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Sample records for waste dump sites

  1. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  2. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... A step- wise model has been developed using ModelBuilder for selecting an economic but effective site for dumping mine waste using suitable constraints and criteria. This has facilitated the production of suitability maps generated from the various datasets being used for mine waste dump site selection.

  3. Geoelectrical Evaluation of Waste Dump Sites at Warri and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing waste dump sites in Delta State were investigated without soil disturbance by using the vertical electrical sounding (VES).The soil overlying the aquifer at Ovwian-Aladja dump site has resistively values, 11.84-85.50 Ohm-m, thicknesses,21.10-31.83m and at depths less than 1m, while at Warri it has resistively ...

  4. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research used the ModelBuilder tool and several GIS spatial analyst tools to select suitable sites for mine waste dump. The weighted overlay technique was adopted by first determining the necessary criteria and constraints and subsequently developing attributes for each criterion. The criteria used were grouped into a ...

  5. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  7. Jatibarang Final Solid Waste Dumping Site of Semarang City and Its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarto Edhisono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste is big problem in most cities in Indonesia. The problem which often raises, is the difficulty to find the land for solid waste dumping site. The local inhabitants could not accept if the dumping site location is closed to their residential. Therefore, the existing final dumping site is pushed to accommodate and receive solid waste from the entire of the city, although really the service time of the facility is over.This situation is occured on the Jatibarang Final Solid Waste Dumping Site (TPA Jatibarang of Semarang City, recently.The Municipal of Semarang City, has no other choice for final dumping site exept extending the service time of the TPA Jatibarang. Beside this, the TPA Jatibarang has specific  situation, because its location is closed to the Kreo River, one of the tributaries of Garang River, which at the down stream of this river is located intake of the city water supply treatment plant.The leachate of the solid waste is discharged into the Kreo River, which treated by using ordinary aeration method. Of course, this situation is the disadvantage of the TPA Jatibarang. This paper describes the condition of TPA Jatibarang, and its problems and how the efforts of the Municipal of Semarang to overcome this situation.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 120-F-1 Glass Dump Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-27

    The 120-F-1 waste site consisted of two dumping areas located 660 m southeast of the 105-F Reactor containing laboratory equipment and bottles, demolition debris, light bulbs and tubes, small batteries, small drums, and pesticide contaminated soil. It is probable that 108-F was the source of the debris but the material may have come from other locations within the 100-F Area. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Effects of an open Waste dump-site on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the quality of groundwater around an open dump-site was carried out using borehole water samples collected from two points each, close to the dump-site and a ... The dump-site can be said to have had effects on its surrounding groundwater with, increased levels of iron, THC, Nitrate, coliform, and EC.

  11. Characteristics and suitability of waste dump sites in Owerri, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sites were screened and ranked hydro-geologically and geo-technically in order of suitable, moderately suitable, and not suitable. Only one site in Avu at the outskirts of the town was found to be suitable while the other two were not suitable and therefore recommended for closure. A well-structured sanitary landfill is ...

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  14. Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The physico-chemical properties and toxic heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) levels were determined. ... Organic waste can provide nutrients for increased plant growth, and ... Mean ± SEM values of the physico-chemical properties of the abandoned waste dump soils with respect to the profiles. meq/100 g ...

  15. Characterization of temporal variations in landfill gas components inside an open solid waste dump site in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamori, Masanao; Mowjood, M I M; Watanabe, Youichi; Isobe, Yugo; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Kawamoto, Ken

    2016-12-01

    A long-term monitoring of composition of landfill gases in the region with high rainfall was conducted using an argon assay in order to discuss air intrusion into the dump site. Gas samples were taken from vertical gas monitoring pipes installed along transects at two sections (called new and old) of an abandoned waste dump site in Sri Lanka. N2O concentrations varied especially widely, by more than three orders of magnitude (0.046-140 ppmv). The nitrogen/argon ratio of landfill gas was normally higher than that of fresh air, implying that denitrification occurred in the dump site. Argon assays indicate that both N2 and N2O production occurred inside waste and more significantly in the old section. The Ar assay would help for evaluations of N2O emission in developing countries. A long-term monitoring of composition of landfill gases in the region with high rainfall was conducted using an argon assay in order to discuss air intrusion into the dump site. Argon assays indicate that both N2 and N2O production occurred inside waste and more significantly in the old section.

  16. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  17. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Harandra K. Sharma; Khurheed Ahmad Wani; Aakash Ahmad Bhat

    2017-01-01

    We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Resu...

  18. Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klatka Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Areal variability of the mineral soil cover in a reclaimed soda waste dumping site. This paper provides an analysis of the areal variability of the thickness and selected physical and chemical properties of the mineral cover formed in the process of settling ponds reclamation at the former Krakow Soda Plant “Solvay”. The topsoil is intended to provide a substrate for plants, therefore, its quality is the main determinant of the development for herbaceous and woody vegetation. Areal variability of the topsoil parameters was determined by kriging. In the context of the envisaged direction of management of the settling ponds, the analysis showed that electrical conductivity, thickness of the soil cover and the sand fraction content have potentially the highest impact on the diversification of vegetation. Understanding the spatial variability of the soil cover parameters, that are essential for vegetation, may contribute to increasing the efficiency of biological reclamation and also to cost reduction. Precise selection of the areas unsuitable for plant growth makes it possible to improve soil parameters on limited areas similarly as in the precision agriculture.

  19. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  20. Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18.

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-02-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000). The CAU includes two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 1; and 25-23-03, Contaminated Waste Dump Number 2. Investigation of CAU 143 was conducted in 1999. Analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine constituents of concern for CAU 143. Radionuclide concentrations in disposal pit soil samples associated with the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility West Trenches, the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility East Trestle Pit, and the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility Trench are greater than normal background concentrations. These constituents are identified as constituents of concern for their respective CASs. Closure-in-place with administrative controls involves use restrictions to minimize access and prevent unauthorized intrusive activities, earthwork to fill depressions to original grade, placing additional clean cover material over the previously filled portion of some of the trenches, and placing secondary or diversion berm around pertinent areas to divert storm water run-on potential.

  2. Waste dumping sites as a potential source of POPs and associated health risks in perspective of current waste management practices in Lahore city, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Saba [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Adeel [Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad PO: 45550 (Pakistan); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ali, Usman [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Zhang, Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) were analyzed in air, dust, soil and water samples from waste dump site, Lahore, Pakistan. It was revealed that PCB levels were detected higher in all matrices than PBDEs and DPs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed higher usage of BDE-47, -99 and di-CBs, tri-CBs, tetra-CBs and penta-CBs. Health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs from soil and dust indicated low to moderate risk to the local population via different exposure pathways. It is recommended to improve current waste management practices in order to avoid emissions of contaminants and open dumping grounds should be modified into sanitary landfill. - Highlights: • The pioneer study provides the baseline data from waste dumping site from Lahore. • Dump site of Lahore is the potential source of PCBs, PBDEs and DPs in nearby environment. • Fugacity fractions indicated air to soil deposition of PCBs and PBDEs.

  3. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  4. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  5. Waste dumping sites as a potential source of POPs and associated health risks in perspective of current waste management practices in Lahore city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Saba; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Ali, Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechloran plus (DP) were analyzed in air, dust, soil and water samples from waste dump site, Lahore, Pakistan. It was revealed that PCB levels were detected higher in all matrices than PBDEs and DPs. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed higher usage of BDE-47, -99 and di-CBs, tri-CBs, tetra-CBs and penta-CBs. Health risk assessment of PCBs and PBDEs from soil and dust indicated low to moderate risk to the local population via different exposure pathways. It is recommended to improve current waste management practices in order to avoid emissions of contaminants and open dumping grounds should be modified into sanitary landfill. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura A. Pastor

    2005-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. The CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 357 is comprised of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the NTS (Figure 1-1). The NTS is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 357 consists of 11 CASs that are mud pits located in Areas 7, 8, and 10. The mud pits were associated with drilling activities conducted on the NTS in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing. The remaining three CASs are boxes and pipes associated with Building 1-31.2el, lead bricks, and a waste dump. These CAS are located in Areas 1, 4, and 25, respectively. The following CASs are shown on Figure 1-1: CAS 07-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 07-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-01, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 08-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-02, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 10-09-06, Mud Pit, Stains, Material; CAS 01-99-01, Boxes, Pipes; CAS 04-26-03, Lead Bricks; and CAS 25-15-01, Waste Dump. The purpose of the corrective action activities was to obtain analytical data that supports the closure of CAU 357. Environmental samples were collected during the investigation to determine whether contaminants exist and if detected, their extent. The investigation and sampling strategy was designed to target locations and media most likely to be contaminated (biased sampling). A general site conceptual model was developed for each CAS to support and guide the investigation as outlined in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2003b). This CR

  7. Waste picker livelihoods and inclusive neoliberal municipal solid waste management policies: The case of the La Chureca garbage dump site in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Chris

    2018-01-01

    The modernization (i.e. mechanization, formalization, and capital intensification) and enclosure of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems threaten waste picker livelihoods. From 2009 to 2013, a major development project, embodying traditional neoliberal policies with inclusive social policies, transformed the Managua, Nicaragua, municipal solid waste site from an open-air dump where as many as 2,000 informal waste pickers toiled to a sanitary landfill. To investigate waste pickers' social and economic condition, including labor characteristics, household income, and poverty incidence, after the project's completion, 146 semi-structured survey questionnaires were administered to four communities adjacent to the landfill and 45 semi-structured interviews were completed with key stakeholders. Findings indicate that hundreds of waste pickers were displaced by the project, employment benefits from the project were unevenly distributed by neighborhood, and informal waste picking endures due to persistent impoverishment, thereby contributing to continued social and economic marginalization and environmental degradation. The findings highlight the limitations of inclusive neoliberal development efforts to transform MSWM in a low-income country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  9. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select viable corrective actions. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details for CAU 511, whereas programmatic aspects of this project are discussed in the ''Project Management Plan'' (DOE/NV, 1994). General field and laboratory quality assurance and quality control issues are presented in the ''Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan'' (NNSA/NV, 2002). Health and safety aspects of the project are documented in the current version of the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor's Health and Safety Plan and will be supplemented with a site-specific safety basis document. Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of the following nine corrective action sites in Nevada Test Site Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). Corrective Action Sites 18-99-10 and 19-19-03 were identified after a review of the ''1992 RCRA Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Volume IV, Section L Potential Solid Waste Management Unit'' (DOE/NV, 1992). The remaining seven sites were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds

  11. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  12. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 contaminated waste dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1 (with Record of Technical Change No. 1 and 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV)

    1999-06-28

    This plan contains the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate correction action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 143 consists of two waste dumps used for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Contaminated Waste Dump No.1 (CAS 25-23-09) was used for wastes generated at the Reactor Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (R-MAD) Facility and Contaminated Waste Dump No.2 (CAS 25-23-03) was used for wastes generated at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) Facility. Both the R-MAD and E-MAD facilities are located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. Based on site history, radionuclides are the primary constituent of concern and are located in these disposal areas; vertical and lateral migration of the radionuclides is unlikely; and if migration has occurred it will be limited to the soil beneath the Contaminated Waste Disposal Dumps. The proposed investigation will involve a combination of Cone Penetrometer Testing within and near the solid waste disposal dumps, field analysis for radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, as well as sample collection from the waste dumps and surrounding areas for off-site chemical, radiological, and geotechnical analyses. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  14. Dioxin-like and perfluorinated compounds in pigs in an Indian open waste dumping site: toxicokinetics and effects on hepatic cytochrome P450 and blood plasma hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Michio X; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2010-07-01

    Dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) and perfluorinated compounds were measured in the livers of pigs (Sus scrofa) collected from an open waste dumping site in South India. Hepatic concentrations of DRCs and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS; up to 200 ng/g wet wt) were significantly higher in male and female pigs, respectively, collected from the dumping site than in those from a reference site. Results suggest that dumping sites are a source of DRCs and PFOS. Hepatic concentrations of DRCs in piglets were higher than in mothers, especially for the congeners with molecular weights in the range of 360 to 400, implying congener-specific maternal transfer of DRCs in swine. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and some non-ortho dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the liver of pigs were higher than those in the adipose fat and muscle of the same specimens. In addition, the liver-to-adipose concentration ratios for each congener had a significant positive correlation with the levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A-like protein, suggesting congener-specific and CYP1A-dependent hepatic sequestration of DRCs in the swine. Total hepatic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs; 8.9-350 pg/g fat wt) had a significant positive correlation with CYP1A-like protein expression (r=0.56, p=0.012), suggesting the induction of CYP1A by DRCs. However, the total TEQs had a significant negative correlation with CYP4A-like protein (r=-0.49, p=0.029), suggesting repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha)-mediated signaling pathway by DRCs. Decreases in plasma total thyroxine (T4), free T4, and immunoglobulin (Ig) G were also found in pigs from the dumping site compared with those from the reference site. This study provides insight into the toxicological impacts of DRCs and perfluorinated compounds in wild animals from open waste dumping sites. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  15. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  16. Organohalogens and their hydroxylated metabolites in the blood of pigs from an open waste dumping site in south India: association with hepatic cytochrome P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Subramanian, Annamalai; Iwata, Hisato; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs) were measured in the blood of Eurasian wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from a municipal waste open dumping site (DS) and a reference site (RS) in South India. We showed that contamination with OH-PCBs was higher in female pigs from the DS than in all other adult pigs. The highest OH-PCB concentrations were found in piglets from the DS. Moreover, the hepatic expression levels of CYP1A and CYP2B were higher in piglets than in their dam, implying metabolism of PCBs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The OH-PCB congener profiles differed according to sex and collection sites, possibly because of variations in the expression levels of phase I and phase II enzymes among individual pigs, differences in the exposure sources, and maternal transfer of parent PCBs. The hepatic CYP1A expression levels were positively correlated with the blood concentrations of 4OH-CB107, 4OH-CB162, and 4OH-CB187, implying CYP1A-dependent formation of these OH-PCBs in the pig liver. We found no significant correlations between the blood concentrations of OH-PCBs and thyroid hormones (THs); however, the thyroxin (T4) levels were lower in pigs from the DS than in pigs from the RS. Our limited dataset suggest that induced CYP enzymes accelerate the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous molecules in pigs. Thus, besides parental compounds, the risk of hydroxylated metabolites entering wildlife and humans living in and around municipal open waste dumping sites should be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, July 2002, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 140 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-08-01, Detonation Pits; 05-08-02, Debris Pits; 05-17-01, Hazardous Waste Accumulation Site (Buried); 05-19-01, Waste Disposal Site; 05-23-01, Gravel Gertie; 05-35-01, Burn Pit; 05-99-04, Burn Pit; 22-99-04, Radioactive Waste Dump; 23-17-01, Hazardous Waste Storage Area. All nine of these CASs are located within Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas. This CAU is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The NTS has been used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. The CASs in CAU 140 were used for testing, material storage, waste storage, and waste disposal. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution criteria and resolve the decision statements. Phase I will determine if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels. This data will be evaluated at all CASs. Phase II will determine the extent of the contaminant(s) of concern (COCs). This data will only be evaluated for CASs with a COC identified during Phase I. Based on process knowledge, the COPCs for CAU 140 include volatile organics, semivolatile organics, petroleum hydrocarbons, explosive

  1. Suitability of hazard rating systems for air contamination from municipal solid waste dumps and improvements to enhance performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, R.K; Kumar, Amit; Nema, Arvind K; Datta, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    .... The hazard rating systems, considered useful in prioritizing these sites for remediation, are investigated for their suitability to assess air contamination of municipal solid waste (MSW) dumps...

  2. Joint Russian-Norwegian expedition to the dumping sites for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in the Stepovogo fjord of the Kara sea, August - September 2012: investigations performed and main results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Fedorova, Anastasia [Research and Production Association ' Typhoon' , 249038, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Kazennov, Alexey [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Lind, Bjorn; Gwynn, Justin; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Heldal, Hilde Elise [Institute of Marine Research, Bergen (Norway); Blinova, Oxana; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Khanh Pham, Mai; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut [IAEA-MEL (Monaco); Grishin, Denis [Krylov State Research Centre, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Salbu, Brit; Ole- Christian, Lind; Teien, Hans-Cristian [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway); Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Straalberg, Elisabeth [Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway); Logoyda, Igor [State Scientific Centre ' Yuzhmorgeologiya' , Gelendzhik (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Stepovogo fjord, located on the Eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, is one of the most important former Soviet Union dumping sites for radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. In addition to some 2000 dumped containers with conventional radioactive wastes, the nuclear submarine K-27 was dumped in Stepovogo fjord with two reactors loaded with spent nuclear fuel (SNF).Joint Russian and Norwegian surveys of the marine environment in Stepovogo fjord were first conducted in 1993 and 1994. In accordance with the working plan of the Joint Russian-Norwegian Expert Group on the Investigation of Radioactive Contamination in the Northern Areas, a follow up expedition into the radioecological status of Stepovogo fjord was carried out in August and September of 2012 onboard the R.V. 'Ivan Petrov' of the Roshydromet Northern Department. Investigations carried out in Stepovogo fjord during the expedition included: Sonar surveys, ROV inspections and in situ gamma measurements of the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 and dumped containers with radioactive waste Sampling of seawater, bottom sediments and marine biota. Results of the analysis of marine environmental samples performed by Russia, Norway and the IAEA, are presented and discussed in the paper. Preliminary measurements on surface sediments and water samples showed that the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination was generally low. However, slightly enhanced levels of {sup 137}Cs were detected in bottom seawater and sediment collected in the area with dumped containers. Measurements taken around the dumped nuclear submarine K-27 did not indicate any leakage of radioactive substances from the submarine. A similar picture for the level of radioactive contamination in Stepovogo fjord was observed in the first joint Russian-Norwegian expedition in 1993-94. (authors)

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-10-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 140: Waste Dumps, Burn Pits, and Storage Area, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 5, 22, and 23 of the NTS, CAU 140 consists of nine corrective action sites (CASs). Investigation activities were performed from November 13 through December 11, 2002, with additional sampling to delineate the extent of contaminants of concern (COCs) conducted on February 4 and March 18 and 19, 2003. Results obtained from the investigation activities and sampling indicated that only 3 of the 9 CASs at CAU 140 had COCs identified. Following a review of existing data, future land use, and current operations at the NTS, the following preferred alternatives were developed for consideration: (1) No Further Action - six CASs (05-08-02, 05-17-01, 05-19-01, 05-35-01, 05-99-04, and 22-99-04); (2) Clean Closure - one CAS (05-08-01), and (3) Closure-in-Place - two CASs (05-23-01 and 23-17-01). These alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated. Additionally, the alternatives meet all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 140.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  5. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  6. Radioecological studies of sites in the Northeast Atlantic used for dumping of low-level radioactive wastes. Results of the research cruises of FRV 'Walther Herwig' 1980-1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt, W.; Kanisch, G.; Kanisch, M.; Vobach, M.

    1985-06-01

    From 1980 to 1984, sites for the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes and unaffected sites in the Northeast Atlantic were investigated annually to determine their biological parameters and to estimate the radioactive contamination of the deep sea. The number of specimens, biomass data, and species composition of the plankton, pelagic nekton, bathypelagic nekton and benthic organisms in these sites were determined. To measure radioactivity, samples of water, plankton, pelagic nekton, bathypelagic nekton and benthos were taken, and an analysis was made for natural and artificial radionuclides. Besides the long-lived nuclides Sr-90, Cs-137, Pu-239, and Am-241, which arrive as fallout, the long-lived nuclides Bi-207 and Ag-108m were detected in organisms. The occurrence of short-lived nuclides, such as Mn-54, Ce-144, Sb-125, Zr/Nb-95, and Ru-106, due to fallout after the end of 1980 permitted an estimate of the downward vertical transport time of one year or less. The biological transport results in a slightly greater contamination of biota living at or just above the sea floor than organisms in the epi- and mesopelagic regions. Generally, the measured contamination levels in the deep sea could be attributed to fallout. Two sample series contained deep-sea organisms with clearly higher levels of contamination. This was attributed to dumped wastes, and in one case, three drums were recovered. These results indicate that the contamination of organisms by the dumped waste is restricted to the nearest environment of drums.

  7. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-07

    The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  8. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  9. Construction waste generation in Malaysia construction industry: illegal dumping activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M. H. I. A.; Kasim, N.; Mohamed, I.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Saikah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays development of construction in Malaysia has been effect to the increasing of construction waste. Additionally, the production of construction waste from construction projects has given negative impact to the environment especially in illegal dumping activities. The increasing number of illegal dumping activities from construction projects in Malaysia gives a sign that Malaysian construction waste management needs to be concerned. To date, a comprehensive criterion for construction waste management, particularly for a construction project in developing countries is still not clearly defined. Therefore, construction waste management in Malaysia needs further research. The objectives of this paper are to explore illegal dumping activities, and discuss the contributory factors of illegal dumping activities. Hence, this research conducted an interview with expertise in the area of construction waste management in order to scrutinise illegal dumping activities in Malaysia. The data from semistructured interviews were analysed by content analysis. Findings from this research will help to find out the strategies to reduce the illegal dumping activities. The final result also expected to increase the awareness and better solution for reducing illegal dumping activities in construction projects among construction players.

  10. Impact of waste dump on surface water quality and aquatic insect diversity of Deepor Beel (Ramsar site), Assam, North-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dharitri; Gupta, Susmita

    2017-10-06

    Water and aquatic insects were collected seasonally from site 1, the low-lying area of the dump near Deepor Beel, and from sites 2 and 3 of the main wetland and analysed. While dissolved oxygen (DO) increased from site 1 to site 3 in each season, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total alkalinity (TA) and free CO 2 (F-CO 2 ) decreased. Pb and Cd were found to exceed the limits set for drinking water in all the sites and seasons. Species richness (SpR) was found highest (23) at site 2 and lowest (14) at site 1. Sensitive species was absent. The Shannon (H') values at site 1 were  1 in most of the seasons. Biological monitoring scores (Biological Monitoring Working Party and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level) in different sites and seasons inferred severely poor to moderate water quality. At site 1, significant negative correlations were seen for Pb and Cr with SpR while Ni and Cu with insect density (ID). At site 2, TA had highly significant positive correlations with SpR and ID while Cu showed negative correlation with SpR. At site 3, ID had significant negative relationships with air temperature, water temperature, depth, TA, F-CO 2 , PO 4 3- and Cr. Canonical correspondence analysis triplot has clearly separated site 1 associated with tolerant species and highly influenced by TA, TDS, EC, F-CO 2, Cr, Ni, Cd and Zn confirming high anthropogenic activities on that site. Tolerant and semitolerant species were present at site 2 (influenced by depth and transparency) and site 3 (influenced by Pb and WT) both. Results of this study discerned that the dump site is the point source of pollution.

  11. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  12. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... such as air, soil, surface and ground water. The knowledge of the composition of leachates is important to determine the dump sites that require immediate remediation attention and their effective treatment approach. This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City.

  13. METAL CONTAMINATION AT DUMP SITES IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 7-31ppm for lead and 0.5-3.5ppm for cadmium. The significant difference between result obtained for refuse dump sites and the forest soil indicates that refuse dump sites most probably represent point sources of metal contamination to nearby environment. This study also examined metal mobility with 0.1M HCI solution.

  14. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 57.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices shall...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices shall...

  16. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  17. Reconstruction of the inner structure of small scale mining waste dumps by combining GPR and ERTdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Rudolf; Martin, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Two abandoned small waste dumps in the west of the Harz mountains (Germany) were analysed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Aim of the project (ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105)) is the assessment of the recycling potential of the mining residues taking into account environmental risks of reworking the dump site. One task of the geophysical prospection is the investigation of the inner structure of the mining dump. This is important for the estimation of the approximate volume of potentially reusable mining deposits within the waste dump. The two investigated dump sites are different in age and therefore differ in their structure. The older residues (< 1930) consist of ore processing waste from density separation (stamp mill sand). The younger dump site descends from comprises slag dump waste. The layer of fine grained residues at the first dump site is less than 6 m thick and the slag layer is less than 2 m thick. Both sites are partially overlain by forest or grassland vegetation and characterized by topographical irregularities. Due to the inhomogeneity of the sites we applied electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detailed investigation. Using ERT we could distinguish various layers within the mining dumps. The resistivities of the dumped material differ from the bedrock resistivities at both sites. The GPR measurements show near surface layer boundaries down to 3 - 4 m. In consecutive campaigns 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used. The GPR results (layer boundaries) were included into the ERT inversion algorithm to enable more precise and stable resistivity models. This needs some special preprocessing steps. The 3D-Position of every electrode from ERT measurement and the GPR antenna position on the surface require an accuracy of less than 1cm. At some points, the layer boundaries and radar wave velocities can be calibrated

  18. 40 CFR 228.15 - Dumping sites designated on a final basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping sites designated on a final... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.15 Dumping sites designated on a final basis. (a)(1) The sites identified in this section are approved for dumping the indicated...

  19. Comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO); Stellungnahme zu konzeptionellen Fragen der Freigabe zur Beseitigung auf einer Deponie bei Stilllegung und Abbau des Kernkraftwerks Obrigheim (KWO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian

    2015-08-03

    The comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO) cover the following issues: fundamentals of the 10 micro-Sv concept for clearance; specific regulations for the clearance of wastes from the dismantling of KWO for disposal on a dump site; disposal concept at shutdown and dismantling of KWO; measurements and control during clearance for disposal during shutdown and dismantling of KWO; documentation and reports.

  20. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  1. Studies on Municipal Solid Wastes Dumping on Soil Anions, Cations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly dumpsite soil nitrate level, percentage organic carbon, organic matter, sulphate and phosphate ions were significantly (P<0.05) increased with increased waste dumping. All the exchangeable cations and trace metals concentrations investigated were higher (P<0.05) than control levels. However, while the ...

  2. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  3. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  4. Open dumping site in Asian developing countries: a potential source of polychlorinated dibenz-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Minh; Tu, Binh Minh; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Sakai, Shinichi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sasikumar, Karuppian; Pham, Hung Viet; Bui, Cach Tuyen; Tana, Touch S; Prudente, Maricar S

    2003-04-15

    Open landfill dumping areas for municipal wastes in Asian developing countries have recently received particular attention with regard to environmental pollution problems. Because of the uncontrolled burning of solid wastes, elevated contamination by various toxic chemicals including dioxins and related compounds in these dumping sites has been anticipated. In this study, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam. Residue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in dumping site soils were apparently greater than those in soils collected in agricultural or urban areas far from dumping sites, suggesting that dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds. Observed PCDD/F concentrations in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines and Cambodia were comparable or higher than those reported for dioxin-contaminated locations in the world (e.g., near the municipal waste incinerators and open landfill dumping sites). Homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in dumping site soils from the Philippines and, to a lesser extent, from Cambodia and India reflected patterns of samples representing typical emissions, while profiles of agricultural or urban soils were similar to those of typical environmental sinks. This result suggests recent formation of PCDD/Fs in dumping site areas and that open dumping sites are a potential source of dioxins in Asian developing countries. Uncontrolled combustions of solid wastes by waste pickers, generation of methane gas, and low-temperature burning can be major factors for the formation of dioxins in dumping sites. Elevated fluxes of PCDD/Fs to soils in dumping sites were encountered in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi, and these levels were higher than those reported for other countries. Considerable loading rates

  5. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-02-02

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pdumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated geophysical surveys on waste dumps: evaluation of physical parameters to characterize an urban waste dump (four case studies in Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2004-10-01

    Geophysical surveys were carried out on different waste dumps to evaluate key geometric and physical parameters. Depending on the dump dimensions and physical characteristics different geophysical techniques were used. Vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization and seismic refraction techniques were integrated to eliminate the non-uniqueness of solutions and for a better understanding of the results. Physical parameters inside and outside the dumps were compared. The change of physical parameters such as resistivity, chargeability, and P-wave velocity allowed evaluation of waste dump geometry, leachate saturation levels, and thickness of waste. Furthermore, in illegal dumps, the size and waste type disposed could be evaluated. Calculated results were compared with plans and book-keeping from the dumps investigated.

  7. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  8. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... AngloGold Ashanti Iduapriem Mine is a surface gold mine which produces waste rock in its operations. The waste rock forms waste dumps which grow over the years, and will ultimately need to be closed down when they are filled to the maximum capacity. The mine has closure plans for the waste dumps ...

  9. Waste dumps in local communities in developing countries and hidden danger to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anetor, Gloria O

    2016-07-01

    The rapid industrialisation and urbanisation fuelled by a fast-growing population has led to the generation of a huge amount of waste in most communities in developing countries. The hidden disorders and health dangers in waste dumps are often ignored. The waste generated in local communities is usually of a mixed type consisting of domestic waste and waste from small-scale industrial activities. Among these wastes are toxic metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), halogenated organic compounds, plastics, remnants of paints that are themselves mixtures of hazardous substances, hydrocarbons and petroleum product-contaminated devices. Therefore, there is the urgent need to create an awareness of the harmful health effect of toxic wastes in developing countries, especially Nigeria. This is a review aimed at creating awareness on the hidden dangers of waste dumps to health in local communities in developing countries. Many publications in standard outlets use the following keywords: cancer, chemical toxicity, modern environmental health hazards, waste management and waste speciation in PubMed, ISI, Toxbase environmental digest, related base journals, and some standard textbooks, as well as the observation of the researcher between 1959 and 2014. Studies revealed the preponderance of toxic chemicals such as Pb, Cd, As and Hg in dump sites that have the risk of entering food chain and groundwater supplies, and these can give rise to endemic malnutrition and may also increase susceptibility to mutagenic substances, thereby increasing the incidence of cancer in developing countries. Industrialisation and urbanisation have brought about a change in the waste that is generated in contemporary communities in developing countries. Therefore, there is the need to embrace speciation and sound management of waste, probably including bioremediation. The populations in the local communities need regulatory agencies who are health educators as positive change

  10. Characterization of a former dump site in the Lagoon of Venice contaminated by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, and estimation of possible environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Zamengo, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Argese, Emanuele

    2009-10-01

    Bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator on a former contaminated site, the island of Sacca San Biagio (Lagoon of Venice), was examined in order to evaluate levels of pollutants and their potential mobility and availability. Heavy metal concentrations were determined and the actual contamination of the site was compared with national legislation on polluted sites. The site was mainly contaminated by zinc, copper and lead. Physico-chemical characterization of bottom ash was carried out by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with micro-analysis by EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry), for information on newly formed minerals. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of particles, compounds and clusters containing heavy metals and, in particular, the presence of barium sulfate, which was assumed to be a site-specific compound. Similarities between bottom ash and atmospheric PM10 collected on the adjacent island of Sacca Fisola were studied and a risk of aerodispersion of the fine fraction of ash was assumed. Lastly, in order to evaluate the potentially available fraction of metals (non-residual fraction) and the directly exchangeable fraction, two single extraction procedures with HCl and citric acid were carried out, respectively. Results showed a relatively low concentration of readily phyto-available metals, as well as the high concentrations found for some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in the potentially mobilizable fraction.

  11. Soil concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and trace metals from an electronic waste dump site in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana: Implications for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akortia, Eric; Olukunle, Olubiyi I; Daso, Adegbenro P; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2017-03-01

    Unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling operations have become a significant environmental issue as well as human health risk in developing countries across the world. The present study evaluated the extent of pollution in Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Accra, Ghana. The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and some selected trace metals were determined using gas chromatography electron impact ionization mass spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The concentrations of ∑ PBDEs ranged from 15.6 to 96.8ngg -1 dry weight, with an overall mean of 54.8ngg -1 dw. BDE-28 was the dominant congener followed by BDE-209 and BDE-47. The order of mean concentrations of the abundant trace metals was Fe>Cu>Pb≫Mn, with a mean range of .531-289mgkg -1 . Geoaccumulation index suggested that the surface soils deteriorated from moderate to high metal pollution, particularly for Cu, Pb and Fe. Of the trace metals analysed, Fe exhibited the highest concentration ranging from 3.97 to 918mgkg -1 . Correlation and principal component analyses suggested possible interactions between PBDEs and the trace metals analysed, while source assessment suggested that PBDEs and trace metals were mostly derived from inputs from the e-waste recycling activities. Average daily dose (ADD) was estimated using concentrations corresponding to 5th percentile, median and 95th percentile. Hazard quotients of 380 and 862 were obtained for adults and children respectively, for Cu and Pb which is a cause for concern especially for local children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Mechanical characterization of municipal solid waste from two waste dumps at Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, B J; Ramana, G V; Datta, Manoj

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the physical and mechanical properties of the emplaced municipal solid waste (MSW) recovered from different locations of the Ghazipur and Okhla dumps both located at Delhi, India. Mechanical compressibility and shear strength of the collected MSW were evaluated using a 300×300mm direct shear (DS) shear box. Compression ratio (Cc') of MSW at these two dumps varied between 0.11 and 0.17 and is falling on the lower bound of the range (0.1-0.5) of the data reported in the literature for MSW. Low Cc' of MSW is attributed to the relatively low percentages of compressible elements such as textiles, plastics and paper, coupled with relatively high percentages of inert materials such as soil-like and gravel sized fractions. Shear strength of MSW tested is observed to be displacement dependent. The mobilized shear strength parameters i.e., the apparent cohesion intercept (c') and friction angle (ϕ') of MSW at these two dumps are best characterized by c'=13kPa and ϕ'=23° at 25mm displacement and c'=17kPa and ϕ'=34° at 55mm displacement and are in the range reported for MSW in the literature. A large database on the shear strength of MSW from 18 countries that includes: the experimental data from 277 large-scale DS tests (in-situ and laboratory) and the data from back analysis of 11 failed landfill slopes is statistically analyzed. Based on the analysis, a simple linear shear strength envelope, characterized by c'=17kPa and ϕ'=32°, is proposed for MSW for preliminary use in the absence of site-specific data for stability evaluation of the solid waste landfill under drained conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metal uptake by native plants and revegetation potential of mining sulfide-rich waste-dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia; Valente, Teresa; Pamplona, Jorge; Braga, Maria Amália Sequeira; Pissarra, José; Gil, José António Grande; de la Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Waste dumps resulting from metal exploitation create serious environmental damage, providing soil and water degradation over long distances. Phytostabilization can be used to remediate these mining sites. The present study aims to evaluate the behavior of selected plant species (Erica arborea, Ulex europaeus, Agrostis delicatula, and Cytisus multiflorus) that grow spontaneously in three sulfide-rich waste-dumps (Lapa Grande, Cerdeirinha, and Penedono, Portugal). These sites represent different geological, climatic and floristic settings. The results indicate distinctive levels and types of metal contamination: Penedono presents highest sulfate and metal contents, especially As, with low levels of Fe. In contrast, at Lapa Grande and Cerdeirinha Fe, Mn, and Zn are the dominant metals. In accordance, each waste dump develops a typical plant community, providing a specific vegetation inventory. At Penedono, Agrostis delicatula accumulates As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn, showing higher bioaccumulation factors (BF) for Mn (32.1) and As (24.4). At Cerdeirinha, Ulex europaeus has the highest BF for Pb (984), while at Lapa Grande, Erica arborea presents high BF for Mn (9.8) and Pb (8.1). Regarding TF, low values were obtained for most of the metals, especially As (TF < 1). Therefore, the results obtained from representative plant species suggest appropriate behavior for phytostabilization measures.

  14. Determination of heavy metals in soils from dump site of tanneries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals were determined in soil samples at the dump site, Challawa town, Karfi Irrigation site and farmlands near the dump site by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that soil at the dump site contains significant amount of toxic elements. Hence remediation processes were ...

  15. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L. [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A.I. [SPA ``Typhoon``, Roshydromet (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Smaranda Masu; Maria Popa; Florica Morariu

    2015-01-01

    There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and m...

  17. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  18. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and microbial activity stimulating agent, based on an extract of brown seaweed EKO GEA Slovenia. In the second year the amount of biomass harvested was 2 to 2.9 times higher than in the first year of cultivation. Moreover plants not harvested in the second year of culture bore fruit. Also, the root network strongly stabilized the slag and boiler ash particles against land spreading. Rapid and effective rehabilitation of the landscape destroyed was achieved with the use of herbaceous crops of the species Lolium perenne. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ni, Zn, etc. in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from inert waste dump covered with vegetation.

  19. PERUBAHAN FISIK KERUANGAN DAN SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT DI KAWASAN SEKITAR TEMPAT PEMBUANGAN AKHIR SAMPAH BANTARGEBANG KOTA BEKASI (Physical Environmental and Social Economic Changing in Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping Site Area Surrounding Bekasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kesuma

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan perubahan fisik keruangan dan sosial ekonomi masyarakat di kawasan sekitar TPA Sampah Bantargebang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah gabungan metode kualitatif dengan metode kuantitatif dengan pendekatan rasionalitas, yaitu data dan informasi dilapangan dikomparasikan dengan teori dan konsep yang berhubungan dengan masalah yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat perubahan fisik keruangan di walayah penelitian yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya area terbangun, yaitu tumbuhnya tempat-tempat permukiman pemulung warung-warung, rumah-rumah penduduk, bertambah panjang dan lebarnya jalan, serta menurunnya kualitas air tanah, udara dan kesuburan lahan; (2 terdapat perubahan pada kondis; sosial masyarakat yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk, kegiatan ekonomi atau lapangan kerja, rendahnya angka partisipasi kasar pada setiap tingkat pendidikan, menurunnya derajat kesehatan masyarakat, serta terganggunya kenyamanan lingkungan yang akhirnya mengurangi kesejahteraan masyarakat; (3 terdapat perubahan pada ekonomi penduduk ke arah yang lebih baik, yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya jumlah pendapatan dan terbukanya peluang mengembangkan usaha sampingan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa bagi lingkungan sekitar dan masyarakat di wilayah penelitian sebara umum keberadaan TPA Sampah Bantargebang lebih memberikan pengaruh negatif daripada positif.   ABSTRACT This research aims to identify and to explain physical spatial and social economic community changing in the Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping site area  and it surroundings. The research used deductive rational approach, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. comparison between data and information collected in the field, and the concept and theory related to the subject. The research identified physical, social, and economic changes. The

  20. THE THREAT OF WORSENING THE QUALITY OF SURFACE AND UNDERGROUND WATERS CAUSED BY AN UNRECULTIVATED WASTE DUMPING SITE IN TŁOKINIA KOŚCIELNA NEAR KALISZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Jan Małecki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This food industry waste landfill is located in Tłokinia Kościelna near Kalisz in the basin of the Pokrzywnica and the Swędrnia rivers. There is a legitimate fear concerning the influence of the unreclaimed landfill on the quality of surface waters in the Swędrnia and the Pokrzywnica rivers, the retention water in Pokrzywnica reservoir in Szałe and the quality of high protection underground waters of the main underground waters reservoir number 311. Additionally, saline ground waters coming from the landfill have a negative effect on underground structures (foundations, engineering networks, hydrotechnical and water-drainage structures. The waste landfill in Tłokinia Kościelna has to be reclaimed in accordance with the legally binding rules and engineering art.

  1. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Della Rosa, Giulia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-06-16

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5-43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  2. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Rosa, Giulia Della; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators. PMID:26086704

  3. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed, most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence. Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat; (c potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  4. Analysis of underground and surface waters of the dump of the solid communal waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almášová Kristína

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the contamination of underground and surface waters in the surroundings of the dump of the solid communal waste at the locality Cemjata in the East Slovakia,as well as with the development of the contamination in the surrounding of the dump depending on the time on the basis of the analysisof samples withdrawn from the net of drillholes in the observed area. In the area investigated there is described geological, geomorphological, climatic and hydrogeological situation, as well as the dump itself. The results acquired show that the contamination of the area brought about by medium size industrial and agricultural activity in the vicinity of the dump of the solid communal waste and inside the area investigated is comparable with the dangerous effects of the dump of the solid communal waste.

  5. Investigation on the oxygen transport mechanisms in the Sarcheshmeh waste rock dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Yousefi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD are the serious environmental problems associated with the mining activities in sulphide ores. The rate of pyrite oxidation is governed by the availability of oxygen (Borden, 2003. Therefore, the identifying oxygen supplying mechanism is one of the most important issues related to the environmental assessment of waste rock dumps (Cathles and Apps, 1975; Jaynes et al., 1984; Davis and Ritchie, 1986. Although comprehensive researches were performed on the mathematical description of oxygen transport processes using the numerical modeling (Morin et al., 1988; Blowes et al., 1991; Wunderly et al., 1986; Elberling et al., 1994; Jannesar Malakooti et al., 2014, so far, the interactions between these processes and geochemical and mineralogical characteristics has not been studied especially in waste rock dumps. Therefore the main objective of this study is to identify the evidences for knowing the oxygen transport mechanisms in the waste dumps and also, its role in intensity of pyrite oxidation. It is expected that such these structural studies could be useful for better understanding of dominant processes in numerical modeling and also providing environmental management strategies in the study area and other sites by similar characteristics. Materials and Methods In this study, thirty solid samples were collected from six excavated trenches in the waste rock dumps No. 19 and 31 of the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper mine. Collected samples were studied using several methods such as XRD, ASTM-D2492, paste pH and grain size distribution. The results obtained from these methods were used with the field observations in order to characterize some detail information about oxygen supplying mechanisms for oxidation reactions in the waste rock dumps. Result The main minerals found by the XRD analysis were quartz and muscovite which were present in all samples. Pyrite, orthose, albite, and chlorite were also

  6. Joint Norwegian-Russian mission to investigate dumped atomic waste in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    In autumn 2012, a joint Norwegian-Russian mission will visit areas in the Kara Sea where spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste have been dumped. The purpose of the mission is to obtain new, up-to-date information about radioactive pollution in these areas and about the condition of the dumped items (Author)

  7. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  8. Main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to the dumping sites of the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste in Stepovogo Fjord, Novaya Zemlya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nikitin, Aleksander; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Lind, Bjørn; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole Christian; Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Bakke, Gunnar; Kazennov, Alexey; Grishin, Denis; Fedorova, Anastasia; Blinova, Oxana; Sværen, Ingrid; Lee Liebig, Penny; Salbu, Brit; Wendell, Cato Christian; Strålberg, Elisabeth; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Logoyda, Igor; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Pham, Mai Khanh; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to investigate the radioecological situation of the Stepovogo Fjord on the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, where the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste was dumped. Based on in situ gamma measurements and the analysis of seawater and sediment samples taken around the submarine, there was no indication of any leakage from the reactor units of K-27. With regard to the radioecological status of Stepovogo Fjord, activity concentrations of all radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota in 2012 were in general lower than reported from the previous investigations in the 1990s. However in 2012, the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and, to a lesser extent, those of (90)Sr remained elevated in bottom water from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord compared with surface water and the outer part of Stepovogo Fjord. Deviations from expected (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in some sediment samples from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord observed in this study and earlier studies may indicate the possibility of leakages from dumped waste from different nuclear sources. Although the current environmental levels of radionuclides in Stepovogo Fjord are not of immediate cause for concern, further monitoring of the situation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation...) Atchafalaya-West Ocean Disposal Site (ODMDS-West) as a permanent MPRSA Section 102(c) ocean dredged material... Management and Monitoring Plan E. Ocean Dumping Site Designation Criteria --General Selection Criteria...

  11. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  12. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  13. Geochemical Characterization of the Waste Rock Dump at the abandoned Geo-pung Mine, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Lee, H.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Park, H.

    2008-05-01

    To propose basic data for the establishment of the reclamation plan of the mine waste rock dumps, the geochemical studies including Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) test, water quality analyses of leachate and run-off waters, metal extraction test, and pot test were performed at the abandoned Geo-pung mine, located in the middle part of Korea. The acid generation capacities of the Geo-pung mine waste rocks (samples from ten points at the waste dump) showed high acid forming potential except for one point (G7). The maximum value of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential), which calculated by total sulfur (MPA, Maximum Potential Acidity, kg H2SO4/t) and ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), was 80.94 kg H2 SO4/t. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the leachate from the waste rock dump have high concentration of Al (56 mg/l), Mn (39 mg/l), Cu (26.3 mg/l), Zn (155.3 mg/l), SO42- (1430 mg/l) and low pH (3.19). Run-off waters (surface flow of waste dump when rain) were, although partly different, showed high concentration of Al (1.7 ~ 20.2 mg/l), Cu (1.8 ~ 14.7 mg/l), Zn (2.4 ~ 26.5 mg/l) and low pH (3.08 ~ 4.07). From the metal extraction test, concentration of zinc was showed high level, from 579 mg/kg to 3,934 mg/kg. The upper parts of the Geo-pung mine waste dump have very low nutrient which needed for plant growth. The organic content was 9 g/kg, bioavailable phosphate was 0.1 mg/kg, and the exchangeable cation (K, Na, Mg) content also under the limit value (1 mg/kg) for the plant growth. The result of pot test also showed that this waste dump is unsuitable for media for plant growth due to lack of nutrient components. So when establish the reclamation plan of the Geo- pung mine waste dump, the cover system which have the function of prevention of sulfide oxidation and provision of nutrient with neutralize materials for revegetation must be considered. key words : Abandoned Mine, Waste Rock Dump, Acid-Base Accounting, Cover System

  14. Effect of Waste Dumps on Groundwater in Choba using Geophysical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquire data in two locations namely; at the dumpsite and at University Demonstration Secondary School adjudged to be free from dumps which served as a control. The result of the survey interpreted by 1P12 win and offix softwares shows two characteristic curve types: - Type A curve at the dumpsite and Type H curve at ...

  15. Ecological risk assessment of an open dumping site at Mehmood Booti Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Asifa; Tabinda, Amtul Bari; Qadir, Abdul; Butt, Talib E; Siddique, Sidra; Mahmood, Adeel

    2017-07-01

    A robust risk assessment of Mehmood Booting Open Dumping (MBOD) site has been carried out by developing holistic risk assessment framework. Framework mainly comprises on baseline study, hazard identification, and risk quantification and evaluation. Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater and leachate, health risk assessment, and estimation of gas emissions from the site were carried out for risk evaluation. LandGEM 3.02 modelling software was used to measure the gas emissions. Analysis of leachate showed that all parameters were exceeding the WHO standard limit. Water samples were found polluted with heavy metals and total coliform contamination. Health survey inferred that problems which were faced by the majority of respondents were respiratory problems (80%). LandGEM model estimated that total landfill gas (TLG) emitted from the site for the year 2014 was 1.760E+05 Mg/year, CH4 emission was 5.445E+06 Mg/year, CO2 emission was 1.290E+05 Mg/year and for non-methane organic compound emission was 2.021E+03 Mg/year. It can be concluded that in the near future, almost all the water locations are possibly threatened with leachate contamination due to the continued accumulation of solid waste at MBOD site. The study recommends that new sanitary landfill sites should be designed to minimize the adverse effects associated with solid waste disposal and to preclude further pollution to surface water, groundwater, soil, and air.

  16. The problem with coal-waste dumps inventory in Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Anna; Chybiorz, Ryszard

    2017-04-01

    Coal-waste dumps are the side effect of coal mining, which has lasted in Poland for 250 years. They have negative influence on the landscape and the environment, and pollute soil, vegetation and groundwater. Their number, size and shape is changing over time, as new wastes have been produced and deposited changing their shape and enlarging their size. Moreover deposited wastes, especially overburned, are exploited for example road construction, also causing the shape and size change up to disappearing. Many databases and inventory systems were created in order to control these hazards, but some disadvantages prevent reliable statistics. Three representative databases were analyzed according to their structure and type of waste dumps description, classification and visualization. The main problem is correct classification of dumps in terms of their name and type. An additional difficulty is the accurate quantitative description (area and capacity). A complex database was created as a result of comparison, verification of the information contained in existing databases and its supplementation based on separate documentation. A variability analysis of coal-waste dumps over time is also included. The project has been financed from the funds of the Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) received by the Centre for Polar Studies for the period 2014-2018.

  17. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  18. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost was then estimated using price quotes from vendors or contractors located around the mining area. Results showed that waste dump closure and reclamation programme for Iduapriem Mine are consistent with Ghana Mining and Environmental guidelines. The total closure and reclamation cost was estimated to be ...

  19. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Michal; Drahota, Petr; Machovič, Vladimír; Böhmová, Vlasta; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2015-12-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L(-1). Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R2=0.97, p<0.001) indicating that incongruent dissolution of ferric arsenates controls dissolved As well as the pH of the percolating waste solution. Arsenic released from the dissolution of ferric arsenates into the pore water is, however, trapped by latter and lower-down precipitating jarosite and especially ferric (hydr)oxides. The efficiency of As sequestration by ferric (hydr)oxides in the waste dump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, B. van; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M. de; Besten, P.J. den; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D

    2003-07-01

    Marine benthic resources near dumping sites are adversely affected by physical disturbances, but a causal link to contaminant damage could not be found. - The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 {mu}m) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m{sup 3} of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an

  1. Identification and analysis the illegal dumping spot of solid waste at Ciliwung segment 5 riverbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ciliwung River is the main river in the area of Jakarta that is divided into six segments across West Java and Jakarta. The study focuses on the fifth segment which is 30 km long, covering from Kelapa Dua Depok to Manggarai, South Jakarta. The survey of the river consists of 3 sub-segments: Lenteng Agung, Pejaten Timur and Manggarai. Objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and typology of the residential surrounding the Ciliwung Segment 5 Riverbank, to identification the illegal dumping spot of solid waste, to measure the volume and composition of solid waste in the riverbank, to decide solid waste management for residential area surrounding river banks to control the river pollution. The study shows that there are 11 illegal dumping spot of solid waste consisting of 4.37 m3 solid waste volume. The average composition of solid waste consists of 44% organic, 14% woods, 12% papers, 11% plastics, 3% rubbers, 1% metals and 2% others. To control the river pollution efforts are restoring the function of riverbanks to become green open space area, installing the trash rack into the river, to manage domestic solid waste based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept.

  2. Collective doses to man from dumping of radioactive waste in the Arctic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Iosjpe, M.; Strand, P.

    1997-01-01

    )-C-137, Pu-239 and Am-241 into a fjord on the east coast of NovayaZemlya. The results show that doses for the shorter-lived radionuclides (e.g. Cs-137) are derived mainly from seafood production in the Parents Sea. Doses from the longer-lived radionuclides (e.g. Pu-239) are delivered through marine...... produce further away from the Arctic Ocean. Collective doses were calculated for two release scenarios, both of which are based on information of the dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas by the former Soviet Union and on preliminary information from the International Arctic Sea...... Assessment Programme. A worst-case scenario was assumed according to which all radionuclides in liquid and solid radioactive waste were available for dispersion in the marine environment at the time of dumping. Release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel was assumed to take place by direct corrosion...

  3. Nitrate release from waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fazilatun N; Barbour, S Lee; Kennedy, C; Hendry, M Jim

    2017-12-15

    The origin, distribution and leaching of nitrate (NO 3 - ) from coal waste rock dumps in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada were defined using chemical and NO 3 - isotope analyses (δ 15 N- and δ 18 O-NO 3 - ) of solids samples of pre- and post-blast waste rock and from thick (up to 180m) unsaturated waste rock dump profiles constructed between 1982 and 2012 as well as water samples collected from a rock drain located at the base of one dump and effluent from humidity cell (HC) and leach pad (LP) tests on waste rock. δ 15 N- and δ 18 O-NO 3 - values and NO 3 - concentrations of waste rock and rock drain waters confirmed the source of NO 3 - in the waste rock to be explosives and that limited to no denitrification occurs in the dump. The average mass of N released during blasting was estimated to be about 3-6% of the N in the explosives. NO 3 - concentrations in the fresh-blast waste rock and recently placed waste rock used for the HC and LP experiments were highly variable, ranging from below detection to 241mg/kg. The mean and median concentrations of these samples ranged from 10-30mg/kg. In this range of concentrations, the initial aqueous concentration of fresh-blasted waste rock could range from approximately 200-600mg NO 3 - -N/L. Flushing of NO 3 - from the HCs, LPs and a deep field profile was simulated using a scale dependent leaching efficiency (f) where f ranged from 5-15% for HCs, to 35-80% for the LPs, to 80-90% for the field profile. Our findings show aqueous phase NO 3 - from blasting residuals is present at highly variable initial concentrations in waste rock and the majority of this NO 3 - (>75%) should be flushed by recharging water during displacement of the first stored water volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Liikala, Terry L.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2000-12-11

    PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for "No Further Action" by previous invesitgators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.

  5. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  7. Selected Black-Coal Mine Waste Dumps in the Ostrava-Karviná Region: An Analysis of Their Potential Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Dominik; Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Marschalko, Marian; Kubáč, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The paper aims to analyse the options for the use of selected black-coal mine waste dump bodies in the Ostrava-Karviná Region. In the Czech Republic there are approximately 70 mine waste dumps, out of which 50 are located in the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District. The issue is highly topical, particularly in the region, because the dump bodies significantly affect the landscape character of the Ostrava-Karviná Region and pose ecological risks. In such cases, their redevelopment and land reclamation are not easy either from the environmental or economic points of view. It is clear that the redevelopment of such geological environment is difficult, and it is vital to make the right decisions as for what purposes the mine waste dumps should be used. Next, it is important to take into account all the economic and environmental aspects of the locality in question.

  8. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Areas 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 8/28/2002), Record of Technical Change No. 2 (dated 9/23/2002), and Record of Technical Change No. 3 (dated 6/2/2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada

    2001-11-21

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 168 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 168 consists of a group of twelve relatively diverse Corrective Action Sites (CASs 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; 25-99-16, USW G3; 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2). These CASs vary in terms of the sources and nature of potential contamination. The CASs are located and/or associated wit h the following Nevada Test Site (NTS) facilities within three areas. The first eight CASs were in operation between 1958 to 1984 in Area 25 include the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Missile Experiment Salvage Yard; the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility; the Radioactive Materials Storage Facility; and the Treatment Test Facility Building at Test Cell A. Secondly, the three CASs located in Area 26 include the Project Pluto testing area that operated from 1961 to 1964. Lastly, the Underground Southern Nevada Well (USW) G3 (CAS 25-99-16), a groundwater monitoring well located west of the NTS on the ridgeline of Yucca Mountain, was in operation during the 1980s. Based on site history and existing characterization data obtained to support the data quality objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for CAU 168 are primarily radionuclide; however, the COPCs for several CASs were not defined. To address COPC

  10. Earthworms as bio-indicators of metal pollution in dump sites of Abeokuta City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bamgbose

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal concentrations (Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd and Cr and contents were measured in earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus and soil samples from three non-contaminated sites and ten dump sites located in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Samples from control sites show (in general levels of metals to be higher in earthworms than in soil samples, as shown by the mean concentrations, (earthworms-soil: - Zn:7.02, 6.74, Pb:5.04, 4.94, Mn 10.54, 10.41, Cu:1.03, 1.60., Cd: 0.80, 0.81 and Cr:0.55, 0.49 µg/g while for samples from dump sites, irrespective of the degree of pollution, the ratio of metal concentration in earthworms to soil samples were less than unity with the exception of Cd and Cr. The availability of metals in soils was also co-determined by the soil pH and soil organic matter which accounted for the trend of metal concentration at the various dump sites. For the control sites, the pH ranged from 5.40 - 6.74 and soil organic matter from 3.25% to 3.40%, while for the dump sites, values of 7.44-10.10 and 5.79% - 7.59% were obtained for soil pH and soil organic matter respectively. The metal ion concentration in both soil and earthworm samples followed the trend Pb > Zn > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd. Dump sites with high levels of Pb were located by roadsides of busy highways.

  11. Brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls in human breast milk from several locations in India: potential contaminant sources in a municipal dumping site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the status of contamination of organohalogen compounds (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardant (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in human milk samples from several locations in India. The levels of OCs were significantly higher in the milk of mothers living in and near municipal dumping site than other locations indicating that the open dumping sites for municipal wastes act as potential sources of these contaminants in India. The PCB concentrations observed in this study tended to decrease compared to those in the matched locations reported previously, probably due to the restriction of technical PCB usage in India. PBDE levels in human milk were two to three folds lower than those of PCBs in all the sampling locations investigated. Congener profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were different between samples from the dumping site mothers and general populations in other areas suggesting the presence of region-specific sources and pathways. HBCDs were detected in human milk from only two sites, with much lower concentrations and detection frequencies compared to PCBs and PBDEs. When hazard quotients (HQs) of PCBs and PBDEs were estimated for infant health risk, the HQs in some milk samples from the dumping site exceeded the threshold value (HQ>1) of PCBs, indicating the potential risk for infants in the specific site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, van B.; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, de M.; Besten, den P.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity,

  13. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M.; Den Besten, P.J.; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity,

  14. Geology beneath and beside the notorious Payatas open dump, Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarong, C.; Arcilla, C.; de Sales, L.; Chua, S.; Garcia, E.; Pamintuan, G.

    2003-04-01

    With a minimum of 6000 tonnes/day municipal waste output, and with NO existing operational sanitary landfill and with incineration illegal, Metro Manila has a very serious solid waste disposal problem. Unsorted municipal waste are being piled in open dumps, the most notorious of which is the Payatas open dump. A recent, tragic garbage-slide in this open dump caused dozens of deaths, news of which were broadcast internationally. Political expediency laced with a lot of corruption, rather than sound science, was the main basis for selecting this site as an open dump. As an example, this dump is situated government, a feasibility study was conducted to assess the methane generation potential of Payatas. This interdisciplinary study comprised bedrock geological studies, topographic mapping of the dump, drilling of the dump to obtain stratigraphic solid waste samples for waste characterization, laying of horizontal methane and dewatering pipes, and preliminary methane flow studies. The waste characterization has highlighted the unusually high organic (especially yard waste) component of the solid waste dumped at Payatas. Waste characterization shows that a significant portion of the waste is plastics. Several cross-sections cut across the dump show that the side slopes of the dump are on the average steeper than the pre-dump slopes. The “bedrock” of the Payatas dump are conglomerate members of the Pleistocene volcaniclastic Guadualupe Formation. Studies are still to be done on the extent of pollution on surface and groundwater in the Payatas environs.

  15. A methodology guide for the retrofit of rubbish dump sites; Guide methodologique pour la remise en etat des decharges d`ordures menageres et assimiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This guide, developed by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Conservation, is aimed for local communities and gives information on impacts and constraints due to municipal waste disposal and sites, and ways to retrofit a dumping site: nuisances, present and future risks related to pollution, safety and hygiene are presented, together with the various types of wastes, responsibilities and legislations related to these issues; the guide also gives information on diagnosis, audit study and retrofitting methodologies, considering the risks and rehabilitation opportunities. Reference and document models (composition and evolution of liquid and gaseous effluents, inquiry forms, diagnosis study,...) are also presented

  16. Native fungi as metal remediators: Silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (Libiola Mine, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Grazia; Marescotti, Pietro; Di Piazza, Simone; Zotti, Mirca

    2017-03-04

    Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams) isolated from a silver polluted site. The aim was to select silver tolerant native strains and test their potential silver uptake. Among the three species tested, T. harzianum was the most efficient strain to tolerate and accumulate silver, showing an uptake capability of 153 mg L(-1) taken at the Ag concentration of 330 mg L(-1). Our study highlights the potential use of native microfungi spontaneously growing in sulphide-rich waste rock dumps, for silver bioaccumulation and bioremediation.

  17. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ILLEGAL DUMPING AND IT’S SPATIAL AUTOREGRESSION: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Chang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the data pertaining to the illegal dumping of municipal solid waste in the Republic of Korea for the year 2011 to check for the presence of spatial autoregression of illegal dumping among 224 basic autonomous units with reference to the “Broken Windows Theory.” We found that a pure neighborhood effect exists even after controlling for conventional variables that explain illegal dumping behavior. Interestingly, however, the neighborhood effect is largely offset by so-called relative price effect such that the number of illegal dumping reported in one region is in fact decreased as the price of vinyl bag for MSW in neighboring regions increases, which is seemingly against the implication of the “Broken Windows Theory.”

  18. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  19. Oceanographic studies off Beypore Port, west coast of India to locate a dredge dumping site

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Srinivas, K.; Thottam, T.J.

    (GPS) over different stages of the tide to obtain the trajectories of surface currents. The representative trajectories obtained for releases at the start LOCATING A DUMPING SITE ALONG THE WEST COAST OF INDIA 279 Figure 12. Progressive vector diagram... with significant offshore movement during flood tides. Trajectories of the drogue released at these depths during ebb moved in the westerly direction initially and then showed a southerly drift. Drogue trajectories for the drogue released during ebb and flood tides...

  20. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  1. Risk assessment of particle dispersion and trace element contamination from mine-waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Antonio; González, Isabel; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora; Ortiz, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a model to delimit risk zones influenced by atmospheric particle dispersion from mine-waste dumps is developed to assess their influence on the soil and the population according to the concentration of trace elements in the waste. The model is applied to the Riotinto Mine (in SW Spain), which has a long history of mining and heavy land contamination. The waste materials are separated into three clusters according to the mapping, mineralogy, and geochemical classification using cluster analysis. Two of the clusters are composed of slag, fresh pyrite, and roasted pyrite ashes, which may contain high concentrations of trace elements (e.g., >1 % As or >4 % Pb). The average pollution load index (PLI) calculated for As, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Tl, and Zn versus the baseline of the regional soil is 19. The other cluster is primarily composed of sterile rocks and ochreous tailings, and the average PLI is 3. The combination of particle dispersion calculated by a Gaussian model, the PLI, the surface area of each waste and the wind direction is used to develop a risk-assessment model with Geographic Information System GIS software. The zone of high risk can affect the agricultural soil and the population in the study area, particularly if mining activity is restarted in the near future. This model can be applied to spatial planning and environmental protection if the information is complemented with atmospheric particulate matter studies.

  2. Mapping and Study of Possible Chemical Contamination from Military Material Found in Dumping Site in the Trondheimsfjord

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Tony Helmersen

    2016-01-01

    This thesis has revolved around a dumping site at approximately 600 m depth in the Trondheimsfjord containing military material from the Second World War. Both water and sediment samples have been taken in and around the dumping site, where the main objective has been looking for metal(loid) contamination and the presence of organic explosives. Certain elements in the periodic table are toxic to aquatic organisms, and are therefore unwanted in the aquatic environment. Lead, mercury, and partl...

  3. Indicators of sewage contamination in sediments beneath a deep-ocean dump site off New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Takada, H.; Knight, I.T.; Hill, R.T.; Butman, B.; Farrington, J.W.; Colwell, R.R.; Grassle, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    The world's largest discharge of municipal sewage sludge to surface waters of the deep sea has caused measurable changes in the concentration of sludge indicators in sea-floor sediments, in a spatial pattern which agrees with the predictions of a recent sludge deposition model. Silver, linear alkylbenzenes, coprostanol, and spores of the bacterium Clostridium perfringens, in bottom sediments and in near-bottom suspended sediment, provide evidence for rapid settling of a portion of discharged solids, accumulation on the sea floor, and biological mixing beneath the water sediment interface. Biological effects include an increase in 1989 of two species of benthic polychaete worm not abundant at the dump site before sludge dumping began in 1986. These changes in benthic ecology are attributed to the increased deposition of utilizable food in the form of sludge-derived organic matter.

  4. Geo-Chip analysis reveals reduced functional diversity of the bacterial community at a dumping site for dredged Elbe sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Rebecca; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2013-12-15

    The dumping of dredged sediments represents a major stressor for coastal ecosystems. The impact on the ecosystem function is determined by its complexity not easy to assess. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of bacterial community analyses to act as ecological indicators in environmental monitoring programmes. We investigated the functional structure of bacterial communities, applying functional gene arrays (GeoChip4.2). The relationship between functional genes and environmental factors was analysed using distance-based multivariate multiple regression. Apparently, both the function and structure of the bacterial communities are impacted by dumping activities. The bacterial community at the dumping centre displayed a significant reduction of its entire functional diversity compared with that found at a reference site. DDX compounds separated bacterial communities of the dumping site from those of un-impacted sites. Thus, bacterial community analyses show great potential as ecological indicators in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimates of water and solute release from a coal waste rock dump in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, S A; Barbour, S L; Hendry, M J; Carey, S K

    2017-12-01

    Long term (1999 to 2014) flow and water quality data from a rock drain located at the base of a coal waste rock dump constructed in the Elk Valley, British Columbia was used to characterize the release of three solutes (NO 3 - , Cl - and SO 4 2- ) from the dump and obtain whole dump estimates of net percolation (NP). The concentrations of dump derived solutes in the rock drain water were diluted by snowmelt waters from the adjacent natural watershed during the spring freshet and reached a maximum concentration during the winter baseflow period. Historical peak baseflow concentrations of conservative ions (NO 3 - and Cl - ) increased until 2006/07 after which they decreased. This decrease was attributed to completion of the flushing of the first pore volume of water stored within the dump. The baseflow SO 4 2- concentrations increased proportionally with NO 3 - and Cl - to 2007, but then continued to slowly increase as NO 3 - and Cl - concentrations decreased. This was attributed to ongoing production of SO 4 2- due to oxidation of sulfide minerals within the dump. Based on partitioning of the annual volume of water discharged from the rock drain to waste rock effluent (NP) and water entering the rock drain laterally from the natural watershed, the mean NP values were estimated to be 446±50mm/a (area normalized net percolation/year) for the dump and 172±71mm/a for the natural watershed. The difference was attributed to greater rates of recharge in the dump from summer precipitation compared to the natural watershed where rainfall interception and enhanced evapotranspiration will increase water losses. These estimates included water moving through subsurface pathways. However, given the limitations in quantifying these flows the estimated NP rates for both the natural watershed and the waste rock dump are considered to be low, and could be much higher (e.g. ~450mm/a and ~800mm/a). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DISTRIBUTION OF WOODY VEGETATION ON SODA WASTE DUMPS IN RELATION TO SPATIAL VARIATION IN SELECTED PARAMETERS OF THE MINERAL COVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Zając

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of woody plants in the course of succession on reclaimed soda waste dumps by use of mineral cover was analyzed. The spatial variation in the thickness and granulometric composition of the mineral cover was analysed by the Kriging method. The statistical measurements and geostatistical analysis were used to create maps showing areal variability for the parameters analysed. Analysis of the development of woody vegetation was based on field work and raster layers created on the basis of aerial photographs. No link was found between the parameters of the mineral cover and the distribution and development of spontaneous woody vegetation. The species composition in the study area is limited, and dominated by pioneer species, mainly the expansive black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia. Given that the soda waste disposal site is to be used as urban green spaces, the target ecosystem structure must be considered and a suitable course of action selected: further reclamation procedures improving substrate quality and enrichment of the species composition of the tree stand, or management involving sustaining the current state while controlling the course of natural succession of vegetation.

  7. Plant occurrence on burning coal waste – a case study from the Katowice-Wełnowiec dump, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciesielczuk Justyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal-waste dumps superimposed on former rubbish dump frequently undergo selfheating and selfignition of organic matter dispersed in the waste. The special conditions for plant growth generated as a result have been investigated since 2008 on the municipal dump reclaimed with coal wastes in Katowice-Wełnowiec, Poland. The plants observed most frequently where heating has occurred are Sisymbrium loeselii, Artemisia vulgaris, Sonchus arvensis, Chenopodium album, Achillea millefolium, Cirsium arvense, Amaranthus retroflexus, Atriplex nitens and Solanum nigrum. Some new, rare species such as Portulaca oleracea, first noticed in 2011, may be added. Most of encroaching species are annual, alien archeophytes and neophytes. Native species are mainly perennials. The majority of these species show a tendency to form specimens of huge size (gigantism. The abundance of emitted CO2 and nitrogen compounds is the likely cause of this. Additionally, the plants growing there are not attacked by insects. The heating of the ground liquidates the natural seed bank. After cooling, these places are seeded by species providing seeds at that very moment (pioneer species. Heated places on the dumps allow plant growth even in the middle of winter. As the seasonal vegetation cycle is disturbed, plants may be found seeding, blooming and fruiting at the same time.

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  9. Microbial Community of a Waste- Dump Site | OBIRE | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  10. Microbial Community of a Waste- Dump Site | OBIRE | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical analysis using ANOVA (F — test) showed that there were no significant differences in the bacterial and fungal populations between the four stations. However, there was significant difference at 5% level for fungal populations between different sampling periods. (Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental ...

  11. Characterization of boron tolerant bacteria isolated from a fly ash dumping site for bacterial boron remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Raja, Chellaiah; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2013-08-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, but can above certain concentrations be toxic to living organisms. A major environmental concern is the removal of boron from contaminated water and fly ash. For this purpose, the samples were collected from a fly ash dumping site, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan. The chemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration of the samples were performed by X-ray fluorescent analysis and leaching test. For bacterial analysis, samples were collected in sterile plastic sheets and isolation was carried out by serial dilution method. The boron tolerant isolates that showed values of maximum inhibitory concentration toward boron ranging from 100 to 260 mM level were screened. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the isolates were most closely related to the genera Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Microbacterium and Ralstonia. The boron tolerance of these strains was also associated with resistant to several heavy metals, such as As (III), Cr (VI), Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Se (III) and Zn. Indeed, these strains were arsenic oxidizing bacteria confirmed by silver nitrate test. These strains exhibited their salt resistances ranging from 4 to 15 % were determined in Trypticase soy agar medium. The boron tolerant strains were capable of removing 0.1-2.0 and 2.7-3.7 mg l(-1) boron from the medium and fly ash at 168 h. Thus, we have successfully identified the boron tolerant and removal bacteria from a fly ash dumping site for boron remediation.

  12. Preliminary study of the pozzolanic activity of dumped mine wastes obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sotiriadis, Konstantinos; Šašek, Petr; Ševčík, Radek; Schmidt, P.; Řehoř, M.; Viani, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 64-69 ISSN 1392-1320 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : pozzolanic activity * dumped mine wastes * lime mortars * thermal analysis Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2016 https://www.exeley.com/materials_science/doi/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  13. Radiation damage and waste management options for the sombrero final focus system and neutron dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica, Bilbao (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design did not completely address the issues associated with the final focus system. While past work calculated neutron fluences for a grazing incidence metal mirror (GIMM) and a final focus mirror, scattering off of the final optical component was not included, and thus, fluences in the final focus mirror were significantly underestimated. In addition, past work did not consider neutron-induced gamma-rays. Finally, power plant lifetime waste volumes may have been underestimated as neutron activation of the neutron dumps and building structure were not addressed. In the present work, a modified version of the SOMBRERO target building is presented where a significantly larger open solid-angle fraction (5%) is used to enhance beam smoothing of a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). The GIMMs are replaced with transmissive fused silica wedges and have been included in three-dimensional neutron and photon transport calculations. This work shows that a power plant with a large open solid-angle fraction, needed for beam smoothing with a DPSSL, is acceptable from tritium breeding, and neutron activation points-of-view. (authors)

  14. Monitoring and sustainable management of oil polluting wrecks and chemical munitions dump sites in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja; Tengberg, Anders

    2017-04-01

    The Baltic Sea region contains a dark legacy of about 100 000 tons of dumped chemical warfare agents. As time passes the gun shells corrode and the risks of release of contaminants increase. A major goal of the EU-flagship project Daimon is to support governmental organisations with case-to-case adapted methods for sustainable management of dumped toxic munitions. At the Chalmers University of Technology, a partner of Daimon, a unique ISO 31000 adapted method was developed to provide decision support regarding potentially oilpolluting shipwrecks. The method is called VRAKA and is based on probability calculations. It includes site-specific information as well as expert knowledge. VRAKA is now being adapted to dumped chemical munitions. To estimate corrosion potential of gun shells and ship wrecks along with sediment re-suspension and transport multiparameter instruments are deployed at dump sites. Parameters measured include Currents, Salinity, Temperature, Oxygen, Depth, Waves and Suspended particles. These measurements have revealed how trawling at dump sites seems to have large implications in spreading toxic substances (Arsenic) over larger areas. This presentation will shortly describe the decision support model, the used instrumentation and discuss some of the obtain results.

  15. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  16. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    the substantial possibility of a gross error in the labeling of charts. Our results show that simple, rapid, and cost effective surveys of these sites can be made, that the found debris field of rusted barrels and other objects appears to have contained more mundane waste material that long ago dissipated or hydrolyzed. It is likely that the majority of disposed material is far from the center of the charted area and thus a re-drawing of the warning zone following additional surveying of the actual extent of the dump site to reflect this would be a significant improvement.

  17. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  19. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  20. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  1. A needs analysis method for land-use planning of illegal dumping sites: a case study in Aomori-Iwate, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Nagao, Yukari

    2013-02-01

    Land use at contaminated sites, following remediation, is often needed for regional redevelopment. However, there exist few methods of developing economically and socially feasible land-use plans based on regional needs because of the wide variety of land-use requirements. This study proposes a new needs analysis method for the conceptual land-use planning of contaminated sites and illustrates this method with a case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste. In this method, planning factors consisting of the land-use attributes and related facilities are extracted from the potential needs of the residents through a preliminary questionnaire. Using the extracted attributes of land use and the related facilities, land-use cases are designed for selection-based conjoint analysis. A second questionnaire for respondents to the first one who indicated an interest in participating in the second questionnaire is conducted for the conjoint analysis to determine the utility function and marginal cost of each attribute in order to prioritize the planning factors to develop a quantitative and economically and socially feasible land-use plan. Based on the results, site-specific land-use alternatives are developed and evaluated by the utility function obtained from the conjoint analysis. In this case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste, the uses preferred as part of a conceptual land-use plan following remediation of the site were (1) agricultural land and a biogas plant designed to recover energy from biomass or (2) a park with a welfare facility and an athletic field. Our needs analysis method with conjoint analysis is applicable to the development of conceptual land-use planning for similar sites following remediation, particularly when added value is considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria with in which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  3. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan establishes the programmatic framework and criteria within which the Hanford Site ensures that contract-handled TRU wastes can be certified as compliant with the WIPP WAC and TRUPACT-II SARP.

  4. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  5. Characterisation of sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps using electrical resistivity imaging: the case study of the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Mauro; Servida, Diego; Lupis, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Sulphide-bearing mine dumps are potential sources of pollution when acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs. Because the generation of AMD depends on the volume and composition of waste materials, their characterisation is crucial for the evaluation of geochemical hazards and for the design of remediation strategies to minimise their environmental impact. In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for the characterisation of an inactive mine dump in the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy) using earth resistivity imaging (ERI) is presented. As no information regarding the nature of waste rocks is found in reports for the mine, five ERI profiles were acquired at the top of the waste pile. The results show that waste rocks are heterogeneous with a maximum thickness of 30 m. Due to the large amounts of dispersed sulphide minerals, the waste rocks are characterised by an electrically conductive geophysical signature in comparison to the surrounding resistive metamorphic bedrock. A geostatistical approach was adopted to estimate the elevation of the edges of the mine dump, and the net volume of the waste rocks was computed through a raster analysis of the elevations of the upper and lower boundaries of the mine dump. High-conductivity anomalies were detected within the core of the mine dump. The integration of the hydrogeological, geochemical and geological framework of the Rio Marina mining district suggests that these anomalies could be a geophysical signature of subsurface regions where AMD is currently generated or stored, thus representing sources of environmental pollution.

  6. Application of two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water for analyzing artificial radionuclide release from containers with radioactive waste dumped in Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishin, Denis S.; Laykin, Andrey I.; Kuchin, Nickolay L.; Platovskikh, Yuri A. [Krylov State Research Center, Saint Petersburg, 44 Moskovskoe shosse, 196158 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Modeling of artificial radionuclide transport in sea water is crucial for prognosis of radioecological situation in regions where dumping of radioactive waste had been made and/or accidents with nuclear submarines had taken place. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments can be a detector of radionuclide release from dumped or sunk objects to marine environment. Proper model can determine the dependence between radionuclide distribution in sediments and radionuclide release. Following report describes two-barrier model of radioactive agent transport in sea water. It was tested on data from 1994 - 2013 expeditions to Novaya Zemlya bays, where regular dumping of solid radioactive waste was practiced by the former USSR from the early 1960's until 1990. Two-barrier model agrees with experimental data and allows more accurate determination of time and intensity of artificial radionuclide release from dumped containers. (authors)

  7. Geochemical characterisation of pyrite oxidation and environmental problems related to release and transport of metals from a coal washing low-grade waste dump, Shahrood, northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Jodieri Shokri, Behshad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Shafaei, Seyed Ziadin; Kakaei, Reza

    2011-12-01

    Pyrite oxidation and release of the oxidation products from a low-grade coal waste dump to stream, groundwater and soil was investigated by geochemical and hydrogeochemical techniques at Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, Shahrood, northeast Iran. Hydrogeochemical analysis of water samples indicates that the metal concentrations in the stream waters were low. Moreover, the pH of the water showed no considerable change. The analysis of the stream water samples shows that except the physical changes, pyrite oxidation process within the coal washing waste dump has not affected the quality of the stream water. Water type was determined to be calcium sulphate. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples indicate that the pH varies from 7.41 to 7.51. The concentrations of the toxic metals were low. The concentration of SO4 is slightly above than its standard concentration in potable water. It seems that the groundwater less affected by the coal washing operation in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the sediment samples shows that Fe concentration decreases gradually downstream the waste dump with pH rising. SO(4) decreases rapidly downstream direction. Copper, Zn and Co concentrations decrease with distance from the waste dump due to a dilution effect by the mixing of uncontaminated sediments. These elements, in particular, Zn are considerably elevated in sediment sample collected at the nearest distance to the waste dump. There is no doubt that such investigations can help to develop an appropriate water remediation plan.

  8. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  9. Enrichment, geo-accumulation and risk surveillance of toxic metals for different environmental compartments from Mehmood Booti dumping site, Lahore city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, Umme; Mahmood, Adeel; Waheed, Sidra; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to probe the levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, Zn and Fe) for different environmental matrices (ground water, wastewater, sediment, soil, dust and leachates). Impact of solid waste dumping site on nearby human population has also been assessed. The results revealed that concentration of Pb, Fe, Cd, Mn and Cu surpassed the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in water, soil, sediments, while aforesaid metals in wastewater were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Our results for enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation (I(geo)) values revealed that soils and sediments were contaminated with Cd, Pb, Ni and Mn. The Cd content caused a considerably high potential ecological risk (E(r)(i) ≥ 320) in soil and sediments. Pb and Cd caused high health risk (HR > 1) to local residents via dust and drinking water intake. Potential cancer risk for Pb was higher than USEPA standard values (1.0E-06-1.0E-04) through water intake. The Mehmood Booti dumping site is a potential source of toxic pollutants contamination to the surrounding population. It is recommended to take proper actions for its management to resolve this issue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in New England, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  11. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in Mid Atlantic, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  12. Cellulase Production Potentials of the Microbial Profile of Some Sugarcane Bagasse Dumping Sites in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated cellulase production potentials of the microbial profile of three sugarcane bagasse dumping sites at Zango area, Ilorin, Nigeria. The microbial isolates were screened for cellulase production with a view to select the best organism for eventual cellulase production. Pour Plate method was used for the isolation and a total of thirteen (13 different organisms including both fungal and bacterial species were isolated and screened. Six (6 fungal isolates identified as Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Neurospora sitophilus, Penicillium oxalicum and Penicillium citrinum were isolated, while seven (7 different bacterial species isolated include Clostridium cellobioparum, Clostridium thermocellum,Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumillus, Lactobacillus spp, Pseudomonas flavescens and Serratia spp. Generally, bacterial isolates were more in abundance than fungal species. However; fungal isolates were constant and were isolated through the experimental period of three weeks. All the isolates showed cellulase production potential in varying degrees as reflected in the clearance zone around their colonies. Fungal isolates produced more cellulase than the bacterial isolates. Mucor racemosus had the highest clearance zone (75.0 mm among the fungal isolates while Clostridium cellobioparum (35.0 mm were the best producer among bacterial isolates. The least producer among fungal isolates, Penicillium citrinum (40.0 mm, is a little more than the bacterial cellulase producer (35.0 mm and is far greater than the least bacterium Serratia spp (14.0 mm.

  13. Gamma radioactivity in the Iberian marine environment closest to the NEA dumping site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Vidal-Quadras, A.; Font, J.L.; Oliva, M.

    1988-01-01

    The distributions of caesium-137 and some naturally occurring gamma-emitters in a range of environmental samples, collected along the north-west Iberian coastline during April 1984, are presented. Samples, including surface waters, algae, sediments and fish, have been analyzed to establish accurate baselines for that region of the continental shelf closest to the NEA dumping site. Results indicate that caesium-137 levels were a factor of three lower than those typical of waters off the west coast of Ireland and are consistent with those expected from global fallout prior to the Chernobyl accident. The mean caesium-137 concentration in sea water at six well-separated stations near the coast was 3.85 +- 0.19 Bq m/sup -3/, whilst caesium-137 levels in widely consumed species of fish were in the range 1.1-6.2 Bq kg/sup -1/ (dry wt). It is estimated that caesium-137, through one year's ingestion of fish and shellfish, generates a collective dose equivalent commitment to the adult Galician population of 0.78 man-Sv, which is approximately 3% of the total annual collective dose equivalent from non-medical sources of radiation.

  14. Electromagnetic methods to characterize the Savoia di Lucania waste dump (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavusi, M.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this work is the joint application and integration of non-invasive geoelectrical methods for studying the landfill of Savoia di Lucania (Southern Italy). This landfill for its engineering features and small dimensions (70 m × 30 m × 6 m) represents an optimal test site to assess a geophysical survey protocol for municipal solid waste landfills investigation and monitoring. The landfill of Savoia di Lucania has been built with a reinforced concrete material and coated with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liner. Three electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT), two self-potential (SP) map surveys and one induced polarization (IP) section have been performed, both in the surrounding area and inside the waste landfill. The geophysical investigations have well defined some buried boundaries of the landfill basin and localized the leachate accumulation zones inside the dumpsite. Comparison of our results with other engineering and geological investigations could be the key for evaluating the integrity of the HDPE liner. Finally, the joint use of the ERT, IP and SP methods seems to be a promising tool for studying and designing new monitoring systems able to perform a time-lapse analysis of waste landfill geometry and integrity.

  15. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  16. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  17. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  18. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department.

  19. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  20. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  1. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  2. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  3. Before-After analysis of the trophic network of an experimental dumping site in the eastern part of the Bay of Seine (English Channel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezy, Jean-Philippe; Raoux, Aurore; Marmin, Stella; Balay, Pierre; Niquil, Nathalie; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-15

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the physical and biological impacts of muddy fine sand dredged material dumped on a medium sand site Machu offshore the Seine Estuary. Complementary trophic web modelling tools were applied to the Machu ecosystem to analyse the effects of dumping operations. Results show that, after the dumping operations, the biomass of fish increased while invertebrate biomass remained relatively stable through time. Nevertheless, the biomasses of benthic invertebrates, omnivores/scavengers and predators showed some increases, while non-selective deposit feeders and filter feeders decreased. At the ecosystem level, results show that the total ecosystem activity, the ascendency and the overall omnivorous character of the food-web structure increased after dumping operations, whereas recycling subsequently decreased. Finally, the fine and medium sand habitat offshore from the Seine estuary, which undergoes regular natural physical perturbations, shows a high resilience after a short dumping phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  5. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-02-13

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3427 sites and 564 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  6. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2012 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3389 sites and 540 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  7. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, Jeffrey P. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-19

    The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) has been created to meet the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Action Plan, Section 3.5, which states: “The Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report shall be generated, in a format agreed upon by the Parties, as a calendar year report and issued annually by the DOE by the end of February of each year, and posted electronically for regulator and public access. This report shall reflect all changes made in waste management unit status during the previous year.” This February 2013 version of the HSWMUR contains a comprehensive inventory of the 3438 sites and 569 subsites in the Waste Information Data System (WIDS). The information for each site contains a description of each unit and the waste it contains, where applicable. The WIDS database provides additional information concerning the sites contained in this report and is maintained with daily changes to these sites.

  8. The Influence of Engineering-Geological Conditions on the Construction of the Radioactive Waste Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kuzma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A secure stability and reliable serviceability of the radioactive dump is a difficult engineering problem. Due to the difficult geological formations determined mainly by a high compressibility, the low shear strength of soils, and the high ground water level, or a high upward hydrostatic pressure these demands will increase. An influence of the required reliability and the lifespan on the structure of these specific objects is considerable. In this contribution, we are trying to contribute to the problem of solving these difficulties and complicated problems.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  10. Hazardous Waste Site Analysis (Small Site Technology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    information. " RCRA required all treaters , storers, and/or disposers to either have permits by November 1980, or qualify for interim status, by notifying...carbon dioxide or compressed liquid state propane ) is used as a solvent to extract organic hazardous constituents from waste. Additional processing

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Masayuki; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, Annamalai; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in human breast milk collected from mothers residing near an open dumping site and a reference site in Kolkata, India during 2004-2005. POPs were detected in all the human milk samples analyzed, suggesting that residents of Kolkata are widely exposed to these contaminants. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the samples from the dumping site were significantly higher than in the reference site samples, whereas no such difference was found for PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were also observed in the samples from the dumping site than the reference site. Interestingly, concentrations of total and dioxin-like PCBs in the breast milk of mothers from the dumping site significantly increased with the number of years of residence near the dumping site. These results indicate that significant pollution sources of PCBs are present in the dumping site of Kolkata and the residents living around are exposed to relatively higher levels of PCBs. When the residue levels of dioxins and related compounds in fish collected from ponds near the Kolkata dumping site and the reference site were measured, it was found that dioxin-like PCB and TEQ levels in fish from the dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site. This result indicates that fish is a potential source of PCBs for residents living near the Kolkata dumping site.

  12. Heavy Metal Contamination of Foods by Refuse Dump Sites in Awka, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. C. Nduka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of heavy metals from refuse dumps on soil, food, and water qualities in Awka, Nigeria was studied. Soil samples (top and 1.35 m deep were collected from five refuse dumps digested with conc. HNO3 and HClO4. The heavy metals (lead, manganese, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel in vegetables (spinach, fluted pumpkin, root crop (cocoyam, and surface and ground water were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. Chemical properties of the soil and bacteria were determined. Heavy metals were found to be more concentrated at a depth of 1.35 m. Manganese was high in shallow wells and borehole water samples with the highest levels as 0.538 and 0.325 mg/l, respectively. Nickel levels in the borehole sample ranged from 0.001 to 0.227 mg/l, whereas the highest level of lead was 0.01 mg/l. The Obibia stream had the highest levels of manganese and lead. Linear regression analyses showed that the relationship between soil heavy metals and farm produce heavy metals was strong. Taken together, we may conclude that the consumption of leafy vegetables and crops produced on contaminated soils may pose a health risk to those that reside around the refuse dumps.

  13. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  14. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  15. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Vegetation around Solid Waste Dumps in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ideriah, T.J.K; Harry, F.O; Stanley, H.O; Igbara, J.K

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the levels of copper, zinc and lead in soils and vegetation around solid waste dumpsites in Port Harcourt and environs were carried out in 2005 using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometric technique...

  16. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  17. Economic valuation of the pollution effects of dumping municipal solid waste. The case of the urban agglomeration of Gran Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Farreras

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Most municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in Latin America lack the infrastructure for proper pollution control. This paper estimates the social welfare effects of possible environmental impacts of waste landfills. The discrete choice experiment was applied to elicit social values for the effects of MSW dumping on water quality, air quality and proliferation of vectors in the agglomeration of Gran Mendoza (Argentina. A decrease in water quality –the impact of MSW dumping that the population is most concerned about– was estimated to cost each household 182.49 Argentinean pesos (United States Dollar 20.48 on average per year in terms of welfare loss (2015 value. This information may be useful for policy makers and environmental managers in the design of their programs and activities. CC BY-NC-SA Gestión y Ambiente (2016.

  18. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  19. Metal extent in blood of livestock from Dandora dumping site, Kenya: Source identification of Pb exposure by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hokuto; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishii, Chihiro; Yohannes, Yared B; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-10-01

    Nairobi city in Kenya produces 2000 tons/day of garbage, and most of it is dumped onto the Dandora dumping site, home to a quarter-million residents. This study was conducted (1) to assess the contamination levels of nine metals and a metalloid (arsenic) in the blood of pigs, goats, sheep and cattle from Dandora, and (2) to identify a possible source of lead (Pb) pollution. Cadmium (Cd, 0.17-4.35 μg/kg, dry-wt) and Pb (90-2710 μg/kg) levels in blood were generally high, suggesting human exposure to Cd through livestock consumption and Pb poisoning among pigs (2600 μg/kg) and cattle (354 μg/kg). Results of Pb isotope ratios indicated that the major exposure route might differ among species. Our results also suggested a possibility that the residents in Dandora have been exposed to the metals through livestock consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Offal dumping sites influence the relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) in urban landscape: a study from Kolkata metropolis, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Subhendu; Ghose, Dipankar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-12-14

    Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables. The study conclusively indicated that encounter rates of Black Kites were significantly influenced by the presence of garbage dumps in its vicinity. Numbers of Black Kites were also higher in the roosting sites situated closer to garbage dumps and open spaces. In addition, expected counts of Black Kites significantly increased in roosting sites situated away from buildings and water bodies. However, built-up area and tree cover around the roosting sites had no influence on the abundance of Black Kites therein. With rapid urbanization and changing offal disposal patterns, our findings would be useful to ensure continued availability of food and roosting sites of Black Kites in urban areas.

  1. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  2. Hazardous Waste Sites not making the final EPA National Priority List of Hazardous Waste Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are sites from EPA CERCLIS list that are not final National-Priority-List Hazardous Waste sites. The data was obtained from EPA's LandView CDs.

  3. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  4. Monitoring Metal Pollution Levels in Mine Wastes around a Coal Mine Site Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanliyuksel Yucel, D.; Yucel, M. A.; Ileri, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this case study, metal pollution levels in mine wastes at a coal mine site in Etili coal mine (Can coal basin, NW Turkey) are evaluated using geographical information system (GIS) tools. Etili coal mine was operated since the 1980s as an open pit. Acid mine drainage is the main environmental problem around the coal mine. The main environmental contamination source is mine wastes stored around the mine site. Mine wastes were dumped over an extensive area along the riverbeds, and are now abandoned. Mine waste samples were homogenously taken at 10 locations within the sampling area of 102.33 ha. The paste pH and electrical conductivity values of mine wastes ranged from 2.87 to 4.17 and 432 to 2430 μS/cm, respectively. Maximum Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and Ni concentrations of wastes were measured as 109300, 70600, 309.86, 115.2, 38 and 5.3 mg/kg, respectively. The Al, Fe and Pb concentrations of mine wastes are higher than world surface rock average values. The geochemical analysis results from the study area were presented in the form of maps. The GIS based environmental database will serve as a reference study for our future work.

  5. Preliminary Study of the Pozzolanic Activity of Dumped Mine Wastes Obtained from the North Bohemian Basin in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos SOTIRIADIS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three dumped raw materials, a tuff and two bentonites, obtained from two mining sites at the North Bohemian basin in the Czech Republic, have been studied in order to evaluate them as pozzolanic admixtures in lime mortars for employment in restoration of cultural heritage objects. After thermal activation (800 °C; 5 h, their pozzolanic properties were compared with those of commercial metakaolin. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction patterns, morphological observations, as well as the Frattini and the modified Chapelle tests were performed. In addition, lime mortars, incorporating the fired materials, were prepared and subjected to simultaneous thermal analysis after a 28-day initial curing (20 ± 1 °C; 60 ± 5 % RH. The results showed that all three materials possess pozzolanic activity. However, when employed in lime mortars they did not result in formation of pozzolanic reaction products. Two methods were proposed to improve their reactivity; grinding to obtain finer particle size and removal of quartz content where necessary.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14864

  6. Definition of a multi-criteria, web-based approach to managing the illegal dumping of solid waste in Italian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feoa, G; Cerrato, F; Siano, P; Torretta, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define a multi-criteria, web-based approach that can be used to manage the illegal dumping of solid waste, which is a serious environmental concern both in developing and developed countries. A simplified web-based geographic information system (SI-WEB-GIS) was designed to identify illegal dumpsites, and to allow sharing resources among authorities, technicians and citizens. A self-made multi-criteria technique was designed to establish the intervention priorities, in seven steps: (1) constructing the alternatives matrix; (2) giving a qualitative value or a combination of qualitative values to each individual dumpsite and to all criteria; (3) giving a numeric value to each qualitative value or combination of qualitative values in the alternatives matrix (three methods were adopted); (4) calculating the Average Hazard Index (AHI); (5) ranking the dumpsites of each alternatives matrix, in the order of decreasing AHI; (6) comparing the first 50% of the dumpsites in the three rankings, in order to evaluate which had the most intervention priorities and (7) performing a sensitivity analysis, giving different priorities to the four criteria adopted (relative quantity of waste, soil permeability level, pollution targets and types of solid waste). The application of the multi-criteria, web-based approach to managing the illegal dumping of solid waste allows minimizing the total social cost of pollution, rehabilitating dumpsites and monitoring illegal dumping. Although the system was applied to a village in Southern Italy, with around 14,000 inhabitants, it can easily be customized for use in similar villages in Italy and in other countries.

  7. Coastal Dump Sites in the Lagos lagoon and toxicity of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major waste categories include fabrics (worn clothes), plastics, wood and wood shavings, glass, metallic objects as well as paper and packaging materials. The acute toxicity assessment of leachates from a dumpsite at Abule Eledu indicated moderate toxicity to brackish water shrimps (Palaemonetes africanus) with 96 ...

  8. Eco-restoration of a high-sulphur coal mine overburden dumping site in northeast India: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowarah, J.; Boruah, H.P.D.; Gogoi, J.; Pathak, N.; Saikia, N.; Handique, A.K. [CSIR, Jorhat (India). North East Institute of Science & Technology

    2009-10-15

    Eco-restoration of mine overburden (OB) or abandoned mine sites is a major environmental concern. In the present investigation, an integrated approach was used to rejuvenate a high-sulphur mine OB dumping site in the Tirap Collieries, Assam, India, which is situated in the Indo-Burma mega-biodiversity hotspot. A mine OB is devoid of true soil character with poor macro and micronutrient content and contains elevated concentrations of trace and heavy metals. Planting of herbs, shrubs, cover crops and tree species at close proximity leads to primary and secondary sere state succession within a period of 3 to 5 years. A variety of plant species were screened for potential use in restoration: herbs, including Sccharum spontaneum, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt (citronella), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) cover plants, including Mimosa strigillosa, M. striata, and M. pigra; shrubs, including Sesbania rostrata (dhaincha) and Cassia streata (cassia); and tree species, including Gmelina arborea (gomari) and Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo). Amendment with unmined soil and bio-organic matter was required for primary establishment of some plant species. Management of these plant species at the site will ensure long term sustainable eco-restoration of the coal mine-degraded land.

  9. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  10. Site suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste management system is a tedious task that is facing both developing and developed countries. Site Suitability analysis and route optimization for solid waste disposal can make waste management cheap and can be used for sustainable development. However, if the disposal site(s) is/are not sited and handle ...

  11. Analysis of chromium status in the revegetated flora of a tannery waste site and microcosm studies using earthworm E. fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Subramanian, Avudainayagam; Thavamani, Palanisami; Ramadass, Kavitha; Aryal, Rupak; Saint, Christopher

    2017-11-03

    Chromium from tannery waste dump site causes significant environmental pollution affecting surrounding flora and fauna. The primary aims of this study were to survey vegetation, investigate the degree of soil pollution occurring near tannery waste dump site and make a systematic evaluation of soil contamination based on the chromium levels found in plants and earthworms from the impacted areas. This paper presents the pollution load of toxic heavy metals, and especially chromium, in 10 soil samples and 12 species of plants. Soil samples were analysed for heavy metals by using ICP-MS/ICP-OES method. Results indicated that Cr in soils exceeded soil quality guideline limits (SQGL). The total chromium present in the above ground parts of plants ranged from 1.7 mg kg(-1) in Casuarina sp. to 1007 mg kg(-1) in Sonchus asper. The Cr bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida from tannery waste soil ranged from 5 to 194 mg kg(-1). The high enrichment factor of Cr in S. asper and bioaccumulation factor in earthworms indicate that there is a steady increase of toxic chromium risk in this area, which could be correlated with the past dumping activity. Emphasis needs to be put on control measures of pollution and remediation techniques in such areas to achieve an ecologically sustainable industrialisation.

  12. 78 FR 38672 - Ocean Dumping; Sabine-Neches Waterway (SNWW) Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... extraction, desalination, fish and shellfish culture, areas of special scientific importance, and other... other uses. 9. Existing water quality and ecology of the site as determined by available data or by... close proximity to the site of any significant natural or cultural features of historical importance...

  13. Development of a Prototype Model to Establish an Economic Earthwork Plan that Includes the Selection of a Dump Site/Borrow Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthwork in road construction projects is the major activity that accounts for about 20%–30% of the total construction cost, and the internal/external hauling plan is the key factor for determining the successful completion of the project. However, the hauling plan at the site, which includes the selection of the dump site and borrow pit, is usually determined by the site manager’s subjective and empirical discretion alone. Therefore, this study has developed a prototype model that provides the optimal internal/external hauling plan. It includes the determination of the most economical dump sites and borrow pits (location and number among other candidate sites as well. The transshipment problem theory is incorporated into the optimized algorithm with the consideration of various factors affecting earthwork cost. Direct costs from an optimized transport based on an existing model against another from this model were compared to prove its feasibility. As a result, the reduction of earthwork cost including the dump site/borrow pits reached 4%–8%. This result implies that this prototype model would also be useful in reducing both the earthwork cost and the occurrence of exhaust gas from earthwork equipment by providing optimized transportation paths.

  14. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, S. [Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, CSIC, Catedratico Agustin Escardino 9, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments. It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory. Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As(V) with Fe(III) oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As. Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits. - Highlights: • A scorodite-rich mining waste at an old smelting factory in Madrid is described. • Scorodite-rich mining wastes act as an acute point source of As pollution in soils. • Arsenic extraction and XANES analyses show ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in soils.

  15. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  16. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  17. Learn about Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping is regulated by the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). Learn about ocean dumping regulation including what materials can and cannot be dumped, the Ocean Dumping Management Program, and MPRSA history and accomplishments.

  18. Stochastic Indicators for Waste Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, George; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    1996-08-01

    Site characterization is an important prerequisite of risk assessment and remediation strategies. Evaluation of the health effects of groundwater and soil contamination depends on the adequate analysis of spatial heterogeneity, exceedance levels, and uncertainties. In this work we formulate and calculate stochastic indicators that provide a rigorous characterization of exposure levels in sites with heterogeneous contaminant distributions and offer valuable information for a cost-effective cleanup analysis. These site indicators are general and can be used for different types and distributions of groundwater and soil contaminants. Important properties of the stochastic indicators are examined which can evaluate the potential for contamination at large scales, and improve understanding of threatened and damaged ecosystems. Analytically tractable formulas are derived that allow the practical estimation of site indicators on the basis of experimental data. Scale and modeling effects on contaminant level analysis are examined in terms of the stochastic indicators. Site cleanup costs depend directly on inferred characteristics of the stochastic indicators, which thus can play an important role in waste site management. Applications are discussed that offer insight regarding certain aspects of stochastic site characterization. Analytical methods of site characterization are compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that the latter can provide a practical alternative to the former, but they could lead to inaccurate results if they are not interpreted carefully.

  19. Waste management units - Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  20. General Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    General permits are issued by EPA for the ocean dumping of certain materials that will have a minimal adverse environmental impact and are generally disposed of in small quantities. Information includes examples and ocean disposal sites for general permits

  1. Environmental Assessment for the Solids Waste Pond in Katenguenha, Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Inocêncio Bau-Satula; Mayda Ulloa-Carcasés; Juelmo Gola-Cahimba

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of solid wastes in the Katenguenha dump site is a serious environmental issue in the locality of Huambo (Angola). The objective of this work is to assess the environmental impact caused by solid waste deposition. The integrated relevant criteria method was used to identify and evaluate the environmental impact. The results indicated that the solid waste dump site has a negative impact on all environmental aspects (physical, biological and social). They are category II environment i...

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 01-19-01, Waste Dump • 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area • 03-19-02, Debris Pile • 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile • 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump • 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site • 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches • 25-08-02, Waste Dump • 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump • 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 561. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the Corrective Action Investigation for CAU 561 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys

  3. Pre-1970 transuranic solid waste at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1995-05-23

    The document is based on a search of pre-1970 Hanford Solid Waste Records. The available data indicates seven out of thirty-one solid waste burial sites used for pre-1970 waste appear to be Transuranic (TRU). A burial site defined to be TRU contains >100 nCi/gm Transuranic nuclides.

  4. Variations in the concentrations of heavy metals through enforcement of a rest-year system and dredged sediment capping at the Yellow Sea-Byung dumping site, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chang-Soo; Song, Ki-Hoon; Choi, Ki-Young; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Hye-Eun; Jung, Jun-Mo; Kim, Chang-Joon

    2017-11-15

    In 2014, the concentrations of 13 heavy metals in surface sediments from 14 sampling stations were analyzed and compared to samples from previous years to evaluate the remediation effectiveness of the "rest-year" (RY) system and capping with dredged material at the Yellow Sea-Byung dumping site offshore Korea. Since the 2006 introduction of the RY system, annual variations in metal concentrations at stations within the RY zone have gradually decreased over time. Heavy metal concentrations at most stations were lower than sediment quality guidelines, indicating the success of the RY system. Additionally, the effects of capping the contaminated sediment with dredged materials were investigated. The results indicate that dredged materials successfully capped the contaminated sediment within the dredged material dumping area, as the concentrations of Cr and total organic carbon were significantly reduced. We conclude that dredged materials may be used as capping materials for the remediation of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delineation of soil and groundwater contamination using geophysical methods at a waste disposal site in Canakkale, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M Ali; Ozürlan, Gülçin; Sengül, Ebru

    2007-12-01

    Direct current (DC) resistivity, self potential (SP) and very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) measurements are carried out to detect the spread of groundwater contamination and to locate possible pathways of leachate plumes, that resulted from an open waste disposal site of Canakkale municipality. There is no proper management of the waste disposal site in which industrial and domestic wastes were improperly dumped. Furthermore, because of the dumpsite is being located at the catchment area borders of a small creek and is being topographically at a high elevation relative to the urban area, the groundwater is expected to be hazardously contaminated. Interpretations of DC resistivity geoelectrical data showed a low resistivity zone (method, support the results of geoelectrical method relating a contaminated zone in the survey area. There is a good correlation between the geophysical investigations and the results of previously collected geochemical and hydrochemical measurements.

  6. ATSDR Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, Version 2 consists of 2,080 polygons for selected hazardous waste...

  7. Geophysical exploration of historical mine dumps for the estimation of valuable residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tina; Knieß, Rudolf; Noell, Ursula; Hupfer, Sarah; Kuhn, Kerstin; Günther, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Within the project ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105) the economic potential of different abandoned dump sites for mine waste in the Harz Mountains was investigated. Two different mining dumps were geophysically and mineralogically analysed in order to characterize the mine dump structure and to estimate the volume of the potential recycling material. The geophysical methods comprised geoelectrics, radar, and spectral induced polarization (SIP). One about 100-year old mining dump containing residues from density separated Ag- and Sb-rich Pb (Zn)-gangue ores was investigated in detail. Like most small-scale mining waste disposal sites this investigated dump is very heterogeneously structured. Therefore, 27 geoelectrical profiles, more than 50 radar profiles, and several SIP profiles were measured and analysed. The results from the radar measurements, registered with the GSSI system and a shielded 200 MHz antenna, show the near surface boundary layer (down to 3-4 m beneath surface) of the waste residuals. These results can be used as pre-information for the inversion process of the geoelectrical data. The geoelectrical results reveal the mineral residues as layers with higher resistivities (> 300 Ohm*m) than the surrounding material. The SIP method found low phase signals (geoelectrical profile and interpolated between the single profiles using the BERT algorithm. Taking into account the wooded areas of the mine dump and other parameters we get a first estimate for the volume of the residues but the economical viability and the environmental impact of the reworking of the dump still needs to be evaluated in detail. The results of the second mine dump, an abandoned Cu and Zn-rich slag heap, show that the slag residues are characterized by higher resistivities and higher phases. A localization of the slag residues which are covered by organic material could be realized applying these geophysical methods.

  8. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  9. Impact of dredged urban river sediment on a Saronikos Gulf dumping site (Eastern Mediterranean): sediment toxicity, contaminant levels, and biomarkers in caged mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kapsimalis, Vasilios

    2014-05-01

    Impacts of chemical contaminants associated with dumping of dredged urban river sediments at a coastal disposal area in Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean) were investigated through a combined approach of sediment toxicity testing and active biomonitoring with caged mussels. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Cu, and Zn in combination with the solid phase Microtox® test were performed on sediments. Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, Cu, and Zn as well as multiple biomarkers of contaminant exposure and/or effects were measured in caged mussels. Sediments in the disposal and neighboring area showed elevated PAHs and AHs concentrations and were characterized as toxic by the solid-phase Microtox® test during and after dumping operations. Biomarker results in the caged mussels indicated sublethal effects mainly during dumping operations, concomitantly with high concentrations of PAHs and AHs in the caged mussel tissues. Cu and Zn concentrations in sediments and caged mussels were generally not elevated except for sediments at the site in the disposal area that received the major amount of dredges. High PAHs and AHs levels as well as sublethal effects in the caged mussels were not persistent after termination of operations. The combined bioassay-biomarker approach proved useful for detecting toxicological impacts of dredged river sediment disposal in sediments and the water column. Nevertheless, further research is needed to evaluate whether sediment toxicity will have long-term effects on benthic communities of the disposal area.

  10. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models.

  11. 2D Electrical Imaging Surveys for Leachate Plume Migration at an Old Dump Site in Ibadan South Western Nigeria: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Omolayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The site surveyed is along a popular ring road in Ibadan. It is an old dump site which had been closed over a long period of time. Development into industrial and residential house schemes had crowded around the site. This development resulted in the exploitation of groundwater within the thick regolith that characterize the area. The investigation was carried out to ascertain leachate plume generation and migration and its impact on the surrounding soil and the groundwater. 2D electrical resistivity imaging using Wenner array was used to delineate the plume and probable trend of migration. The method involves the injection of low frequency DC current into the subsurface and measuring the potential difference set up by another pair of electrodes called potential electrodes. All the traverses show areas of very low resistivity values ranging between 4 ohm-m and 13.8 ohm-m; in addition to this, the water samples collected from hand dug wells that surround the dump site show high total dissolved solids (TDS with an average value of 2033 mg/L, high conductivity with an average value of 2868 mg/L, and high nitrate value (63 mg/L; these values are above the World Health Organization (WHO permissible values. This poses a health challenge to the residents living around this site.

  12. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  13. Remediation measures at the former hazardous waste dump at Malsch near Heidelberg; Sanierung der ehemaligen Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch. Hydrogeologische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanstein, P.; Hoetzl, H. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The former hazardous waste deposit of Malsch is located south of Heidelberg at the eastern margin of the Upper Rhine Graben. Using a former clay pit about 700.000 m{sup 3} of partly high toxic organic and inorganic wastes were deposited from 1971 to 1984. A leakage from the deposit was first recognised in 1984. Detailed investigation showed that thin channel-like conglomerate layers intercalated in the clays and marls as well as faults are cropping out into the base of the deposit and cause a direct seepage of leachate. Contaminants pollute the downstream area over a distance of 500 m. Remediation measures adding up to 100 Mio. DM were carried out including the construction of a slurry wall encircling laterally the whole site, a surface cover with a multi-liner system as well as a pump and treat system for the leachate was installed and are now in operation. Model studies of the ground water flow including a 3-dimensional site model and a 2-dimensional regional model started during the remediation work. According to the complex geological situation specific procedures was applied to transform the heterogeneous tectonical structure into the numerical models. The balance of water flowing through the deposit was calculated by the piezometric heads to assess different remediation stages. In spite of the missing impervious base the calculation could prove that in connection of a certain pumping rate of the leachate the environment and especially the groundwater can be protected from further leakage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fruehere Sonderabfalldeponie Malsch wurde 1971 in einer stillgelegten Tongrube suedlich von Heidelberg am oestlichen Rand des Oberrheingrabens angelegt und bis 1984 betrieben. Insgesamt wurden ueber 700.000 m{sup 3} zum Teil hochtoxische organische und anorganische Sonderabfaelle abgelagert. Mit Abschluss der Deponierungsphase wurden Sickerwasseraustritte im westlichen Deponievorfeld festgelstellt. Ursache fuer die Undichtigkeiten waren geringmaechtige

  14. Morphological and biochemical changes in Azadirachta indica from coal combustion fly ash dumping site from a thermal power plant in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Sami Ullah; Raja, Vaseem; Siddiqui, Weqar A

    2016-07-01

    The foliar and biochemical traits of Azadirachta indica A. Juss from fly ash (FA) dumping site in Badarpur thermal power plant (BTPP) New Delhi, India was studied. Three different experimental sites were selected at different distances from the thermal power plant. Ambient suspended particulate matter (SPM) and plant responses such as leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids), total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal index (SI), stomatal conductance (SC), intercellular carbon dioxide concentration [CO2]i, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), nitrogen, nitrate, nitrate reductase activity, proline, protein, reducing sugar and sulphur content were measured. Considerable reduction in pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), and total chlorophyll was observed at fly ash dumping site. Fly ash stress revealed the inhibitory effect on Nitrate reductase activity (NRA), Nitrate, soluble protein, and reducing sugar content, whereas stimulatory effect was found for the stomatal index, nitrogen, proline, antioxidants and sulphur content in the leaves. Under fly ash stress, stomatal conductance was low, leading to declining in photosynthetic rate and increase in the internal CO2 concentration of leaf. Single leaf area (SLA), leaf length and leaf width also showed a declining trend from control to the polluted site. Antioxidant enzymes increased in leaves reflecting stress and extenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  16. The effect of the cover and landscape design of waste rock dumps and tailings ponds on the water balance; Die wasserhaushaltliche Wirkung der Abdeckung und Landschaftsgestaltung von Halden und Absetzanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehne, R. [C and E Consulting und Engineering GmbH (Germany); Eckart, M. [GEOCONTROL GmbH (Germany); Marski, R.; Wolf, J. [WISMUT GmbH (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The dimensioning of cover systems for waste rock dumps and tailings ponds requires the prognosis of the water balances. Site specific field experiments as well as additional modelling efforts are necessary. The cover system could be a simple recultivation layering or a storage systems or a complex multi-layer-system. Uncovered dumps show typical percolation rates between 30 and 60%. Storage cover systems reduce the percolation rate down to 15 to 35%. The evapotranspiration rate is influenced especially by exposition and vegetation. Specific features for the cover of tailings ponds include a very low surface slope and the of percolation rate below 10%. Therefore, multi-layer-systems are most suitable, also because it is characterized by very low drainage velocities of hypodermic runoffs. The resulting, but temporarily high moisture and almost standing water at the surface leads to extreme evapotranspiration rates and consequently to an increase of percolation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Dimensionierung von Abdecksystemen und die nachfolgende Landschaftsgestaltung von Halden und Absetzanlagen des vormaligen Uranerzbergbaues im Zuge einer nachhaltigen umweltwirksamen Sanierung erfordert Prognosen der sich einstellenden wasserhaushaltlichen Verhaeltnisse. Diese lassen sich durch standortspezifische Feldexperimente und Messungen stuetzen, erfordern aber auch ergaenzende Simulationsrechnungen mittels geeigneter Modelle. Die standortrelevante Abdeckkonfiguration reicht von einfachen Rekultivierungsschichten bis zu komplexen Mehrbarrierensystemen. Unabgedeckte Halden sind durch Infiltrationsraten zwischen 30 und 60% gekennzeichnet. Abdeckungen mit 1 m Rekultivierungs- und Speicherschicht reduzieren die Perkolation durch die Halden auf 15 bis 35%. Dabei spielen Exposition und Art des Bewuchses eine wichtige verdunstungswirksame Rolle. Naturnahe Abdecksysteme sind effektiv und von ausgewogenem Wasserhaushalt. Die Spezifik der Abdeckung von Absetzanlagen besteht in dem sehr

  17. Levels of toxic elements in soils of abandoned waste dump site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the five toxic elements studied, the highest mean concentration (mg/kg) of 133.74±10.60 was recorded for Pb followed by Cr (22.27±3.03), Ni (8.14±0.33) and As (5.97±0.32) in the soils while the least mean concentration of 1.64±0.11 was recorded for Cd. The toxic elements were examined for dependency upon some ...

  18. examination of household solid waste management in nadowli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... waste from households. Zoomlion Ghana Ltd. engages scavengers in waste sorting at landfill and open dump sites. Households are also encouraged to sort out some specified wastes. The wastes are classified into plastics, foods, metals and glass for the purpose of recycling (See also Kale-Dery, 2014).

  19. Khazar Iodine Production Plant Site Remediation in Turkmenistan. NORM Contaminated Waste Repository Establishment - 12398

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbutovskiy, Alexander B.; Cheremisin, Peter I.; Troshev, Alexander V.; Egorov, Alexander J.; Boriskin, Mikhail M.; Bogod, Mikhail A. [JSC ' ECOMET-S' , Sosnoviy Bor, Leningrad region, 188540 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Radiation safety provisions for NORM contaminated areas are in use in a number of the former Soviet republics. Some of these areas were formed by absorbed radionuclides at the iodine and bromine extraction sites. As a rule, there are not any plant radiation monitoring systems nor appropriate services to ensure personnel, population and environmental radiation safety. The most hazardous sites are those which are situated in the Caspian Sea coastal zone. The bulk of the accumulated waste is represented by a loose mixture of sand and charcoal, which was basically used as the iodine extraction sorbent. The amounts of these wastes were estimated to be approximately 20,000 metric tons. The waste contamination is mainly composed of Ra-226 (U-238 decay series) and Ra-224, Ra-228 (Th-232 decay series). In 2009, the 'ECOMET-S', a Closed Joint-Stock Company from St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, was authorized by the Turkmenistan government to launch the rehabilitation project. The project includes D and D activities, contaminated areas remediation, collected wastes safe transportation to the repository and its disposal following repository closure. The work at the Khazar chemical plant started in September, 2010. Comprehensive radiological surveys to estimate the waste quantities were carried out in advance. In course of the rehabilitation work at the site of the Khazar chemical plant additional waste quantities (5,000 MT, 10,000 m{sup 3}) were discovered after the sludge was dumped and drained. Disposal volumes for this waste was not provided initially. The additional volume of the construction wastes was required in order to accommodate all the waste to be disposed. For the larger disposal volume the project design enterprise VNIPIET, offered to erect a second wall outside the existing one and this solution was adopted. As of May, 2011, 40,575 m{sup 3} of contaminated waste were collected and disposed safely. This volume represents 96.6% of the initial

  20. Spread and partitioning of arsenic in soils from a mine waste site in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Serrano, S; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2014-12-01

    The formation of scorodite is an important mechanism for the natural attenuation of arsenic in a wide range of environments. It is dumped on site by metallurgical industries to minimize arsenic release. However, the long-term stability of these deposits is unclear. Sequential As extractions and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy were used to determine both As and Fe speciation in a small catchment area affected by a scorodite-rich waste pile at an abandoned smelting factory. Our results indicate that this deposit behaves as an acute point source of As and metal pollution and confirms the strong association of As(V) with Fe(III) oxide phases, highlighting the important role of ferrihydrite as an As scavenger in natural systems. In this seasonally variable system, other trapping forms such as jarosite-like minerals also play a role in the attenuation of As. Overall, our results demonstrate that scorodite should not be considered an environmental stable repository for As attenuation when dumped outside because natural rainfall and the resulting runoff drive As dispersion in the environment and indicate the need to monitor and reclamate As-rich mine deposits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization recommendations for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.; Gordon, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.; Nichols, R.L.; Shedrow, C.B.

    1987-11-01

    One hundred and sixty six disposal facilities that received or may have received waste materials resulting from operations at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) have been identified. These waste range from innocuous solid and liquid materials (e.g., wood piles) to process effluents that contain hazardous and/or radioactive constituents. The waste sites have been grouped into 45 categories according the the type of waste materials they received. Waste sites are located with SRP coordinates, a local Department of Energy (DOE) grid system whose grid north is 36 degrees 22 minutes west of true north. DOE policy is to close all waste sites at SRP in a manner consistent with protecting human health and environment and complying with applicable environmental regulations (DOE 1984). A uniform, explicit characterization program for SRP waste sites will provide a sound technical basis for developing closure plans. Several elements are summarized in the following individual sections including (1) a review of the history, geohydrology, and available characterization data for each waste site and (2) recommendations for additional characterization necessary to prepare a reasonable closure plan. Many waste sites have been fully characterized, while others have not been investigated at all. The approach used in this report is to evaluate available groundwater quality and site history data. For example, groundwater data are compared to review criteria to help determine what additional information is required. The review criteria are based on regulatory and DOE guidelines for acceptable concentrations of constituents in groundwater and soil.

  2. 30 CFR 56.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and dumping...

  3. Current disposal planning for dry active wastes at Rokkasho Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Aomori (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In nuclear power stations, two kinds of low level radioactive wastes are generated: `uniform solidified waste` in which waste liquid, spent resin and so on are uniformly solidified and `solid waste` in which metals, lagging materials, plastics and others are solidified. In Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Burying Center, the burying facility for the first period for the uniform solidified waste started the operation in December, 1992, and this time as the second period plan, it has been planned to increase No. 2 waste burying facility for the solid waste. The kinds of the radioactive waste solidified in containers to be buried are the solid state radioactive waste generated by the operation of nuclear power stations and that generated accompanying the operation of this facility. The wastes are classified, cut, pressed and melted as occasion demands so that cement filling material is easily filled in containers, and solidified in the containers. As for the waste to be buried, at the time of its acceptance, 6 months or longer have elapsed since its generation in nuclear power stations, and the surface dose equivalent rate does not exceed 10 mSv/h. The acceptance plan and the expected number of burying, the total radioactivity of buried waste, and the location, geological and hydraulic features, the structure and facilities of waste burying facilities, the method of burying, the management of waste burying site and the evaluation of dose equivalent are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Assessment of a Planned Municipal Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ongoing MSWM practices of Balangoda Urban Council encompass six categories as waste minimization and handling; waste collection; on-site separation; waste transportation; further management including grading, composting, recycling, producing sludge fertilizer; and final disposal to an open dump site. Apart from ...

  5. The impact of municipal solid waste disposal in Ado- Ekiti metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples from four public waste dump sites (three samples from each location at 10 m interval) and plant sample (root and leave) from Igbaletere dump site were analyzed for heavy metals such as Cu, Mn, Fe, Cr, Pb, Co, Zn and Ni. On the average, high concentrations of Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, and Zn were found in the soil ...

  6. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  7. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  8. Crystal Structure of Mouse Thymidylate Synthase in Tertiary Complex with dUMP and Raltitrexed Reveals N-Terminus Architecture and Two Different Active Site Conformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dowierciał

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of mouse thymidylate synthase (mTS in complex with substrate dUMP and antifolate inhibitor Raltitrexed is reported. The structure reveals, for the first time in the group of mammalian TS structures, a well-ordered segment of 13 N-terminal amino acids, whose ordered conformation is stabilized due to specific crystal packing. The structure consists of two homodimers, differing in conformation, one being more closed (dimer AB and thus supporting tighter binding of ligands, and the other being more open (dimer CD and thus allowing weaker binding of ligands. This difference indicates an asymmetrical effect of the binding of Raltitrexed to two independent mTS molecules. Conformational changes leading to a ligand-induced closing of the active site cleft are observed by comparing the crystal structures of mTS in three different states along the catalytic pathway: ligand-free, dUMP-bound, and dUMP- and Raltitrexed-bound. Possible interaction routes between hydrophobic residues of the mTS protein N-terminal segment and the active site are also discussed.

  9. Crystal structure of mouse thymidylate synthase in tertiary complex with dUMP and raltitrexed reveals N-terminus architecture and two different active site conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowierciał, Anna; Wilk, Piotr; Rypniewski, Wojciech; Rode, Wojciech; Jarmuła, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of mouse thymidylate synthase (mTS) in complex with substrate dUMP and antifolate inhibitor Raltitrexed is reported. The structure reveals, for the first time in the group of mammalian TS structures, a well-ordered segment of 13 N-terminal amino acids, whose ordered conformation is stabilized due to specific crystal packing. The structure consists of two homodimers, differing in conformation, one being more closed (dimer AB) and thus supporting tighter binding of ligands, and the other being more open (dimer CD) and thus allowing weaker binding of ligands. This difference indicates an asymmetrical effect of the binding of Raltitrexed to two independent mTS molecules. Conformational changes leading to a ligand-induced closing of the active site cleft are observed by comparing the crystal structures of mTS in three different states along the catalytic pathway: ligand-free, dUMP-bound, and dUMP- and Raltitrexed-bound. Possible interaction routes between hydrophobic residues of the mTS protein N-terminal segment and the active site are also discussed.

  10. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  11. Uranium waste disposal at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; McDonell, W.R.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1990-12-31

    The Savannah River Site generates waste containing depleted, natural, and enriched uranium residue. The past and current practice for disposal of this waste at the Savannah River Site have been assessed using radionuclide pathway analysis to estimate environmental impact of closure alternatives for existing disposal sites, and to assist in the development of improved disposal facilities in the near future. This paper outlines the status of uranium waste management technology as currently practiced to maintain the environmental impact within an acceptable limit at the Savannah River Site, and indicates those steps being taken to improve future operations.

  12. Benefits of On-Site Management of Environmental Restoration Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Michael J. ,P.E.; Wood, Craig, R.E.M.; Kwiecinski, Daniel, P.E.; Alanis, Saul

    2003-02-27

    As Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) began assessing options under which to conduct the remediation of environmental restoration sites, it became clear that the standard routes for permanent disposal of waste contaminated with hazardous materials would be difficult. Publicly, local citizens' groups resisted the idea of large volumes of hazardous waste being transported through their communities. Regulations for the off-site disposal are complicated due to the nature of the environmental restoration waste, which included elevated tritium levels. Waste generated from environmental restoration at SNL/NM included debris and soils contaminated with a variety of constituents. Operationally, disposal of environmental restoration waste was difficult because of the everchanging types of waste generated during site remediation. As an alternative to standard hazardous waste disposal, SNL/NM proposed and received regulatory approval to construct a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). By containing the remediation wastes on-site, SNL/NM's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program managed to eliminate transportation concerns from the public, worked with regulatory agencies to develop a safe, permanent disposal, and modified the waste disposal procedures to accommodate operational changes. SNL/NM accomplished the task and saved approximately $200 million over the life of the CAMU project, as compared to off-site disposal options.

  13. Savannah River Site`s Site Specific Plan. Environmental restoration and waste management, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering.

  14. Solid Waste Management in Greater Shillong Planning Area (GSPA) Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for Site Suitability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mipun, B. S.; Hazarika, R.; Mondal, M.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2015-04-01

    In Shillong city the existing solid waste management system is mobile waste bins (72%). About 12 percent burn the waste generated by them. Door to door collection is about 5 percent. Over 2 percent households throw the wastes in the open space. Another 9 percent households throw their wastes into the waste bins located in the neighbourhood. The local headman takes care about half of the household's wastes, while Municipality takes care about 34 percent households. About 10 percent households are ignorant about the collection and disposal of wastes. Some NGO's takes care about 5 percent household's wastes. Awareness about segregation of waste into organic and non-bio degradable waste is 64 percent and a significant numbers do the segregation. In Shillong Municipality Board (SMB) area collects 45.91% (78.42 MT) waste, outside SMB area collection is 32.61% (45.99 MT) and entire GSPA the percentage of garbage collected is 41percent. The only dumping ground in GSPA is Marten, Mawiong, and the capacity to hold garbage is decreasing due to limited landfill. The sanitary landfill site is 5.0 acres that it is not enough to meet the demand. Out of he total area 170.69 sq. km. (GSPA) only 25.67% is most suitable and 18.58% is unsuitable to set up a new landfill area. Eastern part of the GSPA, is most suitable, which fulfils the entire criterion adopted in this study. In this the best-stated criterion are land cover (vacant space), slope (2000m) and elevation (1300-1500m). The eastern part of the GSPA is most suitable landfill location.

  15. Site characterization data for Solid Waste Storage Area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1984-12-01

    Currently, the only operating shallow land burial site for low-level radioactive waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is Solid Waste Storage Area No. 6 (SWSA-6). In 1984, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued Order 5820.2, Radioactive Waste Management, which establishes policies and guidelines by which DOE manages its radioactive waste, waste by-products, and radioactively contaminated surplus facilities. The ORNL Operations Division has given high priority to characterization of SWSA-6 because of the need for continued operation under DOE 5820.2. The purpose of this report is to compile existing information on the geologic and hydrologic cond

  16. Waste treatment at the La Hague and Marcoule sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In this report, an overview of waste treatment and solidification facilities located at the La Hague and Marcoule sites, which are owned and/or operated by Cogema, provided. The La Hague facilities described in this report include the following: The STE3 liquid effluent treatment facility (in operation); the AD2 solid waste processing facility (also in operation); and the UCD alpha waste treatment facility (under construction). The Marcoule facilities described in this report, both of which are in operation, include the following: The STEL-EVA liquid effluent treatment facilities for the entire site; and the alpha waste incinerator of the UPI plant. This report is organized into four sections: this introduction, low-level waste treatment at La Hague, low-level waste treatment at Marcoule, and new process development. including the solvent pyrolysis process currently in the development stage for Cogema`s plants.

  17. Conceptual Model for Systematic Construction Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Rahim Mohd Hilmi Izwan; Kasim Narimah

    2017-01-01

    Development of the construction industry generated construction waste which can contribute towards environmental issues. Weaknesses of compliance in construction waste management especially in construction site have also contributed to the big issues of waste generated in landfills and illegal dumping area. This gives sign that construction projects are needed a systematic construction waste management. To date, a comprehensive criteria of construction waste management, particularly for const...

  18. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Intrusion scenarios in fusion waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, M. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Zucchetti, M.; Rocco, P. [Energetics Dept., Polytechnic of Turin (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    Results of analyses on human intrusions into repositories of fusion radioactive waste are presented. The main topics are: duration of the institutional control, occurrence of intrusion, intrusion scenarios, acceptable risk limits and probabilistic data. Application to fusion waste repositories is implemented with a computational model: wells drilling is considered as the possible scenario. Doses and risks to intruder for different SEAFP-2 cases turn out to be very small. No intervention to reduce the hazard is necessary. (authors)

  20. Status evaluation of heavy metals in waste disposal sites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 7.42 pH value during wet season for soil in the Plasto Crown Company waste disposal site indicated alkaline medium which was due to the remnants of the wastes which formed lime to neutralize the acidic medium of the soil while the electrical conductivity values (below 4 dSm-1) indicated the nonsalinity of the soils.

  1. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  2. Dumping syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumping syndrome occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine. The ... causing nausea, cramping, diarrhea, sweating, faintness, and palpitations. Dumping usually occurs after the consumption of too much ...

  3. THE EFFECTS OF ABATTOIR WASTE ON WATER QUALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir site in. Gwagwalada. The work was premised on the fact that untreated wastes from the abattoir are discharged directly into open drainage which flows into a nearby stream. Leachates from dumped and decomposed wastes ...

  4. Determining the Performance of an Arid Zone Radioactive Waste Site Through Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. L. Dozier; D. G. Levitt; M. J. Sully; and C. F. Lohrstorfer

    1999-03-09

    A strategy of site characterization, modeling, and monitoring are used to evaluate the performance of an interim cover at a low-level radioactive waste management site. The soil water migration papthway must be evaluated to assure the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive waste. Water balance studies using precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted for five years near the radioactive waste site ath the Nevada Test Site. The numerical flow models UNSAT-H and HYDRUS-2D were tested using the weighing lysimeter data and then used to evaluate various cover design issues including cover thickness, presence of vegetation, and monitoring system design.

  5. A Review On Dump Slope Stabilization By Revegetation With Reference To Indigenous Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The waste sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents low moisture retention capacity higher bulk density low nutrients lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis--vis the site condition and characteristics can enhance the long term stability both mechanical and ecological of dumps waste sub-grade ROM and fines through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion amp gully formation consolidation of dump top amp side surfaces binding the loose particles through intricate roof system etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting Lemmon Grass Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at Survival at fittest the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta Sal CROTON ROXBURGHII Dal-bergia Sisoo SHISHAM KARANJ Azadirachta NEEM etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

  6. 75 FR 22524 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... importance in the vicinity of the Sites. (9) The Existing Water Quality and Ecology of the Sites as... or juvenile phases of living resources. Near the Sites, a variety of pelagic and demersal fish...) Interference with Shipping, Fishing, Recreation, Mineral Extraction, Desalination, Fish and Shellfish Culture...

  7. Savannah River Site Waste Removal Program - Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldivar, E.

    2002-02-25

    The Savannah River Site has fifty-one high level waste tanks in various phases of operation and closure. These tanks were originally constructed to receive, store, and treat the high level waste (HLW) created in support of the missions assigned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) requires the high level waste to be removed from the tanks and stabilized into a final waste form. Additionally, closure of the tanks following waste removal must be completed. The SRS HLW System Plan identifies the interfaces of safe storage, waste removal, and stabilization of the high level waste and the schedule for the closure of each tank. HLW results from the dissolution of irradiated fuel components. Desired nuclear materials are recovered and the byproducts are neutralized with NaOH and sent to the High Level Waste Tank Farms at the SRS. The HLW process waste clarifies in the tanks as the sludge settles, resulting in a layer of dense sludge with salt supernate settling above the sludge. Salt supernate is concentrated via evaporation into saltcake and NaOH liquor. This paper discusses the history of SRS waste removal systems, recent waste removal experiences, and the challenges facing future removal operations to enhance efficiency and cost effectiveness. Specifically, topics will include the evolution and efficiency of systems used in the 1960's which required large volumes of water to current systems of large centrifugal slurry pumps, with significant supporting infrastructure and safety measures. Interactions of this equipment with the waste tank farm operations requirements will also be discussed. The cost and time improvements associated with these present-day systems is a primary focus for the HLW Program.

  8. Emergencies and Emergency Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency permits under the MPRSA are issued if disposed material poses a threat to human health. Information is provided on emergency permit examples and disposal sites. Emergencies to safeguard life at sea does not require an ocean dumping permit.

  9. Special and Research Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special permits and research permits under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act may be issued by EPA for ocean dumping. Examples and ocean disposal sites for special and research permits are provided.

  10. A history of solid waste packaging at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Weyns-Rollosson, D.I.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Stratton, T.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Since the initiation of the defense materials product mission, a total of more than 600,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste has been stored or disposed at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. As the DOE complex prepares for its increasing role in environmental restoration and waste remediation, the characterization of buried and retrievably stored waste will become increasingly important. Key to this characterization is an understanding of the standards and specifications to which waste was packaged; the regulations that mandated these standards and specifications; the practices used for handling and packaging different waste types; and the changes in these practices with time.

  11. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  12. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  13. Construction and Demolition Waste Characteristics in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dumping C&D waste puts pressure for acquisition of large portions of land in order to accommodate the disposal of the growing waste generated from construction and demolition sites. Others include imposed economic burdens, social discomfort as well as sources of environmental pollution like air and water pollutants.

  14. The Politics of Environmental Destruction and the Use of Nature as Teacher and Site of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengwati, Makkies David

    1995-01-01

    Lack of education, low environmental awareness, and environmental racism (for example, siting toxic waste dumps in certain communities) contribute to the degradation of the environment in South Africa. Educational initiatives include learning from nature and fostering political action. (SK)

  15. On-Site Field-Feeding Waste to Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    operator’s duty is to feed relatively dry paper and plastic trash into the OFWEC’s shredder, having previously se- parated cans, glass bottles , and...ON-SITE FIELD- FEEDING WASTE TO ENERGY CONVERTER L. Knowlton* and D. Pickard U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering...field- feeding generates tons of solid waste that is a costly logistic burden, requiring personnel, vehi- cles, and fuel that could otherwise be used for

  16. Identification of unknown waste sites using MIVIS hyperspectral images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomarasca, M.A.; Strobelt, S. [National Research Council, Milano (Italy)

    1996-11-01

    This paper presents the results on the individuation of known and unknown (illegal) waste sites using Landsat TM satellite imagery and airborne MIVIS (Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer) data for detailed analysis in Italy. Previous results with Landsat TM imagery were partially positive for large waste site identification and negative for small sites. Information acquired by the MIVIS hyperspectral system presents three main characteristics: local scale study, possibility to plan the proper period based on the objectives of the study, high number of spectral bands with high spectral and geometrical resolution. MIVIS airborne shootings were carried out on 7 July 1994 at noon with 4x4 m pixel resolution. The MIVIS 102 bands` sensors can distinguish even objects with similar spectral behavior, thanks to its high spectral resolution. Identification of degraded sites is obtained using traditional spectral and statistical operators (NDVI, Principal Component Analysis, Maximum Likelihood classifier) and innovative combination of filtered band ratios realized to extract specific waste elements (acid slimes or contaminated soils). One of the aims that concerns with this study is the definition of an operative program for the characterization, identification and classification of defined categories of waste disposal sites. The best schedule for the data collection by airborne MIVIS oriented to this target is defined. The planning of the proper flight, based on the waste sites features, is important to optimize this technology. One of the most efficient methods for detecting hidden waste sites is the thermal inertia so two images are necessary: one during low sun load and one with high sun load. The results obtained are operationally useful and winning. This instrument, supported by correct analysis techniques, may offer new interesting prospects in territorial management and environmental monitoring. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and...

  18. 75 FR 5708 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of the Siuslaw River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... scientific importance in the vicinity of the Sites. (9) The Existing Water Quality and Ecology of the Sites... pelagic and demersal fish species, including salmon, as well as shellfish, are found. The benthic fauna at...) Interference with Shipping, Fishing, Recreation, Mineral Extraction, Desalination, Fish and Shellfish Culture...

  19. Cadmium and lead concentrations in Skrjabinotaenia lobata (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and in its host, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae) in the urban dumping site of Garraf (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jordi [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: jtorres@ub.edu; Peig, Jordi [Departament de Biologia Animal (Vertebrats), Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Eira, Catarina [Laboratori de Parasitologia, Departament de Microbiologia i Parasitologia Sanitaries, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII, sn, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Borras, Miquel [Unitat de Toxicologia Experimental i Ecotoxicologia. Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The present study evaluates the parasitological model constituted by the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and its intestinal cestode (Skrjabinotaenia lobata) as a potential bioindicator of Cd and Pb in the urban dumping site of Garraf near the city of Barcelona (Spain) and in Begues (reference site). Tissues and respective S. lobata specimens of 38 wood mice captured in Garraf and Begues were analyzed for Cd and Pb by means of ICP-MS. Higher cadmium levels in S. lobata were found only in respect to the muscular levels of their hosts. Nevertheless, lead levels were 8.5-, 53.2- and 81.4-fold higher in S. lobata than kidney, liver and muscle levels of A. sylvaticus from Garraf, respectively. Thus, the proposed model seems to be a promising bioindicator to evaluate environmental lead exposure in terrestrial habitats. In addition, all available data on lead bioaccumulation by cestode parasites of terrestrial mammals are generally discussed. - The parasitological model S. lobata/A. sylvaticus presents suitable features to be used as a bioindicator of lead pollution in terrestrial habitats.

  20. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  1. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Garrett, M.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.; VanHammersveld, M.

    1993-02-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach consists primarily of drilling boreholes near contaminated sites and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. This is expensive and time consuming. The feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening was investigated. Two neural network techniques, gradient descent back propagation and fully recurrent back propagation were utilized. The networks were trained with data received from Westinghouse Hanford Corporation. The results indicate that the network trained with the fully recurrent technique shows satisfactory generalization capability. The predicted results are close to the results obtained from a mathematical flow prediction model. It is possible to develop a new tool to predict the waste plume, thus substantially reducing the number of the bore sites and samplings. There are a variety of applications for this technique in environmental site screening and remediation. One of the obvious applications would be for optimum well siting. A neural network trained from the existing sampling data could be utilized to decide where would be the best position for the next bore site. Other applications are discussed in the report.

  2. 77 FR 55144 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... site. Benthic grabs and trawl data show the ecology of the area to be that associated with sandy... Department of Land Conservation and Development (DLCD) for review on February 17, 2012. The DCLD concurred on...

  3. 77 FR 20590 - Ocean Dumping; Designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites Offshore of Yaquina Bay, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... when it was used as a Section 103 selected site. Benthic grabs and trawl data show the ecology of the... the requirements of the CZMA and submitted that determination to the Oregon Department of Land...

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Exposure to atmospheric pms, pahs, pcdd/fs and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Baalbaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Baalbaki, R., El Hage, R., Nassar, J., Gerard, J., Saliba, N.B., Zaarour, R., Abboud, M., Wehbeh, F., Khalaf, L.K., Shihadeh, A.L., Saliba, N.A. 2016. Exposure to atmospheric PMS, PAHS, PCDD/FS and metals near an open air waste burning site in Beirut. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 91-103. Since July 2015, Lebanon has experienced the worst solid waste management crisis in its history. Consequently, open-air waste burning in the vicinity of highly populated areas in Beirut has become a common practice. This study evaluates the effects of open-air dumping and burning on local air quality and public health. The levels of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, gaseous and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, and particle-bound metals at a residence close to waste burning are reported. Concentrations, determined between October 2 and December 2, 2015, were compared either to previous measurements or to measurements taken away from a nearby burning incident, and after it had rained. Subsequently, the cancer risk due to exposure to these chemicals was assessed. Results showed alarming increases in pollutant concentrations which was translated into an increase in short-term cancer risk from about 1 to 20 people per million on the days when waste was being burned. Findings were shared with the public to warn the community against the dangers of waste mismanagement, and underline the obvious need for solid waste management at the governmental and municipal levels.

  8. Navy Aquatic Hazardous Waste Sites: The Problem and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    and storm drains as well as direct runoff. Disposal areas, abandoned drum sites, and waste oil tanks all con- tain potentially hazardous materials that...Narragansett Bay. Streams, shallow groundwater, storm drains , marshes, and creeks near the sites all discharge to Allen Harbor and the bay. Calf Pasture Point...Center San Diego, CA. All surface runoff, storm drains , and probably groundwater discharge to the boat channel which enters San Diego Bay. A refuse

  9. On Optimal Dumping.

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Sajal; Sheen, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    It is generally believed that, in the absence of retaliation, a country can enhance its welfare by dumping its product on another country. Antidumping policies, in the form of countervailing duties, are usually introduced by the dumped-upon countries. In this paper, the authors show that it may in fact be in the social interest of the dumping country to introduce a "voluntary dumping restraint" policy. It is also shown that such a policy can be enacted without the government having to forbid ...

  10. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-03-07

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized. (JRD)

  11. USE OF ELECTROKINETICS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was authorized as part of the 1986 amendments to the Superfund legislation. It represents a joint effort between U.S. EPA`s Office of Research and Development and Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The progr...

  12. Role of the reactor configuration in the biological detoxification of a dump site-polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil in lab-scale slurry phase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, F; Di Gioia, D; Marchetti, L

    2000-02-01

    The biotreatability of a xenobiotic contaminated soil is frequently determined through a bioslurry treatment usually performed in lab-scale shaken baffled flasks. In this study, a 3-1 unconventional stirred tank reactor was developed and tested in the slurry-phase treatment of a soil heavily contaminated by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) derived from an Italian dump site, in the absence and in the presence of biphenyl and of the exogenous PCB aerobically dechlorinating co-culture ECO3. The data obtained were compared with those obtained on the same soil in experiments performed in parallel in 3-1 baffled shaken flask reactors. Considerably higher PCB removal and soil detoxification yields (determined through the Lepidium sativum germination test and the Collembola mortality test) were attained in the stirred tank reactors, which generally displayed a higher slurry-phase homogeneity and a higher availability of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading bacteria compared to the corresponding shaken flask reactors. Moreover, enhanced soil PCB biodegradation and detoxification yields were observed when the developed reactor was supplemented with biphenyl and the exogenous ECO3 bacteria. In conclusion, the results of the soil biotreatability experiments commonly performed in bioslurry lab-scale reactors are significantly influenced by the reactor configuration; the use of the unconventional stirred tank reactor system developed in this work is recommended.

  13. Role of the reactor configuration in the biological detoxification of a dump site-polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil in lab-scale slurry phase conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fava, F.; Di Gioia, D.; Marchetti, L. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Applicata e Scienza dei Materiali

    2000-07-01

    The biotreatability of a xenobiotic contaminated soil is frequently determined through a bioslurry treatment usually performed in lab-scale shaken baffled flasks. In this study, a 3-1 unconventional stirred tank reactor was developed and tested in the slurry-phase treatment of a soil heavily contaminated by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) derived from an Italian dump site, in the absence and in the presence of biphenyl and of the exogenous PCB aerobically dechlorinating co-culture ECO3. The data obtained were compared with those obtained on the same soil in experiments performed in parallel in 3-l baffled shaken flask reactors. Considerably higher PCB removal and soil detoxification yields (determined through the Lepidium sativum germination test and the Collembola mortality test) were attained in the stirred tank reactors, which generally displayed a higher slurry-phase homogeneity and a higher availability of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoic acid-degarding bacteria compared to the corresponding shaken flask reactors. Moreover, enhanced soil PCB biodegradation and detoxification yields were observed when the developed reactor was supplemented with biphenyl and the exogenous ECO3 bacteria. In conclusion, the results of the soil biotreatability experiments commonly performed in bioslurry lab-scale reactors are significantly influenced by the reactor configuration; the use of the unconventional stirred tank reactor system developed in this work is recommended. (orig.)

  14. Differences in Health Symptoms among Residents Living Near Illegal Dump Sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael K. Al-Delaimy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6–5.5, skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3–5.9, stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3–4.8, eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2–3.6, and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2–4.8. Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants.

  15. Differences in health symptoms among residents living near illegal dump sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Larsen, Catherine Wood; Pezzoli, Keith

    2014-09-15

    Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6-5.5)), skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3-5.9)), stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3-4.8)), eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2-3.6)), and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2-4.8)). Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants.

  16. Application of neural networks to waste site screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Kraft, T.; Hilton, J.M. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Waste site screening requires knowledge of the actual concentrations of hazardous materials and rates of flow around and below the site with time. The present approach to site screening consists primarily of drilling, boreholes near contaminated site and chemically analyzing the extracted physical samples and processing the data. In addition, hydraulic and geochemical soil properties are obtained so that numerical simulation models can be used to interpret and extrapolate the field data. The objective of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using neural network techniques to reduce the cost of waste site screening. A successful technique may lead to an ability to reduce the number of boreholes and the number of samples analyzed from each borehole to properly screen the waste site. The analytic tool development described here is inexpensive because it makes use of neural network techniques that can interpolate rapidly and which can learn how to analyze data rather than having to be explicitly programmed. In the following sections, data collection and data analyses will be described, followed by a section on different neural network techniques used. The results will be presented and compared with mathematical model. Finally, the last section will summarize the research work performed and make several recommendations for future work.

  17. National Policies for cleaning up contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Policies for the remediation of contaminated sites emerged relatively late as a subfield of environmental protection. The policy area is adjacent to other policies, such as waste policy, which often includes provisions on how to deal with waste dumps, as well as soil and groundwater protection

  18. Multiple elemental exposures amongst workers at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste (e-waste) site in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L; Fobil, Julius

    2016-12-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie's environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n = 58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n = 11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 μg/L median) and lead (6.4 μg/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 μg/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple Elemental Exposures Amongst Workers at the Agbogbloshie Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Site in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srigboh, Roland Kofi; Basu, Niladri; Stephens, Judith; Asampong, Emmanuel; Perkins, Marie; Neitzel, Richard L.; Fobil, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is growing worldwide and raising a number of environmental health concerns. One of the largest e-waste sites is Agbogbloshie (Ghana). While several toxic elements have been reported in Agbogbloshie’s environment, there is limited knowledge of human exposures there. The objectives of this study were to characterize exposures to several essential (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, zinc) and toxic (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) elements in the urine and blood of male workers (n=58) at Agbogbloshie, as well as females (n=11) working in activities that serve the site, and to relate these exposures to sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. The median number of years worked at the site was 5, and the average worker indicated being active in 6.8 tasks (of 9 key e-waste job categories). Additionally, we categorized four main e-waste activities (in brackets % of population self-reported main activity): dealing (22.4%), sorting (24.1%), dismantling (50%), and burning (3.4%) e-waste materials. Many blood and urinary elements (including essential ones) were within biomonitoring reference ranges. However, blood cadmium (1.2 ug/L median) and lead (6.4 ug/dl; 67% above U.S. CDC/NIOSH reference level), and urinary arsenic (38.3 ug/L; 39% above U.S. ATSDR value) levels were elevated compared to background populations elsewhere. Workers who burned e-waste tended to have the highest biomarker levels. The findings of this study contribute to a growing body of work at Agbogbloshie (and elsewhere) to document that individuals working within e-waste sites are exposed to a number of toxic elements, some at potentially concerning levels. PMID:27580259

  20. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  1. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  2. The spiders (Araneae of pure pine and birch stands on restored open dump sites in Saxony and Brandenburg (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschker, Ulrich M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spider communities of four restored, afforested pure stands of first generation pine, birch and birch-robinia in the postmining landscape and one natural pine forest of the Lower Lusatia (Germany: Saxony and Brandenburg were investigated. From 1997-98 a total of 6,368 spiders were caught using stemeclectors and pitfall traps. More than 50% of the specimens collected were juveniles. The remaining individuals were identified and represent 123 from 23 families. Among them are several taxa listed in the Red Data Lists of Germany (n = 16, Brandenburg (n = 13 and Saxony (n = 14. One species, Clubiona leucaspis is rare for Germany and new to Saxony. When comparing afforested stands of pine on postmining areas with natural ones the species Coelotes terrestris (Amaurobiidae was observed exclusively in the latter. The absence of this species on restored sites seems to indicate a disturbance of the soil up to almost 60 years after the end of restoration. According to pitfall trapping in three pine forests the increasing biomass of spiders indicates a high predation rate at the oldest site, whereas the highest species diversity was found on younger, rehabilitated sites.

  3. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the &apos

  4. Sealing concepts for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.L.; Gulick, C.W.; Lambert, S.J.

    1982-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility is proposed for development in the southeast portion of the State of New Mexico. The proposed horizon is in bedded salt located approximately 2150 ft below the surface. The purpose of the WIPP is to provide an R&D facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from defense activities of the United States. As such, it will include a disposal demonstration for transuranic (TRU) wastes and an experimental area to address issues associated with disposal of defense high level wastes (DHLW) in bedded salt. All DHLW used in the experiments are planned for retrieval at the termination of testing; the TRU waste can be permanently disposed of at the site after the pilot phase is complete. This report addresses only the Plugging and Sealing program, which will result in an adequate and acceptable technology for final sealing and decommissioning of the facility at the WIPP site. The actual plugging operations are intended to be conducted on a commercial industrial basis through contracts issued by the DOE. This report is one in a series that is based on a technical program of modeling, laboratory materials testing and field demonstration which will provide a defensible basis for the actual plugging operations to be conducted by the DOE for final closure of the facility.

  5. ON-SITE MERCURY ANALYSIS OF SOIL AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES BY IMMUNOASSAY AND ASV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two field methods for Hg, immunoassay and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), that can provide onsite results for quick decisions at hazardous waste sites were evaluated. Each method was applied to samples from two Superfund sites that contain high levels of Hg; Sulphur Bank Me...

  6. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  7. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  8. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  9. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-2, 100-B Burn Pit #2 Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-038

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-21

    The 128-B-2 waste site was a burn pit historically used for the disposal of combustible and noncombustible wastes, including paint and solvents, office waste, concrete debris, and metallic debris. This site has been remediated by removing approximately 5,627 bank cubic meters of debris, ash, and contaminated soil to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  10. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  11. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  12. Gas Retention and Release from Hanford Site Sludge Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meacham, Joseph E.; Follett, Jordan R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Wells, Beric E.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2015-02-18

    Radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Solid wastes can be divided into saltcake (mostly precipitated soluble sodium nitrate and nitrite salts with some interstitial liquid consisting of concentrated salt solutions) and sludge (mostly low solubility aluminum and iron compounds with relatively dilute interstitial liquid). Waste generates hydrogen through the radiolysis of water and organic compounds, radio-thermolytic decomposition of organic compounds, and corrosion of a tank’s carbon steel walls. Nonflammable gases, such as nitrous oxide and nitrogen, are also produced. Additional flammable gases (e.g., ammonia and methane) are generated by chemical reactions between various degradation products of organic chemicals present in the tanks.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Enviromental Report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Enviromnetal Services

    2009-09-21

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2008 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to characterize site environmental management performance; summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant facility programs and efforts; and describe how compliance and environmental improvement is accomplished through the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP) Number NM4890139088-TSDF (treatment, storage, and disposal facility) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WIPP mission is to safely dispose of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste generated by the production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. In 2008, 5,265 cubic meters (m3) of TRU waste were disposed of at the WIPP facility, including 5,216 m3 of contact-handled (CH) TRU waste and 49 m3 of remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. From the first

  14. Site specific plan. [Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J.; Jernigan, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) covers the period for FY 1989 through FY 1995. The plan establishes a Department of Energy -- Headquarters (DOE-HQ) agenda for cleanup and compliance against which overall progress can be measured. The FYP covers three areas: Corrective Activities, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Operations. Corrective Activities are those activities necessary to bring active or standby facilities into compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulations. Environmental restoration activities include the assessment and cleanup of surplus facilities and inactive waste sites. Waste management operations includes the treatment, storage, and disposal of wastes which are generated as a result of ongoing operations. This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show how environmental restoration and waste management activities that were identified during the preparation of the FYP will be implemented, tracked, and reported. The SSP describes DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) and operating contractor, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), organizations that are responsible, for undertaking the activities identified in this plan. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. 8 refs., 46 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Quantitative mapping of particulate iron in an ocean dump using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlhorst, C. W.; Bahn, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    A remote sensing experiment was conducted at the industrial acid waste ocean dump site located approximately 38 n mi SE of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, to see if there was a relationship between aircraft remotely sensed spectral signatures and the iron concentration measured in the plume. Results are presented which show that aircraft remotely sensed spectral data can be used to quantify and map an acid waste dump in terms of its particulate iron concentration. A single variable equation using the ratio of band 2 (440-490 nm) radiance to band 4 (540-580 nm) radiance was used to quantify the acid plume and the surrounding water. The acid waste varied in age from freshly dumped to 3 1/2 hours old. Particulate iron concentrations in the acid waste were estimated to range up to 1.1 mg/liter at the 0.46 meter depth. A classification technique was developed to remove sunglitter-affected pixels from the data set.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Roy B.; Adams, Amy; Martin, Don; Morris, Randall C.; Reynolds, Timothy D.; Warren, Ronald W.

    2000-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)Carlsbad Area Office and the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 1999 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 1999 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during calendar year 1999. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 1999, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment. Radionuclide concentrations in the environment surrounding WIPP were not statistically higher in 1999 than in 1998.

  17. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  18. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-09-24

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site`s pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office`s (RL`s) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program.

  19. 78 FR 75913 - Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland... Final Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland... security and management). Activities under the Environmental Assessment, Sodium Residuals Reaction/Removal...

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996 consists of 2042 polygons for selected hazardous waste sites...

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil from Selected Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the nutrient status and textural characteristics of soil from solid waste dumpsites in the city of Port Harcourt. The study was carried out in five solid waste dump sites alongside their respective controls located at Iwofe, Eliozu, Choba, Rumuokwuta and Ozuoba within the city of Port Harcourt for two ...

  2. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2013 results. Beginning with this report, analysis results for leachate collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant CY 2000 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC; Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc.

    2001-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office and Westinghouse TRU Solutions, LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2000 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2000 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protect ion Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an Annual Site Environmental Report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2000. The format of this report follows guidance offered in a June 1, 2001 memo from DOE's Office of Policy and Guidance with the subject ''Guidance for the preparation of Department of Energy (DOE) Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2000.'' WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2000, no

  4. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  5. MONITORING OF UNAUTHORIZED DUMPS WITH USE OF REMOTE SENSING ON THE EXAMPLE OF VOLZHSKIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Sergiyenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the actual problems bound with quality deterioration of the natural environment is inappropriate handling of solid waste. According to the State Report on Environment in 2014, the Russian Federation accumulates about 180 million tons of solid waste. This brings an increase in area landfills by more than 5000 ha. Volumes an waste of all hazard classes have been growing year by year and exceeds the volume of their use and neutralization more than twice. Besides, we do not take into account the large amount of waste illegally dumped on to the waste-ground near cities or towns. An effective means of fighting this problem is environmental monitoring. With the development of the Internet and the increased availability of the satellite map database, it is possible to detect and catalog waste disposal sites around and within settlements. Most effective method of monitoring is the use of different-time maps to identify the dynamics of the growth of garbage dumps. Earth remote sensing and GIS tools allow municipal services and research associations to count the areas occupied by unauthorized waste storage facilities, to make timely amendments to the land cadaster, and to respond appropriately, as soon as possible, by the standards of cataloging. This research has been based on the use of high-resolution images that are publicly available, and their analysis using simple GIS tools that are accessible to the public.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2012 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: Characterize site environmental management performance; Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year; Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements; Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS).

  7. Health and Safety Procedures Manual for hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thate, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Chemical Assessments Team (ORNL/CAT) has developed this Health and Safety Procedures Manual for the guidance, instruction, and protection of ORNL/CAT personnel expected to be involved in hazardous waste site assessments and remedial actions. This manual addresses general and site-specific concerns for protecting personnel, the general public, and the environment from any possible hazardous exposures. The components of this manual include: medical surveillance, guidance for determination and monitoring of hazards, personnel and training requirements, protective clothing and equipment requirements, procedures for controlling work functions, procedures for handling emergency response situations, decontamination procedures for personnel and equipment, associated legal requirements, and safe drilling practices.

  8. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  9. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions, Inc.

    2002-09-20

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy's (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Westinghouse TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environmental, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2001 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year (CY) 2001 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH- 0173T), and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (DOE/WIPP 96-2199). The above Orders and guidance documents require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of operational environmental monitoring activities, to provide an abstract of environmental activities conducted to characterize site environmental management performance to confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements, and to highlight significant programs and efforts of environmental merit at WIPP during CY 2001. WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. In 2001, no evidence was found of any adverse effects from WIPP on the surrounding environment.

  11. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  13. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  14. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  15. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  16. 2003 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2003 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semi-annually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), tritium, and major cations/anions. Results from all samples collected in 2003 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and confirm that any previous detections of TOC and TOX were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevations. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes a Cumulative Chronology for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the current groundwater sampling procedure.

  17. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2003-09-17

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS) are dedicated to maintaining high quality management of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) environmental resources. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting, require that the environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and the environment. This Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2002 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental data from calendar year 2002 that characterize environmental management performance and demonstrate compliance with federal and state regulations. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, DOE Order 231.1, and Guidance for the Preparation of DOE Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs) for Calendar Year 2002 (DOE Memorandum EH-41: Natoli:6-1336, April 4, 2003). These Orders and the guidance document require that DOE facilities submit an annual site environmental report to DOE Headquarters, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health; and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  18. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  20. Mathematical Modelling of Leachate Production from Waste Contained Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojolo S. Joshua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, mathematical models of leachate production from Waste Contained Site (WCS was developed and validated using the existing experimental data with aid of MATLAB, 2007a. When the leachate generation potentials (Lo were 100m3, 80m3 and 50m3, the maximum amount of leachate generated were about 2920m3, 2338m3 and 1461m3 for about 130 days respectively. It was noted that as the leachate percolates through a selected distance, the concentration keeps decreasing for one-dimensional flow in all the cases considered. Decreasing in concentration continues until a point was reached when the concentration was almost zero and later constant. The effects of diffusivity, amount of organic content present within the waste and gravity, as cases, were also considered in various occasions during the percolation. Comparison of their effects was also taken into account. In case of gravity at constant diffusivity, decrease in concentration was not rapid but gradually while much organic content in the waste caused the rate of leachate production to be rapid; hence, giving rise to a sharp sloped curve. It can be concluded that gravity influences the rate of change in the concentration of the leachate generation as the leachate percolate downward to the underground water. When the diffusivity and gravity are put into consideration, the concentration of the leachate decreases gradually and slowly.

  1. Spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, sediment, and combusted residue at an e-waste processing site in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna O W; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-06-01

    The environmental pollution and health impacts caused by the primitive and crude recycling of e-waste have become urgent global issues. Guiyu, China is a major hotspot of e-waste recycling. In this study, the levels and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil in Guiyu were determined to investigate the effect of e-waste activities on the environment and to identify possible sources of these pollutants. Sediment samples from a local duck pond, water gullies, a river tributary, and combusted residue from e-waste burning sites were also investigated. The general trend found in soil (Σ16 PAHs) was acid leaching site > duck pond > rice field > printer roller dump site > reservoir (control site) and ranged from 95.2 ± 54.2 to 5,210 ± 89.6 ng/g (dry wt). The highest average total PAH concentrations were found in combusted residues of wires, cables, and other computer electrical components located at two e-waste open burning sites (18,600 and 10,800 ± 3,940 ng/g). These were 195- and 113-fold higher than the PAH concentrations of soil at the control site. Sediment PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2 ± 6 to 534 ± 271 ng/g. Results of this study provide further evidence of significant input of PAHs to the environment attributed to crude e-waste recycling.

  2. Solid waste management history of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize and document the management of solid radioactive waste from 1944 to the present. This report includes the following topics: The scope of solid waste management practices and the changes in these practices with time; waste categorization; the history of waste management requirements, including waste management laws, policies, and orders; waste acceptance criteria; how different waste types were handled and packaged; the types of containers used for waste packaging; disposal practices, including detailed descriptions of burial and storage facilities; and the various forms of documentation required for solid waste storage or disposal.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  4. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C. [EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1989-11-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and analytical procedures.

  5. Progress in forming bottom barriers under waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.E. [Carter Technologies, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper describes an new method for the construction, verification, and maintenance of underground vaults to isolate and contain radioactive burial sites without excavation or drilling in contaminated areas. The paper begins with a discussion of previous full-scale field tests of horizontal barrier tools which utilized high pressure jetting technology. This is followed by a discussion of the TECT process, which cuts with an abrasive cable instead of high pressure jets. The new method is potentially applicable to more soil types than previous methods and can form very thick barriers. Both processes are performed from the perimeter of a site and require no penetration or disturbance of the active waste area. The paper also describes long-term verification methods to monitor barrier integrity passively.

  6. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  7. Ambient Air Ammonia (NH3) Concentration in Two Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. This work monitored the level of ammonia in the ambient air of two major solid waste dump sites in Abakaliki urban, Ebonyi State, in the morning for a period of a month on the onset of wet season, using portable monitor based on electrochemical sensor. The result showed that site 1 had a ...

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2010 (ASER) is to provide information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Specifically, the ASER presents summary environmental data to: (1) Characterize site environmental management performance. (2) Summarize environmental occurrences and responses reported during the calendar year. (3) Confirm compliance with environmental standards and requirements. (4) Highlight significant environmental accomplishments, including progress toward the DOE Environmental Sustainability Goals made through implementation of the WIPP Environmental Management System (EMS). The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC), Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS), maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP. DOE Order 231.1A; DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program; and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, which requires that DOE facilities submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer. The WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Number NM4890139088-TSDF (Permit) further requires that the ASER be provided to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED).

  9. Three multimedia models used at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Holtzman, S.; Sun, L.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rambaugh, J.O.; Potter, S. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Multimedia models are used commonly in the initial phases of the remediation process where technical interest is focused on determining the relative importance of various exposure pathways. This report provides an approach for evaluating and critically reviewing the capabilities of multimedia models. This study focused on three specific models MEPAS Version 3.0, MMSOILS Version 2.2, and PRESTO-EPA-CPG Version 2.0. These models evaluate the transport and fate of contaminants from source to receptor through more than a single pathway. The presence of radioactive and mixed wastes at a site poses special problems. Hence, in this report, restrictions associated with the selection and application of multimedia models for sites contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes are highlighted. This report begins with a brief introduction to the concept of multimedia modeling, followed by an overview of the three models. The remaining chapters present more technical discussions of the issues associated with each compartment and their direct application to the specific models. In these analyses, the following components are discussed: source term; air transport; ground water transport; overland flow, runoff, and surface water transport; food chain modeling; exposure assessment; dosimetry/risk assessment; uncertainty; default parameters. The report concludes with a description of evolving updates to the model; these descriptions were provided by the model developers.

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-23, 100-B/C Area Surface Debris, Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-027

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-06-16

    The 100-B-23, 100-B/C Surface Debris, waste consisted of multiple locations of surface debris and chemical stains that were identified during an Orphan Site Evaluation of the 100-B/C Area. Evaluation of the collected information for the surface debris features yielded four generic waste groupings: asbestos-containing material, lead debris, oil and oil filters, and treated wood. Focused verification sampling was performed concurrently with remediation. Site remediation was accomplished by selective removal of the suspect hazardous items and potentially impacted soils. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle and marine environment. Behavior of the Rhone river effluents in the mediterranean sea and of wastes dumped in the northeast atlantic; Cycle du combustible nucleaire et milieu marin. Devenir des effluents rhodaniens en mediterranee et des dechets immerges en atlantique nord-est

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charmasson, S

    1998-07-01

    Man-made radionuclides released into the marine environment by the installations from the nuclear fuel cycle are used as tracers of various bio-geochemical processes. Several installations belonging to the whole nuclear fuel cycle, except the uranium mining, are set up on the Rhone River Banks. The sea disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste has never been authorized in the Mediterranean sea but several sites have been used in the North-East especially in abyssal waters. Radionuclides released by the Rhone river installations are used in order to study the dynamics of the Rhone inputs into the Mediterranean Sea. In the river, freshwater samples reflect quite accurately the discharge composition with a predominance of {sup 106}Ru, a radionuclide mostly released by the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Marcoule. Conversely, at the Rhone mouth, in the sediment compartment {sup 106}Ru yields to caesium isotopes ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) in importance. As these two isotopes demonstrate very different half-lives (30,2 and 2,1 years respectively), the temporal evolution of their ratio acts as a chronometer enabled to date sediment accumulation near the river mouth. Mean accumulation rates greater than 35 cm y{sup -1} have been determined in the pro-deltaic zone near the Roustan buoys over the period 1983-1991. Accumulation rates decrease rapidly with distance from the mouth and therefore most of the {sup 137}Cs inventory in this part of the Gulf of Lions is limited to the pro-deltaic area. A first study about the part the different {sup 137}Cs sources in the Mediterranean Sea play in this inventory has been carried out. Direct (atmospheric) and indirect (fluviatile) inputs due to fallout from both past nuclear tests and the Chernobyl accident could contribute to this inventory at the highest to 40 % while the industrial releases could contribute at the lowest to 60 %. The last site used for the dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive

  13. Nevada Test Site 2005 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Hudson, Cathy A. Wills

    2006-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2005 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (U.S. Department of Energy, 2005; Grossman, 2005; Bechtel Nevada, 2006). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate that exposure levels around the RWMSs are at or below background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. There is no detectable man-made radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. Measurements at the Area 5 RWMS show that radon flux from waste covers is no higher than natural radon flux from undisturbed soil in Area 5. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. Precipitation during 2005 totaled 219.1 millimeters (mm) (8.63 inches [in.]) at the Area 3 RWMS and 201.4 mm (7.93 in.) at the Area 5 RWMS. Soil-gas tritium monitoring continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Moisture from precipitation at Area 5 has percolated to the bottom of the bare-soil weighing lysimeter, but this same moisture has been removed from the vegetated weighing lysimeter by evapotranspiration. Vadose zone data from the operational waste pit covers show that precipitation from the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 infiltrated past the deepest sensors at 188 centimeters (6.2 feet) and remains in the pit cover

  14. 75 FR 33708 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... typographical error in the Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal... amended by revising paragraphs (n)(3) and (n)(4) to read as follows: Sec. 228.15 Dumping sites designated...

  15. Waste management units - Savannah River Site. Volume 1, Waste management unit worksheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This report is a compilation of worksheets from the waste management units of Savannah River Plant. Information is presented on the following: Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with a known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received hazardous waste or hazardous constituents with no known release to the environment; Solid Waste Management Units having received no hazardous waste or hazardous constituents; Waste Management Units having received source; and special nuclear, or byproduct material only.

  16. Enhanced On-Site Waste Management of Plasterboard in Construction Works: A Case Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Jiménez-Rivero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On-site management of construction waste commonly determines its destination. In the case of plasterboard (PB, on-site segregation becomes crucial for closed-loop recycling. However, PB is commonly mixed with other wastes in Spain. In this context, the involvement of stakeholders that can contribute to reversing this current situation is needed. This paper analyzes on-site waste management of PB in Spain through a pilot study of a construction site, with the main objective of identifying best practices to increase waste prevention, waste minimization, and the recyclability of the waste. On-site visits and structured interviews were conducted. The results show five management stages: PB distribution (I; PB installation (II; Construction waste storage at the installation area (III; PB waste segregation at the installation area (IV and PB waste transfer to the PB container and storage (V. The proposed practices refer to each stage and include the merging of Stages III and IV. This measure would avoid the mixing of waste fractions in Stage III, maximizing the recyclability of PB. In addition, two requisites for achieving enhanced management are analyzed: ‘Training and commitment’ and ‘fulfilling the requirements established by the current regulation’. The results show that foremen adopted a more pessimistic attitude than installers towards a joint commitment for waste management. Moreover, not all supervisors valued the importance of a site waste management plan, regulated by the Royal Decree 105/2008 in Spain.

  17. A Hybrid Column Generation approach for an Industrial Waste Collection Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Kristian; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a practical roll-on/roll-o_ routing (ROROR) problem arising in the collection of industrial waste. Skip containers, which are used for the waste col-lection, need to be distributed between, and collected from, a set of customers. Full containers must be driven to dump sites, w...

  18. USED NUCLEAR MATERIALS AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: ASSET OR WASTE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V.

    2013-06-03

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable (“assets”) to worthless (“wastes”). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or – in the case of high level waste – awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as “waste” include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national

  19. Project plans for transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy comples-10522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mctaggart, Jerri Lynne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lott, Sheila [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadbury, Casey [DOE

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), has been tasked to write Project Plans for all of the Small Quantity Sites (SQS) with defense related Transuranic (TRU) waste in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Transuranic Work-Off Plans were precursors to the Project Plans. LANL-CO prepared a Work-Off Plan for each small quantity site. The Work-Off Plan that identified issues, drivers, schedules, and inventory. Eight sites have been chosen to deinventory their legacy TRU waste; Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric-Vallecitos Nuclear Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Area 300, Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Radiation Development, Sandia National Laboratory, and the Separations Process Research Unit. Each plan was written for contact and/or remote handled waste if present at the site. These project plans will assist the small quantity sites to ship legacy TRU waste offsite and de-inventory the site of legacy TRU waste. The DOE is working very diligently to reduce the nuclear foot print in the United States. Each of the eight SQSs will be de-inventoried of legacy TRU waste during a campaign that ends September 2011. The small quantity sites have a fraction of the waste that large quantity sites possess. During this campaign, the small quantity sites will package all of the legacy TRU waste and ship to Idaho or directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The sites will then be removed from the Transuranic Waste Inventory if they are de-inventoried of all waste. Each Project Plan includes the respective site inventory report, schedules, resources, drivers and any issues. These project plans have been written by the difficult waste team and will be approved by each site. Team members have been assigned to each site to write site specific project plans. Once the project plans have been written, the difficult team members will visit the sites to ensure nothing has

  20. Applying Lean Concepts to Waste Site Closure - 13137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, M.L. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to manage the River Corridor Closure Project, a 10-year contract in which WCH will clean up 220 mi{sup 2} of contaminated land at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. In the summer of 2011, with Tri-Party (DOE-RL, Environmental Protection Agency and Washington State Department of Ecology) Agreement Milestones due at the end of the calendar year, standard work practices were challenged in regards to closure documentation development. The Lean process, a concept that maximizes customer value while minimizing waste, was introduced to WCH's Sample Design and Cleanup Verification organization with the intention of eliminating waste and maximizing efficiencies. The outcome of implementing Lean processes and concepts was impressive. It was determined that the number of non-value added steps far outnumbered the value added steps. Internal processing time, document size, and review times were all reduced significantly; relationships with the customer and the regulators were also improved; and collaborative working relationships with the Tri Parties have been strengthened by working together on Lean initiatives. (authors)

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States); Basabilvazo, George T. [Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Annual Site Environmental Report for 2016 (ASER) is to provide the information required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. The DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the management and operating contractor (MOC) maintain and preserve the environmental resources at the WIPP facility. DOE Order 231.1B; DOE Order 436.1, Departmental Sustainability; and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, require that the affected environment at and near DOE facilities be monitored to ensure the safety and health of the public and workers, and preservation of the environment. This report was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, which requires DOE facilities to submit an ASER to the DOE Headquarters Chief Health, Safety, and Security Officer.

  2. Coal Mining and Post-Metallurgic Dumping Grounds and Their Connections with Exploitation of Raw Materials in the Region of Ruda Śląska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczy, Iwona; Gawor, Łukasz

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of mining and metallurgical waste dumps in Ruda Śląska was presented in this article. Special attention was paid to the relationship of waste material accumulated on the dumps with resources exploited on studied area. The possibilities of dumps management were also traced and two directions were indicated. The first one is associated with forming a biological covering on the dumps and the second one - with the dumps liquidation and with recovery areas now occupied by the dumps and thus with the secondary use of material collected on them.

  3. A GIS-based zoning of illegal dumping potential for efficient surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Tomohiro; Kawahata, Takatsune; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Takagishi, Susumu; Morita, Akihiro; Akishima, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    To assist in the efficient surveillance against illegal dumping, this study examined and evaluated two methods to illustrate the illegal dumping potential of sites using GIS (Geographic Information System) data. One approach focused on the occurrence of illegal dumping sites; the other on the size of the illegal dumping. Both approaches to zoning were implemented for the Kanto region of Japan, utilizing seven or eight major geographical attributes most closely related to illegal dumping. The zoning results revealed the areas requiring patrols against illegal dumping. Evaluation of the zoning results using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve showed the number of illegal dumping sites detectable under certain surveillance conditions and that the size-based zoning was superior, but this superiority was insignificant for revealing sites with higher potential for large illegal dumping, for which it would be sufficient to use the occurrence-based zoning. The evaluation also showed the contribution of each geographical attribute. Finally, application of the ROC curve to the surveillance planning process was examined, which enables the total social cost of pollution by illegal dumping, rehabilitation of dumping sites, and illegal dumping surveillance to be minimized.

  4. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  5. Savannah River Site mixed waste Proposed Site Treatment Plan (PSTP). Volumes 1 and 2 and reference document: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, E.; Noller, D.K.; Wierzbicki, K.S.; Bailey, L.L.

    1995-07-13

    The DOE is required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to prepare site treatment plans describing the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating mixed waste. This proposed plan contains Savannah River Site`s preferred options and schedules for constructing new facilities, and otherwise obtaining treatment for mixed wastes. The proposed plan consists of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Compliance Plan, identifies the capacity to be developed and the schedules as required. Volume 2, Background, provides a detailed discussion of the preferred options with technical basis, plus a description of the specific waste streams. Chapters are: Introduction; Methodology; Mixed low level waste streams; Mixed transuranic waste; High level waste; Future generation of mixed waste streams; Storage; Process for evaluation of disposal issues in support of the site treatment plans discussions; Treatment facilities and treatment technologies; Offsite waste streams for which SRS treatment is the Preferred Option (Naval reactor wastes); Summary information; and Acronyms and glossary. This revision does not contain the complete revised report, but only those pages that have been revised.

  6. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  7. Remote handling equipment for removal of waste from single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, W.W.

    1990-09-01

    Mechanical retrieval equipment concepts are being developed for remote mining' of the radioactive waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Washington State. This paper presents a description of the tanks, the waste, the key design considerations, and some of the more promising concepts for mechanical waste retrieval. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-F-2, 100-F Burning Pit Waste Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-031

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-12-01

    The 128-F-2 waste site consisted of multiple burn and debris filled pits located directly east of the 107-F Retention Basin and approximately 30.5 m east of the northeast corner of the 100-F Area perimeter road that runs along the riverbank. The burn pits were used for incinerating nonradioactive, combustible materials from 1945 to 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-17

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  10. Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C.A.

    1996-09-20

    The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

  11. PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil from informal e-waste recycling sites and open dumpsites in India: Levels, congener profiles and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Nakamura, Masafumi; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bang, John J

    2018-04-15

    Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz., New Delhi (North), Kolkata (East), Mumbai (West) and Chennai (South). In the informal e-waste recycling sites, the range of Σ 26 PCBs (0.4-488ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (1.0-10.6ng/g) were higher than Ʃ 26 PCBs (0.3-21ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (0.15-7.3ng/g) from open dumpsites. In the e-waste sites, ƩPCDDs were found with increasing trend from ƩTetraCDD to OctaCDD, whereas ƩPCDFs showed a reverse trend. The dominance of PCDF congeners and maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for both PCDDs (17pg TEQ/g) and PCDFs (82pg TEQ/g) at Mandoli in New Delhi has been related to intensive precious metal recovery process using acid bath. Among dumpsites, highest TEQ for PCDD/Fs was observed at Kodangaiyur dumpsite of Chennai (CN DS -02, 45pg TEQ/g). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model identified distinct congener pattern based on the functional activities, such as e-waste dismantling, shredding, precious metal recovery and open burning in dumpsites. E-waste metal recovery factor was loaded with 86-91% of PCB-77, -105, -114, -118 and 30% of PCB-126, possibly associated with the burning of wires during the copper extraction process. Almost 70% of the Ʃ 26 PCB concentrations was comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners with a maximum concentration of 437ng/g at New Moore market in Chennai, followed by Wire Lane (102ng/g), in Mumbai. We speculate that PCB-126 might have resulted from combustion of plastic materials in e-waste stream and dumped waste

  12. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. Chapter 3 summarizes present knowledge of the regional and site hydrologic systems. The purpose of the information presented is to (1) describe the hydrology based on available literature and preliminary site-exploration activities that have been or are being performed and (2) provide information to be used to develop the hydrologic aspects of the planned site characterization program. Chapter 4 contains geochemical information about the Yucca Mountain site. The chapter references plan for continued collection of geochemical data as a part of the site characterization program. Chapter 4 describes and evaluates data on the existing climate and site meterology, and outlines the suggested procedures to be used in developing and validating methods to predict future climatic variation. 534 refs., 100 figs., 72 tabs.

  13. Immediate Deployment of Waste Energy Recovery Technologies at Multi Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Castonguay

    2012-06-29

    Verso Paper Corp. implemented a portfolio of 13 commercially available proven industrial technologies each exceeding 30% minimum threshold efficiency and at least 25% efficiency increase. These sub-projects are a direct result of a grant received from the Department of Energy (DOE) through its FOA 0000044 (Deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems, District Energy Systems, Waste Energy Recovery Systems, and Efficient Industrial Equipment), which was funded by the American Recovery Act. These were installed at 3 sites in 2 states and are helping to reduce Verso costs, making the facilities more competitive. This created approximately 100 construction jobs (FTE's) and reduced impacted Verso facilities' expense budgets. These sub-projects were deployed at Verso paper mills located in Jay, Maine, Bucksport, Maine, and Sartell, Minnesota. The paper mills are the economic engines of the rural communities in which these mills are located. Reinvestment in waste energy recovery capital improvements is providing a stimulus to help maintain domestic jobs and to competitively position the US pulp and paper industry with rising energy costs. Energy efficiency improvements are also providing a positive environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the quantity of wastewater treated and discharged, and fossil fuel demand. As a result of these projects, when fully operating, Verso realized a total of approximately 1.5 TBtu/Year reduction in overall energy consumption, which is 119% of the project objectives. Note that three paper machines have since been permanently curtailed. However even with these shutdowns, the company still met its energy objectives. Note also that the Sartell mill's paper machine is down due to a recent fire which damaged the mill's electrical infrastructure (the company has not decided on the mill's future).

  14. Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert waste on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colizza, E. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy); Fontolan, G. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy); Brambati, A. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-m-wide x 350-m-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the element contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) `anomalous` enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content. (orig.)

  15. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  16. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  17. Framework for managing wastes from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-15

    Oil and gas companies operate in many countries around the world. Their exploration and production (E&P) operations generate many kinds of waste that must be carefully and appropriately managed. Some of these wastes are inherently part of the E&P process; examples are drilling wastes and produced water. Other wastes are generic industrial wastes that are not unique to E&P activities, such as painting wastes and scrap metal. Still other wastes are associated with the presence of workers at the site; these include trash, food waste, and laundry wash water. In some host countries, mature environmental regulatory programs are in place that provide for various waste management options on the basis of the characteristics of the wastes and the environmental settings of the sites. In other countries, the waste management requirements and authorized options are stringent, even though the infrastructure to meet the requirements may not be available yet. In some cases, regulations and/or waste management infrastructure do not exist at all. Companies operating in these countries can be confronted with limited and expensive waste management options.

  18. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  19. Annual Transportation Report for Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2009-02-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at Area 5 and Area 3. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year (FY) 2008. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) transported to or from the NTS during FY 2008. No transuranic (TRU) waste shipments were made from or to the NTS during FY 2008.

  20. Nevada Test Site 2007 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site. These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2007 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2007a; 2008; Warren and Grossman, 2008). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are at background levels. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. A single gamma spectroscopy measurement for cesium was slightly above the minimum detectable concentration, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits at the Area 3 RWMS. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 136.8 millimeters (mm) (5.39 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2007 is 13 percent below the average of 158.1 mm (6.22 in.), and the 123.8 mm (4.87 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2007 is 6 percent below the average of 130.7 mm (5.15 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05U continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward movement percolation of precipitation more effectively

  1. Nevada Test Site 2009 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Radioactive Waste

    2010-06-23

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2009 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NTS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Radon flux from waste covers is well below regulatory limits. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 87.6 millimeters (mm) (3.45 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2009 is 43 percent below the average of 152.4 mm (6.00 in.), and the 62.7 mm (2.47 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2009 is 49 percent below the average of 122.5 mm (4.82 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation

  2. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN SIMULATED SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Hobbs, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-09-27

    To address the accelerated disposition of the supernate and salt portions of Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste (HLW), solubility experiments were performed to develop a predictive capability for plutonium (Pu) solubility. A statistically designed experiment was used to measure the solubility of Pu in simulated solutions with salt concentrations and temperatures which bounded those observed in SRS HLW solutions. Constituents of the simulated waste solutions included: hydroxide (OH{sup -}), aluminate (Al(OH){sub 4}{sup -}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}), and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) anions. Each anion was added to the waste solution in the sodium form. The solubilities were measured at 25 and 80 C. Five sets of samples were analyzed over a six month period and a partial sample set was analyzed after nominally fifteen months of equilibration. No discernable time dependence of the measured Pu concentrations was observed except for two salt solutions equilibrated at 80 C which contained OH{sup -} concentrations >5 mol/L. In these solutions, the Pu solubility increased with time. This observation was attributed to the air oxidation of a portion of the Pu from Pu(IV) to the more soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) valence states. A data driven approach was subsequently used to develop a modified response surface model for Pu solubility. Solubility data from this study and historical data from the literature were used to fit the model. The model predicted the Pu solubility of the solutions from this study within the 95% confidence interval for individual predictions and the analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant lack of fit. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) model was compared with predicted values from the Aqueous Electrolyte (AQ) model developed by OLI Systems, Inc. and a solubility prediction equation developed by Delegard and Gallagher for Hanford tank waste. The agreement between

  3. Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us fRNAdb Database Dump Data detail Data name Database Dump DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00452-002 De... data (tab separeted text) Data file File name: Database_Dump File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/frnadb/LATEST/Database_Dump File size: 673 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition...s. Data analysis method - Number of data entries 4 files - About This Database Database Description Download... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Critical management practices influencing on-site waste minimization in construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O; Bilal, Muhammad; Akinade, Olugbenga O; Alaka, Hafiz A; Owolabi, Hakeem A

    2017-01-01

    As a result of increasing recognition of effective site management as the strategic approach for achieving the required performance in construction projects, this study seeks to identify the key site management practices that are requisite for construction waste minimization. A mixed methods approach, involving field study and survey research were used as means of data collection. After confirmation of construct validity and reliability of scale, data analysis was carried out through a combination of Kruskal-Wallis test, descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The study suggests that site management functions could significantly reduce waste generation through strict adherence to project drawings, and by ensuring fewer or no design changes during construction process. Provision of waste skips for specific materials and maximisation of on-site reuse of materials are also found to be among the key factors for engendering waste minimization. The result of factor analysis suggests four factors underlying on-site waste management practices with 96.093% of total variance. These measures include contractual provisions for waste minimization, waste segregation, maximisation of materials reuse and effective logistic management. Strategies through which each of the underlying measures could be achieved are further discussed in the paper. Findings of this study would assist construction site managers and other site operatives in reducing waste generated by construction activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative toxicology of laboratory organisms for assessing hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Greene, J.C.; Callahan, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-media/multi-trophic level bioassays have been proposed to determine the extent and severity of environmental contamination at hazardous waste sites. Comparative toxicological profiles for algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), daphnia (Daphnia magna), earthworms (Eisenia foetida), microbes (Photobacterium fisherii, mixed sewage microorganisms) and plants; wheat Stephens, (Triticum aestivum), lettuce, butter crunch, (Lactuca sativa L.) radish, Cherry Belle, (Raphanus sativa L.), red clover, Kenland, (Trifolium pratense L.) and cucumber, Spartan Valor, (Cucumis sativa L.) are presented for selected heavy metals, herbicides and insecticides. Specific chemical EC/sub 50/ values are presented for each test organism. Differences in standard deviations were compared between each individual test organism, as well as for the chemical subgroup assayed. Algae and daphnia are the most sensitive test organisms to heavy metals and insecticides followed in order of decreasing sensitivity by Microtox (Photobacterium fisherii), DO depletion rate, seed germination and earthworms. Higher plants were most sensitive to 2,4-D, (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) followed by algae, Microtox, daphnia and earthworms. Differences in toxicity of 2,4-D chemical formulations and commercial sources of insecticides were observed with algae and daphia tests.

  6. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended by the Secretary of Energy and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the requirements of the Nulcear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of the site characterization plan are oulined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved by the President for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site; to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package; and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstate the suitability of the site for a repository, to desin the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next; it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  10. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Neavada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended and approved for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining hte geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare and environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed.

  11. 2016 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-08-30

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2016 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports, developed by National Security Technologies, LLC Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2016, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 8% below average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 8% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. Vadose zone monitoring on Area 5 and Area 3 RWMS cell covers shows no evidence of precipitation percolating through the covers

  12. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  13. Use of Transient Electromagnetic Soundings (tem) to Locate Urban Solid Wastes Disposal Sites, in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moran, T.; Hurtado, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities and their impact cause complex alterations in the natural quality of superficial and groundwater. Urban solid waste disposal represented an important source of contamination of groundwater. One of the main problems of the Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz area is the urgent necessity to close some dumps, actually in operation. At present, the municipal government has the project of selecting an urban waste disposal site that fulfills the official ecological norms, with appropriate geologic conditions and a useful life of 15 years. Study area, El Rebozo 1, is covered for sandy - clays from Filisola Formation. Also has outcrops of shales belonging to the Nanchital Formation. This Formation presents low porosity and permeability. It could serve as container in the construction of the landfill. We carried out 6 transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM), to determine the thickness and distribution of this formation in depth and to establish the existence of aquifers. The geophysical studies were carried out along a line of 680 m, with variable separation among stations between 150 m to 250 m, crossing the study area in SW direction. Results of TEM survey, geological, hydrological information and drilling survey confirmed the wide distribution in the studied area of the shale layer from the Nanchital Formation. The average thickness of the shale layer is 70 m and it presents low possibilities of storing an important aquifer. It could be considered as an impermeable layer that can be used as base for the construction of the landfill. Underlying the shale layer there are sandy-clays that could reduce the possible lixiviation from the landfill. Use of TEM provides larger advantages than the conventional electric methods (SEV's) and also more detailed information on the geologic and hydro-geologic conditions from the underground. The integration of geophysical methods with other disciplines allows more integrated systematic research in hydrogeology and

  14. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  15. Application of new technologies for characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I.

    1998-02-03

    To support remediation of Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks, new chemical and physical measurement technologies must be developed and deployed. This is a major task of the Chemistry Analysis Technology Support (CATS) group of the Hanford Corporation. New measurement methods are required for efficient and economical resolution of tank waste safety, waste retrieval, and disposal issues. These development and deployment activities are performed in cooperation with Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. This paper provides an overview of current analytical technologies in progress. The high-level waste at the Hanford Site is chemically complex because of the numerous processes used in past nuclear fuel reprocessing there, and a variety of technologies is required for effective characterization. Programmatic and laboratory operational needs drive the selection of new technologies for characterizing Hanford Site high-level waste, and these technologies are developed for deployment in laboratories, hot cells or in the field. New physical methods, such as the propagating reactive systems screening tool (PRSST) to measure the potential for self-propagating reactions in stored wastes, are being implemented. Technology for sampling and measuring gases trapped within the waste matrix is being used to evaluate flammability hazards associated with gas releases from stored wastes. Application of new inductively coupled plasma and laser ablation mass spectrometry systems at the Hanford Site`s 222-S Laboratory will be described. A Raman spectroscopy probe mounted in a cone penetrometer to measure oxyanions in wastes or soils will be described. The Hanford Site has used large volumes of organic complexants and acids in processing waste, and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) methods have been developed for determining several of the major organic components in complex waste tank matrices. The principles involved, system installation, and results from

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2005 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-10-13

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to make WIPP environmental information available to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2004. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through defense activities and programs. TRU waste is defined, in the WIPP LWA, as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting TRU isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years except for high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools; sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by-products management,defense nuclear materials security and safeguards and security

  17. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  18. Savannah River Site Waste Management Program Plan, FY 1993. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Waste Management Program Plan is to provide an annual report on facilities being used to manage wastes, forces acting to change current waste management (WM) systems, and how operations are conducted. This document also reports on plans for the coming fiscal year and projects activities for several years beyond the coming fiscal year to adequately plan for safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and for developing technology for improved management of wastes.

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2014 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. Groundwater samples from the aquifer immediately below the Area 5 RWMS have been collected and analyzed and static water levels have been measured in this aquifer since 1993. This report updates these data to include the 2014 results. Analysis results for leachate contaminants collected from the mixed-waste cell at the Area 5 RWMS (Cell 18) are also included. During 2014, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at three wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 11 and August 12, 2014, and static water levels were measured at each of these wells on March 10, June 2, August 11, and October 14, 2014. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. General water chemistry (cations and anions) was also measured. Results from samples collected in 2014 are within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. The data from the shallow aquifer indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS, and there were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. Leachate from above the primary liner of Cell 18 drains into a sump and is collected in a tank at the ground surface. Cell 18 began receiving waste in January 2011. Samples were collected from the tank when the leachate volume approached the 3,000-gallon tank capacity. Leachate samples have been collected 16 times since January 2011. During 2014, samples were collected on February 25, March 5, May 20, August 12, September 16, November 11, and December 16. Each leachate sample was

  20. Nevada National Security Site 2013 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, D. B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2013 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2013; 2014a; 2014b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are close to detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 105.8 millimeters (mm) (4.17 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2013 is 30% below the average of 150.3 mm (5.92 in.), and the 117.5 mm (4.63 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2013 is 5% below the average of 123.6 mm (4.86 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  1. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, David B.

    2013-09-10

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2012 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2012; 2013a; 2013b). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. The 133.9 millimeters (mm) (5.27 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2012 is 12% below the average of 153.0 mm (6.02 in.), and the 137.6 mm (5.42 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2012 is 11% below the average of 122.4 mm (4.82 in.). Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents

  2. Nevada National Security Site 2015 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Hudson, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2016-08-20

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) within the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data include direct radiation exposure, as well as radiation from the air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2015 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports developed by National Security Technologies, LLC. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show that tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are below Derived Concentration Standards for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. Leachate samples collected from the leachate collection system at the mixed low-level waste cell were below established contaminant regulatory limits. During 2015, precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS was 0.9% above average, and precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS was 25% above average. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than evaporation as measured from the bare-soil weighing lysimeter. The 1.8 inches of precipitation in September reached the lowest sensors at 180 cm on the Cell 5S and 5N covers, however the

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant 2003 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-09-03

    The purpose of this report is to provide information needed by the DOE to assess WIPP's environmental performance and to convey that performance to stakeholders and members of the public. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A and DOE guidance. This report documents WIPP's environmental monitoring programs and their results for 2003. The WIPP Project is authorized by the DOE National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980 (Pub. L. 96-164). After more than 20 years of scientific study and public input, WIPP received its first shipment of waste on March 26, 1999. Located in southeastern New Mexico, WIPP is the nation's first underground repository permitted to safely and permanently dispose of TRU radioactive and mixed waste (as defined in the WIPP LWA) generated through the research and production of nuclear weapons and other activities related to the national defense of the United States. TRU waste is defined in the WIPP LWA as radioactive waste containing more than 100 nanocuries (3,700 becquerels [Bq]) of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years. Exceptions are noted as high-level waste, waste that has been determined not to require the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations, and waste the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved for disposal. Most TRU waste is contaminated industrial trash, such as rags and old tools, and sludges from solidified liquids; glass; metal; and other materials from dismantled buildings. A TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP if it has been generated in whole or in partby one or more of the activities listed in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 United States Code [U.S.C.] §10101, et seq.), including naval reactors development, weapons activities, verification and control technology, defense nuclear materials production, defense nuclear waste and materials by

  4. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  5. Preliminary siting activities for new waste handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.D.; Hoskinson, R.L.; Kingsford, C.O.; Ball, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Idaho Waste Processing Facility, the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility, and the Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility are new waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that have been proposed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A prime consideration in planning for such facilities is the selection of a site. Since spring of 1992, waste management personnel at the INEL have been involved in activities directed to this end. These activities have resulted in the (a) identification of generic siting criteria, considered applicable to either treatment or disposal facilities for the purpose of preliminary site evaluations and comparisons, (b) selection of six candidate locations for siting,and (c) site-specific characterization of candidate sites relative to selected siting criteria. This report describes the information gathered in the above three categories for the six candidate sites. However, a single, preferred site has not yet been identified. Such a determination requires an overall, composite ranking of the candidate sites, which accounts for the fact that the sites under consideration have different advantages and disadvantages, that no single site is superior to all the others in all the siting criteria, and that the criteria should be assigned different weighing factors depending on whether a site is to host a treatment or a disposal facility. Stakeholder input should now be solicited to help guide the final selection. This input will include (a) siting issues not already identified in the siting, work to date, and (b) relative importances of the individual siting criteria. Final site selection will not be completed until stakeholder input (from the State of Idaho, regulatory agencies, the public, etc.) in the above areas has been obtained and a strategy has been developed to make a composite ranking of all candidate sites that accounts for all the siting criteria.

  6. For Sale: Nuclear Waste Sites--Anyone Buying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Don

    1992-01-01

    Explores why the United States Nuclear Waste Program has been unable to find a volunteer state to host either a nuclear waste repository or monitored retrieval storage facility. Discusses the Department of Energy's plans for Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a repository and state and tribal responses to the plan. (21 references) (MCO)

  7. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  8. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  9. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  10. ANNUAL TRANSPORTATION REPORT FY 2007, Radioactive Waste Shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2007-12-01

    In February 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (now known as the Nevada Site Office) issued the Mitigation Action Plan which addressed potential impacts described in the “Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada” (DOE/EIS 0243). The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office committed to several actions, including the preparation of an annual report, which summarizes waste shipments to and from the Nevada Test Site Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5. No shipments were disposed of at Area 3 in fiscal year 2007. This document satisfies requirements regarding low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level radioactive waste transported to or from the NTS during fiscal year 2007.

  11. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-C-3, 105-C Chemical Waste Tanks, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-01-31

    The 116-C-3 waste site consisted of two underground storage tanks designed to receive mixed waste from the 105-C Reactor Metals Examination Facility chemical dejacketing process. Confirmatory evaluation and subsequent characterization of the site determined that the southern tank contained approximately 34,000 L (9,000 gal) of dejacketing wastes, and that the northern tank was unused. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling and modeling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  14. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  15. Dumping in a Global World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-dumping actions are now the trade policy of choice of developing and transition economies. To understand why these economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws, we build a simple theoretical model of vertical intra-industry trade and investigate the strategic incentives of

  16. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/6603148005; Maurer, Max

    2016-01-01

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied

  17. Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This issue paper, prepared by EPA's Engineering Forum under the Technical Support Project, provides an overview on the considerations for energy conservation and production during the design and (O&M) phases of waste cleanup projects.

  18. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Waste Management Monitoring Report Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-06-01

    Environmental monitoring data were collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, vadose zone, subsidence, and biota. This report summarizes the 2010 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports (National Security Technologies, LLC, 2010a; 2010b; 2011). Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Air monitoring data at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs indicate that tritium concentrations are slightly above background levels. All gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below the minimum detectable concentrations, and concentrations of americium and plutonium are only slightly above detection limits. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. Groundwater monitoring data indicate that the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by facility operations. The 246.9 millimeters (mm) (9.72 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2010 is 56 percent above the average of 158.7 mm (6.25 in.), and the 190.4 mm (7.50 in.) of precipitation at the Area 5 RWMS during 2010 is 50 percent above the average of 126.7 mm (4.99 in.). Soil-gas tritium monitoring at borehole GCD-05 continues to show slow subsurface migration consistent with previous results. Water balance measurements indicate that evapotranspiration from the vegetated weighing lysimeter dries the soil and prevents downward percolation of precipitation more effectively than

  19. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Waste Management Monitoring Report, Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-07-31

    Environmental monitoring data are collected at and around the Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are associated with radiation exposure, air, groundwater, meteorology, and vadose zone. This report summarizes the 2011 environmental data to provide an overall evaluation of RWMS performance and to support environmental compliance and performance assessment (PA) activities. Some of these data (e.g., radiation exposure, air, and groundwater) are presented in other reports. Direct radiation monitoring data indicate exposure levels at the RWMSs are within the range of background levels measured at the NNSS. Slightly elevated exposure levels outside the Area 3 RWMS are attributed to nearby historical aboveground nuclear weapons tests. Air monitoring data show tritium concentrations in water vapor and americium and plutonium concentrations in air particles are only slightly above detection limits and background levels. The measured levels of radionuclides in air particulates and moisture are below derived concentration guides for these radionuclides. During the last 2 weeks of March 2011, gamma spectroscopy results for air particles showed measurable activities of iodine-131 (131I), cesium-134 (134Cs), and cesium-137 (137Cs). These results are attributed to the release of fission products from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi power plant in Japan. The remaining gamma spectroscopy results for air particulates collected at the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMS were below minimum detectable concentrations. Groundwater monitoring data indicate the groundwater in the uppermost aquifer beneath the Area 5 RWMS is not impacted by RWMS operations. Results of groundwater analysis from wells around the Area 5 RWMS were all below established investigation levels. The 86.3 millimeters (mm) (3.40 inches [in.]) of precipitation at the Area 3 RWMS during 2011 is 44% below the average of 154.1 mm (6.07 in.), and the 64.8 mm

  20. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  1. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  2. Nevada National Security Site 2010 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2010 results. During 2010, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 10 and August 10, 2010; at UE5PW-2 on March 10, August 10, and August 25, 2010; and at UE5PW-3 on March 31, August 10, and August 25, 2010. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, April 26, August 9, and November 9, 2010. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2010 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  3. Nevada National Security Site 2012 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-11

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2012 results. During 2012, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Groundwater samples were collected at UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 on March 21, August 7, August 21, and September 11, 2012, and static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 19, June 6, August 2, and October 15, 2012. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Final results from samples collected in 2012 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  4. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  5. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  6. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  7. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  8. Composite Analysis for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Yucel

    2001-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Composite Analysis (CA) for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The Area 5 RWMS is a US Department of Energy (DOE)-operated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management site located in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS has disposed of low-level radioactive waste in shallow unlined pits and trenches since 1960. Transuranic waste (TRU) and high-specific activity waste was disposed in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1983 to 1989. The purpose of this CA is to determine if continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS poses an acceptable or unacceptable risk to the public considering the total waste inventory and all other interacting sources of radioactive material in the vicinity. Continuing operation of the Area 5 RWMS will be considered acceptable if the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is less than 100 mrem in a year. If the TEDE exceeds 30 mrem in a year, a cost-benefit options analysis must be performed to determine if cost-effective management options exist to reduce the dose further. If the TEDE is found to be less than 30 mrem in a year, an analysis may be performed if warranted to determine if doses are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  9. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada: Consultation draft, Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    Chapter six describes the basis for facility design, the completed facility conceptual design, the completed analytical work relating to the resolution of design issues, and future design-related work. The basis for design and the conceptual design information presented in this chapter meet the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, for a conceptual repository design that takes into account site-specific requirements. This information is presented to permit a critical evaluation of planned site characterization activities. Chapter seven describes waste package components, emplacement environment, design, and status of research and development that support the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project. The site characterization plan (SCP) discussion of waste package components is contained entirely within this chapter. The discussion of emplacement environment in this chapter is limited to considerations of the environment that influence, or which may influence, if perturbed, the waste packages and their performance (particularly hydrogeology, geochemistry, and borehole stability). The basis for conceptual waste package design as well as a description of the design is included in this chapter. The complete design will be reported in the advanced conceptual design (ACD) report and is not duplicated in the SCP. 367 refs., 173 figs., 68 tabs.

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-07-17

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 547 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 547 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, and 9 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly; (2) CAS 03-99-19, Gas Sampling Assembly; AND (3) CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly Closure activities began in August 2011 and were completed in June 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for CAU 547 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The recommended corrective action for the three CASs in CAU 547 was closure in place with administrative controls. The following closure activities were performed: (1) Open holes were filled with concrete; (2) Steel casings were placed over vertical expansion joints and filled with cement; (3) Engineered soil covers were constructed over piping and exposed sections of the gas sampling system components; (4) Fencing, monuments, Jersey barriers, radiological postings, and use restriction (UR) warning signs were installed around the perimeters of the sites; (5) Housekeeping debris was picked up from around the sites and disposed; and (6) Radiological surveys were performed to confirm final radiological postings. UR documentation is included in Appendix D. The post-closure plan was presented in detail in the CADD/CAP for CAU 547 and is included as

  11. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but

  12. Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, 1996 is a database providing georeferenced data...

  13. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  14. ATSDR Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data with CIESIN Modifications, Version 2 is a database providing...

  15. Study on detecting leachate leakage of municipal solid waste landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Cao, Xianxian; Ai, Yingbo; Zhou, Dongdong; Han, Qiting

    2015-06-01

    The article studies the detection of the leakage passage of leachate in a waste landfill dam. The leachate of waste landfill has its own features, like high conductivity, high chroma and an increasing temperature, also, the horizontal flow velocity of groundwater on the leakage site increases. This article proposes a comprehensive tracing method to identify the leakage site of an impermeable membrane by using these features. This method has been applied to determine two leakage sites of the Yahu municipal solid waste landfill site in Pingshan District, Shenzhen, China, which shows that there are two leachate leakage passages in the waste landfill dam A between NZK-2 and NZK-3, and between NZK-6 and NZK-7. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Independent Waste Handling Facility, 211-F at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Currently, liquid Low Activity Waste (LAW) and liquid High Activity Waste (HAW) are generated from various process operational facilities/processes throughout the Savannah River Site (SRS) as depicted on Figure 2-1. Prior to storage in the F-Area tank farm, these wastes are neutralized and concentrated to minimize their volume. The Waste Handling Facility (211-3F) at Building 211-F Complex (see Figure 2-2) is the only existing facility onsite equipped to receive acidic HAW for neutralization and volume reduction processing. Currently, Building 221-F Canyon (see Figure 2-2) houses the neutralization and evaporation facilities for HAW volume reduction and provides support services such as electric power and plant, process, and instrument air, waste transfer capabilities, etc., for 21 1-F operations. The future plan is to deactivate the 221-F building. DOE`s purpose is to be able to process the LAW/HAW that will continue to be generated on site. DOE needs to establish an alternative liquid waste receipt and treatment capability to support site facilities with a continuing mission. The desire is for Building 211-F to provide the receipt and neutralization functions for LAW and HAW independent of 221-F Canyon. The neutralization capability is required to be part of the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Programs (NMSP) facilities since the liquid waste generated by the various site facilities is acidic. Tn order for Waste Management to receive the waste streams, the solutions must be neutralized to meet Waste Management`s acceptance criteria. The Waste Management system is caustic in nature to prevent corrosion and the subsequent potential failure of tanks and associated piping and hardware.

  18. Siting study for a consolidated waste capability at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Steven Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    Decision analysis was used to rank alternative sites for a new Consolidated Waste Capability (CWC) to replace current hazardous solid waste operations (hazardous/chemical, mixed lowlevel, transuranic, and low-level waste) at Los Alamos National Laboratory's TA-54 Area G. An original list of 21 site alternatives was pre-screened to ten sites that were assessed using the analytical hierarchy process with five top-level criteria and fifteen sub-criteria. Three passes of the analysis were required to assess different site scenarios: 1) a fully consolidated CWC with both transfer/storage and LL W disposal in one location (45 acre minimum), 2) CWC transfer/storage only (12 acre minimum), and 3) LLW disposal only (33 acre minimum). The top site choice for all three options is TA-63/52/46; the second choice is TA-18/36. TA-54 East, Zone 4 also deserves consideration as a LLW disposal site.

  19. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  20. Geophysical Investigation of Effect of Aba-Eku Public Refuse Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical method was used to investigate the effect of Aba-Eku (N 070 19.551' E 0030 59.027') public refuse dump site in Ibadan on groundwater quality. Four vertical electrical sounding (VES) data from the vicinity of the dump site and one VES from the control point were acquired using Schlumberger electrode ...

  1. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBER RA

    2009-01-16

    The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient potential energy to break up material and release gas and are assigned to waste group B. These tanks are considered to represent a potential induced flammable gas release hazard, but no spontaneous buoyant displacement flammable gas release hazard. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and have an energy ratio {ge} 3.0, but that pass the third criterion (buoyancy ratio < 1.0, see below) are also assigned to waste group B. Even though the designation as

  2. METHODOLOGY AND CALCULATIONS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT OF WASTE GROUPS FOR THE LARGE UNDERGROUND WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER KD

    2007-12-27

    This document categorizes each of the large waste storage tanks into one of several categories based on each tank's waste characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement event. Revision 7 is the annual update of the calculations of the flammable gas Waste Groups for DSTs and SSTs. The Hanford Site contains 177 large underground radioactive waste storage tanks (28 double-shell tanks and 149 single-shell tanks). These tanks are categorized into one of three waste groups (A, B, and C) based on their waste and tank characteristics. These waste group assignments reflect a tank's propensity to retain a significant volume of flammable gases and the potential of the waste to release retained gas by a buoyant displacement gas release event. Assignments of waste groups to the 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks, as reported in this document, are based on a Monte Carlo analysis of three criteria. The first criterion is the headspace flammable gas concentration following release of retained gas. This criterion determines whether the tank contains sufficient retained gas such that the well-mixed headspace flammable gas concentration would reach 100% of the lower flammability limit if the entire tank's retained gas were released. If the volume of retained gas is not sufficient to reach 100% of the lower flammability limit, then flammable conditions cannot be reached and the tank is classified as a waste group C tank independent of the method the gas is released. The second criterion is the energy ratio and considers whether there is sufficient supernatant on top of the saturated solids such that gas-bearing solids have the potential energy required to break up the material and release gas. Tanks that are not waste group C tanks and that have an energy ratio < 3.0 do not have sufficient

  3. Integration of soil magnetometry and geochemistry for assessment of human health risk from metallurgical slag dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Wawer, Małgorzata; Magiera, Tadeusz; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2017-09-25

    The main objective of the study was an assessment of the pollution level of agricultural land located close to dumps of industrial waste remaining after former Zn and Pb ore processing in Poland. The integrated geophysical-geochemical methods were applied for assessment of soil quality with respect to trace element pollution. Additionally, human health risk induced by the contaminated arable soil and dusting slag heap was estimated. The investigations pointed out that soils in the vicinity of the metallurgical slag dump in Piekary were heavily polluted. Spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility corresponding well with distribution of the content of potentially toxic elements indicated the local "pollution hotspots." Proper geophysical and geochemical data interpretation supported by statistical factor analysis enabled identification of three different sources of pollution including metallurgical slug dump as a main source, but also traffic pollution influencing the area located along the busy road and relatively strong influence of the geochemical background. Computed health hazard index revealed no adverse health effect to the farmers cultivating arable soil, but in the direct vicinity of dusting, slag dump health risk occurred, caused mostly by very toxic elements as As and Tl. In the future, investigation should be focused on contribution of different sources to the heavy metal pollution in soil-crop system in this area. It should be highlighted that a site-specific approach should be taken in order to redevelop this kind of area in order to reduce ecological and human health threat. The study proved the integrated two-stage geophysical-geochemical method to be a feasible, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of the extent of soil pollution and areas at risk.

  4. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Frontier Chemical Waste Process Incorporated – Royal Avenue Site in Niagara Falls, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontier Chemical Waste Process facility is located in a heavy industrial/commercial area. Several large industrial facilities surround the facility. The closest residential area is located about ½ mile west and the closest off-site building is located 300

  5. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Waste Form Release.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, S. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Paris, B. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Apted, M. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions or assessment needs, if potential problems are identified.

  6. Hydrogeologic data for science trench boreholes at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    A program to conduct drilling, sampling, and laboratory testing was designed and implemented to obtain important physical, geochemical, and hydrologic property information for the near surface portion of thick unsaturated alluvial sediments at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). These data are required to understand and simulate infiltration and redistribution of water as well as the transport of solutes in the immediate vicinity of existing and future low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste disposal cells at the site. The program was designed specifically to meet data needs associated with a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for disposal of hazardous mixed waste, possible RCRA waivers involving mixed waste, DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management,`` and 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191 requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste. The hydrologic condition data, when combined with hydrologic property data, indicate that very little net liquid flow (if any) is occurring in the upper vadose zone, and the direction of movement is upward. It follows that vapor movement is probably the dominant mechanism of water transport in this upper region, except immediately following precipitation events.

  7. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan for Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) multiprogram laboratory whose primary mission has been to research nuclear technologies. Working with these technologies and conducting other types of research generates waste, including radioactive and/or hazardous wastes. While most of the waste treatment, storage, and disposal practices have been effective, some practices have led to the release of contaminants to the environment. As a result, DOE has developed (1) an Environmental Restoration (ER) Program to identify and, where necessary, cleanup releases from inactive waste sites and (2) a Waste Management (WM) Program to safely treat, store, and dispose of DOE wastes generated from current and future activities in an environmentally sound manner. This document describes the plans for FY 1993 for the INEL`s ER and WM programs as managed by DOE`s Idaho Field Office (DOE-ID).

  8. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/Navarro

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  9. Nevada National Security Site 2011 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-27

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2011 results. During 2011, groundwater samples were collected and static water levels were measured at the three pilot wells surrounding the Area 5 RWMS. Samples were collected at UE5PW-1 on March 8, August 2, August 24, and October 19, 2011; at UE5PW-2 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011; and at UE5PW-3 on March 8, August 2, August 23, and October 19, 2011. Static water levels were measured at each of the three pilot wells on March 1, June 7, August 1, and October 17, 2011. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Initial total organic carbon and total organic halides results for samples collected in August 2011 were above previous measurements and, in some cases, above the established investigation limits. However, after field sample pumps and tubing were disinfected with Clorox solution, the results returned to normal levels. Final results from samples collected in 2011 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  10. Public concerns and the public role in siting nuclear and chemical waste facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B.

    1987-09-01

    Nuclear and chemical waste facilities can be successfully sited, despite nimby responses, if siting programs account for the sources of public concern. Irrational fear is not the main source; instead, waste managers must deal with perceived inequities in the distribution of benefits and costs, and concern about facility safety. Benefit-cost inequities may be dealt with in part by keeping wastes where they are generated, through political restrictions, or by providing economic compensation and political incentives (for example, a local veto). Assuring people of facility safety includes allowing local control (monitoring, health assessment, regulation), and enhancing trust of facility managers through such means as rectifying past mistakes, individual-oriented education campaigns, and negotiation of compensation packages with local residents. These means should reduce —without eliminating—public opposition to local siting of nuclear and chemical waste facilities.

  11. 30 CFR 77.1608 - Dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities. 77.1608 Section 77.1608... Haulage § 77.1608 Dumping facilities. (a) Dumping locations and haulage roads shall be kept reasonably free of water, debris, and spillage. (b) Where the ground at a dumping place may fail to support the...

  12. Risk assessment predictions of open dumping area after closure using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Nur Irfah Mohd; Radhi, Mohd Shahril Mat; Omar, Husaini

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there are many abandoned open dumping areas that were left without any proper mitigation measures. These open dumping areas could pose serious hazard to human and pollute the environment. The objective of this paper is to determine the risk assessment at the open dumping area after they has been closed using Monte Carlo Simulation method. The risk assessment exercise is conducted at the Kuala Lumpur dumping area. The rapid urbanisation of Kuala Lumpur coupled with increase in population lead to increase in waste generation. It leads to more dumping/landfill area in Kuala Lumpur. The first stage of this study involve the assessment of the dumping area and samples collections. It followed by measurement of settlement of dumping area using oedometer. The risk of the settlement is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation method. Monte Carlo simulation calculates the risk and the long-term settlement. The model simulation result shows that risk level of the Kuala Lumpur open dumping area ranges between Level III to Level IV i.e. between medium risk to high risk. These settlement (ΔH) is between 3 meters to 7 meters. Since the risk is between medium to high, it requires mitigation measures such as replacing the top waste soil with new sandy gravel soil. This will increase the strength of the soil and reduce the settlement.

  13. Description and hydrogeologic evaluation of nine hazardous-waste sites in Kansas, 1984-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R.J.; Spruill, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    Wastes generated at nine hazardous-waste sites in Kansas were disposed in open pits, 55-gal drums, or large storage tanks. These disposal methods have the potential to contaminate groundwater beneath the sites, the soil on the sites, and nearby surface water bodies. Various activities on the nine sites included production of diborane, transformer oil waste, production of soda ash, use of solvents for the manufacture of farm implements, reclamation of solvents and paints, oil-refinery wastes, meat packaging, and the manufacture and cleaning of tanker-truck tanks. Monitoring wells were installed upgradient and downgradient from the potential contamination source on each site. Strict decontamination procedures were followed to prevent cross contamination between well installations. Air-quality surveys were made on each site before other investigative procedures started. Hydrogeologic investigative techniques, such as terrain geophysical surveys, gamma-ray logs, and laboratory permeameter tests, were used. Groundwater level measurements provide data to determine the direction of flow. Groundwater contamination detected under the sites posed the greatest threat to the environment because of possible migration of contaminants by groundwater flow. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals were detected in the groundwater at several of the sites. Many of the same compounds detected in the groundwater also were detected in soil and bed-material samples collected onsite or adjacent to the sites. Several contaminants were detected in background samples of groundwater and soil. (USGS)

  14. Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangyao, Komsilp; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of landfill methane emission were performed at nine solid waste disposal sites in Thailand, including five managed sanitary landfills (four deep and one shallow landfills) and four unmanaged landfills (three deep and one shallow dumpsites). It was found that methane emissions during the rainy season were about five to six times higher than those during the winter and summer seasons in the case of managed landfills and two to five times higher in the case of unmanaged landfills. Methane emission estimate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model was compared with the actual field measurement from the studied disposal sites with methane correction factors and methane oxidation factors that were obtained by error function analysis with default values of half-life parameters. The methane emissions from the first-order decay model from the IPCC Waste Model yielded fair results compared to field measurements. The best fitting values of methane correction factor were 0.65, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.1 for deep landfills, shallow landfills, deep dumpsites, and shallow dumpsites, respectively. Using these key parameters in the case of Thailand, it was estimated that 89.22 Gg of methane were released from solid waste disposal sites into the atmosphere in 2006.

  15. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Modelling reactive transport in a phosphogypsum dump, Venezia, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcara, Massimo; Borgia, Andrea; Cattaneo, Laura; Bartolo, Sergio; Clemente, Gianni; Glauco Amoroso, Carlo; Lo Re, Fabio; Tozzato, Elena

    2013-04-01

    We develop a reactive-transport porous media flow model for a phosphogypsum dump located on the intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon: 1. we construct a complex conceptual and geologic model from field data using the GMS™ graphical user interface; 2. the geological model is mapped onto a rectangular MODFLOW grid; 3. using the TMT2 FORTRAN90 code we translate this grid into the MESH, INCON and GENER input files for the TOUGH2 series of codes; 4. we run TOUGH-REACT to model flow and reactive transport in the dump and the sediments below it. The model includes 3 different dump materials (phosphogypsum, bituminous and hazardous wastes) with the pores saturated by specific fluids. The sediments below the dump are formed by an intertidal sequence of calcareous sands and silts, in addition to clays and organic deposits, all of which are initially saturated with lagoon salty waters. The recharge rain-water dilutes the dump fluids. In turn, the percolates from the dump react with the underlying sediments and the sea water that saturates them. Simulation results have been compared with chemical sampled analyses. In fact, in spite of the simplicity of our model we are able to show how the pH becomes neutral at a short distance below the dump, a fact observed during aquifer monitoring. The spatial and temporal evolution of dissolution and precipitation reactions occur in our model much alike reality. Mobility of some elements, such as divalent iron, are reduced by specific and concurrent conditions of pH from near-neutrality to moderately high values and positive redox potential; opposite conditions favour mobility of potentially toxic metals such as Cr, As Cd and Pb. Vertical movement are predominant. Trend should be therefore heavily influenced by pH and Eh values. If conditions are favourable to mobility, concentration of these substances in the bottom strata could be high. However, simulation suggest that the sediments tend to reduce the transport potential of

  17. Waste of Felling and On-Site Production of Teak Squarewood of the Community Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budiaman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Major suppliers of teak wood for the raw material of furniture industry in Indonesia are Perum Perhutani, community forests, and private forests.  Community teak forest management produce roundwood or squarewood, in which squarewood is produced on the felling site by the use of chainsaw after felling and bucking activities. Utilization of teak wood from community forest has been practiced for decades, however information on the extent of utilization and the quantity of wood waste have not been published to a greater extent. The present research was intended to determine and analyze the extent of utilization and teak wood waste produced from felling and bucking, and on-site squarewood production of community forests.  Quantification of wood waste from felling and bucking was based on the whole tree method, while that of squarewood production was based on the percentage of yield. It was found that the quantity of teak felling and bucking wood waste in community forest was reaching 28% of felled wood volume that consisted of branch and twig (46.15%, upper trunk (30.77%, short cut off (15.38%, and stumps (7.69%. The largest part of the wood waste of teak felling and bucking satisfied the requirement as raw material of wood working industry according to Indonesian National Standard. On-site production of squarewood increased the quantity of wood waste in the forests (in the form of slabs and sawdust.Keywords: wood waste, felling, bucking, squarewood, community forest

  18. Technology for Waste Treatment at Remote Army Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Chollenge Dose (log 10 ) ILow IMedium High ORGANISM 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11111111111KEYc 1. Ascaris lumbricoides t ____o 2. Ancylostoma duodenale...histolytica ង but usually - 10 cysts Helminths Ascaris lumbricoides Many rnontns eggs 171 APPENDIX J: INPUT WASTE CHARACTERIZATION Domestic composting...destroy most pathogens. For determining the extent of pathogen destruction in sewage sludge, Ascaris (a parasitic helminth) is one of the intestinal

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  20. [Dumping syndrome following gastric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Tom; Hewitt, Stephen; Høgestøl, Ingvild Kristine Dahl; Kjellevold, Kristin; Kristinsson, Jon A; Risstad, Hilde

    2015-01-27

    Dumping syndrome is the term used to describe a common set of symptoms following gastric surgery, and is characterised by postprandial discomfort which can entail nutritional problems. The condition was well known when surgery was the usual treatment for peptic ulcer disease. The increasing number of operations for morbid obesity means that the condition is once again of relevance, and health personnel will encounter these patients in different contexts. This article discusses the prevalence, symptomatology and treatment of dumping syndrome. This review article is based on a selection of articles identified in PubMed and assessed as having particular relevance for elucidating this issue, as well as on the authors' own clinical experience. Early dumping syndrome generally occurs within 15 minutes of ingesting a meal and is attributable to the rapid transit of food into the small intestine. Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, a sensation of heat, dizziness, reduced blood pressure and palpitations are typical symptoms. Lethargy and sleepiness after meals are common. Late dumping syndrome occurs later and may be attributed to hypoglycaemia with tremors, cold sweats, difficulty in concentrating, and loss of consciousness. Dumping-related symptoms occur in between 20 and 50% of patients following gastric surgery. Early dumping syndrome is more frequent than late dumping syndrome. It is estimated that 10-20% of patients have pronounced symptoms and 1-5% have severe symptoms. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of typical symptoms. Most patients experience alleviation of the symptoms over time and with changes in diet and eating habits. Further patient evaluation and drug or surgical intervention may be relevant for some individuals. Dumping-related symptoms are common after gastric surgery. The extent of obesity surgery in particular means that health personnel should be familiar with this condition.

  1. Trace metal contamination of water at a solid waste disposal site at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and close to, a solid waste disposal site at Kariba, Zimbabwe, and in water flowing from the area during 1996 and 1997. Soil samples were collected from the surface inside the disposal site and at distances of 3m, 25m and 50m (from the ...

  2. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  3. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation...... was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH4 (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH4 (27%) and nitrogen (N2) (71%), containing no CO2......AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission from...

  4. Assessment of multiple geophysical techniques for the characterization of municipal waste deposit sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaël, Dumont; Tanguy, Robert; Nicolas, Marck; Frédéric, Nguyen

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we tested the ability of geophysical methods to characterize a large technical landfill installed in a former sand quarry. The geophysical surveys specifically aimed at delimitating the deposit site horizontal extension, at estimating its thickness and at characterizing the waste material composition (the moisture content in the present case). The site delimitation was conducted with electromagnetic (in-phase and out-of-phase) and magnetic (vertical gradient and total field) methods that clearly showed the transition between the waste deposit and the host formation. Regarding waste deposit thickness evaluation, electrical resistivity tomography appeared inefficient on this particularly thick deposit site. Thus, we propose a combination of horizontal to vertical noise spectral ratio (HVNSR) and multichannel analysis of the surface waves (MASW), which successfully determined the approximate waste deposit thickness in our test landfill. However, ERT appeared to be an appropriate tool to characterize the moisture content of the waste, which is of prior information for the organic waste biodegradation process. The global multi-scale and multi-method geophysical survey offers precious information for site rehabilitation studies, water content mitigation processes for enhanced biodegradation or landfill mining operation planning.

  5. Computer models used to support cleanup decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Pardi, R.; DePhillips, M.P.; Meinhold, A.F.

    1992-07-01

    Massive efforts are underway to cleanup hazardous and radioactive waste sites located throughout the US To help determine cleanup priorities, computer models are being used to characterize the source, transport, fate and effects of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials found at these sites. Although, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have provided preliminary guidance to promote the use of computer models for remediation purposes, no Agency has produced directed guidance on models that must be used in these efforts. To identify what models are actually being used to support decision-making at hazardous and radioactive waste sites, a project jointly funded by EPA, DOE and NRC was initiated. The purpose of this project was to: (1) Identify models being used for hazardous and radioactive waste site assessment purposes; and (2) describe and classify these models. This report presents the results of this study.

  6. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Impact of Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme on work practices at construction sites in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ann T W; Poon, C S; Wong, Agnes; Yip, Robin; Jaillon, Lara

    2013-01-01

    Waste management in the building industry in Hong Kong has become an important environmental issue. Particularly, an increasing amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is being disposed at landfill sites. In order to reduce waste generation and encourage reuse and recycling, the Hong Kong Government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme (CWDCS) to levy charges on C&D waste disposal to landfills. In order to provide information on the changes in reducing waste generation practice among construction participants in various work trades, a study was conducted after 3 years of implementation of the CWDCS via a structured questionnaire survey in the building industry in Hong Kong. The study result has revealed changes with work flows of the major trades as well as differentiating the levels of waste reduced. Three building projects in the public and private sectors were selected as case studies to demonstrate the changes in work flows and the reduction of waste achieved. The research findings reveal that a significant reduction of construction waste was achieved at the first 3 years (2006-2008) of CWDCS implementation. However, the reduction cannot be sustained. The major trades have been influenced to a certain extent by the implementation of the CWDCS. Slight improvement in waste management practices was observed, but reduction of construction waste in the wet-finishing and dry-finishing trades has undergone little improvement. Implementation of the CWDCS has not yet motivated subcontractors to change their methods of construction so as to reduce C&D waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  9. Overview of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Tank Gas and Vapor Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Droppo, James G.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2004-08-31

    Hanford Site processes associated with the chemical separation of plutonium from uranium and other fission products produced a variety of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile organic and inorganic waste chemicals that were sent to high-level waste tanks. These chemicals have undergone and continue to undergo radiolytic and thermal reactions in the tanks to produce a wide variety of degradation reaction products. The origins of the organic wastes, the chemical reactions they undergo, and their reaction products have recently been examined by Stock (2004). Stock gives particular attention to explaining the presence of various types of volatile and semivolatile organic species identified in headspace air samples. This report complements the Stock report by examining the storage of volatile and semivolatile species in the waste, their transport through any overburden of waste to the tank headspaces, the physical phenomena affecting their concentrations in the headspaces, and their eventual release into the atmosphere above the tanks.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  12. Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The city of Cochabamba produces 400 tons of solid waste per day, which is transported 10 km to the K'ara K'ara (KK) dump. Solid waste services in Cochabamba are inadequate and the operational conditions of the KK dump constitute a serious health risk for the poor working in and living around the dump due to air, land ...

  13. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-07-31

    This addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 547: Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1480, dated July 2012, documents repairs of erosion and construction of engineered erosion protection features at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02 (MULLET) and CAS 09-99-06 (PLAYER). The final as-built drawings are included in Appendix A, and photographs of field work are included in Appendix B. Field work was completed on March 11, 2013.

  14. Effects of lead pollution at industrial contaminated sites on sentinel juvenile Achatina achatina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenso, I E; Ologhobo, A D

    2009-01-01

    We investigated juvenile Achatina achatina snails exposed as sentinels in plastic cages for 12 weeks to compare lead pollution at dump sites of abandoned battery factory (Niger Delta, Nigeria). Results indicated 0.56, 20.37, 200.42 and 1200.30 microg/g soil lead at control, storage, dried effluent and waste dump sites, respectively. There were significant (p pollution. Snails were tolerant of all levels of lead pollution with no mortalities. This novel approach provides a basis for use of snail data in environmental pollution assessment of industrial sites.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Domitrović; Helena Vučenović; Biljana Kovačević Zelić

    2012-01-01

    Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite) because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due f...

  16. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  17. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  18. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  19. Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Daly; Lawrence P. Wackett; James K. Fredrickson

    2001-04-22

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

  20. Interdisciplinary Cooperation in the Exploration of appropriate sites for the Radioactive Waste Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Slavkovský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the interdisciplinary cooperation in the processes of exploration of appropriate sites for radioactive waste deposits. This work is based on trends in the environmental laws for radioactive wastes. For the exploration, a knowledge about the geological structures, properties of rocks and safety manipulation with radioactive wastes are necessary. The interdisciplinary cooperation is needed with geophysics to define the particularly hazardous areas of an earthquake shaking. In this article, a method of the seismic analysis by Ricker impuls and Gabor´s function are presented.

  1. Compositional and physicochemical changes in waste materials and biogas production across 7 landfill sites in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R R; Cipullo, S; Garcia, J; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of the paper and fines across seven landfill sites (LFS) and assess the relationship between waste physicochemical properties and biogas production. Physicochemical analysis of the waste samples demonstrated that there were no clear trends in the spatial distribution of total solids (TS), moisture content (MC) and waste organic strength (VS) across all LFS. There was however noticeable difference between samples from the same landfill site. The effect of landfill age on waste physicochemical properties showed no clear relationship, thus, providing evidence that waste remains dormant and non-degraded for long periods of time. Landfill age was however directly correlated with the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of waste; with the highest BMP obtained from the most recent LFS. BMP was also correlated with depth as the average methane production decreased linearly with increasing depth. There was also a high degree of correlation between the Enzymatic Hydrolysis Test (EHT) and BMP test results, which motivates its potential use as an alternative to the BMP test method. Further to this, there were also positive correlations between MC and VS, VS and biogas volume and biogas volume and CH 4 content. Outcomes of this work can be used to inform waste degradation and methane enhancement strategies for improving recovery of methane from landfills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  3. Site characterization report for the basalt waste isolation project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-11-01

    The reference location for a repository in basalt for the terminal storage of nuclear wastes on the Hanford Site and the candidate horizons within this reference repository location have been identified and the preliminary characterization work in support of the site screening process has been completed. Fifteen technical questions regarding the qualification of the site were identified to be addressed during the detailed site characterization phase of the US Department of Energy-National Waste Terminal Storage Program site selection process. Resolution of these questions will be provided in the final site characterization progress report, currently planned to be issued in 1987, and in the safety analysis report to be submitted with the License Application. The additional information needed to resolve these questions and the plans for obtaining the information have been identified. This Site Characterization Report documents the results of the site screening process, the preliminary site characterization data, the technical issues that need to be addressed, and the plans for resolving these issues. Volume 2 contains chapters 6 through 12: geochemistry; surface hydrology; climatology, meteorology, and air quality; environmental, land-use, and socioeconomic characteristics; repository design; waste package; and performance assessment.

  4. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and Designation...

  5. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  6. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The landfill gas (LFG) generation from four Danish landfills was estimated using three first-order-decay (FOD) models; the LandGEM model (developed by the US EPA), the IPCC (developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and the Afvalzorg model (developed by a Dutch company). The last...... two models are multi-phase models, which defines waste fractions into traditional MSW and low-organic waste categories, respectively. Both the LandGEM and the IPCC model estimated significantly larger methane (CH4) generation in comparison to the Afvalzorg model. The Afvalzorg model could better show...

  7. Risk mitigation by waste-based permeable reactive barriers for groundwater pollution control at e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Zhang, Weihua; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) have proved to be a promising passive treatment to control groundwater contamination and associated human health risks. This study explored the potential use of low-cost adsorbents as PRBs media and assessed their longevity and risk mitigation against leaching of acidic rainfall through an e-waste recycling site, of which Cu, Zn, and Pb were the major contaminants. Batch adsorption experiments suggested a higher adsorption capacity of inorganic industrial by-products [acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) and coal fly ash (CFA)] and carbonaceous recycled products [food waste compost (FWC) and wood-derived biochar] compared to natural inorganic minerals (limestone and apatite). Continuous leaching tests of sand columns with 10 wt% low-cost adsorbents were then conducted to mimic the field situation of acidic rainfall infiltration through e-waste-contaminated soils (collected from Qingyuan, China) by using synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) solution. In general, Zn leached out first, followed by Cu, and finally delayed breakthrough of Pb. In the worst-case scenario (e.g., at initial concentrations equal to 50-fold of average SPLP result), the columns with limestone, apatite, AMDS, or biochar were effective for a relatively short period of about 20-40 pore volumes of leaching, after which Cu breakthrough caused non-cancer risk concern and later-stage Pb leaching considerably increased both non-cancer and lifetime cancer risk associated with portable use of contaminated water. In contrast, the columns with CFA or FWC successfully mitigated overall risks to an acceptable level for a prolonged period of 100-200 pore volumes. Therefore, with proper selection of low-cost adsorbents (or their mixture), waste-based PRBs is a technically feasible and economically viable solution to mitigate human health risk due to contaminated groundwater at e-waste recycling sites.

  8. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  9. A Study on Site Selecting for National Project including High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kilyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Many national projects are stopped since sites for the projects are not determined. The sites selections are hold by NIMBY for unpleasant facilities or by PYMFY for preferable facilities among local governments. The followings are the typical ones; NIMBY projects: high level radioactive waste disposal, THAAD, Nuclear power plant(NPP), etc. PIMFY projects: South-east new airport, KTX station, Research center for NPP decommission, etc. The site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal is more difficult problem, and thus government did not decide and postpone to a dead end street. Since it seems that there is no solution for site selection for high level radioactive waste disposal due to NIMBY among local governments, a solution method is proposed in this paper. To decide a high level radioactive waste disposal, the first step is to invite a bid by suggesting a package deal including PIMFY projects such as Research Center for NPP decommission. Maybe potential host local governments are asked to submit sealed bids indicating the minimum compensation sum that they would accept the high level radioactive waste disposal site. If there are more than one local government put in a bid, then decide an adequate site by considering both the accumulated PESS point and technical evaluation results. By considering how fairly preferable national projects and unpleasant national projects are distributed among local government, sites selection for NIMBY or PIMFY facilities is suggested. For NIMBY national projects, risk, cost benefit analysis is useful and required since it generates cost value to be used in the PESS. For many cases, the suggested method may be not adequate. However, similar one should be prepared, and be basis to decide sites for NIMBY or PIMFY national projects.

  10. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F1 Sanitary Sewer System (124-F-1) and the 100-F-26:8 (1607-F1) Sanitary Sewer Pipelines Waste Sites, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-03-14

    The 100-F-26:8 waste site consisted of the underground pipelines that conveyed sanitary waste water from the 1701-F Gatehouse, 1709-F Fire Station, and the 1720-F Administrative Office to the 1607-F1 septic tank. The site has been remediated and presently exists as an open excavation. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  12. Constraints on spatial variability in soft-sediment communities affected by contamination from an Antarctic waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Jonathan S. [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia); Snape, Ian [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)]. E-mail: ian.snape@aad.gov.au; Riddle, Martin J. [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia); Stark, Scott C. [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)

    2005-03-01

    A small-scale (<500 m length) transect-based survey was conducted in December 1998 to examine the spatial distribution of soft-sediment communities and of concentrations of heavy metals and hydrocarbons in sediments in Brown Bay, adjacent to an abandoned waste dump, at Casey Station, Antarctica. Samples were taken along three transects at increasing distances (nine stations) from the shore-line waste dump. A gradient of contamination was detected, but concentrations of contaminants were very variable with 'hotspots' or high levels of contaminants at some stations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the distribution of soft-sediment communities was distinctly different between the inner, middle and outer stations. Abundances of most taxa were very variable with few patterns apparent, but some fauna displayed an abundance gradient from the inner to the outer part of the bay. Many taxa had maximum abundances at outer stations and minimum at inner stations. Multivariate correlations between environmental variables and soft-sediment communities indicated that combinations of some metals (Cd, Cu, Sn, Pb) and grain size (mainly finer fractions, fine sands and coarse silts) were the variables that best 'matched' the community patterns within Brown Bay. This study indicated that there were significant correlations between the presence of contaminants and the distribution and composition of soft-sediment communities over very small spatial scales.

  13. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  14. Hazard ranking system evaluation of CERCLA inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 2: Engineered-facility sites (HISS data base)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.; Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the assessment activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that address the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program for the cleanup of inactive waste sites. The DOE orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. This methodology includes: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the Hazard Ranking System methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 13 refs.

  15. Protecting subcontractor personnel during hazardous waste site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers Industrial Hygiene involvement in the Site Characterization Program, focusing on the field oversight responsibilities. It discusses the different types and levels of protective equipment, gives an example of the type of situation that can arise from field characterization efforts, and gives a brief summary of health protection program elements. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Estimation of methane emission rate changes using age-defined waste in a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2013-09-01

    Long term methane emissions from landfill sites are often predicted by first-order decay (FOD) models, in which the default coefficients of the methane generation potential and the methane generation rate given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are usually used. However, previous studies have demonstrated the large uncertainty in these coefficients because they are derived from a calibration procedure under ideal steady-state conditions, not actual landfill site conditions. In this study, the coefficients in the FOD model were estimated by a new approach to predict more precise long term methane generation by considering region-specific conditions. In the new approach, age-defined waste samples, which had been under the actual landfill site conditions, were collected in Hokkaido, Japan (in cold region), and the time series data on the age-defined waste sample's methane generation potential was used to estimate the coefficients in the FOD model. The degradation coefficients were 0.0501/y and 0.0621/y for paper and food waste, and the methane generation potentials were 214.4 mL/g-wet waste and 126.7 mL/g-wet waste for paper and food waste, respectively. These coefficients were compared with the default coefficients given by the IPCC. Although the degradation coefficient for food waste was smaller than the default value, the other coefficients were within the range of the default coefficients. With these new coefficients to calculate methane generation, the long term methane emissions from the landfill site was estimated at 1.35×10(4)m(3)-CH(4), which corresponds to approximately 2.53% of the total carbon dioxide emissions in the city (5.34×10(5)t-CO(2)/y). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring of Thermal and Gas Activities in Mining Dump Hedvika, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovka, D.; Pertile, E.; Dombek, V.; Vastyl, M.; Leher, V.

    2017-10-01

    The negative consequences of mining of the black coal is occurrence of extractive waste storage locations - mining dumps. The mining activities carried out within the area of Ostrava are responsible for at least six mine dumps of loose materials arising as wastes from mining of mineral resources, many of which show presence of thermal processes. The thermal activity in dumps is responsible for many hazardous substances that pollute the environment and harm human health in the surroundings. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of project CZ.11.4.120/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000074 TERDUMP, on exploration of thermally active mining dumps are published in the article. As a first studied thermally active dump was a Hedvika dump. To localize of hot spots with hot gas emission was used a thermovision scanning by drone. The place with high temperature (49.8 °C) identified natural gas emission through natural cracks. Analysing the occurring pollutants in Hedvika Dump using the GC-MS or HPLC, respectively and the inert gases (CO2, CO and SO2) were determined by ion chromatography. The pollutants were determined in five sampling points during two measurements executed from July to August 2017.

  18. Structured identification of response options to address environmental health risks at the Agbogbloshie electronic waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius N; Essegbey, George; Basu, Niladri

    2017-11-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing problem across low- and middle-income countries. Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana) is among the world's largest and most notorious e-waste sites, with an increasing number of studies documenting a range of environmental health risks. The present study aimed to provide national, regional, and international stakeholders with a summary of expert opinion on the most pressing problems arising from e-waste activities at Agbogbloshie, as well as suggested solutions to address these problems. Structured interviews were performed between April and September 2015 that used a Logical Framework Approach as a scoping exercise to gauge problems and benefits of e-waste recycling, and the Delphi methodology to identify response options. Stakeholders (n = 19) from 15 institutions were interviewed with 2 rounds of a Delphi Poll: open-ended interviews followed by an electronic questionnaire in which experts ranked various proposed response options based on health, environmental, social, and economic benefit and feasibility. The goal was to prioritize potential interventions that would address identified problems at Agbogbloshie. Experts identified the most beneficial and feasible options in decreasing rank order as follows and prefaced by the statement "it is recommended that": 1) there be further research on the health effects; 2) e-waste workers be given appropriate personal protective equipment; 3) the Ministry of the Environment, Science, Technology and Innovation re-visit Ghana's Hazardous Waste Bill; 4) e-waste workers be involved in the planning process of interventions and are be kept informed of any results; and 5) there be increased education and sensitization on hazards related to e-waste for both workers and the general public. These solutions are discussed in relation to ongoing dialogue at the international level concerning e-waste recycling interventions, with strengths and weaknesses examined for the Ghanaian context. Integr

  19. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46[degree]C, far below the 250 to 380[degree]C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  20. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  1. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalavapudi, M. [ENVIROSYS, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Iyengar, V. [Biomineral Sciences International Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site gravity survey and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, L.J.; Fett, J.D.

    1983-04-01

    A portion of the WIPP site has been extensively surveyed with high-precision gravity. The main survey (in T22S, R31E) covered a rectangular area 2 by 4-1/3 mi encompassing all of WIPP site Zone II and part of the disturbed zone to the north of the site. Stations were at 293-ft intervals along 13 north-south lines 880 ft apart. The data are considered accurate to within a few hundredths of a milligal. Long-wavelength gravity anomalies correlate well with seismic time structures on horizons below the Castile Formation. Both the gravity anomalies and the seismic time structures are interpreted as resulting from related density and velocity variations within the Ochoan Series. Shorter wavelength negative gravity anomalies are interpreted as resulting from bulk density alteration in the vicinity of karst conduits. The WIPP gravity survey was unable to resolve low-amplitude, long-wavelength anomalies that should result from the geologic structures within the disturbed zone. It did indicate the degree and character of karst development within the surveyed area.

  4. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  7. Review of the Scientific Understanding of Radioactive Waste at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Reid A; Buck, Edgar C; Chun, Jaehun; Daniel, Richard C; Herting, Daniel L; Ilton, Eugene S; Lumetta, Gregg J; Clark, Sue B

    2018-01-05

    This Critical Review reviews the origin and chemical and rheological complexity of radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The waste, stored in underground tanks, was generated via three distinct processes over decades of plutonium extraction operations. Although close records were kept of original waste disposition, tank-to-tank transfers and conditions that impede equilibrium complicate our understanding of the chemistry, phase composition, and rheology of the waste. Tank waste slurries comprise particles and aggregates from nano to micro scales, with varying densities, morphologies, heterogeneous compositions, and complicated responses to flow regimes and process conditions. Further, remnant or changing radiation fields may affect the stability and rheology of the waste. These conditions pose challenges for transport through conduits or pipes to treatment plants for vitrification. Additionally, recalcitrant boehmite degrades glass quality and the high aluminum content must be reduced prior to vitrification for the manufacture of waste glass of acceptable durability. However, caustic leaching indicates that boehmite dissolves much more slowly than predicted given surface normalized rates. Existing empirical models based on ex situ experiments and observations generally only describe material balances and have not effectively predicted process performance. Recent advances in the areas of in situ microscopy, aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, theoretical modeling across scales, and experimental methods for probing the physics and chemistry at mineral-fluid and mineral-mineral interfaces are being implemented to build robustly predictive physics-based models.

  8. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This is the 1989 Site Environmental Report (SER) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a government owned and contractor-operated facility. The WIPP project is operated by Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of the WIPP is to provide a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. This report provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at the WIPP during calendar year 1989. The WIPP facility will not receive waste until all concerns affecting opening the WIPP are addressed to the satisfaction of the Secretary of Energy. Therefore, this report describes the status of the preoperational activities of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance (RES) program, which are outlined in the Radiological Baseline Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WTSD-TME-057). 72 refs., 13 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. The Impact of Open Dumping of Poultry on the Quality of Soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty poultries in Ibadan city, Nigeria were studied in respect of water use, farm operations and waste disposal. The common disposal method among the poultry farmers was open dumping of wastes. Five poultry farms were selected, one in each zone for sampling to assess both soil and water quality parameters.

  10. Economies of density for on-site waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Sven; Truffer, Bernhard; Maurer, Max

    2016-09-15

    Decentralised wastewater treatment is increasingly gaining interest as a means of responding to sustainability challenges. Cost comparisons are a crucial element of any sustainability assessment. While the cost characteristics of centralised waste water management systems (WMS) have been studied extensively, the economics of decentralised WMS are less understood. A key motivation for studying the costs of decentralised WMS is to compare the cost of centralised and decentralised WMS in order to decide on cost-efficient sanitation solutions. This paper outlines a model designed to assess those costs which depend on the spatial density of decentralised wastewater treatment plants in a region. Density-related costs are mostly linked to operation and maintenance activities which depend on transportation, like sludge removal or the visits of professionals to the plants for control, servicing or repairs. We first specify a modelled cost-density relationship for a region in a geometric two-dimensional space by means of heuristic routing algorithms that consider time and load-capacity restrictions. The generic model is then applied to a Swiss case study for which we specify a broad range of modelling parameters. As a result, we identify a 'hockey-stick'-shaped cost curve that is characterised by strong cost reductions at high density values which level out at around 1 to 1.5 plants per km(2). Variations in the cost curves are mostly due to differences in management approaches (scheduled or unscheduled emptying). In addition to the well-known diseconomies of scale in the case of centralised sanitation, we find a similar generic cost behaviour for decentralised sanitation due to economies of density. Low densities in sparsely populated regions thus result in higher costs for both centralised and decentralised system. Policy implications are that efforts to introduce decentralised options in a region should consider the low-density/high-cost problem when comparing centralised

  11. Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Billig, P. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.

  12. Predicting the impact from significant storm events on a hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, U.P. [CH2M Hill, Oakland, CA (United States); Dixon, N.P. [CH2M Hill, Redding, CA (United States); Mitchell, J.S. [CH2M Hill, Helena, MT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Stringfellow Hazardous Waste Site is a former Class 1 industrial waste disposal facility located near the community of Glen Avon in southern California. In response to community concerns regarding flooding and possible exposure to contaminants via the surface water pathway, a study was performed to evaluate the potential effect significant/episodic storm events may have on the site and its engineered structures as they exist during present day conditions. Specific storm events such as significant recorded historic storms as well as synthetic design storms were considered and the impact on the onsite area and surface channels in Pyrite Canyon downstream of the site was evaluated. Conclusions were reached, and recommendations were made to minimize the potential flood impacts and exposure to con