2 published an article on the new hot wastes in NORM and in 1992 Wilson et. al3 described the health physics aspects of radioactive petroleum piping scale. NORM will develop in high concentrations in by-product oil and gas waste streams4-7. The NORM will chemically separate from other piped material in the process of the extraction of oil, resulting in high concentrations of 226Ra, 228 Ra and 210Pb and other radioisotopes in a densely caked layer on the inner surfaces of the piping1 . The activity of the 226Ra from NORM ranges from 185 to several tens of thousands Bq/kg of sample. By comparison, the NORM concentrations of radium in rock and soil is, at a natural level, 18.5 - 185 Bq/kg1. Disposal of NORM becomes more problematic as higher concentrations of

  1. Performance of cellulose derivatives in deep-fried battered snacks: Oil barrier and crispy properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Sanz, T.; Steringa, D.W.; Salvador, A.; Fiszman, S.M.; Vliet, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The performance of batters containing cellulose derivatives (methyl cellulose (A4M), three hydroxypropylmethyl celluloses (E4M, F4M and K4M) with different degree of hydroxypropyl and/or methyl substitution and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) to produce crispy deep-fried snacks crusts was studied by

  2. Effects of rice batter on oil uptake and sensory quality coated fried okra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with batters of flour sources, including rice flour, a mixture of rice flour, and small amounts of pregelatinized rice flour (PGRF), and, as a control, the traditional wheat flour. The addition of PGRF, up to 8%, enhanced batter viscosity and the coating properties...

  3. Influence of Tunisian aromatic plants on the prevention of oxidation in soybean oil under heating and frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoudi, Salma; Chammem, Nadia; Sifaoui, Ines; Bouassida-Beji, Maha; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Silva, Sandra Diniz; Hamdi, Moktar; Bronze, Maria Rosário

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the oxidative stability of soybean oil by using aromatic plants. Soybean oil flavored with rosemary (ROS) and soybean oil flavored with thyme (THY) were subjected to heating for 24h at 180°C. The samples were analyzed every 6h for their total polar compounds, anisidine values, oxidative stability and polyphenols content. The tocopherols content was determined and volatile compounds were also analyzed. After 24h of heating, the incorporation of these plants using a maceration process reduced the polar compounds by 69% and 71% respectively, in ROS and THY compared to the control. Until 6h of heating, the ROS kept the greatest oxidative stability. The use of the two extracts preserves approximately 50% of the total tocopherols content until 18h for the rosemary and 24h for the thyme flavored oils. Volatile compounds known for their antioxidant activity were also detected in the formulated oils. Aromatic plants added to the soybean oil improved the overall acceptability of potato crisps (p<0.05) until the fifteenth frying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comportamento dos óleos de girassol, soja e milho em frituras de produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado Sunflower, soybean and corn oils behavior in frozen pre-fried coated meat product frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vieira Del Ré

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização crescente de alimentos rápidos determinou a expansão de uma indústria de produtos fritos e pré-fritos. A compreensão das mudanças que o óleo sofre durante os processos de fritura é importante, pois pode levar à otimização destes processos, e a melhoria da qualidade do óleo de fritura e do produto final. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar os níveis de alteração de diferentes óleos vegetais, girassol, soja e milho, no processo de fritura dos snacks produto cárneo empanado pré-frito congelado. As frituras foram conduzidas em temperatura de 180°C, relação superfície/volume (S/V de 0,3 cm-1 e tempo total de aquecimento de 12 horas. Nos snacks procederam-se as análises de teor de umidade e lipídios; nos óleos as determinações de compostos polares totais, ácidos graxos livres e índice de peróxidos. Nenhuma análise apresentou alteração acima dos limites recomendados por alguns países. Desta forma, concluiu-se que as condições estabelecidas no processo de fritura são seguras, indicando que todos os óleos foram adequados à fritura, sendo o óleo de milho de maior estabilidade oxidativa.The ever growing utilization of fast food determined the expansion of an industry of pre-fried and fried products. The understanding of the changes that the oil undergoes during the frying processes is outstanding because it may lead to the optimization of such processes as well as to improvements on the quality of both frying oil and the finished product. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alteration levels of different vegetable oils, sunflower, soybean and corn, in the frying process of snacks frozen pre-fried meat coated product. The frying sessions were carried out at 180ºC temperature, 0.3 cm-1surface/volume ratio and 12 hours overall heating time. As for the snacks, the moisture rate and lipids analyses were performed; for the oils, total polar compounds, free fatty acids and peroxide

  5. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Quality Attributes of Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayustaningwarno, Fitriyono; Dekker, Matthijs; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Verkerk, Ruud

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum frying of fruits enables frying at lower temperatures compared to atmospheric frying, thereby improving quality attributes of the fried product, such as oil content, texture, retention of nutrients, and color. Producing high-quality vacuum-fried fruit is a challenge, especially because of the

  6. Effect of amino acids and frequency of reuse frying oils at different temperature on acrylamide formation in palm olein and soy bean oils via modeling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniali, G; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P

    2018-04-15

    This work investigated the underlying formation of acrylamide from amino acids in frying oils during high temperatures and at different times via modeling systems. Eighteen amino acids were used in order to determine which one was more effective on acrylamide production. Significantly the highest amount of acrylamide was produced from asparagine (5987.5µg/kg) and the lowest from phenylalanine (9.25µg/kg). A constant amount of asparagine and glutamine in palm olein and soy bean oils was heated up in modelling system at different temperatures (160, 180 and 200°C) and times (1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 7.5min). The highest amount of acrylamide was found at 200°C for 7.5min (9317 and 8511µg/kg) and lowest at 160°C for 1.5min (156 and 254µg/kg) in both frying oils and both amino acids. Direct correlations have been found between time (R 2 =0.884), temperature (R 2 =0.951) and amount of acrylamide formation, both at p<0.05. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle size fractionation of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour as an oil barrier in a batter-coated fried system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particle size effects of high-amylose rice (Goami 2) flour on quality attributes of frying batters were characterized in terms of physicochemical, rheological, and oil-resisting properties. High-amylose rice flours were fractionated into four fractions (70, 198, 256, and 415 µm) of which morpho...

  8. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  9. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy

  10. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  11. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  12. The effect of a portion size intervention on French fries consumption, plate waste, satiety and compensatory caloric intake: an on-campus restaurant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, Marie; Versele, Vickà; Stok, Marijn; Mullie, Patrick; D'Hondt, Eva; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom

    2018-04-13

    One of the driving factors of dietary overconsumption throughout the last decennia is the increase of food portion sizes. Larger portions induce higher daily energy intake, so reducing portion size may reduce intake of excess calories. However, real-life studies about the effects of portion size reduction are lacking. Therefore, this study examined the effect of a French fries portion size reduction on French fries consumption, French fries plate waste, satiety and caloric intake during the subsequent afternoon among university students and employees in a Belgian on-campus restaurant setting. Moreover, this study evaluated consumers' perception about the portion size reduction. The study took place over a two-time (i.e. baseline and intervention week) 4-day period (Tuesday-Friday) in the on-campus restaurant where ±1200 meals are served every day. French fries' portions were reduced by 20% by replacing the usual porcelain bowl served during the baseline week (±200 g) with smaller volume paper bags during the intervention week (±159 g) in a pre-post real-life experiment. French fries consumption and plate waste were measured in 2056 consumers at baseline and 2175 consumers at intervention. Additionally, interviews were conducted directly after lunch and again between 4 and 6 p.m. on the same day to assess satiety and caloric intake at pre and post in a small subsample of both French fries consumers (n = 19) and non-French fries consumers (n = 14). Post-intervention, the same subsample was interviewed about their perception of the portion size reduction (n = 28). Total French fries intake decreased by 9.1%, and total plate waste decreased by 66.4%. No differences were found in satiety or caloric intake between baseline and intervention week among the French fries' consumers. The majority (n = 24, 86%) of French fries consumers noticed the reduction in portion size during the intervention. Although most participants (n = 19, 68%) perceived the

  13. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5-15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradation of uranium-contaminated waste oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hary, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant routinely generates quantities of uranium-contaminated waste oil. The current generation rate of waste oil is approximately 2000 gallons per year. The waste is presently biodegraded by landfarming on open field soil plots. However, due to the environmental concerns associated with this treatment process, studies were conducted to determine the optimum biodegradation conditions required for the destruction of this waste. Tests using respirometric flasks were conducted to determine the biodegradation rate for various types of Portsmouth waste oil. These tests were performed at three different loading rates, and on unfertilized and fertilized soil. Additional studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of open field landfarming versus treatment at a greenhouse-like enclosure for the purpose of maintaining soil temperatures above ambient conditions. The respirometric tests concluded that the optimum waste oil loading rate is 10% weight of oil-carbon/weight of soil (30,600 gallons of uranium-contaminated waste oil/acre) on soils with adjusted carbon:nitrogen and carbon:phosphorus ratios of 60:1 and 800:1, respectively. Also, calculational results indicated that greenhouse technology does not provide a significant increase in biodegradation efficiency. Based on these study results, a 6300 ft. 2 abandoned anaerobic digester sludge drying bed is being modified into a permanent waste oil biodegradation facility. The advantage of using this area is that uranium contamination will be contained by the bed's existing leachate collection system. This modified facility will be capable of handling approximately 4500 gallons of waste oil per year; accordingly current waste generation quantities will be satisfactorily treated. 15 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Innovative technologies for managing oil field waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Each year, the oil industry generates millions of barrels of wastes that need to be properly managed. For many years, most oil field wastes were disposed of at a significant cost. However, over the past decade, the industry has developed many processes and technologies to minimize the generation of wastes and to more safely and economically dispose of the waste that is generated. Many companies follow a three-tiered waste management approach. First, companies try to minimize waste generation when possible. Next, they try to find ways to reuse or recycle the wastes that are generated. Finally, the wastes that cannot be reused or recycled must be disposed of. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) has evaluated the feasibility of various oil field waste management technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy. This paper describes four of the technologies Argonne has reviewed. In the area of waste minimization, the industry has developed synthetic-based drilling muds (SBMs) that have the desired drilling properties of oil-based muds without the accompanying adverse environmental impacts. Use of SBMs avoids significant air pollution from work boats hauling offshore cuttings to shore for disposal and provides more efficient drilling than can be achieved with water-based muds. Downhole oil/water separators have been developed to separate produced water from oil at the bottom of wells. The produced water is directly injected to an underground formation without ever being lifted to the surface, thereby avoiding potential for groundwater or soil contamination. In the area of reuse/recycle, Argonne has worked with Southeastern Louisiana University and industry to develop a process to use treated drill cuttings to restore wetlands in coastal Louisiana. Finally, in an example of treatment and disposal, Argonne has conducted a series of four baseline studies to characterize the use of salt caverns for safe and economic disposal of oil field wastes.

  16. Odor Profile of Different Varieties of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil During Deep Frying Using an Electronic Nose and SPME-GC-FID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Valeria; Biolatto, Andrea; Sancho, Ana; Descalzo, Adriana; Grigioni, Gabriela; de Reca, Noemí Walsöe

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the performed work was to evaluate with an electronic nose changes in odor profile of Arauco and Arbequina varieties of extra-virgin olive oil during deep-frying. Changes in odor were analyzed using an electronic nose composed of 16 sensors. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-FID. Principal Component Analysis was applied for electronic results. Arauco variety showed the highest response for sensors. Statistical analysis for volatile compounds indicated a significant (P<0.001) interaction between variety and time of frying processes. Arauco variety showed the highest production of volatile compounds at 60 min of deep frying. The two varieties presented distinct patterns of volatile products, being clearly identified with the electronic nose.

  17. Investigating oiled birds from oil field waste pits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, D.G.; Edwards, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures and results of investigations concerning the oiling of inland raptors, migratory water-fowl and other birds are presented. Freon washings from the oiled birds and oil from the pits were analyzed by gas chromatography. In most instances the source of the oil could be established by chromatographic procedures. The numbers of birds involved (including many on the endangered species list) suggested the need for netting or closing oil field waste pits and mud disposal pits. Maintaining a proper chain of custody was important

  18. Comparison and characterization of volatile compounds as markers of oils stability during frying by HS-SPME-GC/MS and Chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hammouda, Ibtissem; Freitas, Flavia; Ammar, Sonda; Da Silva, M D R Gomes; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-11-15

    The formation and emission of volatile compounds, including the aldehydes and some toxic compounds of oil samples, ROPO pure (100%) and the blended ROPO/RCO (80-20%), were carried out during deep frying at 180°C. The volatile profile of both oil samples was evaluated by an optimized HS-SPME-GC/MS method, before and after 20, 40 and 60 successive sessions of deep-frying. Actually, from 100 detected compounds, aldehydes were found to be the main group formed. In addition, the oil degradation under thermal treatment regarding the volatile compounds were evaluated and compared. Consequently, the blended ROPO/RCO revealed fewer formations of unsaturated aldehydes, including toxic ones, such as acrolein, and showed a greater stability against oxidative thermal degradation compared to ROPO pure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Desind an operation of pilot plant production of biodisel fron frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Morales Pedraza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is present the pilot plant used in the research titled: Production of biodiesel from used edible oils to industrial level for the production of methyl or ethyl esters from vegetable oils used in the food industry that be used as a fuel in diesel engines type, in order to generate alternative use for these oils are reused, and additionally, generate new options in biofuels that can replace methyl ester, since these need of methanol, a product that usually is a derived petrochemical and highly toxic. In this small-scale plant for the production of ethyl esters (biodiesel can be evaluated spent oils of different kinds and diverse origin, or study oils from food industries, which are usually a blend of palm oil and soybean oil, and other times palm oils hydrogenated or mixtures of oil spent with palm oil refning RBD (refned, bleached and deodorized. The results are the basis for the design and construction of a pilot plant to produce biodiesel by lot of 6 liter by hour approximately, which is evaluated under simulated conditions of loading and operation. It was designed and implemented a batch reactor with heating and stirring mechanics, drivers with temperature, condensation and total alcohol refux, maintaining a molar relationship of 6:1 (alcohol/oil, which is considered the best relation for a esterification with basic catalysis several scientifc publications. The temperature of the reaction is set at 60 °C and atmospheric pressure. The productivity of the reaction

  20. Estabilidade oxidativa de óleos vegetais utilizados em frituras de mandioca palito congelada Oxidative stability of vegetable oils used in frozen cassava chips frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara da Silva Corsini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a medida da estabilidade oxidativa e a alteração total dos óleos de algodão, girassol e palma durante a fritura descontínua de mandioca palito congelada. As frituras foram conduzidas em uma fritadeira elétrica doméstica, onde o óleo foi aquecido, à temperatura de 180°C, por 25 h, com reposição de óleo fresco. Para a análise da estabilidade oxidativa das amostras de óleos, obtidas durante as frituras, foram realizadas a medida do período de indução (horas e determinação de compostos polares totais (%. Os resultados mostraram uma diminuição do período de indução, independente do tipo de óleo. O óleo de palma refinado apresentou um maior período de indução quando comparado ao óleo de algodão e girassol, o que pode ser atribuído à diferença da composição em ácidos graxos. Todos os óleos em estudo apresentaram valores de compostos polares totais abaixo do limite de descarte para óleos de fritura, exigido pela legislação internacional (24-27%. Verificou-se também que, à medida que se formaram os compostos de degradação, diminuiu a estabilidade oxidativa dos óleos.The present study aimed at determining the oxidative stability measurement and the total alteration of cotton, sunflower and palm oils during frozen cassava chips discontinued frying. The fryings were performed in a household electric frying pan, where the oil was heated up to 180°C temperature, for 25 h, with fresh oil replacement. For the oxidative stability analysis of the oil samples obtained during the fryings, were used the induction period (hours and total polar compounds determinations (%. The results showed a decrease in the induction period, regardless of the oil type. The refined palm oil presented a higher induction period when compared to the cotton and sunflower oils, which can be attributed to the fatty acids composition difference. All of the oils studied showed total polar

  1. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  2. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  3. EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM TWO-STROKE MARINE DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM VARIOUS WASTE OILS AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Nikolić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shipping represents a significant source of diesel emissions, which affects global climate, air quality and human health. As a solution to this problem, biodiesel could be used as marine fuel, which could help in reducing the negative impact of shipping on environment and achieve lower carbon intensity in the sector. In Southern Europe, some oily wastes, such as wastes from olive oil production and used frying oils could be utilized for production of the second-generation biodiesel. The present research investigates the influence of the second-generation biodiesel on the characteristics of gaseous emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO from marine diesel engines. The marine diesel engine that was used, installed aboard a ship, was a reversible low-speed two-stroke engine, without any after-treatment devices installed or engine control technology for reducing pollutant emission. Tests were carried out on three regimes of engine speeds, 150 rpm, 180 rpm and 210 rpm under heavy propeller condition, while the ship was berthed in the harbor. The engine was fueled by diesel fuel and blends containing 7% and 20% v/v of three types of second-generation biodiesel made of olive husk oil, waste frying sunflower oil, and waste frying palm oil. A base-catalyzed transesterification was implemented for biodiesel production. According to the results, there are trends of NOx, SO2, and CO emission reduction when using blended fuels. Biodiesel made of olive husk oil showed better gaseous emission performances than biodiesel made from waste frying oils.

  4. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes, E-mail: gilberto.costa@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jcmoura@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cgomes@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Controle de Rejeitos e Transporte de Materiais Radioativos

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as {sup 228}Ac, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 214}Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  5. Geochemical signature of radioactive waste: oil NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Gilberto T. de Paula; Costa-de-Moura, Jorge; Gomes, Carlos de Almeida; Sampaio, Emidio A. Lopes

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Agency (CNEN) rules all nuclear activity in Brazil as demanded by the Federal Constitution, articles 21, XXIII, and 177, V, and by the Federal Acts 4.118/62 and 10.308/2001. Therefore, the CNEN is responsible for any radioactive waste disposal in the country. Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. Oil NORM has called much attention during the last decades, mostly because it is not possible to determine its primary source due to the actual absence of regulatory control mechanism. There is no efficient regulatory tool which allows determining the origin of such NORM wastes even among those facilities under regulatory control. This fact may encourage non-authorized radioactive material transportation, smuggling and terrorism. The aim of this project is to provide a geochemical signature for each oil NORM waste using its naturally occurring isotopic composition to identify its origin. The here proposed method is a specific geochemical modeling of oil sludge NORM samples which are analyzed for radioisotopes normally present in oil pipes, such as 228 Ac, 214 Bi and 214 Pb. The activity ratios are plotted in scatter diagrams. This method was successfully tested with data of different sources obtained from analysis reports from the Campos Basin/Brazil and from literature. (author)

  6. Reduction of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in peanut sauce processing by oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farawahida, A H; Jinap, S; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Samsudin, N I P

    2017-12-01

    Among the many roles played by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the food industry is the production of heritage foods such as peanut sauce. Unfortunately, the safety of peanut sauce is not always assured as the processing line is not controlled. Peanut sauce is usually made of peanuts and chilli, and these commodities are normally contaminated with Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins (AFs). Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the practices related to reduction of AF hazard and the effect of interventions in peanut sauce processing. Peanut samples were collected from each step of peanut sauce processing from a small peanut sauce company according to four designs: (1) control; (2) oil-less frying of chilli powder; (3) addition of retort processing; and (4) combination of oil-less frying of chilli powder and retort processing. Oil-less frying of chilli powder (Design 2) reduced total AFs by 33-41%, retort processing (Design 3) reduced total AFs by 49%, while combination of these two thermal processes (Design 4) significantly reduced total AFs, by 57%. The present work demonstrated that Design 4 yielded the highest reduction of total AFs and is therefore recommended to be employed by SME companies.

  7. Characterization of Paraiba state, Brazil, clays used for clearing of oil of frying for application as bio fuel; Cacterizacao de argilas do estado da Paraiba, Brasil, utilizaadas para clareamento de oleos de fritura usados para aplicacao como biobombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: elainepatriciaaraujo@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The search for new sources of renewable energy order to minimize environmental impacts has led the scientists to develop new alternatives, such as the use of recycling of frying oils to produce biodiesel. The reuse of these oils has the advantage of obtaining a biofuel with the cost / benefit competitive. However, the conditions of post-consumer oils require treatment prior to its conversion the chemical (transesterification), removing solid particulate contaminants and adjusting its color using the clay of Paraiba. The use of biodiesel as fuel presents a reduction of levels of environmental pollution. This study aimed to characterize clay of Paraiba to be used in the clearing of frying oil. It was observed through the results of the Xray fluorescence (XRF) and infrared spectroscopy by Fourier Transform (FTIR), which the clays tested, have been effective in clearing of frying oils, making them similar to oil 'virgin'. (author)

  8. Effect of frying oils on quality characteristics of frozen chicken patties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaista

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... products that have negative effects on human health. (Boyd et al., 1993). ... Cumin powder - 2 g, Coriander powder - 2 g and salt – to taste) for ..... Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-.

  9. Reliability of proton NMR spectroscopy for the assessment of frying oil oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are many analytical methods developed to assess oxidation of edible oil, it is still common to see a lack of consistency in results from different methods. This inconsistency is expected since there are numerous oxidation products and any analytical method measuring only one kind of o...

  10. Increased opercular rates of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry after exposure to the eater-soluble fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R E [Chico State Univ., CA; Rice, S D

    1976-01-01

    The opercular rates of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry were measured during 24-h exposure to sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Opercular rates increased significantly for as long as 9 and 12 h after exposure to water-soluble fractions prepared from oil-water solutions of 2.83 and 3.46 ppM. The increases in rates were proportional to increases in dose. Recording changes in opercular rates appears to be a suitable method for detecting sublethal physiological effects of stress, because the observed changes occurred at approximately 20 percent of the 96 h-LC50.

  11. Purification of radioactive waste oil by a supercritical fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jaeryong; Sung, Jinhyun; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Hongdoo; Kim, Hakwon; Lim, Taeyoon; Yim, Sanghak; Yoon, Weonseob

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive waste oil from the nuclear industry is potentially hazardous due to its possibility to contaminate soil and underwater. Pollutants in waste oil are generally radioactive heavy metals or organo-metals. Radioactive waste oils are highly viscous fluids that are similar to used-motor oils. Several processes have been developed to regenerated used motor oil, such as acid clay treatment, chemical addition, vacuum distillation, thermal cracking and hydrofinishing. However, these technologies are difficult to apply to separating radioactive nuclides from radioactive waste oils. In recent years, our laboratory developed a membrane method for the regeneration of used motor oils. We applied supercritical Co2 (scCO2) as a viscosity reducing additive to waste oils at a lower process temperature in order to improve membrane permeability and thus the energy saving. However, the membrane cannot filter the contaminants in radioactive waste oil that are not particles, such as radioactive ions in impurity water in the oil. In this paper, we suggest a method extracting clean oil from the radioactive waste oil rather than filtering by a supercritical fluid. We selected R22, a refrigerant, as a solvent for extraction. R22 has a mild critical point - 96.1 .deg. and 49.9bar. Regeneration of waste oils by extracting clean oil using a supercritical fluid such as R22 is easy to handle and reduce secondary wastes. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of R22 in extracting clean oil from radioactive waste oils

  12. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  13. On the possibility of nonfat frying using molten glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed; Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    Fried products impose a health concerns due to considerable amount of oil they contain. Production of snack foods with minimal oil content and good management of oil during frying to minimize the production of toxic compounds continue to be challenging aims. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of producing a fat-free food snack by replacing frying oil with a nonfat medium. Glucose was melted and its temperature was then brought to 185 °C and used to fry potato strips, to obtain a product referred here as glucose fries. The resulting product was compared with French fries prepared conventionally under conditions that resulted in similar final moisture content. The resulting products were also examined for crust formation, texture parameters, color development and glucose content. Stereo microscope images showed that similar crusts were formed in the glucose fries and French fries. Texture parameters were found to be similar for both products at 5 and 2 mm penetration depth. The maximum hardness at 2 mm penetration depth was also similar for both products, but different from cooked potato. The color development that characterized French fries was also observed in glucose fries. The glucose content in glucose fries was found to be twice the content of French fries, which is to be expected because glucose absorbed or adhered to the surface. In conclusion, glucose fries, with similar texture and color characteristics to that of French fries, can be prepared by using a nonfat frying medium. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts.

  15. Stability and antioxidant activity of annatto (Bixa orellana L.) tocotrienols during frying and in fried tortilla chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annatto tocotrienols (AnT3), which contain ~90% delta-tocotrienol (delta-T3), were added to mid-oleic sunflower oil used for frying tortilla chips over three days. The objectives were to evaluate their stability during frying and activity as antioxidants in frying oil and in tortilla chips during st...

  16. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  17. Biobased lubricant from used cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    As more and more people look for healthy alternatives for cooking and frying oils, the opportunity to develop high-value products from these waste streams increases. Cooking oils that are often described as healthier contain higher levels of monounsaturated fats. NuSun® sunflower oil is an example o...

  18. Waste oil management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Kelley, B.A.; Harrison, L.L.; Clark, B.R.; Rogers, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the policy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to require that oily substances be handled and disposed of in a manner that protects the environment and personnel from harm. Federal regulations prohibit the discharge of oil into navigable waters, with stiff penalties possible to violators. A strict waste oil management program has been developed and implemented because of the potential for oil problems resulting from the large and varied uses of oil at the Laboratory. Also, past records of improper discharges of oil have mandated immediate corrective actions. In order to resolve the problems of waste oil at the Laboratory, the ORNL Waste Oil Investigation Committee was formed on March 14, 1979. The work of the committee included a survey of every building and area of the Laboratory to locate the presence of oil and the pathways of oil discharges to the environment. The committee also provided a basis for the development of oil spill procedures and waste oil disposal. The Department of Environmental Management (DEM) of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division at ORNL has the responsibility of developing environmental protection procedures for the handling and disposal of oil. It approves storage and collection facilities, disposal methods, and disposal sites for oil-containing wastes. The DEM has developed and implemented an ORNL Environmental Protection Procedure for oils and an oil spill prevention and countermeasure plan. In order to familiarize ORNL personnel with the problems and procedures of waste oil, the DEM has held seminars on the subject. This report reviews the findings of the Waste Oil Investigation Committee and the actions of the laboratory management and the DEM in dealing with the waste oil problem at ORNL

  19. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO.

  20. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  1. Effect of NiO/SiO2 on thermo-chemical conversion of waste cooking oil to hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increase in organic waste generation, dwindling nature of global oil reserves coupled with environmental challenges caused by waste oil disposal and burning of fossil fuels necessitated the need for alternative energy resources. Waste cooking oil obtained from the frying fish outlet was analyzed for its physicochemical properties using ASTM D-975 methods. Acid and Iodine values of the oil were 30.43 ± 0.32 mgKOH/g and 57.08 ± 0.43 mgI2/100 g respectively. Thermo-chemical conversion of the oil using NiO/SiO2 at different reaction conditions (pressure, temperature, and catalyst concentration at a residence time of 3 h yielded 33.63% hydrocarbons. Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil at 400 °C, H2 pressure of 15 bars, and catalyst to oil ratio of 0.25 g/100 cm3 resulted in highest hydrocarbon yield (41.98%. The fuel properties of the product were: cetane number (71.16, high heating value (41.43 MJ/kg, kinematic viscosity (2.01 mm2/s, density (0.94 g/ml, saponification value (185.1 ± 3.96 mgKOH/g, and iodine value (20.57 ± 0.20 I2/100 g respectively. These results show that the NiO/SiO2 could be a suitable catalyst for conversion of waste vegetable oil to hydrocarbons. Keywords: Energy, Chemical engineering

  2. Investigation of Performance and Emissions Effects of Waste Vegetable Oil Methyl Ester in A Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya ULUSOY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study engine and emission performance of a 4-stroke, 4 cylinder, direct injection 62,5 kW engine, with three different biodiesel blends (B25, B50, B75,  was compared with those obtained with use of normal diesel (B0 through a 8-mode experimental test procedure, in convention with ISO 8178-C1. The results of the study showed that, performance and emission values of biodiesel fuels produced from vegetable oil and those obtained with diesel fuel (B0 are very close to each other.  In this context, the waste cooking oil, which is a serious risk to the environment and should be collected according to related legistlative measures,  could be processed to and used as biodiesel without creating any significant loss in terms of engine performance, while providing significant advantages in terms of engine emissions. These results revealed that, waste frying oils can be used as diesel fuel and to create an adding value for the economy instead of being potential environmental risk. 

  3. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of frying process in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglia, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of frying are fairly simple. Hot oil serves as a heat exchange medium in which heat is transferred to the food being fried. As a result, the heat converts water within the food to steam and melts the fat within the food. The steam and fat then migrate from the interior of the food through the exterior and into the oil. Conversely, some of the frying oil is absorbed into the food being fried. The chemistry occurring in the frying oil and in the food being fried includes a myriad of thermal and oxidative reactions involving lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and minor food constituents. Decomposition products by autoxidation above 100°C, polimerization without oxigen between 200-300°C and thermal oxidation at 200°C, can be produced in frying oil and their amounts are related to different chemical and physical parameters such as temperature, heating time, type of oil used and food being fried, oil turnover rate, management of the oil and finally type of equipment used. Different studies have remarked as the toxicity of these by-products, is due to their chemistry and concentration. Since the prime requirement in food quality is the safety of the products, attainable through preventive analysis of the risks and total control through all frying processes, in this work the critical points of particular importance are identify and showed: Oil composition, and in particular its antioxidant capacity. Proper fryer design. Food/oil ratio. Good manufactured practice. Beside the quality screening has to be direct towards the chemical quality evaluation by easy and rapid analysis of oil (colour, polar compounds, free fatty acids and antioxidant capacity and food fried (panel test and/or consumer test. Conclusion, to maintain high quality in the frying medium, choose efficient equipment, select a fat with desirable flavour and good antioxidant capacity, eliminate crackling as soon and often as possible, choose better components with minimal but

  5. Feasibility study of incineration treatment of radioactive waste oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Zhou Lianquan; Ma Mingxie; Yang Liguo; Li Xiaohai; Qiu Mingcai; Zhang Xiaobin; Dong Jingling; Yang Baomin

    2001-01-01

    The author describes the combustion experiment of radioactive waste oil, including determination of the basic properties of the waste oils, pretreatment and incineration experiment. As for low flash point oil possibly mixed with gasoline, it is recommended to add kerosine to lower the viscosity. Spray incineration experiment shows that for waste oil with viscosity less than 30 mPa·s, it can be completely burnt even if the heat strength in the stove is less than 1.6 x 10 6 kJ/(m 3 ·h). Within a broad range of extra-air coefficient, CO concentration in flue gas is below 0.1%

  6. Frying performance of two virgin oils from Cornicabra olives with different ripeness indices; Rendimiento en fritura de dos aceites vírgenes de aceitunas Cornicabra con diferentes índices de maduración

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero-David, R.; Mena, C.; Sánchez-Muniz, F.J.; Pérez-Jiménez, M.A.; Holgado, F.; Bastida, S.; Velasco, J.

    2017-07-01

    The frying performance of two virgin olive oils (VOO) from Cornicabra olives of different ripeness indices, 2.08 for VOO1 and 4.13 for VOO2, was evaluated. Thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic alterations were determined throughout 40 frying operations with potatoes. The initial oils showed similar fatty acid compositions and oxidative stability indices as determined by Rancimat, but VOO1 presented higher amounts of total polyphenols and tocopherols. The oils showed high and similar frying performance. No significant differences in the levels of polar compounds (PC) were found between the two oils during frying. Therefore, the frying stability of Cornicabra VOOs appears to be unconnected with olive fruit ripeness. The limit of degradation at 25% PC as established in different countries was calculated to occur at 55 frying operations in the two oils. As oil toxicity is related to the levels of compounds formed, the use of Cornicabra VOOs for frying is highly recommended. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se evalúa el comportamiento de fritura de dos aceites de oliva virgen (VOO) obtenidos de aceitunas de la variedad Cornicabra con diferentes índices de maduración, 2,08 para VOO1 y 4,13 para VOO2. A lo largo de 40 operaciones de fritura con patatas se determinaron las alteraciones térmicas, oxidativas e hidrolíticas de los aceites. Los aceites iniciales presentaron composiciones de ácidos grasos e índices de estabilidad oxidativa determinados en Rancimat similares entre sí. Sin embargo, las cantidades de fenoles totales y tocoferol fueron más altas para VOO1. Los aceites mostraron una eficacia en fritura elevada y similar. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en los niveles de compuestos polares (PC) durante la fritura entre los dos aceites. Por tanto, la estabilidad en condiciones de fritura de los dos aceites Cornicabra no parece estar relacionada con el estado de maduración de las aceitunas. El límite de degradación de 25% de PC establecido en

  7. Modification of Oil Palm Plantation Wastes as Oil Adsorbent for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisah Jahi; Ling, E.S.; Rizafizah Othaman; Suria Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to modify oil palm solid wastes chemically to become oil adsorbent for palm oil mill effluent (POME). The purpose of modification on oil palm leaves (OPL) and oil palm frond (OPF) was to change the hydrophilic nature to a more hydrophobic character. This study also exploited the production of sorbent materials with high efficiency in the oil uptake for POME from OPL and OPF. Chemical modification was carried out using 200 mL of 1.0 M lauric acid solution for 6 hrs at room temperature. The modified OPL and OPF were preceded to adsorption test for POME and the capacity of oil adsorbed was compared between them. FTIR analysis supported the modification to occur with the increase in a peak of C-H group and the presence of C=O originated from lauric acid structure chain. The hydrophobicity of modified OPL and OPF samples was supported by XRD and contact angle analysis with modified OPL became more hydrophobic than the modified OPF, which had been 38.15 % and 24.67 % respectively. Both the analyses proved that the result from the oil adsorption test on POME showed the presence of a new peak attribute at C=C stretching of aromatics for the oil in POME proved that it was attached on the sorbent materials. Based on SEM analysis, the perforated and rough surface had been observed on modified OPL and OPF samples because oil layers on OPL and OPF surfaces were observed on the modified samples after the adsorption test. All the analyses in the study agreed that the results from oil adsorption test showed that the modified OPL had higher adsorption capacity than the modified OPF with the percentage of oil uptake at 83.74 % and 39.84 % respectively. The prepared adsorbent showed the potential to be used as a low-cost adsorbent in oil for POME. (author)

  8. Stir-Frying of Chinese Cabbage and Pakchoi Retains Health-Promoting Glucosinolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugrahedi, Probo Y.; Oliviero, Teresa; Heising, Jenneke K.; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Stir-frying is a cooking method, originating from Asia, in which food is fried in small amount of very hot oil. Nowadays in many other parts of the world stir-frying is a very popular method to prepare vegetables, because it is fast and fried vegetables are tasty. However, the retention of

  9. Optimization for producing biodiesel from ethanol and waste frying oil with a high concentration of ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Beatriz Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que la transesterificación del aceite residual como resultado de la cocción de alimentos con la presencia de etanol no permite obtener biodiesel con concentración de etil éster superior a 96,5%, esta investigación muestra cómo se optimizaron las condiciones de la reacción con la adición de ácido oxálico. Con la ayuda de un diseño factorial fueron estudiados los efectos de la relación molar de etanol y aceite, así como la concentración del catalizador hidróxido de sodio en la presencia de ácido oxálico como activador del carbonilo en la fase aceite. El aceite usado se deshidrató y se filtró. La reacción fue realizada mediante la agitación mecánica durante un período de dos horas a 70° C. Los datos fueron modelados mediante la aplicación de la metodología de superficie de respuesta, encontrando las condiciones óptimas de la reacción. El camino propuesto demostró ser factible para la producción de biodiesel a partir de etanol y aceite residual con contenido de éster dentro de la concentración especificada por EN 14103 (superior a 96,5%. La metodología de superficie de respuesta mostró las condiciones ideales con la relación molar etanol:aceite de 6:1 y contenido de hidróxido de sodio de 1% respecto a la masa del aceite.

  10. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  11. Color changes kinetics during deep fat frying of carrot slice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fakhreddin

    2018-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer phenomena take place during frying cause physicochemical changes, which affect the colour and surface of the fried products. The effect of frying temperature on the colour changes and heat transfer during deep fat frying of carrot has been investigated. The colour scale parameters redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and lightness (L*), and color change intensity (ΔE) were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of oil temperature. L* value of fried carrot decreased during frying. The redness of fried carrot decreased during the early stages of frying, while it increased afterwards (become more red). A first-order kinetic equation was used for each one of the three colour parameters, in which the rate constant is a function of oil temperatures. The results showed that oil temperature has a significant effect on the colour parameters. Different kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data and the results revealed that the quadratic model was the most suitable to describe the color change intensity (ΔE) (R > 0.96). Center temperature of carrot slice increased with increase in oil temperature and time during frying.

  12. Biodiesel production in methyl esterification in the frying oil using catalyst Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4 to produce biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, E.V.; Dantas, J.; Pereira, K.B.O.; Barros, A.B.; Moura, T.F.B.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of magnetic catalysts for biodiesel production has gaining prominence because of possibility about its recovery and its reuse, as well as, the reuse of materials that would be discarded in the environment. Thus, we propose to evaluate the efficiency of the catalyst Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4 in methyl esterification in the frying oil to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was produced by combustion reaction using containers with different production capacity and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectrometry with Fourier transform (FTIR). The catalytic tests were conducted in a stainless steel reactor at 180°C/1h, 2% of catalyst, oil/ethanol ratio of 1:12. Regardless of the container production capacity it was verified the catalyst obtaining with the major phase formation of the inverse spinel and traces of segregated phases with an average crystallite size of 42.13, 32.07 and 36.93 nm. All catalysts showed satisfactory results with conversions of 74%, 77% and 71%. (author)

  13. EFFECT OF DEEP-FAT FRYING ON CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diopamadr

    volatile fraction remains in the frying medium and is absorbed by the fried food ... weight of the oil sample (2.5 g) was dissolved in a mixture consisting of glacial acetic ... For peanut oil B, values of PV observed for all the 10 samples showed an ...

  14. Tomatoes in oil recovery. [Plant waste additives improve yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The waste from processing tomato, squash and pepper stalks found unexpected use in recovery of oil. Even a negligible amount thereof in an aqueous solution pumped into an oil-bearing formation turned out to be sufficient to increase the yield. Substances of plant origin, which improve dramatically the oil-flushing properties of water, not only increase the recovery of oil, but reduce the volume of fluid to be pumped into the stratum. The staff of the Institute of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, who proved the technological and economical advantages of using the waste from plant processing, transmitted their findings to the oil workers of Baku. The scientists have concluded that there is a good raw material base in this republic for utilizing this method on oil-bearing formations.

  15. No evidence found for Diels-Alder reaction products in soybean oil oxidized at the frying temperature by NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been generally accepted that the Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ratio showed 36.1% polymer peak area in g...

  16. The evaporative drying of sludge by immersion in hot oil: Effects of oil type and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohm, Tae-In, E-mail: tiohm1@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, San 16-1 Duckmyung-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong-Seong; Lim, Kwang-Soo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, San 16-1 Duckmyung-dong, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seung-Hyun [Waste Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jang-dong Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    We investigated the evaporative drying by immersion in hot oil (EDIHO) method for drying sludge. This involved heating oil to a temperature higher than that needed for moisture to be evaporated from the sludge by turbulent heat and mass transfer. We fry-dried sewage and leather plant sludge for 10 min in each of four different oils (waste engine, waste cooking, refined waste, and B-C heavy) and three different temperatures (140 deg. C, 150 deg. C, and 160 deg. C). Drying efficiency was found to be greater for higher temperatures. However, giving consideration to energy efficiency we suggest that the optimal temperature for fry-drying sludge is 150 deg. C. At 150 deg. C, the water content of sewage sludge reduced from 78.9% to between 1.5% (with waste cooking oil) and 3.8% (with waste engine oil). The reduction in water content for leather plant sludge fry-dried at 150 deg. C was from 81.6% to between 1% (with waste cooking oil) and 6.5% (with refined waste oil). The duration of the constant rate-drying period was also influenced by the type of oil used: refined waste oil > waste engine oil > B-C heavy oil > waste cooking oil. The duration at 150 deg. C with waste cooking oil was 3 min for sewage sludge and 2 min for leather plant sludge. It is likely that the drying characteristics of oil are influenced by its thermal properties, including its specific heat, and molecular weight.

  17. The evaporative drying of sludge by immersion in hot oil: Effects of oil type and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Lim, Kwang-Soo; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the evaporative drying by immersion in hot oil (EDIHO) method for drying sludge. This involved heating oil to a temperature higher than that needed for moisture to be evaporated from the sludge by turbulent heat and mass transfer. We fry-dried sewage and leather plant sludge for 10 min in each of four different oils (waste engine, waste cooking, refined waste, and B-C heavy) and three different temperatures (140 deg. C, 150 deg. C, and 160 deg. C). Drying efficiency was found to be greater for higher temperatures. However, giving consideration to energy efficiency we suggest that the optimal temperature for fry-drying sludge is 150 deg. C. At 150 deg. C, the water content of sewage sludge reduced from 78.9% to between 1.5% (with waste cooking oil) and 3.8% (with waste engine oil). The reduction in water content for leather plant sludge fry-dried at 150 deg. C was from 81.6% to between 1% (with waste cooking oil) and 6.5% (with refined waste oil). The duration of the constant rate-drying period was also influenced by the type of oil used: refined waste oil > waste engine oil > B-C heavy oil > waste cooking oil. The duration at 150 deg. C with waste cooking oil was 3 min for sewage sludge and 2 min for leather plant sludge. It is likely that the drying characteristics of oil are influenced by its thermal properties, including its specific heat, and molecular weight.

  18. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils via direct sonication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Grant, Georgene Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal effects of direct sonication on transesterification reaction were studied. • Ultrasonics may effectively transesterify waste oils without external heating. • Intense mixing with temperature rise completes transesterification instantly. • Plug flow process reactor design with ultrasound may prove energy efficient. • Process optimization and biodiesel conversion analysis was presented. - Abstract: This study investigates the effect of direct sonication in conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Waste cooking oils may cause environmental hazards if not disposed properly. However, waste cooking oils can serve as low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Ultrasonics, a non-conventional process technique, was applied to directly convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel in a single step. Ultrasonics transesterify waste cooking oils very efficiently due to increased mass/heat transfer phenomena and specific thermal/athermal effects at molecular levels. Thus, energy and chemical consumption in the overall process is greatly reduced compared to conventional biodiesel processes. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with effects of different ultrasonic, energy intensities and energy density are reported. Optimization of process parameters such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time are also presented. It was observed that small reactor design such as plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction due to increased energy density and ultrasonic intensity

  19. Oil sorbents from plastic wastes and polymers: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Adil Riaz, Muhammad; Gordon, McKay

    2018-01-05

    A large volume of the waste produced across the world is composed of polymers from plastic wastes such as polyethylene (HDPE or LDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) amongst others. For years, environmentalists have been looking for various ways to overcome the problems of such large quantities of plastic wastes being disposed of into landfill sites. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) have been reported. In recent years, the idea of using plastic wastes as the feed for the production of oil sorbents has gained momentum. However, the studies undertaking such feasibility are rather scattered. This review paper is the first of its kind reporting, compiling and reviewing these various processes. The production of an oil sorbent from plastic wastes is being seen to be satisfactorily achievable through a variety of methods Nevertheless, much work needs to be done regarding further investigation of the numerous parameters influencing production yields and sorbent qualities. For example, differences in results are seen due to varying operating conditions, experimental setups, and virgin or waste plastics being used as feeds. The field of producing oil sorbents from plastic wastes is still very open for further research, and seems to be a promising route for both waste reduction, and the synthesis of value-added products such as oil sorbents. In this review, the research related to the production of various oil sorbents based on plastics (plastic waste and virgin polymer) has been discussed. Further oil sorbent efficiency in terms of oil sorption capacity has been described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The drying of sewage sludge by immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to dry sewage sludge using a fry-drying process. The frying experiments were carried out in commercial fryers modified by adding thermocouples to the setup. During frying, typical drying curves were obtained and it was verified that, in relation to the parameters: oil temperature, oil type and shape of the sample, the shape factor the most effect on the drying rate, at least within the range chosen for the variables studied. Oil uptake and calorific value were also analyzed. The calorific value of the samples increased with frying time, reaching values around 24MJ/kg after 600s of frying (comparable to biocombustibles such as wood and sugarcane bagasse. The process of immersion frying showed great potential for drying materials, especially sewage sludge, obtaining a product with a high energy content, thereby increasing its value as a combustible.

  1. Characteristics of PAHs from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi

    2015-10-01

    Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, PAHs from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 PAHs emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase PAHs emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and PAH concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more PAHs and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more PAH emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed PAHs were the main PAH components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the PAH partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight PAHs (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of PAH pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of PAHs produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.

  2. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... biodegradable, produced from renewable sources and contributes a minimal amount of net green house gases .... Later, the waste cooking oil was filtered by filter paper to ... the alcoxide from absorbing water from the air.

  3. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  4. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It could be refined further to produce domestic kerosene and gasoline. The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water ...

  5. Pyrolysis oil from carbonaceous solid wastes in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Jamil, M.K.; Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R.

    2000-01-01

    The agro-industrial sector of Malaysia produces a huge amount of oil palm and paddy rice. These generate a significant amount of renewable biomass solid wastes in the forms of oil palm shell and rice husk. Apart from this a huge quantity of scrap tyre is generated from the country's faster increasing usage of transportation vehicles like motorcycle, car, bus and lorries. These wastes are producing pollution and disposal problems affecting the environment. Besides energy is not recovered efficiently from these waste resources. From the elemental composition and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies of the wastes, it appeared that the wastes could be used for pyrolysis liquid oil production. Pyrolysis at present is deemed to be a potential method for the conversion of carbonaceous solid wastes into upgraded liquid products which can either be tried for liquid fuel or value-added chemical. A fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis system was employed for this thermochemical conversion process of solid wastes. Silica sand was used as fluidized bed material and nitrogen gas as the fluidising medium. The products obtained were liquid oil, solid char and gas. The liquid oil and solid char were collected separately while the gas was flared. The maximum liquid product yield was found to vary with feedstock material fluidized bed temperature. The maximum liquid product yield was found to be 58, 53 and 40 wt. % of biomass fed at fluidized bed temperature at 500, 525 and 450 0 C respectively for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk. The solid char yield was 25, 36 and 53 wt. % of biomass fed at the condition of maximum liquid product yield for oil palm shell, scrap tyre and rice husk respectively. The oil products were subjected to FTIR, GC and GC/MS analysis for their group composition and detailed chemical compositions. The pyrolysis oil from scrap tyre was found to contain highest percentage of pure hydrocarbons (25 wt. % of total feed) with esters and oxygenated

  6. Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, María Rosario; Estévez, Mario; Morcuende, David; Cava, Ramón

    2004-12-15

    The effect of the type of frying culinary fat (olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, and pig lard) on volatile compounds isolated from fried pork loin chops (m. Longissimus dorsi) was measured by SPME-GC-MS. Frying modified the fatty acid composition of lipids from pork loin chops, which tended to be similar to that of the culinary fat used to fry. Volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of fatty acids increased, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and hydrocarbons. Besides, each culinary fat used modified the volatile profiles in fried meat differently. Sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops presented the highest aldehyde aliphatic content, probably due to their highest content of polyunsaturated acids. Hexanal, the most abundant aldehyde in fried samples, presented the most elevated content in sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops. In addition, these samples presented more heterocyclic compounds from the Maillard reaction than other fried samples. Volatiles detected in olive oil-fried pork loin chops were mainly lipid-derived compounds such as pentan-1-ol, hexanal, hept-2-enal, nonanal, decanal, benzaldehyde, and nonan-2-one. Butter-fried pork loins were abundant in ketones with a high number of carbons (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, undecan-2-one, tridecanone, and heptadecan-2-one). Pig lard-fried pork loin chops presented some Strecker aldehydes isolated in only these samples, such as 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal, and a sulfur compound (dimethyl disulfide) related to Strecker aldehydes.

  7. Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oil by Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the potential techniques. The advantages of solvent extraction technique practically offers from environmental and economic points of view have received due attention. In this paper selection of composite solvent and technique to upgrade the used lubricant oil into base oil has been made. The composite solvent 2-propanol, 1-butanol and butanone have two alcohols that make a binary system reasonably effective. This work also attempts to study the performance of the composite solvent in the extraction process for recovering waste lubricating oil. The key parameters considered were vacuum pressure, temperature and the weight ratio of solvent to waste lubricating oil. The performance was investigated on the PSR (Percentage Sludge Removal and POL (Percent Oil Loss. The best results were obtained using composite solvent 25% 2-propanol, 37% 1-butanol and 38% butanone by a solvent to oil ratio of 6:1 at vacuum pressure 600mmHg and distillation temperature 250oC. The vacuum distilled oil pretreated with the composite solvents was matched to the standard base oil 500N and 150N, found in close agreement and could be used for similar purpose.

  8. Commercial- and whitewashing-grade limestone as a heterogeneous catalyst for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from used frying oil (UFO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Shweta; Singh, Bhaskar; Sharma, Yogesh C. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Institute of Technology, Varanasi (India); Frometa, Amado Enrique N. [Universidad Tecnologica de Izucar de Matamoros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2012-12-15

    Commercial-grade limestone used in whitewashing which is a low-cost material has been used as a catalyst for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters. The catalyst was characterized by differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the study of its physicochemical nature. The catalyst was calcined at 900 C for 2.5 h for the decomposition of calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. The catalyst was further activated by dissolving 1.5 wt% of catalyst in 30 ml methanol (7.5:1, methanol to used frying oil molar ratio) and stirred at 25 C for 1 h on a magnetic stirrer. The transesterification reaction was performed using calcium oxide as a catalyst and then with the ''activated calcium oxide.'' The conversion obtained was 94.4 % with calcium oxide and was found to be lower for the ''activated calcium oxide'' (i.e., 87.36 %). The conversion increased to 96.8 % on increasing the catalyst amount to 2.0 wt% in 5 h. A high yield (>95 %) of fatty acid methyl esters was observed when either calcium oxide or ''activated calcium oxide'' was taken as catalyst. The catalytic activity of calcium oxide obtained from low-grade limestone has been found to be comparable with the laboratory-grade CaO. (orig.)

  9. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta De; Rafael Luque

    2014-01-01

    The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as wel...

  10. Processing of palm oil mill wastes based on zero waste technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is currently the main producer of palm oil in the world with a total production reached 33.5 million tons per year. In the processing of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) besides producing palm oil and kernel oil, palm oil mills also produce liquid and solid wastes. The increase of palm oil production will be followed by an increase in the production of waste generated. It will give rise to major environmental issues especially the discharge of liquid waste to the rivers, the emission of methane from digestion pond and the incineration of empty fruit bunches (EFB). This paper describes a zero waste technology in processing palm oil mill waste after the milling process. The technology involves fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME) to biogas by using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) in the presence of thermophilic microbes, producing activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) from discharge of treated waste effluent from biogas digester, composting EFB by spraying ALOF on the EFB in the composter, and producing pellet or biochar from EFB by pyrolysis process. This concept can be considered as a promising technology for palm oil mills with the main objective of eliminating the effluent from their mills.

  11. Manual on oil-gas industry waste utilization radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashev, V.A.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Marabaev, Zh.N.; Pasysaev, V.A.; Kayukov, P.G.; Kozhakhmetov, N.B.; Shevtsov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a new document - 'Manual on radio-ecologically safe utilization of waste from oil-and-gas production' is carried out. This document regulates the whole cycle of environment protection measures at waste utilization for the named industry in Kazakhstan and is aimed on lowering the radiation risks and assurance of radioecological safety both at present and for the future. The document presents a set regulations necessary for radioactive wastes handling in the oil-gas industry. The normative document was agreed in both the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) and Ministry of Environment Protection of RK

  12. Deep frying: the role of water from food being fried and acrylamide formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertz Christian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of acrylamide during food frying is generally influenced by food type, thermal treatment and equipment. The acrylamide concentration is increased when frying oils containing a higher level of polar materials or silicone or larger amounts of diglycerides. This effect may be caused by moisture escaping from food that has an enhancing effect on the heat transfer. It was noticed that if the moisture in the frying operation was bound by special adsorbents, the acrylamide content could be reduced by more than 50%. The effects of several additives like citric acid on the formation of acrylamide during frying of chips were also investigated. The mechanism of acrylamide formation in fried foods is discussed to explain these findings.

  13. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Bulb Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Maity

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%. The lightness in terms of hunter L* value decreased significantly (P<0.05 during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  14. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Tanushree; Bawa, A S; Raju, P S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter L (*) value decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C.

  15. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  16. Assessment of total polar materials in Frying fats from Czech restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mlcek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-frying is commonly used as convenient technique for the preparation of foods. The frying oils and fats are absorbed by fried food and become a part of diet. The content of total polar materials was determined in frying oils and fats in 46 restaurants from South Moravia and the Olomouc regions. Twenty-eight samples were found with total polar materials with limit of rejection over 24%. The highest total polar materials values were observed in cooking fat; the lowest one was in vegetable shortening oil. This conclusion corresponds with frying temperatures, which were highest in cooking fat.

  17. Method of removing radioactive waste from oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a method of removing particulates, radioactive contaminants, and moisture from oil, which consists of: straining out the particulates by passing the oil through a coarse filter screen to a receiving vessel; forming an upper stratum of oil and a lower stratum of sludge, consisting of mud, oil, particulates, and moisture, by heating the upper two-thirds of the receiving vessel; skimming off the stratum of oil from the receiving vessel; transferring the sludge from the receiving vessel to a container; transferring additional separated oil to the receiving vessel; conveying the oil skimmed from the receiving vessel to a mixing vessel; adding an effective amount of Calcium Hypochlorite crystals containing 65% free Chlorine to the mixing vessel to initiate salt formation with the radioactive contaminants; mixing the contents of the mixing vessel for at least ten minutes; transferring the mixture from the mixing vessel to a circulating heater; outputting the mixture from the circulating heater to a second mixing vessel; removing moisture from the oil; and filtering from the oil, the solid radioactive contaminant-salts and residual particulate matter

  18. Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue for Detection of Mixed Edible-Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Men, Hong; Chen, Donglin; Zhang, Xiaoting; Liu, Jingjing; Ning, Ke

    2014-01-01

    For the problem of the waste of the edible-oil in the food processing, on the premise of food security, they often need to add new edible-oil to the old frying oil which had been used in food processing to control the cost of the production. Due to the fact that the different additive proportion of the oil has different material and different volatile gases, we use fusion technology based on the electronic nose and electronic tongue to detect the blending ratio of the old frying oil and the n...

  19. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geography and history of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton, I. D.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available How far back in time, frying with oil goes, it is difficult to tell. The rules for sacrifice in Leviticus, Chapter 2, the 3rd book in the Old Testament, which is commonly accepted to date from about 600 BC, distinguishes between bread baked in the oven and that cooked «on the griddle» or «in the pan». Roman authors also describe in the first century AD the frying of eggs. Writers in the Middle Ages, Cervantes and Chaucer both describe the cooking in oil. A number of common proverbs deal with frying in one's own grease in the 14th Century. Soyer describes the grid iron as a primitive utensil but with considerable possibilities in the use and variation of the cooking process. We need only to recall that splendid painting in the El Prado of the fried egg which Professor Varela used as a frontispiece for the first Frying of Food Conference in Madrid in 1986. Different types of oils can be used for the frying of food. Variations in the composition of vegetable oils can normally be traced back to climatic effects and the location of the growing plants. We can expect the height above sea level, the daylight hour length, the mean temperature and the genetic make up of the plant, all to have an effect. Cool conditions during seed maturation can increase the linoleic acid content In plants such as Guizotia Abyssinica to almost 85% of the oil. Similar results have been reported for peanuts grown at different latitudes in the United States.

  1. Perfil de ácidos graxos trans de óleo e gordura hidrogenada de soja no processo de fritura Fatty acids trans profile of oil and hidrogenated soy fat in frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Abrão Assef Sanibal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as alterações dos ácidos graxos e a formação de isômeros trans, durante o aquecimento de óleo de soja (OS e gordura parcialmente hidrogenada de soja (GPHS no processo de fritura de batata por 100 horas com reposição lipídica. O perfil de ácidos graxos foi avaliado através de cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar de 100m. Os ácidos graxos monoinsaturados trans foram os predominantes entre os isômeros trans. A partir de 10 horas de fritura, o OS formou 2,1% de isômeros mono trans e ao final de 50 horas este valor passou a 14,3% contra uma diminuição do total de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, que passou de 59,9% antes do processamento para 32,6% após 50h de fritura. Entretanto, a GPHS apresentou 20,2% de ácidos graxos mono trans antes de ser submetida à fritura e após 50 horas apresentou uma concentração de 28%. Houve também, uma diminuição do total de ácidos graxos essenciais séries ômega6 e ômega3, de 12,8% para 7,3% no mesmo período. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que isômeros trans são formados no óleo e na gordura durante o processo de fritura, sendo que a formação de isômeros trans, ocorreu em menor proporção na GPHS, confirmando a sua maior estabilidade em relação ao OS. Estes resultados indicam a importância de se identificar os ácidos graxos trans nos óleos e gorduras ulizadas em processos de fritura.The objective of this study, was to examine the alterations of the fatty acids profile and the formation of trans fatty acids isomers during heating of soy oil (SO and partially hydrogenated soy fat (PHSF in the process of french frying. The fatty acids profile was examined by gas chromatography with a 100m capillary column. The fatty acids trans monounsaturated were the predominant among trans isomers. The isomers trans monounsaturated corresponded to 2.1% of the total, after 10 hours of frying, and 14.3% after 50h - frying. Poliunsaturated fatty acids

  2. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun B. Chhetri; K. Chris Watts; M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-01-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was ...

  3. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  4. Management of vehicle waste oil in pakistan: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Oil is a primary source of energy in developed nations. The petroleum industry has grown at a very fast rate since its inception and became an indispensable element of society particularly in urban communities. However, the world oil sources and reserves are limited and are not inexhaustible resources. Lubricating oils are widely used to reduce friction and wear by interposing a film of material between rubbing surfaces and becomes contaminated with a number of substances that are hazardous to human health and the environment. It requires proper collection and treatment before it can be discharged to the environment. Therefor, proper waste oil management is necessary to prevent its adverse impacts. This paper describes current waste oil management practice in Pakistan and identifies the extent of potential adverse environmental impacts associated with these practices. Proper waste oil management options are discussed with proposed re-cycling option in the circumstance of prevailing public perception and environmental awareness. The 12 Re-generation facility locations have been identified throughout Pakistan to minimize the transportation cost and create the maximum job opportunities for the local people. (author)

  5. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Elkady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils through its pretreatment followed by transesterification process in presence of methanol was investigated using a KM micromixer reactor. The parameters affecting biodiesel production process such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent, and the volumetric flow rates of inlet fluids were optimized. The properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with its parent waste oil through different characterization techniques. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using both the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Moreover, the thermal analysis of the produced biodiesel and the comparable waste oil indicated that the product after the transesterification process began to vaporize at 120°C which makes it lighter than its parent oil which started to vaporize at around 300°C. The maximum biodiesel production yield of 97% was recorded using 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio in presence of both 1% NaOH and THF/methanol volume ratio 0.3 at 60 mL/h flow rate.

  6. Cementation of biodegraded radioactive oils and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.; Safonov, A.; Tregubova, V.; German, K.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of the microbiological pre-treatment of the oil-containing organic liquid radioactive waste (LRW) before solidification in the cement matrix has been studied. It is experimentally proved that the oil containing cement compounds during long-term storage are subject to microbiological degradation due to the reaction of biogenic organic acids with the minerals of the cement matrix. We recommend to biodegrade the LRW components before their solidification, which reduces the volume of LRW and prevent the destruction of the inorganic cement matrix during the long term storage. The biodegradation of the oil containing LRW is possible by using the radioresistant microflora which oxidize the organic components of the oil to carbon dioxide and water. Simultaneously there is the bio-sorption of the radionuclides by bacteria and emulsification of oil in cement slurry due to biogenic surface-active substances of glycolipid nature. It was experimentally established that after 7 days of biodegradation of oil-containing liquid radioactive waste the volume of LRW is reduced by the factor from 2 to 10 due to the biodegradation of the organic phase to the non-radioactive gases (CH 4 , H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 ), which are excluded from the volume of the liquid radioactive waste. At the same time, the microorganisms are able to extract from the LRW up to 80-90% of alpha-radionuclides, up to 50% of 90 Sr, up to 20% of 137 Cs due to sorption processes at the cellular structures. The radioactive biomass is subject to dehydration and solidification in the matrix. The report presents the following experimental data: type of bacterial flora, the parameters of biodegradation, the cementing parameters, the properties of the final cement compound with oil-containing liquid radioactive waste

  7. Upgrading of waste oils into transportation fuels using hydrotreating technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta De

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The generation of organic waste continues to increase, causing severe environmental pollution. Waste valorization is currently an emerging technology that can address this problem with an extra benefit of producing a range of valued products. In this contribution, we report the current developments in hydrotreating technologies for upgrading waste oil fractions into usable transportation fuels. Particular focus is given on the catalysts selection for a general hydroprocessing technique as well as the competitive role of those catalysts in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes.

  8. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  9. Offshore disposal of oil-based drilling fluid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malachosky, E.; Shannon, B.E.; Jackson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Offshore drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico may use oil-based drilling fluids to mitigate drilling problems. The result is the generation of a significant quantity of oily cuttings and mud. The transportation of this waste for onshore disposal is a concern from a standpoint of both personnel safety and potential environmental impact. A process for preparing a slurry of this waste and the subsequent disposal of the slurry through annular pumping has been put into use by ARCO Oil and Gas Company. The disposal technique has been approved by the Minerals Management Service (MMS). The slurried waste is displaced down a casing annulus into a permeable zone at a depth below the surface casing setting depth. The annular disposal includes all cuttings and waste oil mud generated during drilling with oil-based fluids. This disposal technique negates the need for cuttings storage on the platform, transportation to shore, and the environmental effects of onshore surface disposal. The paper describes the environmental and safety concerns with onshore disposal, the benefits of annular disposal, and the equipment and process used for the preparation and pumping of the slurry

  10. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  11. Impact of pre-drying and frying time on physical properties and sensorial acceptability of fried potato chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Giorman; Cruz-Tirado, J P; Delgado, Kevin; Guzman, Yorvin; Castro, Franco; Rojas, Meliza Lindsay; Linares, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    In this work the effects of pre-drying and frying time on colour, oil, texture and sensorial acceptability (overall liking) of potato chips were evaluated. Potato chips were pre-dried for 0, 10, 20 and 30 min at 60 °C and fried in soybean oil at 190 °C for 60, 70 and 80 s. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b*) increased or decreased depending on the pre-drying and frying time. Hardness increased as the pre-drying and frying time increased. On the other hand, the water initially removed by pre-drying decrease the gradient of mass transfer (water-oil). The oil content reduced to (about 21%) in pre-dried samples when compared to control sample. Finally, sensorial evaluation showed that samples without pre-drying and/or fried for very short or very long times had low acceptance levels. The pre-drying and frying times influenced the colour, texture, water and oil content, and resulted into fried potato chips with better acceptance scores.

  12. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.F.; Almeida, M.F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Dias, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A process was established to produce biodiesel from fish canning industry wastes. • Biodiesel production was enabled by an acid esterification pre-treatment. • Optimization studies showed that the best catalyst concentration was 1 wt.% H 2 SO 4 . • There was no advantage when a two-step alkali transesterification was employed. • Waste oil from olive oil bagasse could be used to improve fuel quality. - Abstract: The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1–3 wt.% H 2 SO 4 ) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60–90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (⩾6 h), which

  13. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Paweł P.; Włodarczyk, Barbara; Kalinichenko, Antonina

    2017-10-01

    Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH) and acidic (H2SO4) electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  14. Possibility of direct electricity production from waste canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk Paweł P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Powering high-efficiency devices, such as fuel cells, with waste products will allow for a broader development of renewable energy sources and utilisation of by- products. This publication presents the possibility of electrooxidation of the emulsion of waste rapeseed oil, prepared on the basis of the detergent Syntanol DS-10. The process of electrooxidation was carried out on platinum electrode in alkaline (KOH and acidic (H2SO4 electrolyte, in the temperature range of 293-333 K. In each analysed case the process of electrooxidation took place. The maximum current density obtained was 7 mA cm-2. Thus, it has been shown that it is possible to generate electricity directly from the emulsion of the waste rapeseed oil.

  15. Recovery of mineral oil from waste emulsion using electrocoagulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Mohd Najib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research to recover mineral oil from industrial waste emulsion. This research also evaluates the standard of water produced after the oil recovery. The ecosystem could be polluted if this waste is not treated prior to discharge. The equipment needed for this experiment is power supply (generator, connecting wire and metal plate for providing the coagulant. The chosen plates were aluminium and iron plate. The power supply will be connected to the plate producing anode (positive terminal and cathode (negative terminal. Both plates are immersed into a beaker containing waste emulsion. The charge supplied by the current will cause the aluminium or ferum to dissisipate and became ions. These ions will attract the oil to flock together and float at the surface. The water will then filter by using filter paper. Electrocoagulation was done without addition of chemical thus can prevent the hazard from the chemicals. The samples was sent for oil and grease test. The optimum time needed for recovery of oil was 3 hours. The percentage recovery reach constant trend of 95% afterwards. When the power consumption increases, the percentage recovery also increases. However, the current should be lower than 0.5 ampere as it is the limit that human body can withstand. Thus, power consumption of 27.5 Watt was chosen as optimum value. The oil recovery of at power consumption at 27.5W is 96%. The best plate in the process was the aluminium pair which can recover more than ferum plate. The present work concludes the promising future for waste water treatment by usage of electrocoagulation technique.

  16. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P.; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried prod...

  17. Feasibility of Continuous Frying System to Improve the Quality Indices of Palm Olein for the Production of Extruded Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Ahmad, Karimah

    2015-01-01

    Comparative frying studies on the processing of extruded product were conducted under intermittent and continuous frying conditions using two separate frying systems, i.e batch and pilot scale continuous fryers, respectively. Thermal resistance of palm olein were assessed for a total of 5 days of frying operation at 155°C - the unconventional frying temperature gave the product moisture content of 3% after intermittent and continuous frying for 2.5 min and 2 min, respectively. The formation of free fatty acid in palm olein in the case of intermittent frying was more than 2-fold higher compared to its counterpart (0.66%). Smoke point inversely evolved with oil acidity: the value dropped progressively from 215 to 177°C and from 219 to 188°C when extruded product was intermittently and continuously fried, respectively. In the light of induction period, repeated frying exhibited a gradual decrease in the value after 5 days of frying (12.2 h). Interestingly, continuous frying gave somewhat similar induction period, as demonstrated by fresh palm olein, across frying time. Frying at lower temperature, to some extent, provides opportunity for palm olein to retain 74% of its initial vitamin E during continuous frying. This benefit, however, is somehow denied when extruded product was processed under intermittent frying conditions--only 27% of vitamin E was remained at the end of frying session. Regardless of frying protocols, transient in polar compounds was minimal and hence comparable. The colour in the case of continuous frying appeared to be darker due to higher degree of oil utilisation for frying. The data obtained will provide useful information for food processors on how palm olein behaves when frying is undertaken under different frying protocols.

  18. Fat deterioration in deep fat frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, L.; Robert, P.; Izaurieta, M.; Romero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to know the deterioration of fats employed in deep frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector in Santiago (Chile), before the recent Chilean legislation became official. 96 % of the samples corresponded to polyunsaturated vegetable oils, 76 % had more than 2 % linolenic acid and 23 % of total samples contained more than 25 % of polar compounds. To predict the percentage of polar compounds, equations were developed: for soybean oil and m...

  19. Synthesis of methyl esters from waste cooking oil using construction waste material as solid base catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, K; Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates synthesis of methyl esters by transesterification of waste cooking oil in a heterogeneous system, using barium meliorated construction site waste marble as solid base catalyst. The pretreated catalyst was calcined at 830 °C for 4h prior to its activity test to obtained solid oxide characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, BET surface area and pore size measurement. It was found that the as prepared catalyst has large pores which contributed to its high activity in transesterification reaction. The methyl ester yield of 88% was obtained when the methanol/oil molar ratio was 9:1, reaction temperature at 65 °C, reaction time 3h and catalyst/oil mass ratio of 3.0 wt.%. The catalyst can be reused over three cycles, offer low operating conditions, reduce energy consumption and waste generation in the production of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  1. Catalytic and thermal cracking processes of waste cooking oil for bio-gasoline synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewanto, Muhammad Andry Rizki; Januartrika, Aulia Azka; Dewajani, Heny; Budiman, Arief

    2017-03-01

    Non-renewable energy resources such as fossil fuels, and coal were depleted as the increase of global energy demand. Moreover, environmental aspect becomes a major concern which recommends people to utilize bio-based resources. Waste cooking oil is one of the economical sources for biofuel production and become the most used raw material for biodiesel production. However, the products formed during frying, can affect the trans-esterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. Therefore, it needs to convert low-quality cooking oil directly into biofuel by both thermal and catalytic cracking processes. Thermal and catalytic cracking sometimes are regarded as prospective bio-energy conversion processes. This research was carried out in the packed bed reactor equipped with 2 stages preheater with temperature of reactor was variated in the range of 450-550°C. At the same temperature, catalytic cracking had been involved in this experiment, using activated ZSM-5 catalyst with 1 cm in length. The organic liquid product was recovered by three stages of double pipe condensers. The composition of cracking products were analyzed using GC-MS instrument and the caloric contents were analyzed using Bomb calorimeter. The results reveal that ZSM-5 was highly selective toward aromatic and long aliphatic compounds formation. The percentage recovery of organic liquid product from the cracking process varies start from 8.31% and the optimal results was 54.08%. The highest heating value of liquid product was resulted from catalytic cracking process at temperature of 450°C with value of 10880.48 cal/gr and the highest product yield with 54.08% recovery was achieved from thermal cracking process with temperature of 450°C.

  2. Biodiesel Production Using Waste Cooking Oil and Ethanol for Alkaline Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bulla Pereira, Edwin A.; Sierra, Fabio E.; Guerrero, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a study of the results of the project “Design of a Biodiesel Production Process Based on Cooking Oils at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia” (“Diseño de un proceso de producción de biodiesel a partir de aceites de fritura de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia”) carried out in 2013. Refined vegetable oils are the most commonly used to produce biodiesel fuels; however, used fried oils (auf from the Spanish acronym) make for a product with quality, yield and environmental b...

  3. Production of Biodiesel from Mixed Waste Cooking and Castor Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto Hadiyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing population growth, the consumption and needs of energy increase significantly. This leads Indonesia government to search alternative energy to cover the lacks of fossil energy reserves. Biodiesel is one of the prospective alternative energy which are renewable and environmental friendly. A common problem in large-scale biodiesel production is the sustainability of feedstock and the biodiesel stability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the production of biodiesel from two oil sources i.e. waste cooking oil and castor oil. This study examined the effect of mixed oil ratio on yield, biodiesel characteristics and stability. The physical properties included kinematic viscosity, acid number, saponification number, iodine number and cetane number have been evaluated as function of oil ratio. Yield of biodiesel was obtained at 35.07%, 99.2% and 83.69% for jatropha:castor oil ratio of 1: 0, 1: 2 and 2: 1, respectively. Most of these characteristics showed an increase by increasing the oil ratio. The result concluded that at the ratio of 1:1(v/v was the best characteristic and stability.

  4. Degradação de óleo ou gordura de fritura utilizados por vendedores ambulantes de churros em Chapecó (SC | Degradation of oil or frying fat used for churros hawkers in Chapecó (SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Chaise Borjes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alimentos processados por fritura são aceitos universalmente por diferentes grupos populacionais, porém, diante do aquecimento de óleo ou gordura, por tempo prolongado, o alimento é exposto à oxidação, devido às degradações na estrutura do óleo ou da gordura por agentes externos que geram produtos, como compostos polares e ácidos graxos livres. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a degradação de óleos e gorduras de fritura de churros utilizados pelos ambulantes do centro da cidade de Chapecó (SC. Foram coletados dados de 11 carrocinhas de churros com o auxílio do monitor de óleos e gorduras da 3M®, monitor de óleo alimentar FOM 310 e Termômetro Infravermelho a laser da marca Brasiterm®, além de um questionário semiestruturado. As análises foram realizadas no programa SPSS, versão 18.0. Através da análise nota-se que os ácidos graxos livres aumentam no processo de fritura diante de elevadas temperaturas e maior tempo de utilização do óleo. Os compostos polares diminuem quanto maior a profundidade do óleo/gordura. O óleo vegetal de soja tem maior suscetibilidade à degradação. Conclui-se que os níveis de compostos polares e ácidos graxos livres encontrados não ultrapassaram os limites previstos pela ANVISA. =============================================== Processed foods for frying are universally accepted by different population groups. However, when an oil or fat is heated for a long time, the food is exposed to oxidation because of a degradation of the structure of the oil or fat by external agents, generating products such as polar compounds and free fatty acids. The aim of this research was to evaluate the degradation of oils and frying fats used for churros by street hawkers in the center of Chapecó (SC. Data were collected from 11 churros carts with the aid of an oil and fat monitor from 3M®, a cooking oil FOM 310 monitor, and an infrared thermometer with laser unity from Brasiterm® as well as

  5. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, E.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  6. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Hydrodinamic Cavitation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Supardan; Satriana Satriana; Mahlinda Mahlinda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study biodiesel production from low cost feedstock of waste cooking oil (WCO) using hydrodynamic cavitation apparatus. A two-step processes esterification process and transesterification process using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodiesel from WCO is presented. The first step is acid-catalyzed esteri-fication process for reducing free fatty acid (FFA) content of WCO and followed by base-catalyzed transesterification process for converting WCO ...

  7. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  8. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  9. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  10. Waste to Want: Polymer nanocomposites using nanoclays extracted from Oil based drilling mud waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adegbotolu, Urenna V; Njuguna, James; Pollard, Pat; Yates, Kyari

    2014-01-01

    Due to the European Union (EU) waste frame work directive (WFD), legislations have been endorsed in EU member states such as UK for the Recycling of wastes with a vision to prevent and reduce landfilling of waste. Spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) is a waste from the Oil and Gas industry with great potentials for recycling after appropriate clean-up and treatment processes. This research is the novel application of nanoclays extracted from spent oil based drilling mud (drilling fluid) clean-up as nanofiller in the manufacture of nanocomposite materials. Research and initial experiments have been undertaken which investigate the suitability of Polyamide 6 (PA6) as potential polymer of interest. SEM and EDAX were used to ascertain morphological and elemental characteristics of the nanofiller. ICPOES has been used to ascertain the metal concentration of the untreated nanofiller to be treated (by oil and heavy metal extraction) before the production of nanocomposite materials. The challenges faced and future works are also discussed

  11. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine operated with fuel blends derived from a mixture of Pakistani waste tyre oil and waste soybean oil biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Hussain, Mazhar

    2017-10-18

    The waste tyre and waste cooking oils have a great potential to be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. The aim of this study was to convert light fractions of pyrolysis oil derived from Pakistani waste vehicle tyres and waste soybean oil methyl esters into valuable fuel and to reduce waste disposal-associated environmental problems. In this study, the waste tyre pyrolysis liquid (light fraction) was collected from commercial tyre pyrolysis plant and biodiesel was prepared from waste soybean oil. The fuel blends (FMWO10, FMWO20, FMWO30, FMWO40 and FMWO50) were prepared from a 30:70 mixture of waste tyre pyrolysis liquid and waste soybean oil methyl esters with different proportions of mineral diesel. The mixture was named as the fuel mixture of waste oils (FMWO). FT-IR analysis of the fuel mixture was carried out using ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. Experimental investigations on a diesel engine were carried out with various FMWO blends. It was observed that the engine fuel consumption was marginally increased and brake thermal efficiency was marginally decreased with FMWO fuel blends. FMWO10 has shown lowest NOx emissions among all the fuel blends tested. In addition, HC, CO and smoke emissions were noticeably decreased by 3.1-15.6%, 16.5-33.2%, and 1.8-4.5%, respectively, in comparison to diesel fuel, thereby qualifying the blends to be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

  12. Quality characteristics of battered and fried chicken: comparison of pressure frying and conventional frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rashmi; Pawar, Deepthi P; Modi, Vinod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    The marinated and battered chicken leg meat and breast meat were pressure fried and their physico-chemical qualities were compared to the conventional fried product (open pan deep fat frying). Shrinkage due to frying process was significantly lesser in case of pressure fried leg meat (PLM) and breast meat (PBM) as compared to products prepared by conventional frying leg meat (CLM) and breast meat (CBM). Also, juiciness of pressure fried chicken products was superior (p ≤ 0.05) than fried products obtained by the conventional method. PLM and PBM had lower fat content (p ≤ 0.05) compared to conventionally fried CLM and CBM. Lipid oxidation was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in conventional frying as compared to pressure frying. Irrespective of the type of chicken meat, conventionally fried meat required higher shear force as compared to pressure fried products. Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella and E. coli were not detected. The study indicates the usefulness and superiority of pressure frying in comparison to conventional deep fat frying.

  13. Water Pollution, and Treatments Part III: Biodegradation of Oil in Refineries Waste Water and Oils Adsorbed in Agricultural Wastes by Selected Strains of Cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emary, M.M.; Ali, N.A.; Naguib, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the biological degradation of oil hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds of Marine Balayim crude oil and its refined products by selected indigenous Cyanobacteria strains. The oils used were Marine Balayim crude oil, skimmed oil and some refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, fuel oil and petroleum coke. The selected organisms in the current study are the Blue-Green Algae Cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria limentica. This organism was collected from the hyper saline environment of the solar lake in Taba, Sinai, Egypt. The results obtained revealed that the utilization of such strains can be used for the bioremediation of oily waste water.

  14. Plastic waste depolymerization as a source of energetic heating oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołosiewicz-Głąb Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there has been an increase in production and consumption of plastics, which are widely used in many areas of life. Waste generated from this material are a challenge for the whole of society, regardless of awareness of sustainable development and its technological progress. Still the method of disposal of plastic waste are focused mainly on their storage and incineration, not using energy contained there. In this paper technology for plastic waste depolymerization with characteristics of fuel oil resulting in the process, as an alternative to traditional energy carriers such as: coal, fine coal or coke used in households will be presented. Oil has a high calorific value and no doubt could replace traditional solutions which use conventional energy sources. Furthermore, the fuel resulting from this process is sulfur-free and chemically pure. The paper presents the installation for plastics waste depolymerization used in selected Polish Institute of Plastics Processing, along with the ability to use the main thermocatalytic transformation product.

  15. Reliability of ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of lipid oxidation at frying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reliability of a method using ^1^H NMR analysis for assessment of oil oxidation at a frying temperature was examined. During heating and frying at 180 °C, changes of soybean oil signals in the ^1^H NMR spectrum including olefinic (5.16-5.30 ppm), bisallylic (2.70-2.88 ppm), and allylic (1.94-2.1...

  16. Ground disposal of oil shale wastes: a review with an indexed annotated bibliography through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routson, R.C.; Bean, R.M.

    1977-12-01

    This review covers the available literature concerning ground-disposed wastes and effluents of a potential oil shale industry. Ground disposal has been proposed for essentially all of the solid and liquid wastes produced (Pfeffer, 1974). Since an oil shale industry is not actually in operation, the review is anticipatory in nature. The section, Oil Shale Technology, provides essential background for interpreting the literature on potential shale oil wastes and the topics are treated more completely in the section entitled Environmental Aspects of the Potential Disposal of Oil Shale Wastes to Ground. The first section of the annotated bibliography cites literature concerning potential oil shale wastes and the second section cites literature concerning oil shale technology. Each section contains references arranged historically by year. An index is provided.

  17. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa, E-mail: canakci@kocaeli.edu.t [Department of Automotive Engineering Technology, Kocaeli University, 41380 Izmit (Turkey); Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Izmit (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  18. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsezen, Ahmet Necati; Canakci, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range.

  19. Survival of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) fry to adulthood following a 10-day exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble fraction of crude oil and release to the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtwell, I. K.; Fink, R.; Brand, D.; Alexander, R.; McAllister, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Potential effects of hydrocarbons on salmonids were investigated. In the course of the experiment pink salmon fry were exposed for 10 days to seawater containing varying controlled doses of the water-soluble fractions of North Slope crude oil, comprised primarily of monoaromatics. After exposure the fry were released into the Pacific Ocean to complete their life cycle. The experiments were replicated for three years following the original experiment. No consistent dose-dependent effect of the 10-day exposure on the growth and survival to maturity of the pink salmon was observed, although there was high mortality following each initial release. These results may be considered as one measure of resistance to exposure to contaminants, however, the method is not recommended for general use because it is based on a highly selected sample (i.e. those that survived the initial exposure), and the same results may not apply to populations that have not been subjected to intensive nonselective fishing pressures. In summary, the survival of some fraction of the population of pink salmon is evidence of the robustness of some of these fish, but it is at best a crude indicator of environmental health. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Luis Fernando; Vicente, Gemma; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pacheco, María

    2009-01-01

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were fatty acid concentration in the waste cooking oil, temperature and initial catalyst concentration by weight of waste cooking oil, while the responses were FAME purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most imp...

  1. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF OIL FROM WASTE PLASTIC PYROLIYSIS IN GEOSTECH BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Kristyawan, I Putu Angga

    2017-01-01

    Office waste is produced from activity that carried in the office area. In Geostech office area, 18.05 % composition of the waste is plastic waste. Plastic waste total in Geostech is 17.1 kg/week. The highest of plastic waste type is PP (Polypropylene). plastic waste. From the waste total is known that that the potential of oil produced through pyrolysis is 11.6 kg/week or 13.7 L/week. Pirolysis oil can be used as substitute for diesel fuel because of the calorific value equal with the calori...

  2. Recycling of Automotive Lubricating Waste Oil and Its Quality Assessment for Environment-Friendly Use

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Anwar; Syed Shahid Ali; Zubair Anwar; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Abdul Jabbar; Tariq M. Ansari; Syed Sibtain Raza Naqvi

    2012-01-01

    Lubricating oils, which are formulated with a number of chemicals blended base oils provide products that last longer, keep machinery cleaner and allow the machinery to work better under severe operating conditions. However, the used oil-waste generated by the automobiles and other allied industries poses an environmental hazard. The motivation of the present research study was to study the merits and demerits of commonly applicable technique acid/clay for reclamation of waste oil. This proce...

  3. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical fluid and nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, J.; Kim, J.; Lee, Y.; Seol, J.; Ryu, J.; Park, K.

    2011-01-01

    The waste oil used in nuclear fuel processing is contaminated with uranium because of its contact with materials or environments containing uranium. Under current law, waste oil that has been contaminated with uranium is very difficult to dispose of at a radioactive waste disposal site. To dispose of the uranium-contaminated waste oil, the uranium was separated from the contaminated waste oil. Supercritical R-22 is an excellent solvent for extracting clean oil from uranium-contaminated waste oil. The critical temperature of R-22 is 96.15 deg. C and the critical pressure is 49.9 bar. In this study, a process to remove uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 was developed. The waste oil has a small amount of additives containing N, S or P, such as amines, dithiocarbamates and dialkyldithiophosphates. It seems that these organic additives form uranium-combined compounds. For this reason, dissolution of uranium from the uranium-combined compounds using nitric acid was needed. The efficiency of the removal of uranium from the uranium-contaminated waste oil using supercritical R-22 extraction and nitric acid treatment was determined. (authors)

  4. Oil sands mine planning and waste management using goal programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Awuah, E.; Askari-Nasab, H. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mining Optimization Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    A goal programming method was used to plan waste management processes at an oil sands mine. This method requires the decision maker (DM) to set goals. Mine planning is used to determine a block extraction schedule that maximizes net present value (NPV). Due to land restrictions, tailings facilities are sited within the pit area and dykes are used to contain the tailings. Many of the materials used to construct the dykes come from the mining operation. The mine plan scheduled both ore and dyke material concurrently. Dykes were constructed simultaneously as the mine phase advanced. A model was used to classify an oil sands block model into different material types. A mixed integer goal programming (MIGP) method was used to generate a strategic schedule. Block clustering techniques were used to large-scale mine planning projects. The method was used to verify and validate synthetic and real case data related to the cost of mining all material as waste, and the extra cost of mining dyke material. A case study of an oil sands project was used to demonstrate the method. The study showed that the developed model generates a smooth and uniform strategic schedule for large-scale mine planning projects. tabs., figs.

  5. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M.; Fisher, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the full-scale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach in the evaluation of using biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific clean-up including pilot scale biodegradation operations is included in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that the site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also presented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria has been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other investigators (API 1987)

  6. Oil sands mine planning and waste management using goal programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Awuah, E.; Askari-Nasab, H.; Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB

    2010-01-01

    A goal programming method was used to plan waste management processes at an oil sands mine. This method requires the decision maker (DM) to set goals. Mine planning is used to determine a block extraction schedule that maximizes net present value (NPV). Due to land restrictions, tailings facilities are sited within the pit area and dykes are used to contain the tailings. Many of the materials used to construct the dykes come from the mining operation. The mine plan scheduled both ore and dyke material concurrently. Dykes were constructed simultaneously as the mine phase advanced. A model was used to classify an oil sands block model into different material types. A mixed integer goal programming (MIGP) method was used to generate a strategic schedule. Block clustering techniques were used to large-scale mine planning projects. The method was used to verify and validate synthetic and real case data related to the cost of mining all material as waste, and the extra cost of mining dyke material. A case study of an oil sands project was used to demonstrate the method. The study showed that the developed model generates a smooth and uniform strategic schedule for large-scale mine planning projects. tabs., figs.

  7. Biodegradation of oil refinery wastes under OPA and CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, W.W.; Banipal, B.S.; Myers, J.M. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Land treatment of oil refinery wastes has been used as a disposal method for decades. More recently, numerous laboratory studies have been performed attempting to quantify degradation rates of more toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs). This paper discusses the results of the fullscale aerobic biodegradation operations using land treatment at the Macmillan Ring-Free Oil refining facility. The tiered feasibility approach of evaluating biodegradation as a treatment method to achieve site-specific cleanup criteria, including pilot biodegradation operations, is discussed in an earlier paper. Analytical results of biodegradation indicate that degradation rates observed in the laboratory can be met and exceeded under field conditions and that site-specific cleanup criteria can be attained within a proposed project time. Also prevented are degradation rates and half-lives for PAHs for which cleanup criteria have been established. PAH degradation rates and half-life values are determined and compared with the laboratory degradation rates and half-life values which used similar oil refinery wastes by other in investigators (API 1987).

  8. Recycling of radioactive oil sludge waste into pavement brick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Hishamuddin Hussein; Choo Thye Foo; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin; MAsliana MUslimin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia produces about 1450 tons of radioactive oil sludge waste per year and there is an urgent need to find a permanent solution to the storage and disposal of this radioactive waste problem. Several treatment methods such bacteria farming, ultracentrifuge, steam reforming and incineration are currently being used but the core issue of the radioactive material in the oil sludge had not been solved. The paper relates a study on utilizing the radioactive component of the oil sludge and turning them into pavement brick. Characteristic study of this radioactive component by XRD and XRF show that it mainly comprised of quartz and anorthite minerals. While the radioactivity analysis by gamma technique shows that more than 90 % of this radioactivity comes from this soil component with Ra-226 and Ra-228 as the main radionuclides. A vitrified brick was then produced from this sediment by mixing it with low radioactive local red clay. The result also shows that the formation of the vitrified layer may be due high content of K in the red clay. Tensile test on the brick shows that it has more than four times the strength of commercial clay brick. Long duration leaching test on the brick also shows that there is no dissolution of radionuclide from the brick. (author)

  9. Prospective framework for collection and exploitation of waste cooking oil as feedstock for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    From the viewpoint of waste-to-energy, waste cooking oil is one of the attractive and available recycled feedstocks, apart from agricultural residues. The generation of energy from waste cooking oil is considered as an effective technique for waste management, as well as a beneficial form of energy recovery. Two alternative systems and a conventional system of waste cooking oil collection and conversion are evaluated by the cost benefit analysis in order to find a suitable method for waste-to-energy conversion. The results show that the collection of waste cooking oil with waste lubricating oil (System II) a useful alternative to the management of waste cooking oil (B/C > 1). The total heat produced by the combustion of pyrolytic oil at maximum and minimum conversion rates is also determined. The separate collection of waste cooking oil, subjected to chemical pre-treatment prior to introduction in a pyrolysis reactor (System III), is considered an undesirable option (B/C < 1) due to the cost of the chemicals involved. Although the exclusion of chemical pre-treatment makes System III a desirable option, the total amount of heat of combustion generated is less. The increased electricity cost required for the process has no effect on the benefit-cost ratio of System II. However, System III, excluding chemical pre-treatment, becomes an unprofitable alternative when the electricity cost reaches 100% of the fixed capital cost at the minimum conversion rate.

  10. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.; Harris, G.J.

    1984-04-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process waste waters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogenous heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment processes designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential. Quantification of organic nitrogen in biological and agricultural samples is usually accomplished using the time-consuming, wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. For oil shale waste waters, whose primary inorganic nitorgen constituent is amonia, organic Kjeldahl nitrogen (OKN) is determined by first eliminating the endogenous ammonia by distillation and then digesting the sample in boiling H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The organic material is oxidized, and most forms of organically bound nitrogen are released as ammonium ion. After the addition of base, the ammonia is separated from the digestate by distillation and quantified by acidimetric titrimetry or colorimetry. The major failings of this method are the loss of volatile species such as aliphatic amines (during predistillation) and the inability to completely recover nitrogen from many nitrogenous heterocycles (during digestion). Within the last decade, a new approach has been developed for the quantification of total nitrogen (TN). The sample is first combusted, a

  11. Production of free fatty acids from waste oil by application of ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Larissa P.; Santos, Francisco F.P.; Costa, Enio; Fernandes, Fabiano A.N. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    This paper evaluates the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) from waste oil by means of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound application under atmospheric pressure. To evaluate the potential of this technology, the reaction between waste palm oil and ethanol was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol-to-oil weight ratio, potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio, and temperature on the yield of waste oil into FFA. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating conditions affecting the reaction were ethanol-to-oil weight ratio and potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio. The highest yield observed was of 97.3 % after 45 min of reaction. The best operating condition was obtained by applying an ethanol-to-oil weight ratio of 2.4, a potassium hydroxide-to-oil weight ratio of 0.3, and temperature of 60 C. (orig.)

  12. Ethanolysis conversion of spent frying oils over aluminium, calcium-phosphate based bi-functional formulated catalysts. Catalytic activity assessment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Zaini, Essam O.; Chesterfield, Dean; Adesina, Adesoji A. [The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Reactor Engineering and Technology Group; Olsen, John [The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2013-06-01

    The current study compares the catalytic performance of two bi-functional solid catalysts for the transesterification of waste cooking vegetable oil in presence of bio-ethanol acyl-acceptor. The two catalysts were aluminum oxide and seashell-derived calcium oxide supported K{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The catalytic activity of the produced catalyst samples were assessed and evaluated in terms of their textural and surface chemical properties. Evaluative runs showed that increased amounts of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} have differently controlled the textural and surface chemical property of the finally synthesised catalyst samples. The behaviour revealed a strong correlation between the percentage yield of ethyl esters EEY% and acid-base site density and strength between the two types of catalysts. Possible leaching test of the catalysts was also used as a measure of performance and as a result, the optimum catalyst, on the basis of both ester yield and resistance to leaching was identified as the sample containing between 10 and 15wt% of K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on AlO{sub 3} and CaO respectively. (orig.)

  13. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters in the thermal decomposition of plastic waste-waste lube oil compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sang; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2010-07-01

    Thermal decomposition properties of plastic waste-waste lube oil compounds were investigated under nonisothermal conditions. Polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were selected as representative household plastic wastes. A plastic waste mixture (PWM) and waste lube oil (WLO) were mixed with mixing ratios of 33, 50, and 67 (w/w) % on a PWM weight basis, and thermogravimetric (TG) experiments were performed from 25 to 600 degrees C. The Flynn-Wall method and the Ozawa-Flynn-Wall method were used for analyses of thermodynamic parameters. In this study, activation energies of PWM/WLO compounds ranged from 73.4 to 229.6 kJ/mol between 0.2 and 0.8 of normalized mass conversions, and the 50% PWM/WLO compound had lower activation energies and enthalpies among the PWM/WLO samples at each mass conversion. At the point of maximum differential mass conversion, the analyzed activation energies, enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs free energies indicated that mixing PWM and WLO has advantages in reducing energy to decrease the degree of disorder. However, no difference in overall energy that would require overcoming both thermal decomposition reactions and degree of disorder was observed among PWM/WLO compounds under these experimental conditions.

  14. Properties of soap prepared from waste edible oil. Haishokuyu kara sakuseishita sekken no seijo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajinoto, G.; Yamaguchi, H. (Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Nutrition)

    1992-08-30

    Discussions were given on properties of soap prepared from waste edible oil. A fresh oil, and soybean and rapeseed oils with different thermal oxidation degrees were used to prepare soap. On the other hand soap was made using wast edible oil after used at home. Soap made from fresh oil and thermally oxidized oil under a 3-hour heating at 90[degree]C has less non-saponified fat. Soap made from a large amount of waste edible oil. taking 34 days had much residual fat, proving these were insufficiently saponified. Slightly higher values were recognized in the soap from fresh oil for anisidine value (An.V), carbonyl value (CV), peroxide value (POV) and the content of oxidized fatty acids than in fresh oil itself. On the other hand, the An.V and CV in the soap made from thermally oxidized oil were lower than those for thermally oxidized oil itself. The An. V and CV in the soap made from waste edible oil were higher than those in waste edible oil itself. As the soap has been stored, all of the soap showed increase in the An.V, the CV, the POV and the oxidized fatty acid amount, but the fatty acid composition showed no change. 9 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ACID FROM PALM OIL WASTE (SLUDGE OIL BY USING ALUM CATALYST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamrin Usman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esterification of fatty acids from palm oil waste (sludge oil as biodiesel liquid base has been done by using alum [Al2(SO43.14H2O] catalyst. Some reaction variables like reaction time, catalyst quantity, and molar ratio of sample-reactant was applied for optimal reaction. Yield of 94.66% was obtained at reaction condition 65 °C, 5 h, sample-reactant ratio 1:20, and catalyst quantity 3% (w/w. GC-MS analysis request showed that composition of methyl esters biodiesel are methyl caproic (0.67%, methyl lauric (0.21%, methyl miristic (1.96%, methyl palmitic (49.52%, methyl oleic (41.51%, and methyl stearic (6.13%. Physical properties of synthesized product (viscosity, refraction index and density are similar with those of commercial product.   Keywords: alum, biodiesel, esterification, sludge oil

  16. Assessment of opportunities to increase the recovery and recycling rates of waste oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    Waste oil represents an important energy resource that, if properly managed and reused, would reduce US dependence on imported fuels. Literature and current practice regarding waste oil generation, regulations, collection, and reuse were reviewed to identify research needs and approaches to increase the recovery and recycling of this resource. The review revealed the need for research to address the following three waste oil challenges: (1) recover and recycle waste oil that is currently disposed of or misused; (2) identify and implement lubricating oil source and loss reduction opportunities; and (3) develop and foster an effective waste oil recycling infrastructure that is based on energy savings, reduced environment at impacts, and competitive economics. The United States could save an estimated 140 {times} 1012 Btu/yr in energy by meeting these challenges.

  17. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demonstration study on direct use of waste vegetable oil as car fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoto, Yasuyuki; Zeeren, Nyamgerel; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Various kinds of vegetable oil and waste cooking oil are in fact used as car fuel all over the world. In general, 'bio-diesel' i.e. fatty acid methyl ester extracted from such oil is utilized as fuel for vehicles. However bio-diesel has some problems such as byproduct and waste materials created during transesterification. An alternative method is the direct use of vegetable oil as car fuel through installation of a heater unit in the car to decrease vegetable oil viscosity. However little data has been reported concerning this method. The authors of this study carried out performance tests on the direct use of waste cooking oil using a car with a heater unit and found its high potential. Moreover, the authors compared the environmental load of direct use with biodiesel and light oil by carrying out life cycle inventory to clarify the superiority of direct use. First, the authors made a car to test waste cooking oil as fuel by equipping a heater unit, filter and sub tank for light oil to a used Toyota Estima Diesel KD-CXR10G. The car can be driven on road using only waste cooking oil, although a little light oil is necessary for starting the engine. The authors, then, carried out chassis dynamo tests and on-road tests using the car. The car showed similar performance and could be driven on road for over half a year without any problems in both cases using either waste cooking oil or light oil as fuel. Next, authors carried out life cycle inventory and compared the environmental loads of direct use of waste cooking oil with biodiesel from waste cooking oil and light oil. The data for life cycle inventory were obtained from tests on direct use, from a factory in Japan for bio-diesel and from the Life Cycle Assessment Society of Japan database for light oil, respectively. The CO 2 emission rates were 73.9, 12.7 and 7.06 [kg-CO 2 / GJ] for light oil, bio-diesel from waste cooking oil and the direct use of waste cooking oil, respectively. The superiority of

  19. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  20. Effect of composting of palm oil mill wastes and cow dung or poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of shelter and different type of manure on degradation of palm oil mills wastes during composting and on growth and yield of African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) grown on acrisol . Methodology and results: Palm oil mills wastes were composted, with poultry manure or cow dung with and ...

  1. A process model to estimate the cost of industrial scale biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by supercritical transesterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasteren, van J.M.N.; Nisworo, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design of a production process in which waste cooking oil is converted via supercritical transesterification with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel). Since waste cooking oil contains water and free fatty acids, supercritical transesterification offers great

  2. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Hydrodinamic Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Supardan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study biodiesel production from low cost feedstock of waste cooking oil (WCO using hydrodynamic cavitation apparatus. A two-step processes esterification process and transesterification process using hydrodynamic cavitation for the production of biodiesel from WCO is presented. The first step is acid-catalyzed esteri-fication process for reducing free fatty acid (FFA content of WCO and followed by base-catalyzed transesterification process for converting WCO to biodiesel as the second step. The result of esterification process with methanol to oil molar ratio of 5 and temperature of 60 oC showed that the initial acid value of WCO of 3.9 mg KOH/g can be decreased to 1.81 mg KOH/g in 120 minutes. The highest yield of biodiesel in transesterification process of 89.4% obtained at reaction time of 150 minutes with methanol to oil molar ratio of 6. The biodiesel produced in the experiment was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, which showed that it mainly contained five fatty acid methyl esters. In addition, the properties of biodiesel showed that all of the fuel properties met the Indonesian National Standard (INS No. 04-7182-2006 for biodiesel. 

  3. Decontamination of water polluted with oil through the use of tanned solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammoun, A.; Azzi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of chrome shavings (CS) and buffing dusts of crust leather (BDCL) to remove oily wastes from demineralized water and natural seawater was investigated. The aim of the study was to discover environmentally friendly alternatives for the disposal of solid tannery wastes. The specific surface area of the CS and the BDCL were examined to determine ash content; chromium oxide; fat; and the pH of soluble matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was then used to examine the structure and morphology of the samples. Three types of oil were used in the experiment: diesel motor oil; premium motor oil; and used motor oil. Sorbent materials were added to a beaker containing 1000 ml of water and 5.5 g of oil. The amount of residual oil in the water was then extracted with petroleum ether. The amount of oil sorbed on the wastes was calculated by subtracting the amount of residual oil in water from the initial mass of oil added to the beakers. Results suggested that the tanned solid wastes efficiently removed the oil from the water. It was concluded that the waste materials were able to absorb many times their weight in oil. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  5. An alkali catalyzed trans-esterification of rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Faheem H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, biodiesel production by trans-esterification of three raw materials including virgin and used edible oil and non edible oil has been presented. A two step method following acidic and alkali catalyst was used for non edible oil due to the unsuitability of using the straight alkaline-catalyzed trans-esterification of high FFA present in rice bran oil. The acid value after processing for rice bran, cottonseed and waste cooking oil was found to be 0.95, 0.12 and 0.87 respectively. The influence of three variables on percentage yield i.e., methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time were studied at this stage. Cottonseed oil, waste cooking oil and rice bran oil showed a maximum yield of 91.7%, 84.1% and 87.1% under optimum conditions. Fuel properties of the three biodiesel satisfied standard biodiesel fuel results.

  6. Use of Oil-Based Mud Cutting Waste in Cement Clinker Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Saif Al-Dhamri, H; Black, L

    2014-01-01

    Oil-based Mud (OBM) cutting waste is generated during the process of oil well drilling. The drilled rocks are removed from deep within the drilled well and pumped to the surface. The portion removed , known at "cutting", is a mixture of rocks, mud, water and oil. Most drilling companies store this waste in open yards with no specific treatment solution. The environmental regulations in Oman specify that storage should involve isolation, to prevent penetration of the contamination to the surfa...

  7. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  8. Treatment of Waste Lubricating Oil by Chemical and Adsorption Process Using Butanol and Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Ramadhan, B.; Wiyanti, D.

    2018-04-01

    Treatment of waste lubricating oil by chemical and adsorption process using butanol and kaolin has been done. Quality of lubricating oil after treatment was analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the treatment of butanol, KOH, and kaolin to metals contain in waste lubricating oil treatment have been evaluated. Treatment of waste lubricating oil has been done using various kaolin weight, butanol, and KOH solution. The result of this research show metal content of Ca, Mg, Pb, Fe and Cr in waste lubricating oil before treatment are 1020.49, 367.02, 16.40, 36.76 and 1,80 ppm, respectively. The metal content of Ca, Mg, Pb, Fe and Cr in the waste lubricating oil after treatment are 0.17, 9.85, 34.07, 78.22 and 1.20 ppm, respectively. The optimum condition for treatment of waste lubricating oil using butanol, KOH, and kaolin is 30 mL, 3.0 g and 1.5 g, respectively. Chemical and adsorption method using butanol and kaolin can be used for decrease of metals contain in waste lubricating oil.

  9. Decision Support Model for Selection Technologies in Processing of Palm Oil Industrial Liquid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Aulia; Ali, Amir Yazid bin

    2017-12-01

    The palm oil industry continues to grow from year to year. Processing of the palm oil industry into crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The ratio of the amount of oil produced by both products is 30% of the raw material. This means that 70% is palm oil waste. The amount of palm oil waste will increase in line with the development of the palm oil industry. The amount of waste generated by the palm oil industry if it is not handled properly and effectively will contribute significantly to environmental damage. Industrial activities ranging from raw materials to produce products will disrupt the lives of people around the factory. There are many alternative technologies available to process other industries, but problems that often occur are difficult to implement the most appropriate technology. The purpose of this research is to develop a database of waste processing technology, looking for qualitative and quantitative criteria to select technology and develop Decision Support System (DSS) that can help make decisions. The method used to achieve the objective of this research is to develop a questionnaire to identify waste processing technology and develop the questionnaire to find appropriate database technology. Methods of data analysis performed on the system by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to build the model by using the MySQL Software that can be used as a tool in the evaluation and selection of palm oil mill processing technology.

  10. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  11. Influence of the frying process on the real fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available As shown in the former presentation, one fact about repeated frying is that there comes a moment, when the oil used is no longer suitable for frying, that is discarded. The amount may be quite large depending, among other factors, on the composition of the oil itself and on that of the foodstuffs fried. This can be of practical significance for the total lipid intake, since the unsuitable oil is no longer ingested. It is difficult to know the amount of oil discarded for this reason and there is no scientific information in the literature on this subject. In this paper we try to know the quantitative and qualitative importance of the oil proceeding of repeated frying (RF which normally is discarded in relation to the total fat intake (Fl in Madrid, as well at domestic level (96 families as in catering (hospitals, restaurants and schools. For this purpose discarded oils proceeding of the frying of food were collected in the usual quantity, variety and conditions (only olive and sunflower oils were used, both in the households and in the institutions. In the oils, raw and discarded, we also determined their composition in fatty acids. Our results show that at domestic level, although the dispersion is big, the average values of the discarded oil are the 19.3 ± 18.4% of the inventoried oil. However, in the institutional frying, in which, of course, industrial fryer are utilised, the proportion of discarded oil was much bigger, some time doubling the quantity discarded at domestic level. Curiously, the discarded oils proceeding either from the households or from catering do not show significative differences regarding their composition in fatty acids with respect to raw oil. The reason is that the oils are discarded due to subjective reasons, although they probably might be utilised again. At this moment, we are trying to confirm this last statement. In conclusion, if you do not take into consideration this percentage of losses, when utilising the

  12. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD, Sugiyarto, Solichatun, Susilowati A. 2013. Review: Physical, physical chemistries, chemical and sensorial characteristics of the several fruits and vegetables chips by low-temperature vacuum frying machine. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 84-100. Frying process is one of the oldest cooking methods and most widely practiced in the world. Frying process is considered as a dry cooking method because the process does not involve water. In frying process, oil conduction occurs at high temperature pressing water out of food in the form of bubbles. Fried foods last longer due to reduced water levels lead less decomposition by microbes, even fried foods can be enhanced nutritional value and quality of appearance. Food frying technology can extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables and frying oil enhances the flavors of the products, however, improper frying oil can have harmful effects on human health. Vacuum frying is a promising technology that may be an option for the production of novel snacks such as fruit and vegetable crisps that present the desired quality and respond to new health trends. This technique fry food at a low temperature and pressure so that the nutritional quality of the food is maintained and the quality of the used oil does not quickly declined and became saturated oils that are harmful to human health. This technique produces chips that have physical, physico-chemical, chemical, and sensory generally better than conventional deep-fat frying methods.

  13. Fried Food Consumption and Cardiovascular Health: A Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka V. Gadiraju

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fried food consumption and its effects on cardiovascular disease are still subjects of debate. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence on the association between fried food consumption and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity and to recommend directions for future research. We used PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline searches to retrieve pertinent publications. Most available data were based on questionnaires as a tool to capture fried food intakes, and study design was limited to case-control and cohort studies. While few studies have reported a positive association between frequencies of fried food intake and risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes or hypertension, other investigators have failed to confirm such an association. There is strong evidence suggesting a higher risk of developing chronic disease when fried foods are consumed more frequently (i.e., four or more times per week. Major gaps in the current literature include a lack of detailed information on the type of oils used for frying foods, stratification of the different types of fried food, frying procedure (deep and pan frying, temperature and duration of frying, how often oils were reused and a lack of consideration of overall dietary patterns. Besides addressing these gaps, future research should also develop tools to better define fried food consumption at home versus away from home and to assess their effects on chronic diseases. In summary, the current review provides enough evidence to suggest adverse health effects with higher frequency of fried food consumption. While awaiting confirmation from future studies, it may be advisable to the public to consume fried foods in moderation while emphasizing an overall healthy diet.

  14. High speed analysis of used hydrocarbons, particularly waste oils; Schnellanalyse von gebrauchten Kohlenwasserstoffen, insbesondere Altoelen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoub-George, E.; Endres, H.E. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM), Muenchen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    According to a decision of the European Court of Justice material recycling of waste oil must take priority over thermal recycling. The present study investigates the possibilities to classify waste oil samples according to their potential for material recycling on-site at the waste oil producer. The first part of the study surveys the state of the art in chemical analysis of waste oil and in oil quality monitoring with sensing elements in vehicles. It was shown, that the chemical analysis of waste oil is dominated by methods for monitoring the oil quality and by methods for the determination of harmful substances. For sensor-based oil condition monitoring in vehicles different approaches were discussed in literature. Most sensor systems work in a capacitive mode and use the change of the electrical properties of the oil for analysing oil quality. The second part of the study investigates, whether waste oil can be classified according to its potential for material recycling by the following physical parameters: viscosity, density, viscoelastic properties, conductivity and relative permittivity. This was done by performing and evaluating measurements at 26 different waste oil samples with a combi-SAW-/IDK-dipstick sensor. The results showed, that the SAW- und IDK-signals contain only little information permitting to classify waste oil samples according to their potential for material recycling. A classification of waste oil samples with the combi-SAW-/IDK-dipstick sensor was impossible, even when the signal evaluation was done by using modern methods of chemometrics, as e. g. the multivariate statistics. A further series of measurements showed, that since the conductivity of the waste oil samples is too low, cyclovoltammetry is also an unsuitable method to classify waste oil samples on-site. On the other hand, the study showed that the investigated waste oil samples can be classified by IR-spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistics. By evaluating the

  15. Acrylamide Mitigation Procedures in Fried Potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Kaack, Karl; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the fried potato chips and French fries French fries. Blanching reduced in potato chips on average 76 percent and 68 percent of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50 degrees C for 70 minutes......) of 0.79 and 0.83, respectively) with French fry acrylamide content....

  16. Combustion of palm oil solid waste in fluidized bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of fluidized bed combustion of palm oil wastes consisting of shell, fibre and empty fruit bunches high heating value of 17450 kJ/kg and low heating value of 14500 kJ/kg. The fluidized bed combuster used has a vessel size of 486 x 10 6 mm 3 , surface area of evaporation tubes and distribution air pipes of 500 mm 2 and 320 mm 2 respectively. It was found that a fuel feeding rate 160 kg/h is required to achieve a steam flow rate of 600 kg/h, with the combustion efficiency 96% and boiler efficiency of 72%, emission level of flue gas NO x at less than 180 ppm, SO 2 at less than 20 ppm are measured in the flue gas. (Author)

  17. Catalytic hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for renewable diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezergianni, Stella; Dimitriadis, Athanasios [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2013-06-01

    A new technology based on catalytic hydrotreating of Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) for biodiesel production has been developed in the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH). The main premise of this process is the conversion of the WCO fatty acids into normal- and iso-paraffins. The technology was evaluated in hydroprocessing pilot plants of CERTH where feedstock origin as well as optimal catalysts and operating parameters where identified. The fractionated diesel product, called ''white'' diesel exhibits excellent fuel properties including higher heating value (over 49 MJ/kg), negligible acidity, higher oxidation stability and higher cetane number ({proportional_to}77) than conventional biodiesel. The overall product yield is {proportional_to}92% v/v. This new suggested technology is extremely appealing as it employs existing refinery infrastructure and expertise, offers feedstock flexibility, leaves no by-product and above all is economically attractive. (orig.)

  18. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  19. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel.

  20. Frying process in the relation fat/degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varela, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the various components of the diet, fat receives very dose attention because of its relationship to several chronic degenerative diseases (CDD. Currently most of the available information on these relationships is derived from epidemiologic or experimental studies in which lipid intake is calculated using food composition tables. In most of these tables the quoted lipid content is that of raw food, whereas most foods are usually consumed only after being subjected to several culinary processes. Often there is no indication of the type of fat used in food processing in general or in frying in particular. But as it known, in the course of these processes the lipid content undergoes important qualitative and quantitative changes and not keeping them in mind may be the underlying cause of the difficulties an the confounding results in studies trying to establish the relationship between lipid intake an health. In the Mediterranean diet, about 50% of total dietary fat is derived not from the food itself but from the cooking fat, of which only a small fraction is eaten raw (as dressings and the greatest proportion is used in thermal culinary processes, mainly deep-frying. The scientific study of the process whereby fat penetrates into fried foods has shown the benefits of this cooking method. If the process is correctly carried out, the amount of fat ingested with fried foodstuffs is not greater than when other procedures involving fat are used (for example, sautening, stewing or canning in oil. Very schematically deep-frying is a technique that replaces a fraction of the water content of food by cooking fat. Consecuently, the fat composition of the fried lean foods will be the same as that cooking fat. The process is more complex with fatty foods, and there are not great changes in the total quantity of fat in the fried food before and after frying. However, there are notable quality changes and these depend on the concentration gradients

  1. Citric acid production in Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b yeast when grown on waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Xu, Jiaxing; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang; He, Jianlong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, citric acid was produced from waste cooking oil by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b. To get the maximal yield of citric acid, the compositions of the medium for citric acid production were optimized, and our results showed that extra nitrogen and magnesium rather than vitamin B1 and phosphate were needed for CA accumulation when using waste cooking oil. The results also indicated that the optimal initial concentration of the waste cooking oil in the medium for citric acid production was 80.0 g/l, and the ideal inoculation size was 1 × 10(7) cells/l of medium. We also reported that during 10-l fermentation, 31.7 g/l of citric acid, 6.5 g/l of isocitric acid, 5.9 g/l of biomass, and 42.1 g/100.0 g cell dry weight of lipid were attained from 80.0 g/l of waste cooking oil within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 94.6 % of the waste cooking oil was utilized by the cells of Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the yield of citric acid was 0.4 g/g waste cooking oil, which suggested that waste cooking oil was a suitable carbon resource for citric acid production.

  2. Study on the spray characteristics of methyl esters from waste cooking oil at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yung-Sung [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, No.11, Gongye Rd., Dali City, Taichung County 412-80 (China); Lin, Hai-Ping [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Da-Yeh University, 168 University Road, Dacun, Changhua 51591 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In Taiwan, millions of tons of waste cooking oil are produced each year, and less than 20% of it, about 150,000 ton/a, is reclaimed and reused. Most waste oil is flushed down the drain. Utilizing waste cooking oil to make biodiesel not only reduces engine exhaust gas pollution, but also replaces food-derived fuels, and reduces ecologic river pollution. This study employed two-stage transesterification to lower the high viscosity of waste oil, utilized emulsion to reduce the methyl ester NOx pollution, and used methanol to enhance the stability and viscosity of emulsified fuel. To further analyze spray characteristics of fuels, this experiment built a constant volume bomb under high temperature, used high speed photography to analyze spray tip penetration, spray angle, and the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of fuel droplets, and compared the results with fossil diesel. The experimental results suggested that, two-stage transesterification can significantly lower waste oil viscosity to that which is close to fossil diesel viscosity. At a temperature above 300 C, waste cooking oil methyl esters had a water content of 20%, spray droplet characteristics were significantly improved, and NOx emission dropped significantly. The optimal fuel ratio suggested in this experiment was waste cooking oil methyl ester 74.5%, methanol 5%, water 20%, and composite surfactant Span-Tween 0.5%. (author)

  3. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  4. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process.

  5. Acid base catalyzed transesterification kinetics of waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.; Rajvanshi, Shalini [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2011-01-15

    The present study reports the results of kinetics study of acid base catalyzed two step transesterification process of waste cooking oil, carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 C and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process respectively under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1%(w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The optimum temperature was determined based on the yield of ME at different temperature. Simply, the optimum concentration of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH was determined with respect to ME Yield. The results indicated that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order rate reaction with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min{sup -1} and 0.0078 min{sup -1} respectively showing that the former is a slower process than the later. The maximum yield of 21.50% of ME during esterification and 90.6% from transesterification of pretreated WCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind which deals with simplified kinetics of two step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried under the above optimum conditions and took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME with least amount of activation energy. Also various parameters related to experiments are optimized with respect to ME yield. (author)

  6. Advanced power generation using biomass wastes from palm oil mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Kurniawan, Tedi; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the energy-efficient utilization of both solid and liquid wastes from palm oil mills, particularly their use for power generation. It includes the integration of a power generation system using empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). The proposed system mainly consists of three modules: EFB gasification, POME digestion, and additional organic Rankine cycle (ORC). EFBs are dried and converted into a syngas fuel with high calorific value through integrated drying and gasification processes. In addition, POME is converted into a biogas fuel for power generation. Biogas engine-based cogenerators are used for generating both electricity and heat. The remaining unused heat is recovered by ORC module to generate electricity. The influences of three EFB gasification temperatures (800, 900 and 1000 °C) in EFB gasification module; and working fluids and pressure in ORC module are evaluated. Higher EFB gasification leads to higher generated electricity and remaining heat for ORC module. Power generation efficiency increases from 11.2 to 24.6% in case of gasification temperature is increased from 800 to 1000 °C. In addition, cyclohexane shows highest energy efficiency compared to toluene and n-heptane in ORC module. Higher pressure in ORC module also leads to higher energy efficiency. Finally, the highest total generated power and power generation efficiency obtained by the system are 8.3 MW and 30.4%, respectively.

  7. Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Ryu, Changkook; Suh, Dong Jin; Suh, Young-Woong; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The amount of waste furniture generated in Korea was over 2.4 million tons in the past 3 years, which can be used for renewable energy or fuel feedstock production. Fast pyrolysis is available for thermo-chemical conversion of the waste wood mostly into bio-oil. In this work, fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust was investigated under various reaction conditions (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, feed rate and flow rate of fluidizing medium) in a fluidized-bed reactor. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for increased yields of bio-oil was 450 degrees C. Excessively smaller or larger feed size negatively affected the production of bio-oil. Higher flow and feeding rates were more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not greatly affect the bio-oil yields within the tested ranges. The use of product gas as the fluidizing medium had a potential for increased bio-oil yields.

  8. Decontamination flowsheet development for a waste oil containing mixed radioactive contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Buckley, L.P.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of waste oils contaminated with both radioactive and hazardous components are generated in nuclear power plant, research lab. and uranium-refinery operations. The waste oils are complex, requiring a detailed examination of the waste management strategies and technology options. It may appear that incineration offers a total solution, but this may not be true in all cases. An alternative approach is to decontaminate the waste oils to very low contaminant levels, so that the treated oils can be reused, burned as fuel in boilers, or disposed of by commercial incineration. This paper presents selected experimental data and evaluation results gathered during the development of a decontamination flowsheet for a specific waste oil stores at Chalk River Labs. (CRL). The waste oil contains varying amounts of lube oils, grease, paint, water, particulates, sludge, light chloro- and fluoro-solvents, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), complexing chemicals, uranium, chromium, iron, arsenic and manganese. To achieve safe management of this radioactive and hazardous waste, several treatment and disposal methods were screened. Key experiments were performed at the laboratory-scale to confirm and select the most appropriate waste-management scheme based on technical, environmental and economic criteria. The waste-oil-decontamination flowsheet uses a combination of unit operations, including prefiltration, acid scrubbing, and aqueous-leachage treatment by precipitation, microfiltration, filter pressing and carbon adsorption. The decontaminated oil containing open-quotes de minimisclose quotes levels of contaminants will undergo chemical destruction of PCBs and final disposal by incineration. The recovered uranium will be recycled to a uranium milling process

  9. Water Pollution and Treatments Part II: Utilization of Agricultural Wastes to Remove Petroleum Oils From Refineries Pollutants Present in Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.A.; El-Emary, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several natural agricultural wastes, of lignocellulose nature, such as Nile flower plant (ward El-Nil), milled green leaves, sugar cane wastes, palm tree leaves (carina), milled cotton stems, milled linseed stems, fine sawdust, coarse sawdust and palm tree cover were dried and then crushed to suitable size to be evaluated and utilized as adsorbents to remove oils floating or suspended in the waste water effluents from refineries and petroleum installations. The parameters investigated include effect of adsorbent type (adsorptive efficiency), adsorbate (type and concentration), mixing time, salinity of the water, adsorbent ratio to treated water, temperature, ph and stirring. Two different Egyptian crude oils varying in their properties and several refined products such as gasoline, kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil, fuel oil and lubricating oil were employed in this work in addition to the skimmed oil from the skim basin separator. Most of the agricultural wastes proved to be very effective in adsorbing oils from waste water effluents.

  10. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  11. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  12. Survival of resistant starch during the processing of atmospheric and vacuum fried instant noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela VERNAZA

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective was to develop instant noodles (IN made by atmospheric and vacuum frying processes, with addition of 10% of three different sources of resistant starch: resistant starch type 2 (RS2, resistant starch type 3 (RS3 and green banana flour (GBF aiming the increasing of the fibre content. The IN obtained by atmospheric frying lost water faster and absorbed more fat. However, for both frying treatments, the RS3 noodles absorbed the least amount of oil. The greatest loss of RS occurred during the cooking stage. RS2 and GBF noodles presented a loss of RS of around 30% during steam cooking, while the RS3 approximately 18%. The frying process decreased RS content of noodles, however, during both frying process, the samples with the highest RS content at all frying times were noodles containing RS3. When comparing products obtained after 90 and 120 s of atmospheric and vacuum frying, respectively, it was observed that, although the frying time in vacuum process was longer, higher RS values were obtained for the three different formulations. The vacuum frying process has advantages due to the lower fat absorption (3% less, lighter colour and a reduced conversion of RS to digestible starch, compared to atmospheric frying.

  13. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  14. Evaluation of potential mixed wastes containing lead, chromium, or used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Bowerman, B.S.; Kempf, C.R.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of follow-on studies conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on certain kinds of low-level waste (LLW) which could also be classified as hazardous waste subject to regulation by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such LLW is termed ''mixed waste.'' Additional data have been collected and evaluated on two categories of potential mixed waste, namely LLW containing metallic lead and LLW containing chromium. Additionally, LLW with organic liquids, especially liquid scintillation wastes, are reviewed. In light of a proposed EPA rule to list used oil as hazardous waste, the potential mixed waste hazard of used oil contaminated with radionuclides is discussed. It is concluded that the EPA test for determining whether a solid waste exhibits the hazardous characteristic of extraction procedure toxicity does not adequately simulate the burial environment at LLW disposal sites, and in particular, does not adequately assess the potential for dissolution and transport of buried metallic lead. Also, although chromates are, in general, not a normal or routine constitutent in commercial LLW (with the possible exception of chemical decontamination wastes), light water reactors which do use chromates might find it beneficial to consider alternative corrosion inhibitors. In addition, it is noted that if used oil is listed by the EPA as hazardous waste, LLW oil may be managed by a scheme including one or more of the following processes: incineration, immobilization, sorption, aqueous extraction and glass furnace processing

  15. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  16. Comparison of Biodiesel Obtained from Virgin Cooking Oil and Waste Cooking Oil Using Supercritical and Catalytic Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Poudel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of transesterification of virgin cooking oil (VCO and waste cooking oil (WCO in catalyzed and supercritical transesterification process using methanol and ethanol as solvents has been conducted in this study. The luminous point of this research was the direct comparison of catalytic and supercritical process using the ester composition obtained from virgin cooking oil and waste cooking oil transesterification. Oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6 and reaction condition of 65 °C and 1 bar pressure were considered for the catalytic process, while 260 °C and high pressure (65 and 75 bar for methanol and ethanol, respectively were accounted for the supercritical process. Distinct layer separation was observed for both processes. Ester, fatty acid and glycerol composition was studied for both the upper and lower layers separately, from which 100% ester composition in the upper layer and a mixture of ester and other composition in the lower layer was obtained for the catalytic process owing to succeeding filtration and washing. However, mixture of ester (>75% and other composition was obtained in both layers for the supercritical process where purification process was not implemented. The similarity in the result obtained demonstrates the superiority of waste cooking oil compared to virgin cooking oil, taking cost into consideration.

  17. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  18. Analysis of the Potential Solid Waste Palm Oil as Animal Feed Cattle in Province Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Chalid, Nursiah; Flordeluna, Cattelya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze the potential of solid waste as cattle feed in the Riau province where oil palm solid waste is estimated each year has increased the amount of solid waste production as the increasing production of fresh fruit bunches ( FFB ) is in if every year .The data used in this study are primary and secondary data . The method used in this peneilitan is descriptive method . To see the right strategy in the potential of oil palm solid waste as cattle feed in the p...

  19. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  20. Biodiesel from waste cooking oil via base-catalytic and supercritical methanol transesterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, waste cooking oil has subjected to transesterification reaction by potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol methods obtaining for biodiesel. In catalyzed methods, the presence of water has negative effects on the yields of methyl esters. In the catalytic transesterification free fatty acids and water always produce negative effects since the presence of free fatty acids and water causes soap formation, consumes catalyst, and reduces catalyst effectiveness. Free fatty acids in the waste cooking oil are transesterified simultaneously in supercritical methanol method. Since waste cooking oil contains water and free fatty acids, supercritical transesterification offers great advantage to eliminate the pre-treatment and operating costs. The effects of methanol/waste cooking oils ratio, potassium hydroxide concentration and temperature on the biodiesel conversion were investigated

  1. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  2. Microwave irradiation biodiesel processing of waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motasemi, Farough; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2012-06-01

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78°C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.

  3. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid

    1998-01-01

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisation dose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  4. Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    1998-07-01

    Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisationdose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost

  5. Waste Oils pre-Esterification for Biodiesel Synthesis: Effect of Feed Moisture Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalala Jalama

    2012-01-01

    A process flowsheet was developed in ChemCad 6.4 to study the effect of feed moisture contents on the pre-esterification of waste oils. Waste oils were modelled as a mixture of triolein (90%), oleic acid (5%) and water (5%). The process mainly consisted of feed drying, pre-esterification reaction and methanol recovery. The results showed that the process energy requirements would be minimized when higher degrees of feed drying and higher preesterification reaction tempera...

  6. Production of high-calorie energy briquettes from bark waste, plastic and oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwinarti, W.; Amirta, R.; Yuliansyah

    2018-04-01

    Bark is the waste generated from the utilization of plantation timber, while plastics and oil waste are produced from daily human activity. These waste has the potential to be used as energy briquettes raw materials, especially for fuel in power plants. It would be worth very strategic for the environment and the welfare of society, considering that at this time we are not yet fully capable of well managing all three waste types. On the other hands most of the power plants that operate today still use diesel and coal as fuel. Therefore, the best composition of mixing bark, plastic and oil will be studied as well as its influence on the physical and chemical quality of the briquettes produced. The results show that the addition of the oil waste (70%) and used plastic (30%) as additive give effect to the performance of the briquette formation with the highest calorific value of 33.56 MJ/kg.

  7. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  8. Preliminaries studies of the technological development of biodiesel production from used frying oil; Estudos preliminares sobre desenvolvimento tecnologico da producao de biodiesel a partir de oleo residual de fritura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasner, Cecilia; Mayerhoff, Zea D.V.L. [Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martins, Humberto [Biomarca, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Sena, Denise R. de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to use the technological information available in the patent system to evaluate the technological routes used in the biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The search for patent documents was performed in two steps: patent applications in Brazil and patent applications in others countries. The method is described in the following order: choice of the patent searching databases; data parameters definition; displaying results; quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results; and data treatment. The results allowed concluding that the technological process to obtain biodiesel from waste cooking oil mostly used was the esterification followed by transesterification. Methanol was the preferable alcohol, but, there were a great number of Brazilian patents documents using ethanol. Also, there were an increasing number of patent documents concerning the development of new catalysts. The results also showed a low number of patent documents related to the pre-treatment of waste cooking oil, what suggests the need of further research to improve and standardized the raw material quality and consequently overcome the different difficulties during the biodiesel process production. (author)

  9. A kinetic study of biodiesel in waste cooking oil | Krishnan | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methyl esters are produced by transesterification of waste cooking palm oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst, potassium hydroxide (KOH). These reactions were carried out in 4:1 (molar ratio of methanol and oil) with 0.45 weight % of the catalyst used. The rate of reaction was enhanced with increasing temperature ...

  10. Alterações dos óleos de palma e de soja em fritura descontínua de batatas Palm and soybean oils alterations in the discontinued frying of potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Óleos de palma e de soja foram utilizados em experimentos de fritura de batatas em fritadeiras elétricas domésticas de 1 L com relação inicial, superfície sobre volume, de 0,3 cm-1. Em cinco dias consecutivos cada óleo foi submetido por um período de 5 horas por dia à temperatura de (183,1 ± 1,7 °C. Após 25 horas, a perda de ácidos graxos foi de 15,0 e 62,2% (m/m, respectivamente, para os ácidos oléico e linoléico, no óleo de palma; e de 6,5; 24,9 e 39,7% (m/m, respectivamente, para os ácidos oléico, linoléico e linolênico, no óleo de soja. Os teores inicial e final de polímeros foram de 0,4 e 23,7% (m/m no óleo de palma, e de 0,5 e 30,7% (m/m no óleo de soja. A relação entre a perda dos ácidos graxos e a formação de polímeros mostrou uma correlação forte com coeficientes de correlação de 0,9951 e 0,9740 para os óleos de palma e de soja, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que maiores graus de alteração ocorreram em ácidos graxos mais insaturados; e que a alteração pode ser eficazmente verificada através da determinação quantitativa de polímeros.Palm and soybean oils were used in experiments of frying of potatoes in 1 L, household electric deep fryers with a surface-to-volume ratio of 0,3 cm-1. The oils were heated for five hours every day for five consecutive days at a temperature of 183.1 ± 1.7 °C. the evaluation of oil degradation was followed by the increase of polymer contents and changes in fatty acid composition. After 25 hours, the loss of fatty acids were 15.0 and 62.2% for oleic and linoleic acid, respectively in palm oil and 6.5, 24.9 e 39.7% for oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid, respectively in soybean oil. The content of polymers ranged from 0.4 to 23.7% and from 0.5 to 30.7% for palm and soybean oils, respectively. Linear association between the loss of total unsaturated fatty acids and polymers formation presented high correlation coefficients (0.9951 and 0.9740 for palm and soybean oils

  11. Feasibility study on waste utilization of a palm oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to empty fruit bunches (EFB) which are wasted at the Lahad Datu plant of Felda Vegetable Oil Products Co. in Malaysia, a project was studied for energy substitution and greenhouse effect gas reduction by fluidized bed cogeneration facilities using this as fuel. In the project, studied was the introduction of on-site cogenerator of 7,800kW in generating-end output, and that of IPP cogenerator of 16,000kW as reference. As a result of the study, the energy substitution amount in toe in 20 years was approximately 376 k tons in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and approximately 695 k tons in case of IPP and fluidized bed boiler. The amount of greenhouse effect gas emission in toe in 20 years was approximately 5,757 k tons and 11,654 k tons, respectively. Concerning the profitability, the internal earning rate was 3.32-8.47% in case of on-site power generation/fluidized bed boiler and 9.13-14.65% in case of IPP/fluidized bed boiler. It indicated the materialization of the project. (NEDO)

  12. Biodiesel synthesis using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Lee, Jechan; Lee, Taewoo; Tsang, Daniel C W; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-11-01

    This study laid an emphasis on the possible employment of biochar generated from pyrolysis of chicken manure to establish a green platform for producing biodiesel. To this end, the pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction using chicken manure biochar and waste cooking oil was investigated. Compared with a commercial porous material (SiO 2 ), chicken manure biochar generated from 350°C showed better performance, resulting in 95.6% of the FAME yield at 350°C. The Ca species in chicken manure biochar imparted strong catalytic capability by providing the basicity for transesterification. The identified catalytic effect also led to the thermal cracking of unsaturated FAMEs, which decreased the overall FAME yield. For example, 40-60% of converted FAMEs were thermally degraded. To avoid undesirable thermal cracking arising from the high content of the Ca species in chicken manure biochar, the fabrication of chicken manure biochar at temperatures ≥350°C was highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Impact of residual glycerides on viscosity of biodiesel (waste and rapeseed oil blends)

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Jurac; L. Pomenić

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biodiesel, mixture of fatty acid methyl esters is a biodegradable alternative fuel that is obtained from renewable sources as a vegetable oils or animal fats. Use of waste cooking oils reduce the cost of raw materials for biodiesel production and also reduces the environment pollution. Moreover, pure edible vegetable oils for biodiesel production have an ethical significance because food is used to produce fuel. The aim of this work is a presentation of effects that r...

  15. Mechanical - physical treatment of used motor oil within a sustainable waste management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Veljko N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste oils are all mineral or synthetic oils that cannot be used for the purpose for which they were originally produced. These are: hydraulic oils, motor oils, ship oils, liquids for the transfer of heat or insulation, oily remains from reservoirs, oil-water emulsions and various oil-water mixtures. In its chemical makeup used motor oil contains hydrocarbons, organic minerals, heavy metals (cobalt, magnesium, iron, zinc, sulfur, chlorine, nitrogen, phosphorus, compounds from additives and other products that are dangerous as they have cancerous effects on health. As it is considered the biggest contaminant of the environment and classified as hazardous waste; special attention must be given in the handling of used motor oil to ensure its appropriate disposal. Setting up of a viable system for Mechanical-Physical Treatment of used motor oil makes it possible to re-use it as a secondary raw material i.e. the problem of collection, transportation, treatment and storing of the used motor oil is being solved. . The subject of this research is the advantage of the mechanical-physical treatment of used motor oil. Re- refined motor oil can be used for multiple purposes such as a base for the other synthetic oils, for heating etc. Improper disposal of used motor oil causes multiple damage; firstly, losing the valuable secondary base which, with the addition of certain additives, can be used as the basis for the other synthetic oils; secondly, causing damage to the environment by the pollution with inability to repair the damage to all environmental components.

  16. Shaft-retort for treating waste materials, like washery waste, bituminous shale, oil-bearing sands and the like

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppers, H

    1916-10-29

    A shaft-retort for converting waste materials, like washery waste, bituminous shale, oil-bearing sands, brown coal and non-coking mineral coal to oil and tar by supplying heat through the shaft wall formed of an iron-sheet to the material, which is forced through a feeding member perforated for the removal of gases and vapors, and moved downward in a thin layer on the shaft wall; that is characterized by the fact that the iron heating sheet is made rotatable for the purpose of equalizing overheating of itself and the material to be treated.

  17. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  18. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    Salt caverns can be formed in underground salt formations incidentally as a result of mining or intentionally to create underground chambers for product storage or waste disposal. For more than 50 years, salt caverns have been used to store hydrocarbon products. Recently, concerns over the costs and environmental effects of land disposal and incineration have sparked interest in using salt caverns for waste disposal. Countries using or considering using salt caverns for waste disposal include Canada (oil-production wastes), Mexico (purged sulfates from salt evaporators), Germany (contaminated soils and ashes), the United Kingdom (organic residues), and the Netherlands (brine purification wastes). In the US, industry and the regulatory community are pursuing the use of salt caverns for disposal of oil-field wastes. In 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a regulatory determination exempting wastes generated during oil and gas exploration and production (oil-field wastes) from federal hazardous waste regulations--even though such wastes may contain hazardous constituents. At the same time, EPA urged states to tighten their oil-field waste management regulations. The resulting restrictions have generated industry interest in the use of salt caverns for potentially economical and environmentally safe oil-field waste disposal. Before the practice can be implemented commercially, however, regulators need assurance that disposing of oil-field wastes in salt caverns is technically and legally feasible and that potential health effects associated with the practice are acceptable. In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. It investigated regulatory issues; the types of oil-field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location considerations; and disposal operations, closure and remediation issues. It determined

  19. Solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantarel, V.; Nouaille, F.; Rooses, A.; Lambertin, D., E-mail: david.lambertin@cea.fr; Poulesquen, A.; Frizon, F.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Formulation with 20 vol.% of oil in a geopolymer have been successful tested. • Oil waste is encapsulated as oil droplets in metakaolin-based geopolymer. • Oil/geopolymer composite present good mechanical performance. • Carbon lixiviation of oil/geopolymer composite is very low. - Abstract: The solidification/stabilisation of liquid oil waste in metakaolin based geopolymer was studied in the present work. The process consists of obtaining a stabilised emulsion of oil in a water-glass solution and then adding metakaolin to engage the setting of a geopolymer block with an oil emulsion stabilised in the material. Geopolymer/oil composites have been made with various oil fraction (7, 14 and 20 vol.%). The rigidity and the good mechanical properties have been demonstrated with compressive strength tests. Leaching tests evidenced the release of oil from the composite material is very limited whereas the constitutive components of the geopolymer (Na, Si and OH{sup −}) are involved into diffusion process.

  20. Prospects of pyrolysis oil from plastic waste as fuel for diesel engines: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangesh, V. L.; Padmanabhan, S.; Ganesan, S.; PrabhudevRahul, D.; Reddy, T. Dinesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The purpose ofthis study is to review the existing literature about chemical recycling of plastic waste and its potential as fuel for diesel engines. This is a review covering on the field of converting waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbon fuels for diesel engines. Disposal and recycling of waste plastics have become an incremental problem and environmental threat with increasing demand for plastics. One of the effective measures is by converting waste plastic into combustible hydrocarbon liquid as an alternative fuel for running diesel engines. Continued research efforts have been taken by researchers to convert waste plastic in to combustible pyrolysis oil as alternate fuel for diesel engines. An existing literature focuses on the study of chemical structure of the waste plastic pyrolysis compared with diesel oil. Converting waste plastics into fuel oil by different catalysts in catalytic pyrolysis process also reviewed in this paper. The methodology with subsequent hydro treating and hydrocracking of waste plastic pyrolysis oil can reduce unsaturated hydrocarbon bonds which would improve the combustion performance in diesel engines as an alternate fuel.

  1. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  3. International evolution of fat, oil and grease (FOG) waste management - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Thomas; Gibbons, David; O'Dwyer, Michael; Curran, Thomas P.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, issues relating to fat, oil and grease (FOG) in sewer systems have intensified. In the media, sewer blockages caused by FOG waste deposits, commonly referred to as 'fatbergs', are becoming a reminder of the problems that FOG waste can cause when left untreated. These FOG blockages lead to sanitary sewer overflows, property flooding and contamination of water bodies with sewage. Despite these financial and environmentally detrimental effects, a homogenous FOG waste management ...

  4. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-02-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10 min or 85 °C for 5 min and frying was effected at 160 °C for 2 min or 180 °C for 1 min. These treatments resulted in significant differences in the quality of the fries across the cultivars. The blanching treatments had a greater impact on the French fry quality than the frying treatments. LTLT blanching resulted in lower oil (12-13% fresh mass basis [fmb]), and higher protein (3.5-4.3% fmb) and mineral content in the French fries processed from Innovator, compared to HTST blanching. This was accompanied by a crispier crust, which required a greater puncture force (1.2-2.1 N) for penetration. Blanching with the LTLT treatment before HTST frying resulted in French fries that were the most acceptable to consumers and these were from Fianna, Innovator and Mondial. The current study demonstrates that the effect of French fry processing conditions is cultivar-dependent.

  5. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  6. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  7. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Hangun-Balkir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by 1H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12 : 1 (alcohol : oil molar ratio with 1 wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65°C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standards.

  8. Transesterification of waste oil to biodiesel using Brønsted acid ionic liquid as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Brønsted acid ionic liquids were employed for the preparation of biodiesel using waste oil as the feedstock. It was found that IL 1–(3–sulfonic acidpropyl–3–methylimidazole hydrosulfate–[HO3S-pmim]HSO4 was an efficient catalyst for the reaction under the optimum conditions: n(oil:n(methanol 1:12, waste oil 15.0 g, ionic liquid 2.0 g, reaction temperature 120 oC and reaction time 8 h, the yield of biodiesel was more than 96%. The reusability of the ionic liquid was also investigated. When the ionic liquid was repeatedly used for five times, the yield of product was still more than 93%. Therefore, an efficient and environmentally friendly catalyst was provided for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oils.

  9. Utilization of Solid Waste as a Substrate for Production of Oil from Oleaginous Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortunate Laker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming demand of oil and fats to meet the ever increasing needs for biofuel, cosmetics production, and other industrial purposes has enhanced a number of innovations in this industry. One such innovation is the use of microorganisms as alternative sources of oil and fats. Organic solid waste that is causing a big challenge of disposal worldwide is biodegradable and can be utilized as substrate for alternative oil production. The study evaluated the potential of isolated yeast-like colonies to grow and accumulate oil by using organic solid waste as substrate. Of the 25 yeast-like colonies isolated from the soil samples collected from three different suburbs in Kampala district, Uganda, 20 were screened positive for accumulation of lipid but only 2 were oleaginous. The NHC isolate with the best oil accumulation potential of 48.8% was used in the central composite design (CCD experiments. The CCD experimental results revealed a maximum oil yield of 61.5% from 1.25 g/L cell biomass at 10 g/L of solid waste and temperature of 25°C. The study revealed that organic solid waste could be used as a substrate for microbial oil production.

  10. Utilization of Solid Waste as a Substrate for Production of Oil from Oleaginous Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Fortunate; Agaba, Arnold; Akatukunda, Andrew; Gazet, Robert; Barasa, Joshua; Nanyonga, Sarah; Wendiro, Deborah; Wacoo, Alex Paul

    2018-01-01

    The overwhelming demand of oil and fats to meet the ever increasing needs for biofuel, cosmetics production, and other industrial purposes has enhanced a number of innovations in this industry. One such innovation is the use of microorganisms as alternative sources of oil and fats. Organic solid waste that is causing a big challenge of disposal worldwide is biodegradable and can be utilized as substrate for alternative oil production. The study evaluated the potential of isolated yeast-like colonies to grow and accumulate oil by using organic solid waste as substrate. Of the 25 yeast-like colonies isolated from the soil samples collected from three different suburbs in Kampala district, Uganda, 20 were screened positive for accumulation of lipid but only 2 were oleaginous. The NHC isolate with the best oil accumulation potential of 48.8% was used in the central composite design (CCD) experiments. The CCD experimental results revealed a maximum oil yield of 61.5% from 1.25 g/L cell biomass at 10 g/L of solid waste and temperature of 25°C. The study revealed that organic solid waste could be used as a substrate for microbial oil production.

  11. Multi-objective model of waste transportation management for crude palm oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Meslin; Mawengkang, Herman; Irsa Syahputri, Nenna

    2018-02-01

    The crude palm oil industry is an agro-industrial commodity. The global market of this industry has experienced rapid growth in recent years, such that it has a strategic value to be developed for Indonesian economy. Despite these economic benefits there are a number of environmental problems at the factories, such as high water consumption, the generation of a large amount of wastewater with a high organic content, and the generation of a large quantity of solid wastes and air pollution. In terms of waste transportation, we propose a multiobjective programming model for managing business environmental risk in a crude palm oil manufacture which gives the best possible configuration of waste management facilities and allocates wastes to these facilities. Then we develop an interactive approach for tackling logistics and environmental risk production planning problem for the crude palm oil industry.

  12. Using response surface methodology in optimisation of biodiesel production via alkali catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on optimisation of alkali catalysis as a process for producing biodiesel from waste cooking oils. Biodiesel production parameters that were optimised were methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature...

  13. Production of Biodiesel from Locally Available Spent Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa Al Naggar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels prompted considerable research to find alternative fuels. Due its environmental benefits and renewable nature the production of biodiesel has acquired increasing importance with a view to optimizing the production procedure and the sources of feedstock. Millions of liters of waste frying oil are produced from local restaurants and houses every year, most are discarded into sewage systems causing damage to the networks.  This study is intended to consider aspects related to the feasibility of the production of biodiesel from waste frying oils which will solve the problem of waste frying oil pollution and reduce the cost of biodiesel production.This research studies the conversion of locally available spent vegetable oils of different origins and with different chemical compositions into an environmentally friendly fuel. The biodiesel production requirements by base catalyzed trans-esterification process for the different feed stocks are determined according to the measured physical properties. The quality of the produced biodiesel is compared to petro diesel in terms of established standard specifications.

  14. Biotechnological Potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: A Novel Strain for Remediating Water Polluted with Crude Oil Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hy...

  15. Characterization of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C S; Mun, S P

    2008-05-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and triacylglyceride (TAG) composition of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruits and traditional Bokbunja wine processing waste were determined in this study. Oil contents of the fresh seeds and the seeds from wine processing waste were similar, accounting for about 18% of dry weight. The free fatty acid (FFA) content between the two seed oils was significantly different (0.50% for fresh seed oil and 73.14% for wine seed oil). Iodine, conjugated diene, saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter were very similar in the oil samples, but the specific extinction coefficients at 232 and 270 nm of wine seed oil were higher than those of fresh seed oil. Linoleic (C18:2, 50.45-53.18%, L) and linolenic (C18:3, 29.36-33.25%, Ln) acids were the dominant FAs in the two seed oils, whereas oleic (C18:1, 7.32-8.04%, O), palmitic (C16:0, 1.55-1.65%, P), and stearic (C18:0, 0.65-0.68%, S) acids were the minor FAs. LLL, OLL, LLLn, OOL, LLnLn, and OOO were the abundant TAGs, representing >90% of the oils.

  16. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals.

  17. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals

  18. Plastic waste to liquid oil through catalytic pyrolysis using natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandad, R; Barakat, M A; Rehan, M; Aburiazaiza, A S; Ismail, I M I; Nizami, A S

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to examine the catalytic pyrolysis of various plastic wastes in the presence of natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts. A small pilot scale reactor was commissioned to carry out the catalytic pyrolysis of polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and their mixtures in different ratios at 450°C and 75min. PS plastic waste resulted in the highest liquid oil yield of 54% using natural zeolite and 50% using synthetic zeolite catalysts. Mixing of PS with other plastic wastes lowered the liquid oil yield whereas all mixtures of PP and PE resulted in higher liquid oil yield than the individual plastic feedstocks using both catalysts. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the pyrolysis liquid oils from all samples mainly consisted of aromatic hydrocarbons with a few aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. The types and amounts of different compounds present in liquid oils vary with some common compounds such as styrene, ethylbenzene, benzene, azulene, naphthalene, and toluene. The FT-IR data also confirmed that liquid oil contained mostly aromatic compounds with some alkanes, alkenes and small amounts of phenol group. The produced liquid oils have high heating values (HHV) of 40.2-45MJ/kg, which are similar to conventional diesel. The liquid oil has potential to be used as an alternative source of energy or fuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arumugam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA content (32 mg KOH/g of oil. Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  20. Production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification of waste sardine oil and evaluation of its engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Ponnusami, V

    2017-12-01

    Waste sardine oil, a byproduct of fish industry, was employed as a low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. It has relatively high free fatty acid (FFA) content (32 mg KOH/g of oil). Lipase enzyme immobilized on activated carbon was used as the catalyst for the transesterification reaction. Process variables viz. reaction temperature, water content and oil to methanol molar ratio were optimized. Optimum methanol to oil molar ratio, water content and temperature were found to be 9:1, 10 v/v% and 30 °C respectively. Reusability of immobilized lipase was studied and it was found after 5 cycles of reuse there was about 13% drop in FAME yield. Engine performance of the produced biodiesel was studied in a Variable Compression Engine and the results confirm that waste sardine oil is a potential alternate and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production.

  1. Developement of porous media burner operating on waste vegetable oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapirattanakun, Arwut; Charoensuk, Jarruwat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam was successfully applied to promote combustion of WVO. • A specially designed porous domain was an essential element for stable combustion of WVO. • The performance of WVO burner was in the range of cooking stove. • Nozzle clog up in domestic WVO burner can be avoided when replacing it with a steam-assisted nozzle. - Abstract: A newly designed cooking stove using Wasted Vegetable Oil (WVO) as fuel was introduced. Porous media, containing 2 cm diameter of spherical ceramic balls, was used as a flame stabilizer. Steam was successfully applied in a burner at this scale to atomize WVO droplet and entrain air into the combustion zone as well as to reduce soot and CO emission. DIN EN 203-1 testing standard was adopted and the experiment was conducted at various firing rate with the water flow rate at 0.16, 0.20 and 0.22 kg/min. Temperature, emissions, visible flame length, thermal efficiency as well as combustion efficiency were evaluated. Under the current WVOB design, it was suitable to operate the burner at the range of nominal firing rate between 325 and 548 kW/m"2 with water flow rate of 0.16 kg/min, at burner height to diameter ratio of 0.75, giving CO and NO_x emissions up to 171 and 40 ppm, respectively (at 6% O_2). Thermal efficiency was at around 28% where the combustion efficiency was approximately at 99.5%. The performance of WVO burner could be improved further if increasing the H/D ratio to 1.5, yielding thermal efficiency up to 42%.

  2. Fri os fra det onde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Johs. Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj......Anmeldelse af Ole Bordedals film: Fri os fra det onde. Filmen bruger provinsen som metafor for de menenskelige udkanter og eksistentielle randområder, ligesom han skildrer det ondes princip Udgivelsesdato: maj...

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Use of Waste Mineral Oils as a Fuel with Organic-Based Mn Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Özdalyan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste minerals oils as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12, and 16 ppm improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement was observed with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.

  4. Catalyst systems in the production of biodiesel from residual oil; Sistemas cataliticos na producao de biodiesel por meio de oleo residual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Carlos Alexandre de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The vegetable oils and fat animals appear like an alternative for substitution the diesel oil in ignition engines for compression. Submitting the oil on transesterification reaction, we obtain a fuel with same characteristics as diesel, called biodiesel. Generally, 85 per cent of biodiesel cost is from the oil production. Through transesterification vegetable oil can be transformed in a mixture of esters of fatty acids. The residual oil from frying has been used as a possibility of raw materials of biodiesel, due to its easy acquisition and the viability of not being discarded as waste. (author)

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  6. Determining waste lipids stability and possible effects in bio diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Navia, R.

    2009-01-01

    Waste lipids are a sustainable raw material alternative for bio diesel production, avoiding excessive use of agricultural soil. However, this raw material can be degraded in a short time of storage, affecting bio diesel production process and quality. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible degradation of waste frying oil (WFO) and animal fat (AF), monitoring parameters that could affect the bio diesel quality. (Author)

  7. Impact of operating variables on re-refining of vehicle waste oil to base-oil by acid-clay process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, H.A.; Panhwar, M.I.; Kazi, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A large volume of waste oil is generated each year as the number of vehicles in the country is increasing every day. This used lubricant oil constitutes a serious pollution problem. It easily be converted as a resource depending on the manners of utilization and management. This paper compares various end uses of waste oil and develops technology by which basic properties of the base oil can be regained. An experimental setup (Experimental rig) of acid-clay method was used to regain waste oil collected and number of experiments were conducted by varying different process variables. The impacts of the operating variables on the quality of re-refined oil are also discussed. The recovery of re-refined base oil was found in between 44-49%. (author)

  8. NORM waste management in the oil and gas industry. The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2003-01-01

    Syrian experience with respect to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) waste produced by the Syrian oil industry is described. Three main categories of NORM waste were identified. First, hard scales from decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubings which are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra); this type of waste being currently stored in standard barrels in a controlled area. Second, sludge wastes containing low levels of radium isotopes were found in large amounts in each Syrian oilfield; plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. However, disposal criteria for the above two categories of NORM waste are still under discussions. Third, soil contaminated with NORM as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The Syrian criteria for disposal and clean up of this type of waste has been defined and approved by the Regulatory Office. (author)

  9. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  10. The method of purification of waste water of NPS from petroleum oil using UV-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulemin, V.V.; Kareta, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The main methods of concentration and purification of radioactive waste water of russian NPS are distillation and ion exchange. When waste water containing petroleum oil and washing matter is distillated, part of petroleum and washing matters go to the condensate. The purification of this condensate leads to pollution of ion exchange resins by petroleum oil and reduction of the filter cycle number. The purification of condensate of Russian NPS from petroleum oil is carried out using active carbon and polymer filters, but this process is not effective and fails to give pure condensate. Therefore, the authors began to search for more effective methods of purification of waste water from petroleum oil. They found that UV-radiation makes it possible to purify water from petroleum matter to concentration of the organic phase less than 0.5 mg/dm3. In this process of purification the air, contained in the water phase, was used as an oxidant. When purification is carried out in the absence of sorbents, the quantity of radioactive solid waste, which have to be recovered, decreases. During the study of purification of waste water it was found that increasing of the temperature of the process increases the rate of UV-radiation-induced oxidation of organic phase. The increase in the initial concentration of petroleum products also increases the rate of petroleum oil decomposition. The content of ions in water phase decreases the purification rate. The investigations were carried out on the laboratory scale with water and condensate from Tver's NPS

  11. Decoloration Kinetics of Waste Cooking Oil by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yulin; Xiang, Yuxiu; Wang, Lipeng

    2016-03-01

    In order to decolorize, waste cooking oil, a dark red close to black solution from homes and restaurants, was subjected to 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment. By virtue of UV/Vis spectrophotometric method, the influence of Gamma irradiation to decoloration kinetics and rate constants of the waste cooking oil in the presence of H2O2 was researched. In addition, the influence of different factors such as H2O2 concentration and irradiation dose on the decoloration rate of waste cooking oil was investigated. Results indicated that the decoloration kinetics of waste cooking oil conformed to the first-order reaction. The decoloration rate increased with the increase of irradiation dose and H2O2 concentration. Saponification analysis and sensory evaluation showed that the sample by 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 treatment presented better saponification performance and sensory score. Furthermore, according to cost estimate, the cost of the 60Co γ-ray/H2O2 was lower and more feasible than the H2O2 alone for decoloration of waste cooking oil.

  12. Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MU, Jenny; PM, Adria

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

  13. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  14. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  15. Reception and treatment facilities for waste oils and oil-polluted waters from marine and industrial activities in Gothenburg, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Lexen, S.I.; Hell, M.

    1992-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, comprehensive solutions were found to problems associated with the handling of oil-polluted water from marine and industrial sources in the Gothenburg area. The treatment plant in the oil harbour has permission to treat 700,000 m 3 /yr of sludge, ballast, slops and other oil-contaminated waters. Following treatment by chemical flocculation, flotation and dual-media filtration, the treated water must not contain more than 5 ppm of oil. Work to improve treatment results has been carried out from the start, in close co-operation with environmental authorities and with the waste generators themselves. Through increased consciousness, improvements in control, and greater source separation, it will be possible to bring about a significantly lower concentration of pollutants in the incoming waste streams. Recent plans include separate treatment of waste streams containing aromatic compounds and heavily polluted waters. Complementary treatment methods, such as activated carbon and air stripping, are under evaluation. (author). 10 figs

  16. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek BOLAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.

  17. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancera,b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. Methods We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate specific antigen level). Results Compared with French fries (OR=1.37; 95% CI, 1.11–1.69), fried chicken (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.04–1.62), fried fish (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.05–1.66), and doughnuts (OR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.11–1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR=1.08; 95% CI, 0.89–1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.04–1.92 for fried fish). Conclusion Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. PMID:23335051

  18. Consumption of deep-fried foods and risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Neuhouser, Marian L; Stanford, Janet L

    2013-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-heat cooking methods may increase the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). The addition of oil/fat, as in deep-frying, may be of particular concern, and has not specifically been investigated in relation to PCa. Potential mechanisms include the formation of potentially carcinogenic agents such as aldehydes, acrolein, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and acrylamide. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of intake of deep-fried foods from a food frequency questionnaire (French fries, fried chicken, fried fish, doughnuts and snack chips) and PCa risk, adjusted for potential confounders, among 1,549 cases and 1,492 controls. We additionally examined associations with more aggressive PCa (defined as regional/distant stage, elevated Gleason score or prostate-specific antigen level). Compared with French fries (OR = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.11-1.69), fried chicken (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04-1.62), fried fish (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.05-1.66), and doughnuts (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.11-1.66). There was no association for snack chips (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.89-1.32). Most of the estimates were slightly stronger for more aggressive disease (OR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.04-1.92 for fried fish). Regular consumption of select deep-fried foods is associated with increased PCa risk. Whether this risk is specific to deep-fried foods, or whether it represents risk associated with regular intake of foods exposed to high heat and/or other aspects of the Western lifestyle, such as fast food consumption, remains to be determined. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Influence of fatty acid composition on the formation of polar glycerides and polar fatty acids in sunflower oils heated at frying temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge, N.

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and high oleic sunflower oils as well as 50% mixture of both of them were heated at different temperatures under well-controlled conditions. Total polar compounds, the main groups of polar glycerides, total polar fatty acids, the main groups of polar fatty acids and the loss of initial fatty acids were quantitated. The most outstanding results demonstrated the primacy of the formation of glyceridic polymerization compounds during heating at high temperatures. After transesterification of the samples dimeric fatty acids was the most significant group of compounds obtained. As expected, linoleic acid was preferentially involved in the formation of polar fatty acids, although the participation of oleic acid became very important at low concentration of linoleic acid. Finally good statistical figures were obtained for the regression of polar fatty acids on polar compounds.

    Aceites de girasol convencional y alto oleico así como una mezcla al 50% de ambos fueron calentados a diferentes temperaturas bajo condiciones controladas. Se cuantificaron los compuestos polares totales, los grupos principales de glicéridos, ácidos grasos polares totales, los grupos principales de ácidos grasos polares y la pérdida de ácidos grasos iniciales. Los resultados más relevantes demostraron la primacía de la formación de compuestos de polimerización glicerídicos durante el calentamiento a altas temperaturas. Después de la transesterificación de las muestras, los ácidos diméricos constituyeron el grupo más significativo de compuestos obtenidos. Como era esperado, el ácido linoleico contribuyó preferentemente en la formación de los ácidos grasos polares, si bien la participación del ácido oleico fue muy importante a bajas concentraciones de ácido linoleico. Finalmente, se obtuvieron buenos resultados estadísticos para la regresión entre ácidos grasos polares y compuestos polares.

  20. Optimization of oil extraction from waste “Date pits” for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Farrukh; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala’a H.; Al-Haj, Lamya; Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Hellier, Paul; Rashid, Umer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil extraction from “Date pits” has been optimized first time by using RSM. • Optimized conditions for oil extraction gave oil yield of 16.5%. • “Date pits” oil as non-edible feedstock was transformed to biodiesel. • Biodiesel from “Date pits” oil posses potential fuel properties. - Abstract: Biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks is increasingly attractive alternative to both fossil diesels and renewable fuels derived from food crops. Date pits are one such lipid containing feedstock, and are widely available in Oman as a waste stream. This study analyses the effects of soxhlet process parameters (temperature, solvent to seed ratio and time) on the extraction of oils from waste Date pits and the subsequent production of biodiesel from it. The highest yield of oil extracted from the Date pits was 16.5 wt% obtained at a temperature of 70 °C, solvent to seed ratio of 4:1 and extraction duration of 7 h. Gas Chromatography analysis showed that Date pits oil consisted of 54.85% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Transesterification of the oil extracted was undertaken at 65 °C, a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and a reaction time of 1 h for biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from the Date pits oil was found to have a cetane number of 58.23, density 870 of kg m"−"3, cloud point of 4 °C, pour point of −1 °C, CFPP of −0.5 °C and kinematic viscosity of 3.97 mm"2 s"−"1 (40 °C). In general, Date pit oil appears to be a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production.

  1. Influence of feed/inoculum ratios and waste cooking oil content on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangyang; Jin, Yiying; Borrion, Aiduan; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    Information on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) with different waste cooking oil contents is limited in terms of the effect of the initial substrate concentrations. In this work, batch tests were performed to evaluate the combined effects of waste cooking oil content (33-53%) and feed/inoculum (F/I) ratios (0.5-1.2) on biogas/methane yield, process stability parameters and organics reduction during the FW AD. Both waste cooking oil and the inoculation ratios were found to affect digestion parameters during the AD process start-up and the F/I ratio was the predominant factor affecting AD after the start-up phase. The possible inhibition due to acidification caused by volatile fatty acids accumulation, low pH values and long-chain fatty acids was reversible. The characteristics of the final digestate indicated a stable anaerobic system, whereas samples with F/I ratios ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 display higher propionic and valeric acid contents and high amounts of total ammonia nitrogen and free ammonia nitrogen. Overall, F/I ratios higher than 0.70 caused inhibition and resulted in low biogas/methane yields from the FW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regeneration of Waste Edible Oil by the Use of Virgin and Calcined Magnesium Hydroxide as Adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we prepared virgin (S, L) and calcined (S-380, S-1000, L-380, L-1000) magnesium hydroxide for regeneration of waste edible oil. Deterioration of soybean oil, rapeseed oil, and olive oil was achieved by heat and aeration treatment. The properties of the different adsorbents were investigated using specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and surface pH measurement. Moreover, the relationship between the changes in acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) and the adsorbent properties were evaluated. The specific surface areas of S-380 and L-380 were greater than that of other adsorbents. In addition, the XRD results show that S-380 and L-380 contain both magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide structures. The decreases in AV and CV using S-380 and L-380 were greater than achieved using other adsorbents. The correlation coefficients between the decrease in AV and CV and specific surface area were 0.947 for soybean oil, 0.649 for rapeseed oil, and 0.773 for olive oil, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that a physical property of the adsorbent, namely specific surface area, was primarily responsible for the observed decreases in AV and CV. Overall, the results suggest that S-380 and L-380 are useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  3. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  4. Multi-objective optimization of two alkali catalyzed processes for biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patle, Dipesh S.; Sharma, Shivom; Ahmad, Z.; Rangaiah, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel processes use waste cooking oil and are close to industrial practice. • Detailed constituents of waste cooking oil and detailed kinetics are used. • Two complete processes are optimized for economic and environmental objectives. • Obtained trade-offs provide deeper understanding and alternative optimal solutions. - Abstract: In view of the finite availability and environmental concerns of fossil fuels, biodiesel is one of the promising fuel alternatives. This study considers waste cooking palm oil with 6% free fatty acids (FFA) as feed-stock, which facilitates its better utilization and promotes sustainability. Two biodiesel production processes (both involving esterification catalyzed by sulfuric acid and trans-esterification catalyzed by sodium hydroxide) are compared for economic and environmental objectives. Firstly, these processes are simulated, considering detailed constituents of palm oil and also detailed kinetics for both esterification and trans-esterification, in Aspen Plus simulator. Subsequently, both the processes are optimized considering profit, heat duty and organic waste as objectives, and using an Excel-based multi-objective optimization (EMOO) program for the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). The results show that the profit improves with the increase in heat duty, and that the profit increase is accompanied by larger amount of organic waste. Process 1 having three trans-esterification reactors produces significantly lower organic waste (by 32%), requires lower heat duty (by 39%) and slightly more profitable (by 1.6%) compared to Process 2 having a single trans-esterification reactor and also a different separation sequence. Overall, the obtained quantitative trade-offs between objectives enable better decision making about the process design for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

  5. A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid Nasir Ani; Wong Chuan Chin; Hussin Mohd Nor

    2006-01-01

    Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

  6. Preparation of furfural from local waste agricultural products and its use to refine lube oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marei, A.

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of some United Arab Republic waste agricultural products as raw materials for the production of furfural. Batch scale preparations from corn cobs and bagasse were carried out and the furfural produced was used to extract aromatics from two waxy oil distillates. The effect of variations in extraction temperature, solvent, and addition of water to the solvent was studied. High grade lube oils were obtained by this technique. Data and tables are provided.

  7. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  8. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  9. Improving Engine Oil Warm Up through Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Di Battista

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the transportation sector, engine oil thermal management has not yet received the attention it deserves in the path towards carbon dioxide and pollutants reduction. During the homologation cycle (which represents a typical daily trip, oil temperature reaches its thermal steady value, which insures best performances in terms of viscosity, only in the final part of the trip, when most part of the harmful emissions have been already emitted; therefore, a warm up acceleration would surely represent a strong beneficial action. In this paper, a faster warming up of the lubricant oil was done using the heat owned by the exhaust gases, which was almost immediately ready after the engine ignition, in the early part of a driving cycle. An experimental activity has been developed in a turbocharged engine (F1C 3L IVECO, modifying the oil circuit in order to heat up the oil during the cold phase of a homologation cycle by the exhaust gases. A significant reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions savings has been experimentally demonstrated. Also, the interaction between the modified oil circuit, engine, coolant circuit, and exhaust line has been investigated in order to have a system view of the new heating oil technology.

  10. Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Incorporating High Volume Oil Palm Biomass Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul; Samadi, Mostafa; Rahman Mohd. Sam, Abdul; Khalid, Nur Hafizah Abd; Nabilah Sarbini, Noor; Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Warid Hussin, Mohd; Ismail, Mohammed A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the drying shrinkage of mortar incorporating oil palm biomass waste including Palm Oil Fuel Ash, Oil Palm Kernel Shell and Oil Palm Fibre. Nano size of palm oil fuel ash was used up to 80 % as cement replacement by weight. The ash has been treated to improve the physical and chemical properties of mortar. The mass ratio of sand to blended ashes was 3:1. The test was carried out using 25 × 25 × 160 mm prism for drying shrinkage tests and 70 × 70 ×70 mm for compressive strength test. The results show that the shrinkage value of biomass mortar is reduced by 31% compared with OPC mortar thus, showing better performance in restraining deformation of the mortar while the compressive strength increased by 24% compared with OPC mortar at later age. The study gives a better understanding of how the biomass waste affect on mortar compressive strength and drying shrinkage behaviour. Overall, the oil palm biomass waste can be used to produce a better performance mortar at later age in terms of compressive strength and drying shrinkage.

  11. Biotechnological applications for the utilisation of wastes from palm oil mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheah, S C; Ma, A N; Ooi, L C.L.; Ong, A S.H.

    1988-05-01

    The milling of oil palm fruits produces about two-and-a-half to three times as much effluent as oil does. It also generates a large amount of lignocellulosic wastes, mainly in the form of empty fruit bunches, press cake fibres and nut shell. Research efforts at PORIM have been directed towards the utilisation of these wastes as a means to solve the problem of environmental pollution as well as for the generation of economic returns for the mills. We have studied a thermophilic contact process for the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent and its potential for generating biogas for energy uses. Our work has also shown that the condensate derived from the fruit sterilisation process during milling is amenable to fermentation for the production of single cell protein (SCP) and exo-enzymes. The enzymes produced have been applied for oil clarification, oil recovery from press cake fibers and saccharification of the fibers for the production of sugar feedstocks. This paper will also introduce the concept of integrated waste management for the palm oil mill through the implementation of these technologies.

  12. Effect of the use of waste vegetable oil based biodiesel on the landscape in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereczky Akos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum-based fuels are now widely known as environmentally unfriendly because of non-renewable supplies and its contribution to environmental pollution. The challenge, therefore is to ensure appropriate energy supplies at minimum cost. There is an increasing energy demand in the world and nowadays it can be fulfilled only on the basis of fossil fuels. Therefore, it is necessary to evolve a renewable energy source with lower environmental impact. One alternative solution can be oils of plant origin, like vegetable oils and non-edible oils. With waste vegetable oil methyl ester, biofuel dependency can be decreased. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to analyze the economic and environmental effect of waste vegetable oil methyl ester compared to fossil fuels. In some cases only the age of vehicles could raise burdens to biofuel utilization in road vehicles. Transport and energy policy – on a large scale – can play an important role in fuel consumption. Author is aware that waste vegetable oil methyl ester can play only a limited role in biofuel substitution.

  13. Oil-tanker waste-disposal practices: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the spring of 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10 (EPA), launched an investigation into tanker waste disposal practices for vessels discharging ballast water at the Alyeska Pipeline Services Company's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility and marine terminal in Valdez, Alaska. It had been alleged that the Exxon Shipping Company was transferring 'toxic wastes originating in California' to Valdez. In response, EPA decided to examine all waste streams generated on board and determine what the fate of these wastes were in addition to investigating the Exxon specific charges. An extensive Information Request was generated and sent to the shipping companies that operate vessels transporting Alaska North Slope Crude. Findings included information on cargo and fuel tank washings, cleaning agents, and engine room waste

  14. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  15. Characterization of crispness of French fries by fracture and acoustic measurements, effect of pre-frying and final frying times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, T.; Primo-Martin, C.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of pre-frying and final frying time on the crispness of French fries was evaluated by simultaneous analysis of the fracture and acoustic properties during instrumental simulation of human chewing. The analysis of the frequency distribution of the force and sound events corresponding to

  16. Losses in -carotene and vitamin C due to frying of plantain ( Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slices of plantain (unripe and ripe) of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm thickness were fried at 130 ± 5, 150 ± 5 and 170 ± 5°C for 1 to 10 min in refined palm oil. The results obtained showed that -carotene and vitamin C contents decreased significantly with the elevation of the temperature and duration of frying (p<0.05). The decrease is ...

  17. Lipase production by Penicillium restrictum using solid waste of industrial babassu oil production as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, M B; Pinto, A L; Gombert, A K; Seitz, K H; Kivatinitz, S C; Castilho, L R; Freire, D M

    2000-01-01

    Lipase, protease, and amylase production by Penicillium restrictum in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The basal medium was an industrial waste of babassu oil (Orbignya oleifera) production. It was enriched with peptone, olive oil, and Tween-80. The supplementation positively influenced both enzyme production and fungal growth. Media enriched with Tween-80 provided the highest protease activity (8.6 U/g), whereas those enriched with peptone and olive oil led to the highest lipase (27.8 U/g) and amylase (31.8 U/g) activities, respectively.

  18. Regeneration and reuse waste from an edible oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerroui, Abdelhamid; Belhocine, Lydia; Ferroudj, Sonia

    2017-08-21

    A spent bleaching earth (SBE) from an edible oil refinery has been regenerated by thermal processing in oven, followed by washing with a cold solution of hydrochloric acid (1M). Optimal regeneration conditions have been controlled by decolorization tests of degummed and neutralized soybean oil. Optimal values of treatment (temperature 350°C, carbonization time 01 h, and HCl concentration 1M) gave a very efficient material. After bleaching oil by regenerated spent bleaching earth (RSBE), the chlorophyll-a and β-carotenes contained in crude edible oil and observed respectively at 430, 454, and 483 nm, value of λ max , are very much decreased. The results obtained after decolorization of edible oil by RSBE material indicate, that, during the process, the bleaching oil did not undergo any changes in the free fatty acid content. The peroxide value (PV) was reduced from 4.2 to 1.8 meq O 2 /kg, and the color has been improved (Lovibond color yellow/red: from 50/0.5 to 2.7/0.3, respectively). The RSBE material obtained was characterized by several techniques (FTIR, SEM). The results show that the heat treatment did not affect the mineral structure of RSBE, and the regenerated material recovered its porous structure.

  19. Illusioner om fri vilje. Neurovidenskabelige studier af fri vilje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg Kjerkegaard, Jonas; Bærentsen, Klaus B.

    2015-01-01

    En central antagelse for både filosofiske og folkepsykologiske begreber om fri vilje er, at bevidste processer, beslutninger og intentioner kan have effekt på ens handlinger. Eksperimenter udført af Benjamin Libet og andre er blevet hævdet at modbevise dette, hvorved fri vilje skulle være umulig...... at foretrække det ene frem for det andet. Eksperimenternes resultater er derfor uden betydning for spørgsmålet om fri vilje. Beslutningen om at deltage i eksperimenterne, og følge de eksperimentelle instrukser har betydning for deltagerne, og den fremlagte empiri viser, at deltagernes bevidste intentioner er...... kausalt effektive i forhold til de efterfølgende handlinger. Den "ubevidste" måde valgene træffes på i eksperimentalsituationen er en opfyldelse af de eksperimentelle instrukser. Eksperimenterne af Libet og efterfølgere viser sig alt i alt ikke at modbevise fri vilje. Analysen af eksperimenterne peger på...

  20. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Waste Eggshell as a Base Catalyst under a Microwave Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ping Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to explore the most affordable and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of biodiesel. Substitute fuel is presently a significant topic all over the world, attributable to the efforts of reducing global warming, which is the result arising from the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel fuel. Due to its advantages of being renewable and environmentally friendly, biodiesel production has the potential to become the major substitute of petrol diesel fuel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, is produced from renewable sources, and contributes a small amount of greenhouse gas (e.g., CO2 and SO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Research has established that one of the key obstacles to the commercialization of biodiesel is the high price of biodiesel production due to the shortage of suitable raw materials. However, waste-cooking-oil (WCO is one of the most cost-effective sources of biodiesel synthesis, and can practically minimize the raw material cost. The research was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil in order to reduce the cost, waste, and pollution associated with biodiesel production. The application of a microwave heating system towards enhancing the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil has been given little consideration in the preceding research, particularly with the application of eggshell as a heterogeneous catalyst. However, the tentative results in this study show significant performance in terms of biodiesel production, as follows: (1 the increasing of the reaction time from 120 to 165 min considerably increased the biodiesel production, which declined with a further rise to 210 min; (2 the results of this study reveal that a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of nine is appropriate and can be used for the best production of biodiesel; (3 the production of biodiesel in this study demonstrated a significant increase in response to the further increasing of power; (4 a 120 min

  1. Development of ethanol production from cooking oil glycerol waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... glycerol waste by mutant Enterobacter aerogenes ... wild type strain was altered for enhancing ethanol production using UV irradiation and chemical method. .... microbial medium analytical methods were of laboratory and.

  2. Usage of waste products from thermal recycling of plastics waste in enhanced oil recovery or in-situ coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, M; Fink, J K [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    In this contribution a thermal method for crude oil mobilization and in-situ liquefaction of coal is discussed, which will finally yield more organic material, as which has been put in from plastics waste originally into the process. The conversion product from thermal treatment is pumped down into exhausted crude oil reservoirs, where the hydrogen can degrade the residual high viscous oil to cause it to become more prone to flow so that it can be recovered. Such a process will envision two goals: 1. more organic raw material (as crude oil) will be recovered than is initially put in as waste product. 2. atmospheric pollutants from the conversion plant will be trapped in the reservoir, which simplifies the construction of the plant. An analogous process may be performed with coal seams. Coal seams with their high porosity and large specific surface are believed to be in particular useful to filter atmospheric pollutants. Depending on the type of coal the mobilization of organic material by this process may be in the background. (orig./SR)

  3. Reactor comparison for the esterification of fatty acids from waste cooking oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazubert, A.; Crockatt, M.; Poux, M.; Aubin, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Esterification of the fatty acids contained in waste cooking oil with glycerol, a reaction involving immiscible and viscous reactants, was achieved in two pilot-scale continuous pulsed reactors: the oscillatory baffled reactor and the helix reactor. In both reactors, with or without baffles, the

  4. Pesticides; resource recovery; hazardous substances and oil spill responses; waste disposal; biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In the category of pesticides this volume features close to sixty standard test method, practices, and guides for evaluating the properties and efficacy of pesticides and antimicrobial agents. Also covered are standards for hazardous substances, oil spell responses, waste disposal, and biological effects of these materials

  5. Yield of maize (Manoma spp) affected by automobile oil waste and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... waste polluted soils, and on the yield parameters (plant height, leave surface and dry matter weight) of maize (Manoma spp). ... 40 cm) were examined for chemical and physical properties, including poly aromatic hydrocarbons. Polluted soils were ... Particularly, bioremediation of oil polluted soils using ...

  6. Optimisation of FAME production from waste cooking oil for biodiesel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista, Luis Fernando; Vicente, Gemma; Rodriguez, Rosalia; Pacheco, Maria [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    This study consists of the development and optimisation of the potassium hydroxide-catalysed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking oil. A factorial design of experiments and a central composite design have been used. The variables chosen were fatty acid concentration in the waste cooking oil, temperature and initial catalyst concentration by weight of waste cooking oil, while the responses were FAME purity and yield. The initial catalyst concentration is the most important factor, having a positive influence on FAME purity, but a negative one on FAME yield due to the positive influences of the yield losses (triglyceride saponification and methyl ester dissolution in glycerol). Fatty acid concentration in the waste cooking oil is the second factor of importance, having negative influences in FAME purity and yield. Temperature has an insignificant effect on FAME purity, but it has a significant negative influence on FAME yield due to the positive effect of temperature on the yield losses. Second-order models were obtained to predict the responses analysed as a function of these variables. (author)

  7. Codigestion of olive oil mill wastewaters with manure, household waste or sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Combined anaerobic digestion of oil mill effluent (OME) together with manure, household waste (HHW) or sewage sludge was investigated. In batch experiments it was shown that OME could be degraded into biogas when codigested with manure. In codigestion with HHW or sewage sludge, OME dilution...

  8. Biodiesel From waste cooking oil for heating, lighting, or running diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico O. Cruz

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel and its byproducts and blends can be used as alternative fuel in diesel engines and for heating, cooking, and lighting. A simple process of biodiesel production can utilize waste cooking oil as the main feedstock to the transesterification and cruzesterification processes. I currently make my own biodiesel for applications related to my nursery and greenhouse...

  9. Influence of olive oil mill waste amendment on fate of oxyfluorfen in Southern Spain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...

  10. Recent Strategy of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil and Process Influencing Parameters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnanaprakasam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost of biodiesel produced from virgin vegetable oil through transesterification is higher than that of fossil fuel, because of high raw material cost. To minimize the biofuel cost, in recent days waste cooking oil was used as feedstock. Catalysts used in this process are usually acids, base, and lipase. Since lipase catalysts are much expensive, the usage of lipase in biodiesel production is limited. In most cases, NaOH is used as alkaline catalyst, because of its low cost and higher reaction rate. In the case of waste cooking oil containing high percentage of free fatty acid, alkaline catalyst reacts with free fatty acid and forms soap by saponification reaction. Also, it reduces the biodiesel conversions. In order to reduce the level of fatty acid content, waste cooking oil is pretreated with acid catalyst to undergo esterification reaction, which also requires high operating conditions. In this review paper, various parameters influencing the process of biofuel production such as reaction rate, catalyst concentration, temperature, stirrer speed, catalyst type, alcohol used, alcohol to oil ratio, free fatty acid content, and water content have been summarized.

  11. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil using radiation-grafted fibrous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Yuji; Saiki, Seiichi; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki

    2018-02-01

    Waste cooking oil, which can be used as a raw material for biodiesel fuel (BDF), contains two kinds of oil components: triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs). Therefore, both alkaline-type and acid-type catalysts are needed to produce BDF from waste cooking oil. In this study, an alkaline-type grafted fibrous catalyst bearing OH- ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion grafting of 4-chloromethylstyrene onto a polyethylene-coated polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabric, amination with trimethylamine, and further treatment with NaOH. Furthermore, an acid-type catalyst bearing H+ ions was synthesized by radiation-induced emulsion grafting of ethyl p-styrenesulfonate onto a PE/PP nonwoven fabric, saponification with NaOH, and protonation with HNO3. The OH- and H+ densities of the grafted fibrous catalysts were controlled by the grafting yield. The maximum OH- and H+ densities of the catalysts were 3.6 mmol-OH-/g-catalyst and 3.4 mmol-H+/g-catalyst, respectively. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in the batchwise transesterification of TGs and ethanol, and the batchwise esterification of FFAs and ethanol. In both cases, TGs and FFAs were gradually converted into BDF. The mixed oil and four actual waste cooking oils, which contained both TGs and FFAs, were completely converted into BDF by sequential catalytic reactions with the acid-type grafted fibrous catalyst and then the alkaline-type grafted fibrous catalyst.

  12. Acrylamide in Fried Potato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, Pieternel; Sanny, Maimunah

    2016-01-01

    High acrylamide levels have been detected in fried potato products. Dietary intake studies observed large differences in acrylamide between single foodstuffs, within food categories, and within batches of similarly processed products. FAO/WHO emphasized that causes of variation need to be

  13. Research results of sewage sludge and waste oil disposal by entrained bed gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schingnitz, M.; Goehler, P.; Wenzel, W.; Seidel, W. (Noell-DBI Energie- und Entsorgungstechnik GmbH, Freiberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of gasifying sewage sludge and waste oil with the GSP technology, developed by the Freiberg Fuel Institute (FRG). The GSP reactor was developed in 1976 for gasification of pulverized brown coal. An industrial reactor of this design operated for over 5 years with a total coal throughput of more than 300,000 t. The design of the gasification generator and the flowsheet of a 3 MW experimental pilot plant for waste gasification are presented. The PCB content in the gasification sludge is 6.14 mg/kg, in waste oil - 160 mg/kg. Gasification takes place at high temperatures of more than 1,400 C for complete destruction of toxic pollutants. Gasification results compare composition of raw gas produced by gasification of brown coal, sewage sludge and waste oil. A detailed list of content of pollutants (PCDD, PCDF, PAH, dioxin and furan) in the gasification gas, in process waters and in solid residue of the process water is provided. It is concluded that the GSP gasification process is suitable for safe disposal of waste with toxic content. 3 refs.

  14. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  15. Tri-potassium phosphate as a solid catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Guoqing; Kusakabe, Katsuki; Yamasaki, Satoko [Department of Living Environmental Science, Fukuoka Women' s University, 1-1-1 Kasumigaoka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8529 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol, using tri-potassium phosphate as a solid catalyst, was investigated. Tri-potassium phosphate shows high catalytic properties for the transesterification reaction, compared to CaO and tri-sodium phosphate. Transesterification of waste cooking oil required approximately two times more solid catalyst than transesterification of sunflower oil. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 97.3% when the transesterification was performed with a catalyst concentration of 4 wt.% at 60 C for 120 min. After regeneration of the used catalyst with aqueous KOH solution, the FAME yield recovered to 88%. Addition of a co-solvent changed the reaction state from three-phase to two-phase, but reduced the FAME yield, contrary to the results with homogeneous catalysts. The catalyst particles were easily agglomerated by the glycerol drops derived from the homogeneous liquid in the presence of co-solvents, reducing the catalytic activity. (author)

  16. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron

  17. Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar

    2017-11-01

    High demand for cement in the concrete production has been increased which become the problems in the industry. Thus, this problem will increase the production cost of construction material and the demand for affordable houses. Moreover, the production of Portland cement leads to the release of a significant amount of CO2 and other gases leading to the effect on global warming. The need for a sustainable and green construction building material is required in the construction industry. Hence, this paper presents utilization of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste as partial cement replacement in the production of concrete. Using both of this waste in the concrete production would benefit in many ways. It is able to save cost and energy other than protecting the environment. In short, 20% usage of palm oil fuel ash and 30% replacement of ceramic waste as cement replacement show the acceptable and satisfactory strength of concrete.

  18. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  19. New strains of oil-degrading microorganisms for treating contaminated soils and wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratova, A. Yu; Panchenko, L. V.; Semina, D. V.; Golubev, S. N.; Turkovskaya, O. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two new strains Achromobacter marplatensis101n and Acinetobacter sp. S-33, capable of degrading 49 and 46% of oil within 7 days were isolated, identified, and characterized. The application of A. marplatensis 101n in combination with ammonium nitrate (100 mg·kg-1) for 30 days of cultivation resulted in the degradation of 49% of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon content (274 g·kg-1) in the original highly acid (pH 4.9) oil-contaminated waste. Up to 30% of oil sludge added to a liquid mineral medium at a concentration of 15% was degraded after 10 days of cultivation of A. marplatensis 101n. Application of yellow alfalfa (Medicago falcata L.) plants with Acinetobacter sp. S-33 for bioremediation of oil-sludge-contaminated soil improved the quality of cleanup in comparison with the bacterium- or plant-only treatment. Inoculation of Acinetobacter sp. S-33 increased the growth of both roots and shoots by more than 40%, and positively influenced the soil microflora. We conclude that the new oil-degrading strains, Acinetobacter sp. S-33 and A. marplatensis 101n, can serve as the basis for new bioremediation agents for the treatment of oil contaminated soils and waste.

  20. Chemical Modification of Waste Cotton Linters for Oil Spill Cleanup Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Debapriya; Umrigar, Keval

    2017-12-01

    The possibility of use of waste cotton linters as oil sorbents by chemical modification such as acetylation and cyanoethylation was studied. The acetylation process was carried out in presence of acetic anhydride using either H2SO4 or HClO4 as catalyst. The acetylation treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min and treatment temperature was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C. For cyanoethylation, the waste cotton linters were pre-treated with 2, 5 and 10% NaOH. The treatment temperature for cyanoethylation was room temperature, 50 and 70 °C and treatment time was 30, 60 and 120 min. Both the chemical modification processes were optimized on the basis of oil absorption capacity of the chemically modified cotton fibre with the help of MATLAB software. The modified samples were tested for its oleophilicity in terms of oil absorption capacity, oil retention capacity, oil recovery capacity, reusability of sample and water uptake and buoyancy as oil sorbent. Chemically modified fibres were characterized by Fourier transform infra red spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope and degree of substitutions.

  1. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad K. H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without

  2. Impact of nanoparticles and butanol on properties and spray characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and pure rapeseed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, K. H.; Hossain, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    Renewable biofuels can offset greenhouse gases by replacing fossil fuels destined for internal combustion engines. However, biofuels have their own setbacks and may lead to poor combustion inside the engine cylinder. In this study, nanoparticles and butanol were blended either separately or together with waste cooking oil biodiesel and neat rape seed oil to investigate the impact of these additives on the properties and spray characteristics. The investigation comprised of three stages, with each having an effect on how the next stage of the investigation was conducted. Initially, the physicochemical characteristics of 25ppm, 50ppm, 75ppm and 100ppm concentrations of aluminium oxide and copper oxide nanoparticle blends with fossil diesel, waste cooking oil biodiesel and rapeseed oil were investigated. The results from first stage investigation showed that, in general, blends containing aluminium oxide nanoparticles gave better results for almost all the concentrations when compared with copper oxide nanoparticle blends with the same nanoparticle concentrations. Overall, waste cooking oil biodiesel blended with 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticle showed most promising results like the flash point of 159.3°C, kinematic viscosity @40°C of 4.66 cSt, and gross calorific value of 44.43 MJ/kg. These values were 61.6% higher, 51.3% higher and 3.2% lower than that of corresponding fossil diesel values. Subsequently, in the second stage of the study, the addition of butanol was investigated to assess its ability to enhance the emulsion of biofuel-nanoparticles blends. Four blends containing 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol, and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol, with and without 100ppm Al2O3 were prepared. Results showed that the kinematic viscosity of the fuel blends containing 100ppm aluminium oxide nanoparticles were decreased by 0.4% and 3.3%, for 90% biodiesel & 10% butanol and 90% rapeseed oil & 10% butanol blends respectively, when compared to without the nanoparticles. The

  3. The formation of potentially harmful compounds in churros, a Spanish fried-dough pastry, as influenced by deep frying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F J; Arribas-Lorenzo, G

    2008-07-15

    Colour, moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acrylamide (AA) were investigated in traditional Spanish churros. Samples were deep-fried in sunflower oil at lab-scale temperatures of 180, 190 and 200°C and for frying times of 2, 3, 5 and 7min. Fresh made churros were also obtained from local producers. HMF ranged from 1.2±0.02 to 221.4±2.02mg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 74.3±47.5mg/kg was recorded in commercial samples. AA ranged from below the limit of quantitation to 90±0.6μg/kg for lab-scale experiments and an average of 46±24.5μg/kg was measured in commercial samples. Temperatures between 185 and 200°C are commonly used to obtain churros with an acceptable palatability and a crispy surface. However, HMF and AA levels increased nearly two-fold from 190 to 200°C at the same frying times, indicating that a more precise control of frying temperatures is required to minimize their formation. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks.

  5. Industrial waste management - a case study at Attock oil refinery Ltd., Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramay, M.I.; Hussain, S.; Tanveer, A.; Jabeen, Z.; Ehsann, S.

    2009-01-01

    remote sources and in storage facilities. The implementation has been planned in different phases to achieve the goal. In first phase cooling towers blow down water (96,000 liters/day) and drinking water treatment plants back wash water is being recycled and used for fire water, washing the plants area floors and gardening purposes. The work is in progress to recycle and reuse all refinery waste water. Bioremediation is being carried out of oily sludge recovered during the cleaning of the crude oil and products storage tanks. It is the safest technique in the world for such type of hazardous waste. The above technique is also being implemented for crude oil / product spillage during transportation. The waste from refinery and hospital is being incinerated in three stage incinerator meeting NEQS and minimizing impact on the environment. It is concluded that proper management of all type of wastes, implementing cleaner production techniques to minimize waste at the source contributes not only to protect the environment but also increases the profitability and meet corporate social responsibility. (author)

  6. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.; Saravanan, C.G.; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste resources such as WTO and waste fly ash have been effectively harnessed. • WTO has been catalytically cracked using fly ash catalyst for the first time. • Characteristics of a diesel engine were evaluated for CCWTO-diesel blends. • BTE and PHRR were increased by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, for CCWTO 50. • HC and CO emissions were reduced for CCWTO 50 with the increased NO X emission. - Abstract: This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350–400 °C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO – diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NO X (nitrogen oxides) emission

  7. The Rebirth of Waste Cooking Oil to Novel Bio-based Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Cai, Bang-Xin; Xu, Wen-Jie; Gang, Hong-Ze; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a kind of non-edible oil with enormous quantities and its unreasonable dispose may generate negative impact on human life and environment. However, WCO is certainly a renewable feedstock of bio-based materials. To get the rebirth of WCO, we have established a facile and high-yield method to convert WCO to bio-based zwitterionic surfactants with excellent surface and interfacial properties. The interfacial tension between crude oil and water could reach ultra-low value as 0.0016 mN m-1 at a low dosage as 0.100 g L-1 of this bio-based surfactant without the aid of extra alkali, which shows a strong interfacial activity and the great potential application in many industrial fields, in particular, the application in enhanced oil recovery in oilfields in place of petroleum-based surfactants.

  8. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  9. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A.; Amin, Mahasen S.

    2010-01-01

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue.

  10. Assessment of waste management options in the oil and gas industry in Ghana using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahialey, W. K.

    2013-07-01

    Ghana's oil find is growing steadily as more discoveries are being made. Oil and gas exploration and production coupled with their related activities produce wastes. These wastes could be put into three primary categories such as produced water, drilling cuttings and associated wastes (any other waste related with the exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas). These wastes may contain varying amount of contaminants such as heavy metals, suspended solid particles and radioactive materials such as Ra-226 or Rn-228, product of U-238 decay that occur in some geologic formations and sediments. The main objective of this study is to assess the waste management practices in the oil and gas industry in Ghana by qualification and quantification of waste generated during exploration and production, examining the system put in place by oil and gas companies to manage these wastes and also determine some basic contaminants in some of these wastes brought to shore for management. Waste samples were taken from Tema Oil Refinery (TOR) and Zeal Environmental Technology Limited at Takoradi. The samples were analyzed by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) analytical methods to determine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg, As, Ag, Ba, Se) in the oily waste water, oil based mud, block and ash samples. The results showed that the levels of heavy metals were below the EPA permissible limit for discharge into the natural drainage except the level of Pb in the mud samples taken from Zeal before treatment. The levels ranged from 3.99mg/l to 7.44mgl. Even though these levels were above 0.1mg/l discharge standard limit, there was no cause for alarm because the levels dropped below the EPA limit after treatment. Furthermore, the quantity of general garbage deposited in the landfill at Takoradi be Zeal Environmental Technology Limited from 2011 to 2012 increased from 497m 3 to 1,314.29m 3 respectively. (author)

  11. Lipid Composition of Oil Extracted from Wasted Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus Heads and Comparison with Oil Extracted from Antarctic Krill (Euphasia superba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya Albalat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the UK, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus supports its most important shellfish fishery. Nephrops are sold either whole, or as “tails-only” for the scampi trade. In the “tailing” process, the “head” (cephalothorax is discarded as waste. A smaller crustacean species, the Antarctic krill Euphasia superba, represents an economically valuable industry, as its extractable oil is sold as a human dietary supplement. The aim of this study was to determine the amount and composition of the oil contained in discarded Nephrops heads and to compare its composition to the oil extracted from krill. Differences due to Geographical variation and seasonal patterns in the amount and composition of lipid were also noted. Results indicated that Nephrops head waste samples collected from more southern locations in Scotland (Clyde Sea area contained higher levels of oil when compared to samples collected from northern locations in Iceland. Moreover, seasonal differences within the Clyde Sea area in Scotland were also observed, with oil extracted from Nephrops head waste peaking at around 11.5% during the summer months when larger and more mature females were caught by trawl. At this time of the year, the valuable fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA accounted for around 23% of the total fatty acid content in oil extracted from Nephrops head waste. A seasonal effect on EPA content was found, with higher levels obtained in the summer, while no trend was found in DHA percentages. Finally, oil from Nephrops head waste contained a higher proportion of EPA and DHA than krill oil but these fatty acids were more abundantly linked to the neutral lipids rather to than polar lipids. The characterization of lipid that could be extracted from Nephrops head waste should be seen as a first step for the commercial use of a valuable resource currently wasted. This approach is extremely relevant given the current limited supply of

  12. Influence of injection timing on DI diesel engine characteristics fueled with waste transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna Raj Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil in a diesel engine, which would rather reduce environmental problems caused by disposing of it in the open land. The waste transformer oil was compared with the conventional diesel fuel and found that it can also be used as fuel in compression ignition engines since the WTO is also a derivative of crude oil. In this present work, the WTO has been subjected to traditional base-catalyzed trans-esterification process in order to reduce the high viscosity of the WTO which helps to effectively utilize WTO as a fuel in DI diesel engine. The objective of the work is to study the influence of injection timing on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine using TWTO (trans-esterified waste transformer oil as a fuel. Experiments were performed at four injection timings (23°, 22°, 21°, and 20° bTDC. The results indicate that the retarded injection timing of 20° bTDC resulted in decreased oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon by 11.57%, 17.24%, and 10% respectively while the brake thermal efficiency and smoke increased under all the load conditions when compared to that of standard injection timing.

  13. Degradation of waste waters from olive oil mills by Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, B.; Pontecorvo, G.; Carfagna, M. [Univ. of Naples, Caserta (Italy). Inst. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    Waste water from olive oil processing may cause severe pollution in the Mediterranean area, since they have a high level of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (100-200 g/l) and contain other organic and inorganic compounds. In all olive oil producing countries, the reduction of pollution in olive oil mill waste waters at reasonable costs and using techniques suitable for most industrial applications is an unsolved problem. For this paper, the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 was grown on waste waters from an olive oil mill in a 3.5 l fermenter under batch culture conditions. The results showed that the yeast was capable of reducing the COD value by 80% in 24 h. In this way, a useful biomass of 22.45 g/l as single cell protein (SCP) and enzyme lipase were produced. During this process, most of the organic and inorganic substances were consumed, only aromatic pollutants were still present in the fermentation effluents. Therefore, we used a phenol degrader, namely Pseudomonas putida, to reduce phenolic compounds in the fermentation effluents after removing Yarrowia lipolytica cells. P. putida was effective in reducing phenols in only 12 h. (orig.)

  14. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar, E-mail: gude@cee.msstate.edu

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  15. Steam gasification of oil palm trunk waste for clean syngas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipattummakul, Nimit; Ahmed, Islam I.; Kerdsuwan, Somrat; Gupta, Ashwani K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Initial high values of syngas flow rate are attributed to rapid devolatilization. ► Over 50% of syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. ► Increase in steam flow rate resulted in reduced gasification time. ► Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency. ► Oil palm yielded more energy than that from mangrove wood, paper and food waste. -- Abstract: Waste and agricultural residues offer significant potential for harvesting chemical energy with simultaneous reduction of environmental pollution, providing carbon neutral (or even carbon negative) sustained energy production, energy security and alleviating social concerns associated with the wastes. Steam gasification is now recognized as one of the most efficient approaches for waste to clean energy conversion. Syngas generated during the gasification process can be utilized for electric power generation, heat generation and for other industrial and domestic uses. In this paper results obtained from the steam assisted gasification of oil palm trunk waste are presented. A batch type gasifier has been used to examine the syngas characteristics from gasification of palm trunk waste using steam as the gasifying agent. Reactor temperature was fixed at 800 °C. Results show initial high values of syngas flow rate, which is attributed to rapid devolatilization of the sample. Approximately over 50% of the total syngas generated was obtained during the first five minutes of the process. An increase in steam flow rate accelerated the gasification reactions and resulted in reduced gasification time. The effect of steam flow rate on the apparent thermal efficiency has also been investigated. Variation in steam flow rate slightly affected the apparent thermal efficiency and was found to be very high. Properties of the syngas obtained from the gasification of oil palm trunk waste have been compared to other samples under similar operating

  16. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  17. Radiation-thermal purification of waste water from oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, I.; Guliyeva, N.; Rzayev, R.; Yagubov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During the extraction, preparation, transportation and refining of oil the sewages containing oil contaminations are produced. The concentration of oil content in the water depends on used technology and may vary from a thousandths parts up to tens percents. There is a necessity of cleaning this pollution up to a permissible level. There are numerous methods (adsorption, mechanical, chemical and etc) of treating of waster water from oil contaminations. Radiation-chemical method is one of the effective among the above mentioned methods. The results of radiation-thermal decomposition of n-heptane micro-admixtures in water medium are adduced. The main parameters of radiolysis change within the intervals: temperature 20-400 o C, absorbed dose - 0†10.8 kGy at dose rate 3.6 kGy/h. The correlation of n-heptane concentration and water steam changed within [C 5 H 1 2]/[H 2 O] (1-100) 10-5. Total concentration of steam was about 10 20 molec/ml. As a product of decomposition are observed H 2 , CO, CH 4 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , C 3 H 6 , C 4 H 8 , hydrocarbons C 5 , and C 6 . The changes of n-heptane concentration in the reactor also were established. The chain regime of n-heptane decomposition at high temperatures in the irradiated mixture is observed. The critical value of temperature and mixture ratio of components, under which the break of chain process of normal n-heptane occurs are defined. The mechanisms of proceeding radiation thermal processes in hydrocarbons-water system are discussed. At the temperatures higher than 300 o C the radiation-thermal decompositions of hydrocarbon micro-impurities in water into gas products occurs according a chain mechanism and the radiation-chemical yield of the decomposition exceeds 100 molec/100eV. This method can be used for purification of sewages from oil contaminations

  18. Generation of shrimp waste-based dispersant for oil spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kedong; Zhang, Baiyu; Song, Xing; Liu, Bo; Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    In this study, shrimp waste was enzymatically hydrolyzed to generate a green dispersant and the product was tested for crude oil dispersion in seawater. The hydrolysis process was first optimized based on the dispersant effectiveness (DE) of the product. The functional properties of the product were identified including stability, critical micelle concentration, and emulsification activity. Water was confirmed as a good solvent for dispersant generation when compared with three chemical solvents. The effects of salinity, mixing energy, and temperature on the dispersion of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were examined. Microtox acute toxicity test was also conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the produced dispersant. In addition, DE of the product on three different types of crude oil, including ANS crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), and Arabian Light crude oil (ALC) was compared with that of the Corexit 9500, respectively. The research output could lead to a promising green solution to the oil spill problem and might result in many other environmental applications.

  19. Optimized production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by lipase immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi-Yang; Huang, Liang-Yu; Kuan, I-Ching; Lee, Shiow-Ling

    2013-12-11

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively.

  20. Study on Combustion Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled by Synthesized Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraid F. Maki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The waste cooking oil or used cooking oil is the best source of biodiesel synthesizing because it enters into the so-called W2E field whereas not only get rid of the used cooking oils but produce energy from waste fuel. In this study, biodiesel was synthesized from the used cooking oil and specifications are tested. From 1 liter of used cooking oil, 940 ml is gained. The remaining of liter is glycerin and water. Blend of 20% of biodiesel with 80% of net diesel by volume is formed. Blends of 100% diesel and 100% biodiesel are prepared too. The diesel engine combustion performance is studied. Brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, mean effective pressure, and engine outlet temperature. Cylinder pressure variation with crank angle is analyzed. At last not least, the concentrations of hydro carbon and nitrogen pollutants are measured. The results showed significant enhancement in engine power and pollutant gases emitted. There is positive compatible with other critical researches.

  1. Distillation of Essential Oils from Pontianak Orange Peel Wastes and Its Utilization for Aromatherapy Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayati Hidayati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Orange (Citrus nobilis var. microcarpa is the main commodities in Pontianak. Production of essential oils from orange peel wastes and its use for soap aromatherapy substance could improve its economic value. This study is aimed to produce the essential oils from orange peel wastes with the highest limonene content by distillation. Its application for aromatherapy soap substance also evaluated. Distillation of essential oils from orange peels was performed at 1000C and 1100C for 4, 5, 6 and 7 hours. The results showed that at 1000C for 7 hours produced the highest limonene content, reach 97.69%. The essential oils color was pale yellow, specific gravity 0.84, refractive index 1.47, solubility in 90% ethanol 1:1 (transparent, acid value 0.143% and ester number 5.37. The aromatherapy soap produced with addition of 3.6% of limonene oils is in accordance with SNI 06-3532-1994 except for water content parameter.

  2. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  3. Management of soybean oil refinery wastes through recycling them for producing biosurfactant using Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partovi, Maryam; Lotfabad, Tayebe Bagheri; Roostaazad, Reza; Bahmaei, Manochehr; Tayyebi, Shokoufe

    2013-06-01

    Biosurfactant production through a fermentation process involving the biodegradation of soybean oil refining wastes was studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa MR01 was able to produce extracellular biosurfactant when it was cultured in three soybean oil refinement wastes; acid oil, deodorizer distillate and soapstock, at different carbon to nitrogen ratios. Subsequent fermentation kinetics in the three types of waste culture were also investigated and compared with kinetic behavior in soybean oil medium. Biodegradation of wastes, biosurfactant production, biomass growth, nitrate consumption and the number of colony forming units were detected in four proposed media, at specified time intervals. Unexpectedly, wastes could stimulate the biodegradation activity of MR01 bacterial cells and thus biosurfactant synthesis beyond that of the refined soybean oil. This is evident from higher yields of biodegradation and production, as revealed in the waste cultures (Ydeg|(Soybean oil) = 53.9 % YP/S|(Soybean oil) = 0.31 g g(-1), respectively). Although production yields were approximately the same in the three waste cultures (YP/S|(wastes) =/~ 0.5 g g(-1)), microbial activity resulted in higher yields of biodegradation (96.5 ± 1.13 %), maximum specific growth rate (μ max = 0.26 ± 0.02 h(-1)), and biosurfactant purity (89.6 %) with a productivity of 14.55 ± 1.10 g l(-1), during the bioconversion of soapstock into biosurfactant. Consequently, applying soybean oil soapstock as a substrate for the production of biosurfactant with commercial value has the potential to provide a combination of economical production with environmental protection through the biosynthesis of an environmentally friendly (green) compound and reduction of waste load entering the environment. Moreover, this work inferred spectrophotometry as an easy method to detect rhamnolipids in the biosurfactant products.

  4. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Saurabh; Gogate, Parag R; Moreira, Paulo F; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50°C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Methyl Ester (Bio diesel) Production from Waste Cooking Vegetable Oil by Microwave Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatun, M.S.; Khatun, M.A.; Khan, M.Z.H.; Debnath, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tried to develop, test and optimize a batch microwave system using waste cooking vegetable oil (WCVO) that was used as bio diesel feedstock. Two catalysts, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were tested in this study. Transesterification reactions between oil and methanol were carried out in presence of microwaves. It was observed that by using of microwaves, the reaction times were drastically reduced. As high as 99.5 % conversions could be achieved for 0.5% KOH concentration. Moreover, quality analysis of bio diesels according to international standards was performed and the samples were found to meet the necessary specifications. (author)

  6. Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study a kinetic model of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil assisted by ultrasound power. The model considered the biodiesel production process as a 2nd order reversible reaction, while its kinetic parameters were estimated using MATLAB, based on data extracted from Hingu, et al. [1]. The data represented experiments under low-frequency ultrasonic wave (20 kHz and variations of temperature, power, catalyst concentration, and alcohol-oil molar ratio. Statistical analysis showed that the proposed model fits well to the experimental data with a determination coefficient (R2 higher than 0.9.

  7. Effective Recovery of Vanadium from Oil Refinery Waste into Vanadium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guowu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Koh, Shin Nuo; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-03-06

    Carbon black waste, an oil refinery waste, contains a high concentration of vanadium(V) leftover from the processing of crude oil. For the sake of environmental sustainability, it is therefore of interest to recover the vanadium as useful products instead of disposing of it. In this work, V was recovered in the form of vanadium-based metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) via a novel pathway by using the leaching solution of carbon black waste instead of commercially available vanadium chemicals. Two different types of V-MOFs with high levels of crystallinity and phase purity were fabricated in very high yields (>98%) based on a coordination modulation method. The V-MOFs exhibited well-defined and controlled shapes such as nanofibers (length: > 10 μm) and nanorods (length: ∼270 nm). Furthermore, the V-MOFs showed high catalytic activities for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, indicating the strong potential of the waste-derived V-MOFs in catalysis applications. Overall, our work offers a green synthesis pathway for the preparation of V-MOFs by using heavy metals of industrial waste as the metal source.

  8. Flaring versus thermal incineration of waste gases in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolarski, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The efficient combustion of waste gases at oil processing plants, battery or well sites is discussed. Several problem situations are examined, field test results are reviewed, and custom design systems are explained including modifications to systems to conserve fuel. It is shown that combustion of waste gases in fuel efficient thermal incinerators is a practical means of disposal, particularly for sour or toxic gas of low heating value. These gases contain noxious compounds that may cause odours or adverse health effects. Results of a field tests of a portable in-situ incinerator show that compared to flaring (to oxide waste gas), incineration is a more efficient form of waste management. Emission tests also prove the superior performance of incineration. The feasibility of incinerating oil storage tank vapours was also demonstrated. Tests were also conducted with a fuel-efficient Glycol Still Off-Gas Incinerator which was developed to control toxic waste emissions. Glycol dehydration removes water vapour from natural gas. The key compounds that are removed by glycol are aromatic hydrocarbons or BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene), and sulphur compounds. The main design considerations for any incinerator are temperature, turbulence and residence time. An incinerator exit temperature of 760 degrees C is generally needed to reduce sulphur compounds. 2 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Increased productivity through waste reduction effort in oil and gas company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, J.; Silviana, NA; Matondang, RA

    2018-02-01

    National companies engaged in oil and gas activities in the upstream sector. In general, the on going operations include drilling, exploration, and production activities with the result being crude oil channelled for shipment. Production activities produce waste gas (flare) of 0.58 MMSCFD derived from 17.05% of natural gas produced. Gas flares are residual gases that have been burning through flare stacks to avoid toxic gases such as H2S and CO that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, appropriate environmental management is needed; one of them is by doing waste reduction business. Through this approach, it is expected that waste reduction efforts can affect the improvement of environmental conditions while increasing the productivity of the company. In this research begins by identifying the existence of problems on the company related to the amount of waste that is excessive and potentially to be reduced. Alternative improvements are then formulated and selected by their feasibility to be implemented through financial analysis, and the estimation of alternative contributions to the level of productivity. The result of this research is an alternative solution to solve the problem of the company by doing technological based engineering by reusing gas flare into fuel for incinerator machine. This alternative contributes to the increased productivity of material use by 23.32%, humans 83.8%, capital 10.13 %, and waste decreased by 0.11%.

  10. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  11. Treatment And Disposal Options For Oil Field-Norm-Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, Sh.I.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation discusses the origin of NORM in gas and oil industries and the hazards arising from working with Natural Occurring Radioactive Material. This paper illustrates the positive steps taken related to personnel health,environmental impact, the extent of the problem, prevention and controlling, as well as handling and disposal control of radioactive material. The study aims at avoiding the release of contaminated substances into the surrounding environment and at taking radiation protection measures in order to prevent and / or limit the radiological risk involved in routine maintenance operations

  12. Influence of soil parameters on depth of oil waste penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlicki Stanislaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A measurement post for testing propagation of hydrocarbon contamination in a model of a near-surface soil layer and its remediation, are characterized in the paper. Generalized results of laboratory observations require meeting similarity criteria of the laboratory and actual processes. These requirements were used when designing the measurement post. A successful attempt to match a theoretical model describing oil products filtration necessitates certain conditions, e.g. homogeneity of the physical model of soil and characteristic of the course of the analyzed processes.

  13. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Ali, H.M.; Abu, M.P.; Kontol, K.M.; Ahmad, Z.; Ahmad, S.H.S.S.; Sulaiman, I.; Hamzah, R.

    2004-01-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226 Ra and 228 Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg

  14. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  15. Offsite commercial disposal of oil and gas exploration and production waste :availability, options, and cost.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puder, M. G.; Veil, J. A.

    2006-09-05

    A survey conducted in 1995 by the American Petroleum Institute (API) found that the U.S. exploration and production (E&P) segment of the oil and gas industry generated more than 149 million bbl of drilling wastes, almost 18 billion bbl of produced water, and 21 million bbl of associated wastes. The results of that survey, published in 2000, suggested that 3% of drilling wastes, less than 0.5% of produced water, and 15% of associated wastes are sent to offsite commercial facilities for disposal. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) collected information on commercial E&P waste disposal companies in different states in 1997. While the information is nearly a decade old, the report has proved useful. In 2005, Argonne began collecting current information to update and expand the data. This report describes the new 2005-2006 database and focuses on the availability of offsite commercial disposal companies, the prevailing disposal methods, and estimated disposal costs. The data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, state oil and gas regulatory officials in 31 states were contacted to determine whether their agency maintained a list of permitted commercial disposal companies dedicated to oil. In the second stage, individual commercial disposal companies were interviewed to determine disposal methods and costs. The availability of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities falls into three categories. The states with high oil and gas production typically have a dedicated network of offsite commercial disposal companies and facilities in place. In other states, such an infrastructure does not exist and very often, commercial disposal companies focus on produced water services. About half of the states do not have any industry-specific offsite commercial disposal infrastructure. In those states, operators take their wastes to local municipal landfills if permitted or haul the wastes to other states. This report provides state-by-state summaries of the

  16. From agro-industrial wastes to single cell oils: a step towards prospective biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Batul; Parkhey, Piyush; Gupta, Pratima

    2018-04-23

    The reserves of fossil-based fuels, which currently seem sufficient to meet the global demands, is inevitably on the verge of exhaustion. Contemporary raw material for alternate fuel like biodiesel is usually edible plant commodity oils, whose increasing public consumption rate raises the need of finding a non-edible and fungible alternate oil source. In this quest, single cell oils (SCO) from oleaginous yeasts and fungi can provide a sustainable alternate of not only functional but also valuable (polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-rich) lipids. Researches are been increasingly driven towards increasing the SCO yield in order to realize its commercial importance. However, bulk requirement of expensive synthetic carbon substrate, which inflates the overall SCO production cost, is the major limitation towards complete acceptance of this technology. Even though substrate cost minimization could make the SCO production profitable is uncertain, it is still essential to identify suitable cheap and abundant substrates in an attempt to potentially reduce the overall process economy. One of the most sought-after in-expensive carbon reservoirs, agro-industrial wastes, can be an attractive replacement to expensive synthetic carbon substrates in this regard. The present review assess these possibilities referring to the current experimental investigations on oleaginous yeasts, and fungi reported for conversion of agro-industrial feedstocks into triacylglycerols (TAGs) and PUFA-rich lipids. Multiple associated factors regulating lipid accumulation utilizing such substrates and impeding challenges has been analyzed. The review infers that production of bulk oil in combination to high-value fatty acids, co-production strategies for SCO and different microbial metabolites, and reutilization and value addition to spent wastes could possibly leverage the high operating costs and help in commencing a successful biorefinery. Rigorous research is nevertheless required whether it is

  17. An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: →Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. →Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. →Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. →Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

  18. Recycling of waste vegetable oil biodiesel and glycerine : social enterprise feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility of recycling waste vegetable oil into biodiesel fuel as part of a social enterprise spearheaded by the Centre de sante communautaire in Sudbury. The enterprise proposed the collection of waste vegetable oil from local restaurants for refinement into biodiesel fuel as well as glycerine byproducts. The study included reviews of legal issues related to the project as well as details of community consultation processes. Target participants were also identified. The biodiesel industry was briefly reviewed along with details of the biodiesel manufacturing process. The study determined that 2 permanent employees will be required to run the biodiesel project. Initial staffing for the first year of the project was estimated at 4 full-time equivalent participants. Equipment and capital purchases for the first year of operation were estimated at $75,000. Total funds for startup of the project were estimated at $140,000. Budgets were supplied to the year 2009. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  20. A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebian-Kiakalaieh, Amin; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Mazaheri, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion, environmental concerns, and steep hikes in the price of fossil fuels are driving scientists to search for alternative fuels. The characteristics of biodiesel have made the pursuit of high quality biodiesel production attractive. Utilization of waste cooking oil is a key component in reducing biodiesel production costs up to 60–90%. Researchers have used various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Meanwhile, the effect of novel processes such as membrane reactor, reactive distillation column, reactive absorption, ultrasonic and microwave irradiation significantly influenced the final conversion, yield and in particular, the quality of product. This article attempts to cover all possible techniques in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

  1. Effect of reaction temperature on biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using lipase as biocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiningrum, Reni Banowati; Aprianto, Toni; Pamungkas, Febria Lutfi Udin

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on conversion of biodiesel from waste cooking oil enzymatically using lipase extracted from rice bran. The feedstock was simulated waste cooking oil and lipase enzyme was extracted with buffer pH variation. The enzyme activity was titrimetrically determined and the optimum pH buffer was used to study the effect of temperature on the transesterification reaction. Temperature effects were assessed in the range of 45-60 °C and the content of methyl esters in biodiesel was determined by GC-MS. The reaction temperature significantly influences the transesterification reaction with optimum biodiesel conversion occurred at 55 °C with methyl ester content of 81.19%. The methyl ester composition in the resulting biodiesel is methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl stearate.

  2. Biodiesel production via the transesterification of soybean oil using waste starfish (Asterina pectinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Beom; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ko, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Changkook; Park, Young-Kwon

    2013-07-01

    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 °C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.

  3. Valorization of Waste Obtained from Oil Extraction in Moringa Oleifera Seeds: Coagulation of Reactive Dyes in Textile Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, Merc?; L?pez-Grimau, V?ctor; Guti?rrez-Bouz?n, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds contain about 40% of highly valued oil due to its wide range of applications, from nutritional issues to cosmetics or biodiesel production. The extraction of Moringa oil generates a waste (65%–75% of seeds weight) which contains a water soluble protein able to be used either in drinking water clarification or wastewater treatment. In this paper, the waste of Moringa oleifera extraction was used as coagulant to remove five reactive dyes from synthetic textile effluents. ...

  4. Effects of cooking method, cooking oil, and food type on aldehyde emissions in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Lin, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Yi-Chun

    2017-02-15

    Cooking oil fumes (COFs) contain a mixture of chemicals. Of all chemicals, aldehydes draw a great attention since several of them are considered carcinogenic and formation of long-chain aldehydes is related to fatty acids in cooking oils. The objectives of this research were to compare aldehyde compositions and concentrations in COFs produced by different cooking oils, cooking methods, and food types and to suggest better cooking practices. This study compared aldehydes in COFs produced using four cooking oils (palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and soybean oil), three cooking methods (stir frying, pan frying, and deep frying), and two foods (potato and pork loin) in a typical kitchen. Results showed the highest total aldehyde emissions in cooking methods were produced by deep frying, followed by pan frying then by stir frying. Sunflower oil had the highest emissions of total aldehydes, regardless of cooking method and food type whereas rapeseed oil and palm oil had relatively lower emissions. This study suggests that using gentle cooking methods (e.g., stir frying) and using oils low in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., palm oil or rapeseed oil) can reduce the production of aldehydes in COFs, especially long-chain aldehydes such as hexanal and t,t-2,4-DDE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Certified reference materials for the determination of mineral oil hydrocarbons in water, soil and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Liebich, A.; Win, T.; Nehls, I.

    2005-07-01

    The international research project HYCREF, funded by the European Commission in the 5{sup th} Framework programme, aimed to develop methods to prepare homogeneous and stable water-, soil- and waste reference materials contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons and to test certify the mineral oil content by gas chromatographic methods. As mineral oil products are important sources for environmental contaminations a high need exists for certified reference materials for their determination using the new gas chromatographic methods (soil: ISO/FDIS 16703, waste: ENpr 14039, water: ISO 9377-2). The experimental conditions and results for preparation and characterisation of a total of nine reference materials (3 water, 3 soil- and 3 waste materials) are described and discussed. Target values for the reference materials were defined at the beginning of the project in order to have clear quality criteria, which could be compared with the achieved results at the end of the project. These target specifications were related to the maximum uncertainty from test certification exercises (<5% for soil/waste and <10% for water), the maximum inhomogeneity between bottles (<3%) and minimum requirements for stability (>5 years for soil/waste and >2 years for water). The feasibility studies showed that solid materials (soil, waste) could be prepared sufficiently homogeneous and stable. The test certified values of the 6 solid materials comprise a wide range of mineral oil content from about 200-9000 mg/kg with expanded uncertainties between 5.7-13.1% using a coverage factor k (k=2). The development of new water reference materials - the so-called ''spiking pills'' for an offshore- and a land-based discharge water represents one of the most innovative aspects of the project. The spiking pill technology facilitates the application and storage and improves the material stability compared with aqueous materials. Additional to the preparation and test certification of

  6. Evaluation of Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Some Waste Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Uluata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC and oxidative stability of cherry seed (SCO, sweet cherry seed (SCSO, mulberry seed (MSO and plum seed oil (PSO were determined. Oleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid (42.9-67.3%, and followed by linoleic acid (23.4-41.8% for SCO, SCSO and PSO. Linoleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid in MSO. γ-tocopherol was determined the main and highest tocopherol isomers varied from 579.9 to 605 mg/kg oil in SCO, SCSO and PSO, whereas δ-tocopherol was determined main tocopherol isomer with 1354mg/kg oil value in MSO. Plum seed oil (PSO was the highest antioxidant activity values in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. There was no significant differences in lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation among SCO, SCSO and MSO. PSO had the highest induction period (15.1 h, followed by MSO (1.4 h, SCSO (1.5 h, SCO(1.3 h. PSO was oxidatively more stable than the other oil samples. This research shows that these waste seed oils have high antioxidant capacity and tocopherol content, so they could be used in food industry.

  7. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercu...

  8. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes

  9. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-05

    In 1996, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil-field wastes (NOW) into salt caverns. Argonne determined that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, Argonne subsequently conducted a preliminary evaluation of the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in domal salt caverns. Steps used in this evaluation included the following: identifying potential contaminants of concern, determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing contaminant toxicities, estimating contaminant intakes, and calculating human cancer and noncancer risk estimates. Five postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and a partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (referring to noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results led to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  10. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomic concepts which originated with or were accepted by Elias Magnus Fries were presented during his lifetime in the printed word, illustrative depiction, and in collections of dried specimens. This body of work was welcomed by the mycological and botanical communities of his time: students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus...

  11. Efficient production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste activated bleaching earth using diesel oil as organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Seiji; Du, Dongning; Sato, Masayasu; Park, Enoch Y

    2004-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) discarded by the crude oil refining industry was investigated using fossil fuel as a solvent in the esterification of triglycerides. Lipase from Candida cylindracea showed the highest stability in diesel oil. Using diesel oil as a solvent, 3 h was sufficient to obtain a yield of approximately 100% of FAME in the presence of 10% lipase from waste ABE. Kerosene was also a good solvent in the esterification of triglycerides embedded in the waste ABE. Fuel analysis showed that the FAME produced using diesel oil as a solvent complied with the Japanese diesel standard and the 10% residual carbon amount was lower than that of FAME produced using other solvents. Use of diesel oil as solvent in the FAME production from the waste ABE simplified the process, because there was no need to separate the organic solvent from the FAME-solvent mixture. These results demonstrate a promising reutilization method for the production of FAME, for use as a biodiesel, from industrial waste resources containing waste vegetable oils.

  12. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J. H.; Kucera, Renata L.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Alboaiji, Salah F. K.; Muller, Katherine A.; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R.; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M.; Bhargava, Suresh K.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Lewis, David A.; Quinton, Jamie S.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury‐rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low‐cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by‐product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury‐capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi‐kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. PMID:28763123

  13. Laying Waste to Mercury: Inexpensive Sorbents Made from Sulfur and Recycled Cooking Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Max J H; Kucera, Renata L; Albuquerque, Inês S; Gibson, Christopher T; Sibley, Alexander; Slattery, Ashley D; Campbell, Jonathan A; Alboaiji, Salah F K; Muller, Katherine A; Young, Jason; Adamson, Nick; Gascooke, Jason R; Jampaiah, Deshetti; Sabri, Ylias M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Ippolito, Samuel J; Lewis, David A; Quinton, Jamie S; Ellis, Amanda V; Johs, Alexander; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2017-11-16

    Mercury pollution threatens the environment and human health across the globe. This neurotoxic substance is encountered in artisanal gold mining, coal combustion, oil and gas refining, waste incineration, chloralkali plant operation, metallurgy, and areas of agriculture in which mercury-rich fungicides are used. Thousands of tonnes of mercury are emitted annually through these activities. With the Minamata Convention on Mercury entering force this year, increasing regulation of mercury pollution is imminent. It is therefore critical to provide inexpensive and scalable mercury sorbents. The research herein addresses this need by introducing low-cost mercury sorbents made solely from sulfur and unsaturated cooking oils. A porous version of the polymer was prepared by simply synthesising the polymer in the presence of a sodium chloride porogen. The resulting material is a rubber that captures liquid mercury metal, mercury vapour, inorganic mercury bound to organic matter, and highly toxic alkylmercury compounds. Mercury removal from air, water and soil was demonstrated. Because sulfur is a by-product of petroleum refining and spent cooking oils from the food industry are suitable starting materials, these mercury-capturing polymers can be synthesised entirely from waste and supplied on multi-kilogram scales. This study is therefore an advance in waste valorisation and environmental chemistry. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Risk analyses for disposing nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Veil, J.; Caudle, D.

    1997-12-01

    Salt caverns have been used for several decades to store various hydrocarbon products. In the past few years, four facilities in the US have been permitted to dispose nonhazardous oil field wastes in salt caverns. Several other disposal caverns have been permitted in Canada and Europe. This report evaluates the possibility that adverse human health effects could result from exposure to contaminants released from the caverns in domal salt formations used for nonhazardous oil field waste disposal. The evaluation assumes normal operations but considers the possibility of leaks in cavern seals and cavern walls during the post-closure phase of operation. In this assessment, several steps were followed to identify possible human health risks. At the broadest level, these steps include identifying a reasonable set of contaminants of possible concern, identifying how humans could be exposed to these contaminants, assessing the toxicities of these contaminants, estimating their intakes, and characterizing their associated human health risks. The contaminants of concern for the assessment are benzene, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium. These were selected as being components of oil field waste and having a likelihood to remain in solution for a long enough time to reach a human receptor.

  15. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    KAUST Repository

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.; Saravanan, Chinnusamy G.; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350-400°C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO - diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NOx (nitrogen oxides) emission. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel and engine characterization study of catalytically cracked waste transformer oil

    KAUST Repository

    Prasanna Raj Yadav, S.

    2015-05-01

    This research work targets on the effective utilization of WTO (waste transformer oil) in a diesel engine and thereby, reducing the environmental problems caused by its disposal into open land. The novelty of the work lies in adoption of catalytic cracking process to chemically treat WTO, wherein waste fly ash has been considered as a catalyst for the first time. Interestingly, both the oil and catalyst used are waste products, enabling reduction in total fuel cost and providing additional benefit of effective waste management. With the considerable token that use of activated fly ash as catalyst requires lower reaction temperature, catalytic cracking was performed only in the range of 350-400°C. As a result of this fuel treatment process, the thermal and physical properties of CCWTO (catalytically cracked waste transformer oil), as determined by ASTM standard methods, were found to be agreeable for its use in a diesel engine. Further, FTIR analysis of CCWTO discerned the presence of essential hydrocarbons such as carbon and hydrogen. From the experimental investigation of CCWTO - diesel blends in a diesel engine, performance and combustion characteristics were shown to be improved, with a notable increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) and PHRR (peak heat release rate) for CCWTO 50 by 7.4% and 13.2%, respectively, than that of diesel at full load condition. In the same note, emissions such as smoke, HC (hydrocarbon) and CO (carbon monoxide) were noted to be reduced at the expense of increased NOx (nitrogen oxides) emission. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil and Performance Test with Diesel in CI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard of living, quality of life, and development of a nation depend on its per capita energy consumption. Global energy supply that mainly depends on fossil fuel is decreasing day by day. It is estimated that the energy demand will be increased five times by the year 2021 from present scenario. Due to the fossil fuel crisis, the development of alternative fuel technologies has drawn more attraction to deliver the replacement of fossil fuel. Pyrolysis is one of the promising alternative fuel technologies which produces valuable oil, char, and gas product from organic waste. Early investigations report that tire pyrolysis oil extracted from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to have properties similar to diesel fuel. The main concern of this paper is to produce and improve the properties of crude tire pyrolysis oil by desulfurizing, distilling, and utilizing it with diesel in CI engine to analyze the efficiency for various compositions.

  18. Removal of 14C-Prothiofos Insecticide from Chamomile Oil Using Agricultural and Industrial Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazi, B.; Abdel-Gawad, H.; Zayed, S.M.D.; Nowwar, G.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The removal of prothiofos from chamomile oil has been investigated as a function of adsorbent type, adsorbent concentration, time and temperature. Therefore, 14 C-prothiofos was prepared in our laboratory. Low cost adsorbent such as agricultural wastes (Rice bran, rice husk, and watermelon peels), industrial by-products (sawdust-bagasse) in addition to calcium oxide as a chemical adsorbent were used. It was found that, the best adsorbent concentration for the insecticide removal is 0.016 g adsorbent/g oil. The maximum removal of prothiofos from chamomile oil was 87%, 90% by using calcium oxide and watermelon peels, respectively at 30 degree C for 2 hours. Saw dust, bagasse and rice bran proved to be better for the insecticide removal at 40 degree C

  19. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, P.; Biktasheva, L.; Saveliev, A.; Ratering, S.; Schnell, S.; Selivanovskaya, S.

    2015-06-01

    Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and hydrophobicity. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg-1 waste, 4.4 of 226Ra, 2.8 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg-1 of 40K and its treated variant (1.6 g kg-1 of TPH, 7.9 of 226Ra, 3.9 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg-1 of 40K) were examined in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The raw waste sample (H) was collected from tanks during cleaning and maintenance, and a treated waste sample (R) was obtained from equipment for oil waste treatment. Thermal steam treatment is used in the production yard to reduce the oil content. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase in the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0-20 cm), middle (20-40 cm), and lower (40-60cm) layers, respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R- columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5

  20. The mycological legacy of Elias Magnus Fries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Knudsen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    : students and associates aided Fries and after his passing carried forward his taxonomic ideas. His legacy spawned a line of Swedish and Danish mycologists intent on perpetuating the Fries tradition: Hampus von Post, Lars Romell, Seth Lundell and John Axel Nannfeldt in Sweden; Emil Rostrup, Severin Petersen...... with clarity. In the 20th century, nomenclatural commissions legislated Fries's Systema and Elenchus as the "starting point" for names of most fungi, giving these books special recognition. The present paper attempts to trace Fries's legacy from his lifetime to the recent past....

  1. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesh, Sneha E.; Ramanathan, Anand; Begum, K.M. Meera S.; Narayanan, Anantharaman

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • KBr impregnated CaO has been used as heterogeneous catalyst. • Efficient use of waste cooking oil as feedstock. • Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize process parameters. - Abstract: This research paper deals with the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst (KBr/CaO) from commercial calcium oxide and potassium bromide by wet impregnation method. This solid catalyst was tested for transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Transesterification reaction parameters were varied to obtain the maximum yield of biodiesel. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to study the effect of the process variables like methanol to oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time. The optimum conditions obtained using regression models were found to be 12:1 methanol: oil ratio, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 1.8 h reaction time. The composition of FAME was determined using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). The performance and emission characteristics for various blends of biodiesel (B10, B20, B50 and B100) were investigated in a four stroke direct injection diesel engine. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency, particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide emissions reduced with increased concentration of biodiesel in the fuel blends, whereas the specific fuel consumption, NO x emissions and exhaust gas temperature increased

  2. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and porous carbons from printed circuit board waste pyrolysis oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Cui; Li Aimin; Gao Ningbo

    2010-01-01

    The possibility and feasibility of using pyrolysis oil from printed circuit board (PCB) waste as a precursor for advanced carbonaceous materials is presented. The PCB waste was first pyrolyzed in a laboratory scale fixed bed reactor at 600 deg. C to prepare pyrolysis oil. The analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that it contained a very high proportion of phenol and phenol derivatives. It was then polymerized in formaldehyde solution to synthesize pyrolysis oil-based resin which was used as a precursor to prepare carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and porous carbons. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission microscopy investigation showed that the resulting CNTs had hollow cores with outer diameter of ∼338 nm and wall thickness of ∼86 nm and most of them were filled with metal nanoparticles or nanorods. X-ray diffraction reveals that CNTs have an amorphous structure. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm analysis indicated the prepared porous carbons had a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 1214 m 2 /g. The mechanism of the formation of the CNTs and porous carbons was discussed.

  3. Prediction Primary Available Blend Biodiesel of Waste Oil from Aurantiochytrium sp. for General Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yao Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and enzyme transesterification were compared by discussing preliminary transesterification of waste oil of Aurantiochytrium sp., which was then used in transesterification for the primary available blend biodiesel for a general diesel engine in this study. We made progress on the winterized characteristics of the waste oil’s biodiesel of Aurantiochytrium sp. and its biodiesel, which included the reactivity parameters and properties. This approach led to the development of a novel idea for the evaluation of kinetic parameters of winterization, along with obtaining the suitable operation and storage conditions of biodiesel. Therefore, the waste oil of Aurantiochytrium sp. could be developed for biodiesel production and successfully made into a suitable blend diesel. Overall, we acquired the best condition of mixtures and the highly mixed rate of petrodiesel: biodiesel = 80 : 20 (activation energy of winterization 21.32 kJ/mol; onset temperature of winterization -4.15 °C; heat of combustion 43.15 MJ/kg; kinematic viscosity 3.51 mm2/s; flash point 67.5 °C, which was an appropriate blend biodiesel from the waste oil’s biodiesel of Aurantiochytrium sp.

  4. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  5. Effect of Various Pretreatments on Quality Attributes of Vacuum-Fried Shiitake Mushroom Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiqing Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pretreatments on the quality of vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom slices. Four different pretreatments addressed in this study were (1 blanching as control, (2 blanching and osmotic dehydration with maltodextrin (MD solution, (3 blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, (4 blanching and osmotic dehydration, followed by freezing. All samples were pretreated and then fried in palm oil at 90°C with vacuum degree of −0.095 MPa for 30 min. The results showed that pretreatments significantly (p0.05 differences of fried chip in the texture among the four different pretreatments. The aw values of all the fried chips were less than 0.38, indicating that the products had a long shelf life. Therefore, the blanching, osmotic dehydration, and coating pretreatment before vacuum frying was the most suitable pretreatment for vacuum-fried shiitake mushroom chips.

  6. Development of frozen-fried yam slices: Optimization of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frying conditions optimized with Box-Behnken experimental design were short pre-frying and frying conditions at high temperature characterized by prefrying temperature at 157-170°C during 5-9s and frying temperature at 181-188°C for 2min 15s-2min 30s; or long pre-frying and frying conditions at low temperature ...

  7. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  8. Co-pyrolysis of corn cob and waste cooking oil in a fixed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanyi; Liu, Cong; Ma, Wenchao; Zhang, Xiaoxiong; Li, Yanbin; Yan, Beibei; Zhou, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Corn cob (CC) and waste cooking oil (WCO) were co-pyrolyzed in a fixed bed. The effects of various temperatures of 500 °C, 550 °C, 600 °C and CC/WCO mass ratios of 1:0, 1:0.1, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 0:1 were investigated, respectively. Results show that co-pyrolysis of CC/WCO produce more liquid and less bio-char than pyrolysis of CC individually. Bio-oil and bio-char yields were found to be largely dependent on temperature and CC/WCO ratios. GC/MS of bio-oil show it consists of different classes and amounts of organic compounds other than that from CC pyrolysis. Temperature of 550 °C and CC/WCO ratio of 1:1 seem to be the optimum considering high bio-oil yields (68.6 wt.%) and good bio-oil properties (HHV of 32.78 MJ/kg). In this case, bio-char of 24.96 MJ/kg appears attractive as a renewable source, while gas with LHV of 16.06 MJ/Nm(3) can be directly used in boilers as fuel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  10. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole; Nishida, Keiya; Sarathy, Mani; Zhu, Jingyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinet