WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste drying experiments

  1. Dry decontamination for tritiated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao; Dan Guiping; Xie Yun

    2009-01-01

    To aim at decontamination of tritiated wastes, we have developed and fabricated a dry tritium decontamination system, which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination of various alloy by UV, ozone and heating. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination effect. With 3 h irradiation by 365 nm UV at 220 degree C, it has a decontamination rate of 99% to stainless steel surface. Ozone can more obviously improve decontamination effect when metal was heated. Ozone has a decontamination effect beyond 95% to stainless steel, aluminum and brass at 220 degree C. Tritium surface concentration of metal has a little increase after decontamination. (authors)

  2. Dry blasting decontaminating method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Hitoshi.

    1993-01-01

    In the present invention, when abrasives are dry blasted on the surface of radioactive wastes and the recovered abrasives are classified for re-use, abrasives having a microvicker's hardness (HMV) of greater than 600 and a grain size of greater than 1mm are used in a case where the radioactive wastes to be abraded are stainless steels. This enables dry blasting decontamination for stainless steels which has been considered to be impossible. In addition since the amount of secondary wastes are reduced, it is extremely effective. (T.M.)

  3. DESIGN ANDFABRICATION OF DISPOSING DRY WASTEMATERIAL USING WASTE DESTROYING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Nischal P. Mungle1, MahendraNimkar2, ArchanaN. Mungle3, Manjushree Mule4

    2018-01-01

    The dry waste material is type of waste material, waste materials like solid waste, liquid waste in atmosphere leads to unhygienic situation which affects human health and chances of disease increases. In our project by burning the dry waste material we are trying to control the waste materials in atmosphere. By using heating coil we are going to burn the dry waste material and in this way we are eliminating the dry waste materials, the ash which will going to be formed after burning the dry ...

  4. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de, E-mail: Rodrigotoscano1@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  5. Waste volume reduction by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscano, Rodrigo A.; Tello, Clédola C. O. de

    2017-01-01

    The operation of nuclear facilities generates liquid wastes which require treatment to control the chemical compounds and removal of radioactive contaminants. These wastes can come from the cooling of the primary reactor system, from the reactor pool decontamination, washing of contaminated clothing, among others. The ion exchange resin constitutes the largest fraction of this waste, classified as low and intermediate level of radiation. According to CNEN Standard 8.01, the minimization of the volume and activity of the radioactive waste generated in the operation of a nuclear installation, radiative installation, industrial mining installation or radioactive waste deposit should be ensured. In addition, one of the acceptance criteria for wastes in repositories required by CNEN NN 6.09 is that it be solid or solidified. Thus, these wastes must be reduced in volume and solidified to meet the standards and the safety of the population and the environment. The objective of this work is to find a solution that associates the least generation of packaged waste and the acceptance criteria of waste for the deposition in the national repository. This work presents a proposal of reduction of the volume of the liquid wastes generated by nuclear facilities by drying by for reduction of volume for a greater incorporation of wastes in cement. Using spray dryer, an 18% reduction in the production of cemented waste products was observed in relation to the method currently used with compressive strength measurement above the standard, and it is believed that this value may increase in future tests. (author)

  6. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  7. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOZLOWSKI, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The body of this document analyzes scenarios involving releases of dried tank waste from the DBVS dried waste transfer system and OGTS HEPA filters. Analyses of dried waste release scenarios from the CH-TRUM WPU are included as Appendix D

  8. Compaction and packaging of dry active municipal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Xi Xinmin

    1994-01-01

    The authors present the feature of a compaction system for active municipal wastes and the radiological monitoring results of workplace and environment. A variety of dry active municipal wastes could be compacted by this system. Volume reduction factor attained to 5 to 7 for soft wastes and 8 to 13 for hard wastes. No evident radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  9. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  10. Review of the Drying Kinetics of Olive Oil Mill Wastes: Biomass Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Gómez-de la Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of olive oil mill wastes was analyzed based on experiments carried out by various researchers utilizing different drying systems. A critical review of the literature was done, and mathematical models of drying curves proposed by investigators were evaluated. A comparison between the best mathematical models of fit in the drying curves used in past experiments and a two-term Gaussian model was performed. This model improved all the results of fit in each experiment. Drying rates and drying stages were obtained and discussed. An average drying rate for each experiment from the two-term Gaussian model was calculated. This value allowed for visualizing and comparing the average speed of evaporated water in each experiment for the different dryers. Finally, and after having verified that almost all drying occurs mainly by a diffusion phenomenon, an analysis on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy values was performed. The results indicated that there was no dependency of these quantities on independent variables such as the drying air temperature, the drying air velocity, and the sample thickness. It follows that drying of olive oil mill wastes is a very complex physical process that depends heavily on aspects such as pieces of pit, pulp, skin, vegetation water, olive oil content, sugars and organics compounds of different nature.

  11. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  12. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  13. Safe dry storage of intermediate-level waste at CRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, A.; Sanderson, T.; Lian, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing operations at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) generate High-, Intermediate- and Low-Level Waste (HLW, ILW and LLW) that will require safe storage for several decades until a long-term management facility is available. This waste is stored in below grade concrete structures (i.e. tile holes or bunkers) or the above-ground Shielded Modular Above Ground Storage (SMAGS) facility depending on the thermal and shielding requirements of the particular waste package. Existing facilities are reaching their capacity and alternate storage is required for the future storage of this radioactive material. To this end, work has been undertaken at CRL to design, license, construct and commission the next generation of waste management facilities. This paper provides a brief overview of the existing radioactive-waste management facilities used at CRL and focuses on the essential requirements and issues to be considered in designing a new waste storage facility. Fundamentally, there are four general requirements for a new storage facility to dry store dry non-fissile ILW. They are the need to provide: (1) containment, (2) shielding, (3) decay heat removal, and (4) ability to retrieve the waste for eventual placement in an appropriate long-term management facility. Additionally, consideration must be given to interfacing existing waste generating facilities with the new storage facility. The new facilities will be designed to accept waste for 40 years followed by 60 years of passive storage for a facility lifespan of 100 years. The design should be modular and constructed in phases, each designed to accept ten years of waste. This strategy will allow for modifications to subsequent modules to account for changes in waste characteristics and generation rates. Two design concepts currently under consideration are discussed. (author)

  14. Guidelines for the segregation characterization management of dry waste at Berkeley Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Managing and disposing of dry low level radioactive waste at Berkeley Lab. is problematic. The Waste Management Group must assure off site treatment, storage, and disposal facilities that dry waste from Berkeley Lab. is free of liquids and regulated metals (such as lead and mercury). RTR (Real Time Radioagraphy) used for waste to be rejected. This pamphlet helps to clarify dry waste management requirements that will ensure that Berkeley Lab. dry waste will be accepted for off site shipment. These issues are critical if we are to have an off site disposal option for your dry radioactive waste

  15. Development of drying and pelletizing system for concentrated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Susumu; Saito, Toru; Hirano, Mikio; Kikuchi, Makoto; Takamura, Yoshiyuki.

    1980-01-01

    Volume reduction is strongly required for the radioactive liquid waste generated in nuclear power plants because its storing space has increased with the operating years of the plants, though it has temporarily been stored in drum cans within the plant sites after concentrated by evaporation. The drying and pelletizing system developed by Hitachi, Ltd. in cooperation with Tokyo Electric Power Co. aims at the final disposal by solidifying stored waste after drying, pulverizing, and pelletizing concentrated liquid waste, and storing it in tanks to reduce its radioactivity for the predetermined period. The outstanding features of the system are to be capable of realizing drastic volume reduction and of storing waste as the stable solid in the form flexibly adaptable to any disposing method. The system, to which the new concepts of pulverizing by drying and pelletizing concentrated liquid waste were applied, has been subjected to various fundamental tests and the demonstration tests in a pilot plant during the research and development for 7-years, consequently it was confirmed that the system can be used practically, and the data for designing the equipment for practical use were collected. The items to be considered in designing the equipment for practical use are also mentioned. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Evaluation of dry solid waste recycling from municipal solid waste: case of Mashhad city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Jorfi, Sahand; Akbari, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The recycling for recovery and reuse of material and energy resources undoubtedly provides a substantial alternative supply of raw materials and reduces the dependence on virgin feedstock. The main objective of this study was to assess the potential of dry municipal solid waste recycling in Mashhad city, Iran. Several questionnaires were prepared and distributed among various branches of the municipality, related organizations and people. The total amount of solid waste generated in Mashhad in 2008 was 594, 800  tons with per capita solid waste generation rate of 0.609  kg  person(-1) day(-1). Environmental educational programmes via mass media and direct education of civilians were implemented to publicize the advantages and necessity of recycling. The amount of recycled dry solid waste was increased from 2.42% of total dry solid waste (2588.36  ton  year(-1)) in 1999 to 7.22% (10, 165  ton  year(-1)) in 2008. The most important fractions of recycled dry solid waste in Mashhad included paper and board (51.33%), stale bread (14.59%), glass (9.73%), ferrous metals (9.73%), plastic (9.73%), polyethylene terephthalate (2.62%) and non-ferrous metals (0.97%). It can be concluded that unfortunately the potential of dry solid waste recycling in Mashhad has not been considered properly and there is a great effort to be made in order to achieve the desired conditions of recycling.

  17. Drying wood waste with a pulse combustion dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkowski, A.G. [Spectrum Engineering Corp., Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Kitchen, J.A. [John A. Kitchen, Ltd., Hastings, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    There is a vast amount of wood waste available to be used as an alternate fuel if its moisture could be reduced efficiently. Tests have been conducted to assess an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste; specifically sawdust and pulverized wet hog fuel. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, and low NO{sub x} emissions. The material is injected into the exhaust gases in the tailpipe of the combustor which uses natural gas or propane as a fuel. The turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The materials is further dried in a rotary drum. The material has been dried without scorching or burning in tests where the inlet moisture content has been as high as 60% on a wet basis. The outlet moisture contents achieved have typically been 10%. Analysis of the test data and cost estimates of the equipment indicate that the pulse combustion drying system is at least comparable to existing systems in terms of operating costs, and offers very significant savings in capital costs. Testing with various other materials such as wood pulp, sludges and peat is continuing to further assess the equipment`s performance.

  18. Study on the correlation between volatile fatty acids and gas production in dry fermentation of kitchen waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangqiang; Ma, Yunfeng; Du, Boying; Wang, Qi; Hu, Qiongqiong; Bian, Yushan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, continuous kitchen waste fermentation and anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted to analyze the gas production potential, and to study the correlation between gas production rate and volatile fatty acid (VFAs) and its component concentration. During the experiment, the total solid(TS) concentration of the reaction system was increased by adding the kitchen waste, analysis of kitchen waste dry fermentation process to start, run, imbalance and imbalance after recovery and the parameters in the process of realizing the change trend and influencing factors of dry fermentation process, pH and ammonia concentration.

  19. Catalytic dry reforming of waste plastics from different waste treatment plants for production of synthesis gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Juniza Md; Williams, Paul T

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic dry reforming of mixed waste plastics, from a range of different municipal, commercial and industrial sources, were processed in a two-stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the plastics took place in the first stage and dry (CO 2 ) reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases took place in the second stage in the presence of Ni/Al 2 O 3 and Ni-Co/Al 2 O 3 catalysts in order to improve the production of syngas from the dry reforming process. The results showed that the highest amount of syngas yield was obtained from the dry reforming of plastic waste from the agricultural industry with the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst, producing 153.67mmol syngas g -1 waste . The addition of cobalt metal as a promoter to the Ni/Al 2 O 3 catalyst did not have a major influence on syngas yield. Overall, the catalytic-dry reforming of waste plastics from various waste treatment plants showed great potential towards the production of synthesis gases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Segregation of low-level dry active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblith, L. Jr.; Naughton, M.D.; Welsh, L.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been carried out to characterize the Dry Active Waste (DAW) stream from a typical PWR power plant in order to determine the usefulness of large-volume DAW monitors for segregating such waste in order to dispose of it in appropriate facilities. A waste monitor using plastic scintillation counters was used for measuring the waste. The monitor had a volume of about 300 liters and an overall efficiency of about 12% for a typical fission product mixture. It provides automatic compensation for background radioactivity and can measure a bag of waste in less than a minute, including background measurements. Six hundred consecutively generated bags of DAW were measured. These had a total activity of about one millicurie and an average specific activity of about 540 nanocuries per kilogram. About half of the bags contained less than 1000 nanocuries and had specific activities of less than 100 nanocuries per kilogram. Based on simplified preliminary calculations, it appears that an evaluation of the risks of disposal of bags such as these in a landfill other than a low-level waste disposal facility could be carried out that would demonstrate that such disposal of half or more of these bags would not result in any substantial hazard, either short or long term

  1. Volume reduction of reactor wastes by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Three simulated low-level reactor wastes were dried using a spray dryer-baghouse system. The three aqueous feedstocks were sodium sulfate waste characteristic of a BWR, boric acid waste characteristic of a PWR, and a waste mixture of ion exchange resins and filter aid. These slurries were spiked with nonradioactive iron, cobalt, and manganese (representing corrosion products) and nonradioactive cesium and iodine (representing fission products). The throughput for the 2.1-m-diameter spray dryer and baghouse system was 160-180 kg/h, which is comparable to the requirements for a full-scale commercial installation. A free-flowing, dry product was produced in all of the tests. The volume reduction factor ranged from 2.5 to 5.8; the baghouse decontamination factor was typically in the range of 10 3 to 10 4 . Using an overall system decontamination factor of 10 6 , the activity of the off-gas was calculated to be one to two orders of magnitude less than the nuclide release limit of the major active species, Cs-137

  2. Low-level dry active waste management planning for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.N.; Feizollani, F.; Jarboe, Th.B.

    1984-01-01

    To offset the rising cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal and to provide contingency measures for disposal space unavailability after January 1, 1986, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG and E) has undertake efforts to establish a long-term waste management program. This plan, which was developed after detailed study of a number of options, consists of four elements: management of dry active wastes; implementation of 10CFR61 requirements; storage of process wastes; and enhancement of liquid/solid waste systems and equipment performance. Each element was scheduled for implementation in accordance with an established set of priorities. Accordingly, detailed engineering for implementation of the first two elements was initiated in December of 1982. This paper focuses on BGandE's experience in implementation of the first element o the program, i.e., the management of dry active waste (DAW). DAW is managed by providing a new buildin dedicated to its handling, processing, volume-reduction, and storage. This building, which is equipped with state-of-the-art decontamination and processing techniques, allows for implementation of waste minimization and for interim storage of DAW in a safe and cost effective manner

  3. Dry-distillation of experimental animal wastes containing radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, Hideo; Saito, Kazumi; Kurihara, Norio

    1988-01-01

    Mice were dry-distilled at 800deg C for 10 min, after [ 32 P]orthophosphate or L-[4,5- 3 H]leucine was intraperitoneally administered. Phosphorus-32 was quantitatively recovered in the residual solid, whereas 95% of 3 H was found in the distillate (condensed water). When 14 C (L-[U- 14 C]malic acid or L-[U- 14 C]leucine) was administered to mice and they were dry-distilled, 14 C-radioactivity was distributed into two fractions; residual solid and exhaust gas. In these cases, the recovery percentage of 14 C in residual solid was not very high but increased as the treating temperature decreased. It reached about 40% of the administered 14 C at 400deg C for 120 min. By the dry-distillation of animals, their weight was reduced to about 10% in every animal tested (mice, rats and rabbits). The volume was reduced to about 20% in cases of mice and rats, and about 30% in case of rabbits. It was concluded that the dry-distillation can be useful as a pre-treatment for disposal of animal wastes containing radioisotopes. (author)

  4. Spray drying test of simulated borated waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Zhou Lianquan; Fan Zhiwen; Sun Qi; Lin Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    Performance and the effecting factors of spray drying of simulated borated waste solutions is studied for three contaeting methods between the atomized beads and the heated air, in which boron concentration is around 21000 ppm. The contacting modes are centrifugal atomizing co-current flow, pneumatic atomizing co-current flow and mixed flow. The results show that a free-flowing product in all these tests when the temperature of the solutions is between 62 degree C and 64 degree C, the inlet temperature of the spray drying chamber is between 210 degree C and 220 degree C, the temperature of the outlet of the spray drying chamber is between 110 and 120 degree C, the flow rate of the pressure air is 8.0 m 3 /h, the rotational speed of the centrifugal atomizer is 73.0 m/s. The diameters of the powder product which account for 95% of the feed range from 0.356 mm to 0.061 mm. The production capacity and water content in the powder increase in the order of pneumatic atomizing co-current flow, mixed flow and centrifugal atomizing co-current flow. The volume reduction coeffecient of spray drying is in the ranged of 0.22 and 0.27. (authors)

  5. State-of-the-art dry active waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.; Ingalsbe, H.; Alcorn, G.; Anderson, K.; Dahlen, D.

    1989-01-01

    Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) is operated by Arizona Public Service for a consortium of seven owners. The site consists of three identical single unit power plants. Each unit is a Combustion Engineering Series 80 pressurized water reactor (PWR) rated at 1270 Megawatts electric. The site is located 100 kilometers west of Phoenix, Arizona in the arid southwest desert region of the United States of America. Since the start up of Unit One in 1985, Palo Verde has aggressively pursued waste volume reduction. This includes a dry active waste (DAW) segregation program that locates and separates nonradioactive and reusable materials that have been mixed with the radioactive DAW. The DAW program is described in further detail in the paper

  6. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below

  7. Freeze Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for freeze-drying fruits and vegetables which aims to expose college students to the principles of drying and simultaneous heat and mass transfer. The experimental apparatus, procedure of the experiment, and data analysis are also included. (HM)

  8. Improvement in dry active waste segregation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.P.; Anderson, K.D.; Dahlen, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    At the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) the majority of dry active waste (DAW) volume reduction activities are performed in the site's new DAW processing and storage facility. This facility houses an interim storage area for a five year volume of compacted DAW, a shredder/compactor, and a DAW segregation area. The DAW segregation program locates and separates non-radioactive and reusable materials from DAW generated at the three unit PVNGS site. This program has saved more than 24,000 cubic feet of burial space and has reclaimed more than $1,000,000 worth of materials. Palo Verde has made numerous changes to the DAW segregation program since its inception. To ensure that the DAW segregation program remained cost effective and in compliance with applicable regulatory guidance, segregation techniques were revised and new equipment was evaluated and procured. This paper details that effort and summarizes the operational data that has been collected

  9. Sustainable biobutanol production from pineapple waste by using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527: Drying kinetics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Manisha A; Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-02-01

    Present investigation explores the use of pineapple peel, a food industry waste, for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527. Proximate analysis of pineapple peel shows that it contains 35% cellulose, 19% hemicellulose, and 16% lignin on dry basis. Drying experiments on pineapple peel waste were carried out in the temperature range of 60-120°C and experimental drying data was modeled using moisture diffusion control model to study its effect on ABE production. The production of ABE was further accomplished via acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation process. Maximum total sugar release obtained by using acid hydrolysis was 97g/L with 95-97% and 10-50% removal of phenolics and acetic acid, respectively during detoxification process. The maximum ABE titer obtained was 5.23g/L with 55.6% substrate consumption when samples dried at 120°C were used as a substrate (after detoxification). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid waste processing experience at Susquehanna Steam Electric Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.W.; Granus, M.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the first year's operation at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station (SSES) with respect to the Westinghouse Hittman Nuclear Incorporated (Hittman) mobile solidification system and the dry activated waste generation, handling and processing. Experiences pertinent to the mobile solidification system are reviewed with emphasis on the integration of the system into the plant, problems associated with unexpected waste properties and the myriad of operating procedures that had to be prepared. The processing history for 1983 is reviewed in terms of the volume of waste, including solidified wastes, dewatered wastes an DAW. Factors that must be considered in evaluating processing alternatives, i.e., dewatering vs. solidification; steel liners vs. HICs, are discussed. Actions taken by Hittman and SSES to maximize the processing economics are also discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to the utility considering implementing mobile solification services to ensure a smooth and timely integration of services into the plant

  11. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  12. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6' diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently

  13. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  14. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H P; Adlhoch, W [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  15. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  16. Italian experience on the processing of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; De Angelis, G.

    1989-12-01

    Experimental work is under way in Italy for treatment and conditioning of different types of solid radioactive wastes. The following wastes are taken into account in this paper: Magnox fuel element debris, solid compactable wastes, radiation sources and contaminated carcasses. The metallic debris, consisting of Magnox splitters and braces, are conditioned, after drying and separation of corrosion products, by means of a two component epoxy system (base product + hardener). Solid compactable wastes are reduced in volume by using a press. The resulting pellets are transferred to a final container and conditioned with a cement mortar of a suitable consistency. As to the radiation sources, mainly contained in lightning-rods, gas detectors and radioactive thickness gauges, the encapsulation in a cementitious grout is a common practice for their incorporation. Early experiments, with satisfactory results, have also been conducted for the cementation of contaminated carcasses. (author)

  17. Establishment of cementation parameters of dried waste from evaporation coming from NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Érica R.; Tello, Clédola C.O.; Costa, Bruna S.

    2017-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generated in Brazil are treated and sent to initial and intermediate storages. The 'Project RBMN' proposes the implantation of the Brazilian repository to receive and permanently dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The CNEN NN 6.09 standard - Acceptance Criteria for Disposal of Low and Intermediate Radioactive Wastes (LIRW) - establishes the fundamental requirements to accept the wastes packages in the repository. The evaporator concentrate is one of liquid wastes generated in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation and usually it is cemented directly inside the packing. The objective of this research is to increase the amount of the incorporated waste in each package, using the drying process before the cementation, consequently reducing the volume of the waste to be disposed. Drying and cementation parameters were established in order to scale-up the process aiming at waste products that comply with the requirements of CNEN standard. The cementation of the resulting dry wastes was carried out with different formulations, varying the amount of cement, dry waste and water. These tests were analyzed in order to select the best products, with higher waste incorporation than current process and its complying the requirements of the standard CNEN NN 6.09. (author)

  18. Establishment of cementation parameters of dried waste from evaporation coming from NPP operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Érica R.; Tello, Clédola C.O., E-mail: erica.engqui@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil); Costa, Bruna S., E-mail: brusilveirac@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The radioactive wastes generated in Brazil are treated and sent to initial and intermediate storages. The 'Project RBMN' proposes the implantation of the Brazilian repository to receive and permanently dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The CNEN NN 6.09 standard - Acceptance Criteria for Disposal of Low and Intermediate Radioactive Wastes (LIRW) - establishes the fundamental requirements to accept the wastes packages in the repository. The evaporator concentrate is one of liquid wastes generated in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation and usually it is cemented directly inside the packing. The objective of this research is to increase the amount of the incorporated waste in each package, using the drying process before the cementation, consequently reducing the volume of the waste to be disposed. Drying and cementation parameters were established in order to scale-up the process aiming at waste products that comply with the requirements of CNEN standard. The cementation of the resulting dry wastes was carried out with different formulations, varying the amount of cement, dry waste and water. These tests were analyzed in order to select the best products, with higher waste incorporation than current process and its complying the requirements of the standard CNEN NN 6.09. (author)

  19. Characteristics of Vacuum Freeze Drying with Utilization of Internal Cooling and Condenser Waste Heat for Sublimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alhamid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze drying is an excellent drying method, but it is very energy-intensive because a relatively long drying time is required. This research investigates the utilization of condenser waste heat for sublimation as a way of accelerating the drying rate. In addition, it also investigates the effect of internal cooling combined with vacuum cooling in the pressure reduction process. Jelly fish tentacles were used as the specimen, with different configurations for condenser heat waste and internal cooling valve opening. The results show that heating with condenser heat waste can accelerate the drying rate up to 0.0035 kg/m2.s. In addition, pre-freezing by internal cooling prevents evaporation until the mass of the specimen is 0.47 g and promotes transition of the specimen into the solid phase.

  20. Experimental research of solid waste drying in the process of thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Kolibaba, O. B.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2015-10-01

    The convective drying process of municipal solid waste layer as a polydispersed multicomponent porous structure is studied. On the base of the experimental data criterial equations for calculating heat transfer and mass transfer processes in the layer, depending on the humidity of the material, the speed of the drying agent and the layer height are obtained. These solutions are used in the thermal design of reactors for the thermal processing of multicomponent organic waste.

  1. The effect of using different sources of dry materials on waste-form grout properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    A reference grout formulation had been developed for a liquid low-level radioactive waste using the following dry materials: ground limestone, ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement. The effect of varying the sources of these dry materials are tested. Two limestones, two fly ashes, two cements, and eight slags were tested. Varying the source of dry materials significantly affected the grout properties, but only the 28-d free-standing liquid varied outside of the preferred range. A statistical technique, Tukey's paired comparison, can be used to ascertain whether a given combination of dry materials resulted in grout properties significantly different from those of other combinations of dry materials

  2. Dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuels and vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of the work of GEC Energy Systems Ltd. over the years in the dry storage of irradiated fuel. The dry-storage module (designated as Cell 4) for irradiated magnox fuel recently constructed at Wylfa nuclear power station is described. Development work on the long-term dry storage of irradiated oxide fuels is reported. Four different methods of storage are compared. These are the pond, vault, cask and caisson stores. It is concluded that there are important advantages with the passive air-cooled ESL dry stove. (U.K.)

  3. Dry cooling tower operating experience in the LOFT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A dry cooling tower has been uniquely utilized to dissipate heat generated in a small experimental pressurized water nuclear reactor. Operational experience revealed that dry cooling towers can be intermittently operated with minimal wind susceptibility and water hammer occurrences by cooling potential steam sources after a reactor scram, by isolating idle tubes from the external atmosphere, and by operating at relatively high pressures. Operating experience has also revealed that tube freezing can be minimized by incorporating the proper heating and heat loss prevention features

  4. Radioactive waste management: Spanish experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste generation began in Spain during the 1950's, in association with the first applications of radioactive isotopes in industry, medicine and research. Spain's first nuclear power plant began its operations in 1968. At present, there are in operation some one thousand installations possessing the administrative authorization required to use radioactive isotopes (small producers), nine nuclear groups and a tenth is now entering the dismantling phase. There are also activities and installations pertaining to the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (mining, milling and the manufacturing of fuel elements). Until 1985, the research center Junta de Energia Nuclear (now CIEMAT) rendered radioactive waste removal, and subsequent conditioning and temporary storage services to the small producers. Since the beginning of their operations the nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities have had the capacity to condition and temporarily store their own radioactive wastes. ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S. A.) began its operations in the second half of 1985. It is a state-owned company created by the Government in accordance with a previous parliamentary resolution and commissioned to establish a system for management of such wastes throughout Spain, being in charge also of the dismantling of nuclear power plants and other major installations at the end of their operating lifetimes. Possibly the most outstanding characteristic of ENRESA's evolution over these last seven years has been the need to bring about a compromise between solving the most immediate and pressing day-to-day problems of operation (the first wastes were removed at the beginning of 1986) and establishing the basic organization, resources, technology and installations required for ENRESA to operate efficiently in the long term. (author)

  5. Radioactivity evaluation method for pre-packed concrete packages of low-level dry active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Funahashi, Tetsuo; Watabe, Kiyomi; Ozawa, Yukitoshi; Kashiwagi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    Low-level dry active wastes of nuclear power plants are grouted with cement mortal in a container and planned to disposed into the shallow land disposal site. The characteristics of radionuclides contained in dry active wastes are same as homogeneous solidified wastes. In the previous report, we reported the applicability of the radioactivity evaluation methods established for homogeneous solidified wastes to pre-packed concrete packages. This report outlines the developed radioactivity evaluation methods for pre-packed concrete packages based upon recent data. Since the characteristics of dry active wastes depend upon the plant system in which dry active wastes originate and the types of contamination, sampling of wastes and activity measurement were executed to derive scaling factors. The radioactivity measurement methods were also verified. The applicability of non-destructive methods to measure radioactivity concentration of pre-packed concrete packages was examined by computer simulation. It is concluded that those methods are accurate enough to measure actual waste packages. (author)

  6. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  7. Volume reduction of dry active waste by use of a waste sorting table at the Brunswick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick nuclear power plant has been using a National Nuclear Corporation Model WST-18 Waste Sorting Table to monitor and sort dry active waste for segregating uncontaminated material as a means of low-level waste volume reduction. The WST-18 features 18 large-area, solid scintillation detectors arranged in a 3 x 6 array underneath a sorting/monitoring surface that is shielded from background radiation. An 11-week study at Brunswick showed that the use of the waste sorting table resulted in dramatic improvements in both productivity (man-hours expended per cubic foot of waste processed) and monitoring quality over the previous hand-probe frisking method. Use of the sorting table since the study has confirmed its effectiveness in volume reduction. The waste sorting table paid for its operation in volume reduction savings alone, without accounting for the additional savings from recovering reusable items

  8. Dry anaerobic conversion of municipal solid wastes: Dranco process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, W.; De Baere, L.

    1992-01-01

    The DRANCO process was developed for the conversion of solid organic wastes, specifically the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), to energy and a humus-like final product, called Humotex. The DRANCO process can be compared to landfill gas production accelerated by a factor 1000. A Dranco installation with a digester of 808 cubic meters treating 10,500 tonnes of source separated waste per year is under construction in Brecht, Belgium. A description of the plant is presented. A 56 cubic meters demonstration plant, using mixed garbage as feedstock, has been in operation for several years in Gent, Belgium. The operating temperature in the digester is 55 degrees C and the total solids concentration is about 32%. The gas production process is finalized in 3 weeks. The final product is de-watered and further stabilized in 10 days during aerobic post-treatment. Humotex is free of pathogens. Low concentrations of heavy metals can only be obtained through the collection of sorted garbage. The Dranco process is suitable for the digestion of source separated wastes such as vegetables, fruit, garden and non-recyclable paper wastes

  9. Liquide waste volume reduction by in-drum drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volaric, B.; Zorko, M.

    1998-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste is becoming increasingly difficult because of the lack of available volume on site, the rising disposal costs and the lack of ultimate disposal sites. Optimized treatment and volume reduction of concentrates and spent resins prior to interim storage, final disposal, and solidification processes are major step to counteract the situation.(author)

  10. Waste from dismantling the German experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    Since the 1970s, Germany has successfully conducted decomissioning projects on 16 prototype or commercial reactors, thereby gaining experience in the management of the associated waste, as explains Boris Brendebach, Chief Expert for Decommissioning at GRS' Radiation and Environmental Protection Division. (orig.)

  11. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  12. Incineration of dry burnable waste from reprocessing plants with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Gomoll, H.; Lins, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Juelich incineration process is a two stage controlled air incineration process which has been developed for efficient volume reduction of dry burnable waste of various kinds arising at nuclear facilities. It has also been applied to non nuclear industrial and hospital waste incineration and has recently been selected for the new German Fuel Reprocessing Plant under construction in Wackersdorf, Bavaria, in a modified design

  13. Influence of effective stress and dry density on the permeability of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenying; Wang, Yingfeng; Xu, Hui; Fang, Yuehua; Wu, Dazhi

    2018-05-01

    A landfill is one of the main sites for disposal of municipal solid waste and the current landfill disposal system faces several problems. For instance, excessive leachate water is an important factor leading to landfill instability. Understanding the permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste is a relevant topic in the field of environmental geotechnical engineering. In this paper, the current research progress on permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste is discussed. A review of recent studies indicates that the research in this field is divided into two categories based on the experimental method employed: field tests and laboratory tests. This paper summarizes test methods, landfill locations, waste ages, dry densities and permeability coefficients across different studies that focus on permeability characteristics. Additionally, an experimental study on compressibility and permeability characteristics of fresh municipal solid waste under different effective stresses and compression times was carried out. Moreover, the relationships between the permeability coefficient and effective stress as well as dry density were obtained and a permeability prediction model was established. Finally, the experimental results from the existing literature and this paper were compared and the effects of effective stress and dry density on the permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste were summarized. This study provides the basis for analysis of leachate production in a landfill.

  14. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable.

  15. Operating experience of vault type dry storage and its relevance to future storage needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, E.O.; Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    An outline description of the early passive cooled vault type dry stores for irradiated magnox fuel at the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station together with the valuable operating experience gained over many years. An outline description of the world's first air-cooled vault type dry store (350 Te) and comments on its construction and successful operation. A description of the basic principles that were used in the design of this store and how these principles have been developed for use on vault type storage systems for oxide fuel and vitrified waste. An examination of the basic parameters that the author's consider should be used to measure the adequacy of the many storage options currently being considered around the world is included in order that a better assessment of the various systems may be obtained

  16. The effect of using different sources of dry materials on waste-form grout properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    A reference grout formulation had been developed for a liquid low-level radioactive waste using the following dry materials: ground limestone, ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement. The effect of varying the sources of these dry materials was tested. Two limestones, two fly ashes, two cements, and eight slags were tested. Varying the source of dry materials significantly affected the grout properties, but only the 28-d free-standing liquid varied outside of the preferred range. A statistical technique, Tukey's paired comparison, can be used to ascertain whether a given combination of dry materials resulted in grout properties significantly different from those of other combinations of dry materials. (author)

  17. A study on the dewatering of industrial waste sludge by fry-drying technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Tae-In; Chae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hee-kyum; Moon, Seung-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    In sludge treatment, drying sludge using typical technology with high water content to a water content of approximately 10% is always difficult because of adhesive characteristics of sludge. Many methods have been applied, including direct and indirect heat drying, but these approaches of reducing water content to below 40% after drying is very inefficient in energy utilization of drying sludge. In this study, fry-drying technology with a high heat transfer coefficient of approximately 500 W/m 2 deg. C was used to dry industrial wastewater sludge. Also waste oil was used in the fry-drying process, and because the oil's boiling point is between 240 and 340 deg. C and the specific heat is approximately 60% of that of water. In the fry-drying system, the sludge is input by molding it into a designated form after heating the waste oil at temperatures between 120 and 170 deg. C. At these temperatures, the heated oil rapidly evaporates the water contained in the sludge, leaving the oil itself. After approximately 10 min, the water content of the sludge was less than 10%, and its heating value surpassed 5300 kcal/kg. Indeed, this makes the organic sludge appropriate for use as a solid fuel. The wastewater sludge used in this study was the designated waste discharged from chemical, leather and plating plants. These samples varied in characteristics, especially with regard to heavy metal concentration. After drying the three kinds of wastewater sludge at oil temperatures 160 deg. C for 10 min, it was found that the water content in the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants reduced from 80.0 to 5.5%, 81.6 to 1.0%, and 65.4 to 0.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the heat values of the sludge from the chemical, leather, and plating plants prior to fry-drying were 217, 264, and 428 kcal/kg, respectively. After drying, these values of sludge increased to 5317, 5983 and 6031 kcal/kg, respectively. The heavy metals detected in the sludge after drying were aluminum

  18. Method and device for the dry preparation of ceramic uranium dioxide nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirk, H.; Roepenack, H.; Goeldner, U.

    1977-01-01

    Reprocessing of waste, resulting from the production of ceramic sintered bodies from uranium dioxide for use as nuclear fuel, in a dry process into very finely dispersed pure U 3 O 8 powder may be improved by applying vibrating screening during oxidation. An appropriate device is described. (UWI) [de

  19. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Dry Bin-Scale Integrated Systems Checkout Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In order to determine the long-term performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal system, in accordance with the requirements of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Standard 40 CFR 191, Subpart B, Sections 13 and 15, two performance assessment tests will be conducted. The tests are titled WIPP Bin-Scale Contact Handled (CH) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Tests and WIPP In Situ Alcove CH TRU Waste Tests. These tests are designed to measure the gas generation characteristics of CH TRU waste. Much of the waste will be specially prepared to provide data for a better understanding of the interactions due to differing degradation modes, waste forms, and repository environmental affects. The bin-scale test is designed to emplace nominally 146 bins. The majority of the bins will contain various forms of waste. Eight bins will be used as reference bins and will contain no waste. This checkout plan exercises the systems, operating procedures, and training readiness of personnel to safely carry out those specifically dedicated activities associated with conducting the bin-scale test plan for dry bins only. The plan does not address the entire WIPP facility readiness state. 18 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    incoming material to treatment plants, energy consumption, cost, and climate impact. The quality of the dried material was evaluated with respect to purity degree, shelf-life stability, nutritional content, bio fuel potential and rehydration properties. In the system analysis, each drying technology, combined with a supposed subsequent digestion process, was compared to today's system for collection and digestion of food waste. An initial assessment of the potential of the microwave-vacuum drying process was made, as an alternative technique for hygienisation of food waste which contains animal by-products (ABP). The results indicate that the microwave process would be possible to adjust, in order to meet the time-temperature requirements for hygienisation. However, complementing studies are required to optimise and control the process towards the required microbiological reduction. Dried material has, as expected, advantages from both an odour and storage point of view; the lower water content corresponds to lower water activity and accordingly longer shelf-life and reduced risk for e.g. mould growth and odour. Even if energy is needed for drying the material, there are environmental advantages at collection of food waste (at transport distances less than about 50 km). Digestion experiments showed that dried food waste from households in Goeteborg did not result in any significant differences in methane exchange, with regard to organic matter (VS), expressed as m{sup 3}CH{sub 4}/tonne VS, compared with fresh food waste. Dried waste from food establishments in Boraas showed significantly lower methane exchange, with respect to organic matter (VS), than fresh food waste. The reasons for this need to be further investigated. A project delimitation was that the techniques were evaluated based upon food waste which was collected during a relatively short period of time. The target group of the project is the Swedish food industry, personnel responsible for waste

  2. Drying Shrinkage of Mortar Incorporating High Volume Oil Palm Biomass Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor Lim, Nor Hasanah Abdul; Samadi, Mostafa; Rahman Mohd. Sam, Abdul; Khalid, Nur Hafizah Abd; Nabilah Sarbini, Noor; Farhayu Ariffin, Nur; Warid Hussin, Mohd; Ismail, Mohammed A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper studies the drying shrinkage of mortar incorporating oil palm biomass waste including Palm Oil Fuel Ash, Oil Palm Kernel Shell and Oil Palm Fibre. Nano size of palm oil fuel ash was used up to 80 % as cement replacement by weight. The ash has been treated to improve the physical and chemical properties of mortar. The mass ratio of sand to blended ashes was 3:1. The test was carried out using 25 × 25 × 160 mm prism for drying shrinkage tests and 70 × 70 ×70 mm for compressive strength test. The results show that the shrinkage value of biomass mortar is reduced by 31% compared with OPC mortar thus, showing better performance in restraining deformation of the mortar while the compressive strength increased by 24% compared with OPC mortar at later age. The study gives a better understanding of how the biomass waste affect on mortar compressive strength and drying shrinkage behaviour. Overall, the oil palm biomass waste can be used to produce a better performance mortar at later age in terms of compressive strength and drying shrinkage.

  3. Uranium extraction from aqueous solution using dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaynab Aly

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto dried and pyrolyzed tea and coffee wastes was investigated. The adsorption properties of the materials were characterized by measuring uranium uptake as a function of solution pH, kinetics and adsorption isotherms. pH profile of uranium adsorption where UO 2 2+ is expected to be the predominant species was measured between pH 0 and 4. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to describe adsorption equilibria, and corresponding constants evaluated. Using the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of uranium by dried tea and coffee wastes was 59.5 and 34.8 mg/g, respectively at 291 K. Adsorption thermodynamic constants, ΔHdeg ΔSdeg and ΔGdeg were also calculated from adsorption data obtained at three different temperatures. Adsorption thermodynamics of uranyl ions on dried tea and coffee systems indicated spontaneous and endothermic processes. Additionally, a Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model was used to fit the kinetic experimental data for both adsorbents and the constants evaluated. Dried tea and coffee wastes proved to be effective adsorbents with high capacities and significant advantage of a very low cost. (author)

  4. Development of a freeze-drying process of waste-solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Isao; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    The waste solution treatment process in Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) consists of Evaporation-Condensation and Neutrazation-Agglometation-Precipitation process, which produces the distillate as recovered acid at first step and separates Pu-U element from condenced solution at second step. This process needs many stages to get high decontamination efficiency and then the Evaporator is in very corrosive state because the nitric acid solution is heated over 100 degrees C to be evaporated. So, in PCDF, it was started the development of Freeze-Drying process to waste solution treatment. This process is suitable for a little quantity of the solution including nitric acid as produced in the Microwave Heating method. Moreover the process has high decontamination efficiency and has good performance of equipment. The result of the cold test of Freeze-Drying process with nitric acid is discribed in this paper. (author)

  5. Supercompactor force effectiveness as related to dry active waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.; Phillips, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    The first U.S. permanently installed supercompactor is now in operation at the Babcock and Wilcox volume reduction center, Parks Township, Pennsylvania. Tests with various DAW (dry active waste) material have been conducted, recording press force versus drum height as one means of estimating volume reduction capability of this machine at various compaction forces. The results of these tests, as well as other factors, are presented herein

  6. Utilization of household food waste for the production of ethanol at high dry material content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Kekos, Dimitris; Loizidou, Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-08

    Environmental issues and shortage of fossil fuels have turned the public interest to the utilization of renewable, environmentally friendly fuels, such as ethanol. In order to minimize the competition between fuels and food production, researchers are focusing their efforts to the utilization of wastes and by-products as raw materials for the production of ethanol. household food wastes are being produced in great quantities in European Union and their handling can be a challenge. Moreover, their disposal can cause severe environmental issues (for example emission of greenhouse gasses). On the other hand, they contain significant amounts of sugars (both soluble and insoluble) and they can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Household food wastes were utilized as raw material for the production of ethanol at high dry material consistencies. A distinct liquefaction/saccharification step has been included to the process, which rapidly reduced the viscosity of the high solid content substrate, resulting in better mixing of the fermenting microorganism. This step had a positive effect in both ethanol production and productivity, leading to a significant increase in both values, which was up to 40.81% and 4.46 fold, respectively. Remaining solids (residue) after fermentation at 45% w/v dry material (which contained also the unhydrolyzed fraction of cellulose), were subjected to a hydrothermal pretreatment in order to be utilized as raw material for a subsequent ethanol fermentation. This led to an increase of 13.16% in the ethanol production levels achieving a final ethanol yield of 107.58 g/kg dry material. In conclusion, the ability of utilizing household food waste for the production of ethanol at elevated dry material content has been demonstrated. A separate liquefaction/saccharification process can increase both ethanol production and productivity. Finally, subsequent fermentation of the remaining solids could lead to an increase of the overall

  7. Waste regular management: experience and progress prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallement, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the CEA has devoted important financial means for the radioactive civilian waste cleaning of its centers: radioactive waste processing (and especially large stocks of ancient wastes), useless-fuel management for fuels produced by experimental reactors and laboratories, and wastes produced by ancient nuclear facilities dismantlement. A policy towards waste volume reduction had already led to a 20 pc volume reduction of its low-level wastes since 1993

  8. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  9. Potential weather modification caused by waste heat release from large dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical model of a cooling tower plume is employed to study the possible atmospheric effects of thermal plumes from natural draft dry cooling towers. Calculations are performed for both single and multiple towers, each of which can dissipate the waste heat from a nominal 1000 MWe power generating unit, and the results are compared with those for wet cooling towers associated with plants of the same generating capacity. Dry cooling tower plumes are found to have a higher potential for inducing convective clouds than wet cooling tower plumes, under most summertime meteorological conditions. This is due to the fact that both the sensible heat and momentum fluxes from a dry tower in summer are approximately one order of magnitude larger than those from a wet cooling tower

  10. Use of Drying Technologies for Resource Recovery from Solid Wastes and Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Alba, Ric; Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John A.; Polonsky, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Long term storage of unprocessed biological wastes and human wastes can present major health issues and a loss of potential resources. Space vehicles and planetary habitats are typically resource-scarce or resource-limited environments for long-term human habitation. To-date, most of the resources will need to be supplied from Earth, but this may not be possible for long duration human exploration. Based on present knowledge, there is only very limited in-situ resources on planetary habitats. Hence, the opportunity to "live off the land" in a planetary habitat is limited. However, if we assume that wastes generated by human explorers are viewed as resources, there is great potential to utilize and recycle them, thereby reducing the requirements for supply Earth and enabling the "live off the land" exploration scenario. Technologies used for the recovery of resources from wastes should be reliable, safe, easy to operate, fail-proof, modular, automated and preferably multifunctional in being capable of handling mixed solid and liquid wastes. For a lunar habitat, energy does not appear to be the major driving factor amongst the technologies studied. Instead, reliability appears to be more important[1] . This paper reports studies to date on drying technologies to remove water from solid wastes and brines. Experimental performance data obtained for recovery water from wastes and brine are presented. Simplicity of operation of hardware and energy efficiency are discussed. Some improvements and modifications to hardware were performed. Hopefully, this information will assist in future efforts in the "downselection" of technologies for recovery of water and resources from solid wastes and brines.

  11. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  12. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  14. Experience on domestic waste segregation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Osei Bonsu Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Pollution from domestic wastes is a major environmental challenge in Ghana and many developing countries. Most of these countries depend almost entirely on landfills for waste management, which has proved to be expensive, inefficient and unsustainable. A sustainable solution to this problem is productive use of waste such as recycling. The main challenge that may limit recycling in Ghana and some of these countries is that a chunk of the wastes are littered on the environment, and the rest is...

  15. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajeena Beevi, B.; Madhu, G.; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day −1 . • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day −1

  16. Performance and kinetic study of semi-dry thermophilic anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajeena Beevi, B., E-mail: sajeenanazer@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Govt. Engineering College, Thrissur, Kerala 680 009 (India); Madhu, G., E-mail: profmadhugopal@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India); Sahoo, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: dksahoo@gmail.com [Division of Safety & Fire Engineering, School of Engineering, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, Kerala 682 022 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Performance of the reactor was evaluated by the degradation of volatile solids. • Biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS. • Value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}. • During the digestion 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is promoted as an energy source and waste disposal. In this study semi dry anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes was conducted for 45 days in a lab-scale batch experiment for total solid concentration of 100 g/L for investigating the start-up performances under thermophilic condition (50 °C). The performance of the reactor was evaluated by measuring the daily biogas production and calculating the degradation of total solids and the total volatile solids. The biogas yield at the end of the digestion was 52.9 L/kg VS (volatile solid) for the total solid (TS) concentration of 100 g/L. About 66.7% of the volatile solid degradation was obtained during the digestion. A first order model based on the availability of substrate as the limiting factor was used to perform the kinetic studies of batch anaerobic digestion system. The value of reaction rate constant, k, obtained was 0.0249 day{sup −1}.

  17. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Nuttall, E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1996-04-10

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits.

  18. Experiences with treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.; Smith, W.H.; Nuttall, E.

    1996-01-01

    During its many years of research activities involving toxic chemicals and radioactive materials, Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) has generated considerable amounts of waste. Much of this waste includes chemically hazardous components and radioisotopes. Los Alamos chose to use an electrochemical process for the treatment of many mixed waste components. The electro-chemical process, which the authors are developing, can treat a great variety of waste using one type of equipment built at a moderate expense. Such a process can extract heavy metals, destroy cyanides, dissolve contamination from surfaces, oxidize toxic organic compounds, separate salts into acids and bases, and reduce the nitrates. All this can be accomplished using the equipment and one crew of trained operating personnel. Results of a treatability study of chosen mixed wastes from Los Alamos Mixed Waste Inventory are presented. Using electrochemical methods cyanide and heavy metals bearing wastes were treated to below disposal limits

  19. Bio-drying and size sorting of municipal solid waste with high water content for improving energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Li-Ming; Ma, Zhong-He; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Qing; He, Pin-Jing

    2010-07-01

    Bio-drying can enhance the sortability and heating value of municipal solid waste (MSW), consequently improving energy recovery. Bio-drying followed by size sorting was adopted for MSW with high water content to improve its combustibility and reduce potential environmental pollution during the follow-up incineration. The effects of bio-drying and waste particle size on heating values, acid gas and heavy metal emission potential were investigated. The results show that, the water content of MSW decreased from 73.0% to 48.3% after bio-drying, whereas its lower heating value (LHV) increased by 157%. The heavy metal concentrations increased by around 60% due to the loss of dry materials mainly resulting from biodegradation of food residues. The bio-dried waste fractions with particle size higher than 45 mm were mainly composed of plastics and papers, and were preferable for the production of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in view of higher LHV as well as lower heavy metal concentration and emission. However, due to the higher chlorine content and HCl emission potential, attention should be paid to acid gas and dioxin pollution control. Although LHVs of the waste fractions with size bio-drying, they were still below the quality standards for RDF and much higher heavy metal pollution potential was observed. Different incineration strategies could be adopted for different particle size fractions of MSW, regarding to their combustibility and pollution property. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hazardous Waste Water Remediation by Ecoresin-Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    Water, the matter, matrix, medium and the mother of our life, is indeed one of the drivers of Nature. Through water cycle only the intra and inter equilibrium is maintained constantly between entire 'green' and 'blue'. Unfortunately, with each successive epoch of industrialization and urbanization, human societies have produced non-biodegradable waste hulk with far beyond handling capacities of mankind. At this juncture the very need is to appreciate and move towards the cost as well as time effective scientific alternatives for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutants. Green chemistry advocates the utilization of naturally available bio-resins which are environmentally benign alternative to current synthetic materials and technologies employed for waste water treatment. This explicit investigation aims to explore Dry Cow dung powder, DCP, a natural biosorbent as a green and clean alternative for the aqueous waste water treatment. It is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid'(HA). The HA has been successfully extracted by authors from DCP and this piece of work has been published in the International Journal [1]. We have developed simple, efficient and eco-friendly method for the removal of aqueous heavy metal pollutant such as Cr(VI) [2], Cd(II), Cr(III) [3] and Hg(II) as well radiotoxic 90Sr(II) [4], employing DCP. DCP is employed without any pre or post treatment. Being freely and easily available DCP has an edge over processed natural adsorbent considering their cost, time and energy efficiency. In nutshell we have to remember that prevention is better than the cure. If we fail to meet this, the situation will surely augment which will drain our water, our life, to slaughters knife..! Reference: 1. H.K.Bagla, N.S.Barot, Soil Amendement by Green Supplement: Dry Cowdung powder, EGUGA - 11

  1. A study of inter-particle bonds in dry bauxite waste resulting in atmospheric aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Thompson, Bentley

    1988-02-01

    Bauxite and Alumina production are one of the main activities of several third world countries such as Jamaica, Brazil, India, Guinea, eastern European countries such as Hungary and Rumania and advanced countries such as Australia, West Germany, Japan and the United States. The mining operations lead to dust pollution, but the refining of bauxite to alumina yield large amounts of highly caustic sludge waste, called "Red Mud". Millions of tons of the waste produced in every country are stored in containment dams or natural valleys. This leads to ground water pollution, destruction of plant and bird life and is hazardous to human settlement in earthquake prone regions like Jamaica. As a result several companies have been looking into dry mud stacking which involves thickening the mud in the refining plants and sprying it on the slopes to sun dry it. Typically it involves a drying field of about two hundred acres, which could act as a potential source of caustic dust. In Jamaica one company has started disposing of the mud in this way. The aerosol formation from such areas depends mainly on the integrity of the top dry layers. Presently this is done by studying the approximate parameters such as the friability of the mud. However, following the recent advances in powder technology it has been possible for us to develop an instrument to study the average interparticle forces between the red mud particles. The instrument is based on the principle of a tensometer and a split cell is used to load specimens. A load cell is used to measure the force and a chart recorder is used for plotting separation and the force. The present study reports elemental composition of the dust and its health hazards. It also reports the physical measurement of the average interparticle force as a function of their separation in the Jamaican mud. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the strength of the material is studied to see the effect of sun-drying of the waste. The five-fold increase

  2. The development and implementation of a dry active waste (DAW) sorting program at Catawba Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, J.H.; McNamara, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Duke Power Company, like other nuclear utilities, bears a burdensome radwaste disposal cost that has rapidly escalated during recent years. Dry active waste (DAW) represents approximately 85% of the total radioactive waste volume shipped to low-level disposal facilities. Sorting waste with less than detectable radioactivity from waste with detectable radioactivity provides a volume reduction (VR) technique that can save significant radwaste disposal costs and conserve dwindling burial space. This paper presents the development and results of a project that was conducted at Catawba Nuclear Station to determine the volume reduction potential from sorting DAW. Guidelines are given so that other utilities can perform a VR potential study on a low cost basis. Based on the results of the DAW VR study, an overall DAW volume radiation program was initiated at Duke Power Company. This program includes personnel training, drumming techniques, bag tracking and equipment purchases for sorting. This program has been fully implemented at Duke Power Company since January 1, 1988 and preliminary results and savings are given

  3. Ferrocyanide safety program: Credibility of drying out ferrocyanide tank waste by hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.R.; McLaren, J.M.; Borsheim, G.L.; Crippen, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    The single-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site that contain significant quantities of ferrocyanide have been considered a possible hazard, since under certain conditions the ferrocyanide in the waste tanks could undergo an exothermic chemical reaction with the nitrates and nitrites that are also present in the tanks. The purpose of this report is to assess the credibility of local dryout of ferrocyanide due to a hotspot. This report considers the following: What amount of decay heat generation within what volume would be necessary to raise the temperature of the liquid in the sludge to its boiling point? What mechanisms could produce a significant local concentration of heat sources? Is it credible that a waste tank heat concentration could be as large as that required to reach the dryout temperatures? This report also provides a recommendation as to whether infrared scanning of the ferrocyanide tanks is needed. From the analyses presented in this report it is evident that formation of dry, and thus chemically reactive, regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hotspots is not credible. This conclusion is subject to reevaluation if future analyses of tank core samples show much higher 137 Cs or 90 Sr concentrations than expected. Since hotspots of concern are not credible, infrared scanning to detect such hotspots is not required for safe storage of tank waste

  4. Survey of experience with dry storage of spent nuclear fuel and update of wet storage experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Spent fuel storage is an important part of spent fuel management. At present about 45,000 t of spent water reactor fuel have been discharged worldwide. Only a small fraction of this fuel (approximately 7%) has been reprocessed. The amount of spent fuel arisings will increase significantly in the next 15 years. Estimates indicate that up to the year 2000 about 200,000 t HM of spent fuel could be accumulated. In view of the large quantities of spent fuel discharged from nuclear power plants and future expected discharges, many countries are involved in the construction of facilities for the storage of spent fuel and in the development of effective methods for spent fuel surveillance and monitoring to ensure that reliable and safe operation of storage facilities is achievable until the time when the final disposal of spent fuel or high level wastes is feasible. The first demonstrations of final disposal are not expected before the years 2000-2020. This is why the long term storage of spent fuel and HLW is a vital problem for all countries with nuclear power programmes. The present survey contains data on dry storage and recent information on wet storage, transportation, rod consolidation, etc. The main aim is to provide spent fuel management policy making organizations, designers, scientists and spent fuel storage facility operators with the latest information on spent fuel storage technology under dry and wet conditions and on innovations in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Management of historical waste from research reactors: the Dutch experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Heek, Aliki; Metz, Bert; Janssen, Bas; Groothuis, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Most radioactive waste emerges as well-defined waste streams from operating power reactors. The management of this is an on-going practice, based on comprehensive (IAEA) guidelines. A special waste category however consists of the historical waste from research reactors, mostly originating from various experiments in the early years of the nuclear era. Removal of the waste from the research site, often required by law, raises challenges: the waste packages must fulfill the acceptance criteria from the receiving storage site as well as the criteria for nuclear transports. Often the aged waste containers do not fulfill today's requirements anymore, and their contents are not well documented. Therefore removal of historical waste requires advanced characterization, sorting, sustainable repackaging and sometimes conditioning of the waste. This paper describes the Dutch experience of a historical waste removal campaign from the Petten High Flux research reactor. The reactor is still in operation, but Dutch legislation asks for central storage of all radioactive waste at the COVRA site in Vlissingen since the availability of the high- and intermediate-level waste storage facility HABOG in 2004. In order to comply with COVRA's acceptance criteria, the complex and mixed inventory of intermediate and low level waste must be characterized and conditioned, identifying the relevant nuclides and their activities. Sorting and segregation of the waste in a Hot Cell offers the possibility to reduce the environmental footprint of the historical waste, by repackaging it into different classes of intermediate and low level waste. In this way, most of the waste volume can be separated into lower level categories not needing to be stored in the HABOG, but in the less demanding LOG facility for low-level waste instead. The characterization and sorting is done on the basis of a combination of gamma scanning with high energy resolution of the closed waste canister and low

  6. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  7. U.S. Experience and practices associated with the use of centralized rad waste processing centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the experience and current practices employed within the United States (US) associated with the use of Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers for the processing of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW). Information is provided on the methods, technologies, and practices employed by Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG), which is the worlds largest processor of LLRW. SEG processes over 80,000 cubic meters of waste annually and achieves an overall volume reduction of 12 : 1. LLRW processing in the United States is currently performed primarily at Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers, such as SEG's Central Volume Reduction Facility (CVRF) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This is primarily due to the superior economical application of advanced waste processing technologies, equipment, and personnel maintained at these centers. Information is provided on how SEG uses supercompaction, incineration, metals recycling, vitrification, and various other waste processing techniques to process both dry and wet wastes from over 90 commercial nuclear power plants, government operated facilities, hospitals, universities, and various small generators of radioactive waste

  8. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed

  9. Design of SMART waste heat removal dry cooling tower using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The 85% of cooling system are once-through cooling system and closed cycle wet cooling system. However, many countries are trying to reduce the power plant water requirement due to the water shortage and water pollution. Dry cooling system is investigated for water saving advantage. There are two dry cooling system which are direct and indirect cooling system. In direct type, turbine exhaust is directly cooled by air-cooled condenser. In indirect system, turbine steam is cooled by recirculating intermediate cooling water loop, then the loop is cooled by air-cooled heat exchanger in cooling tower. In this paper, the purpose is to remove SMART waste heat, 200MW by using newly designed tower. The possibility of enhancing cooling performance by solar energy is analyzed. The simple cooling tower and solar energy cooling tower are presented and two design should meet the purpose of removing SMART waste heat, 200MW. In first design, when tower diameter is 70m, the height of tower should be 360m high. In second design, the chimney height decrease from 360m to 180m as collector radius increase from 100m to 500m due to collector temperature enhancement by solar energy, To analyze solar cooling tower further, consideration of solar energy performance at night should be analyzed.

  10. Behavioral approach to food waste: an experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagau, H.; Vyrastekova, J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of behavioral interventions and nudging in dealing with the food waste problem. In particular, the authors implement an information campaign aiming to increase consumers’ awareness of the food waste problem. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH:

  11. Spent fuel dry storage experience at Gentilly 2 NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macici, N.

    1997-01-01

    In order to provide the needed interim storage facility for the spent fuel, Hydro-Quebec chose the dry storage CANSTOR module developed by the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL). The decision was made based upon the technical feasibility, public and environmental protection criteria, operational flexibility, economic and space saving advantages. Before the commissioning of the spent fuel dry storage facility, the project received all the required approvals. A joint provincial - federal public hearings was held in summer of 1994 in order to assess the project in term of its impact on the environment. In September 1995 took place the first transfer of spent fuel from the station bay to the dry storage facility and since then 21000 bundles of spent fuel were transferred in the two CANSTOR modules built on the station site located within the protected area of the Gentilly-2 station. To date, the expected performance of the dry storage units and equipment have been met. A third CANSTOR module is to be built in summer of 1997 on the station site. (author)

  12. Radiological assessment of petroleum pipe scale waste streams from dry rattling operations - 16323

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian S.; Arno, Matthew G.; Fruchtnicht, Erich H.; Berry, Robert O.

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum pipe scale consists of inorganic solids, such as barium sulfate. These solids can precipitate out of brine solutions that are pumped out of oil wells as part of normal oil field operations. The precipitates can nucleate on down hole pipe walls, causing the buildup of hard scales in some tubular in a pipe string, while leaving others virtually untouched. Once the scale buildup is sufficient to restrict flow in the string significantly, the tubular are removed from service. Once removed, tubular are transported to storage yards for storage, subsequent inspection, and possible recycling. Many of the tubular are never returned to service, either because the threads were too damaged, pipe walls too thin, or the scale buildup too thick. Historically, the tubular refurbishment industry used primarily one of two processes, either a high-pressure water lance or a dry, abrasive 'rattling' process to ream pipes free of scale buildup. The dry rattling process was primarily for touching up new pipes that have rusted slightly during storage; however, pipes with varying levels of scale were reamed, leaving only a thin coating of scale on the inner diameter, and then returned to service. Chemically, radium is an analog for barium, and radium is present in parts-per-million quantities in the brines produced from downhole pumping operations. Thus, some of the scales contain radium salts. When the radium-bearing scales are reamed with a dry process there is the possibility of generating radioactive aerosols, as well as bulk waste materials. At Texas A and M University, and under the university's radioactive materials broad scope license, an outdoor laboratory was constructed and operated with dry rattling equipment restored to the 'as was' condition typical of historical pipe cleaning yards. A battery of measurements were obtained to determine the radiological and aerodynamic properties of scale-waste products liberated from the inner surfaces of a variety of tubular

  13. Dry anaerobic digestion of rejects from pre-treated food waste; Torroetning av rejekt fraan foerbehandling av matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, Irene [NSR, Helsingborg (Sweden); Murto, Marika; Bjoernsson, Lovisa [Bioteknik, LTH, Lund (Sweden); Rosqvist, Haakan [Rosqvist Resurs, Klaagerup (Sweden)

    2011-11-15

    When the organic fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is digested anaerobically in a continuously stirred tank reactor there is a need for a pretreatment to make the waste pumpable and remove contaminants. In one type of pretreatment the material passes through a screw press which separates waste in a liquid fraction and a dry fraction (the reject). At NSR this technique is used and at present the reject is incinerated. A previous study has shown that about 30 % of the methane potential of the incoming organic waste can be found in the reject. The aim of the present project was to investigate the possibilities of realizing the methane potential through batch wise dry anaerobic digestion followed by composting as an alternative to incineration. In the technique used in the present project the material was digested in an anaerobic leach-bed with recirculation of leachate over the bed. It is important that the material is sufficiently porous to let the leachate spread evenly through the leach-bed. Treatment of reject and a mixture of reject and structural material were tested to investigate if the addition of structural material had an effect on the porosity. The flow of liquid through a leach-bed of reject and one of reject mixed with structural material was studied using LiBr as tracer. The digestate from the dry digestion process was composted, and the resulting compost was evaluated. The odor from the digestate, the active compost and the compost product was measured by analyzing the odor in the air of the porous space in heaps of the different materials. This was used to evaluate the risk of odor problems. The dry digestion and the tracer experiment both showed that mixing the reject with structural material had a positive effect on the flow of liquid through the material and the digestion process. Addition of structural material to the reject was needed in order to achieve an efficient digestion process. Using tracers proved to be a useful way of

  14. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: An evaluation of dry active waste sorting: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the accuracy of manual inspection of Dry Active Waste (DAW). Three studies were conducted at two nuclear power plants in which unmodified DAW waste streams of roughly 10,000 items each were inspected by technicians using pancake probes. Sorting performance was measured unobtrusively by intercepting the ''outflow'' from inspection stations. Verification of sorting accuracy was performed with a prototype, semi-automated sorting table employing a matrix of fixed plastic scintillation detectors. More than 30,000 items of trash were examined, classified, counted, and verified, and the composition of the ''inflow'' to the inspection stations was determined by reconstructing the ''outflow'' components, as determined during verification procedures. The results showed that between 1 and 19% of all items in each of the three DAW waste streams were contaminated at levels ≥100 ccpm. Sixty-two percent of the ''contaminated'' items in Study I, 87% of the contaminated items in Study II, and 97% of the contaminated items in Study III were detected. One-half to one percent of all items classified as <100 ccpm by technicians were actually ≥100 ccpm. False positive rates were very high in all three studies. The production rates and accuracy obtained on the semi-automated plastic scintillation sorting table used during the verification stages of this project greatly exceeded the rates for manual sorting. 9 figs., 13 tabs

  15. US experience with acid digestion of combustible transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    Contaminated transuranic waste from a plutonium finishing plant has been processed in a waste treatment demonstration plant, the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) located at Hanford, Washington, USA. Waste treatment experience, including process and equipment performance, the behavior of plutonium in the system, and chemical and nuclear safety are all discussed. The complementary relationship of this research and development to that at the ALONA pilot plant in Mol, Belgium is noted. 7 figures, 4 tables

  16. Moisture Distribution in Broccoli: Measurements by MRI Hot Air Drying Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments

  17. Moisture distribution in broccoli: measurements by MRI hot air drying experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    The internal moisture distribution that arise in food products during drying, is a key factor for the retention of quality attributes. To reveal the course of moisture content in a product, internal moisture profiles in broccoli florets are measured by MRI imaging during drying experiments with

  18. Effective utilization of agro-waste by application of CMC dry-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, graft polymerization and degradation are useful technologies to improve polymer materials. Processability of radial tires and heat resistance of wire/cable is improved by crosslinking technology. Polysaccharides such as starch/cellulose of natural polymers and their derivatives are typical degradable polymers. Molecular weight of polysaccharides was remarkably reduced at lower dose, 50 kGy. To expand application field of polysaccharides, it is essential to obtain crosslinking structure. It was found that polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan undergo crosslinking at past-like condition and form hydrogels. Concentration of past-like condition to induce crosslinking should be more than 10%. High molecular weight (Mw) and high degree of substitution (DS) is preferable for crosslinking of polysaccharide derivatives. In this paper, treatment of agro waste and improvement of Japanese traditional paper by addition of CMC dry gel is reported. (author)

  19. Briquettes of rice husk, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and dried leaves as implementation of wastes recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyanto, Sucipto; Usman, Mohammad Nurdianfajar; Citrasari, Nita

    2017-06-01

    This research aim is to determine the best briquettes as implementation of wastes recycle based on scoring method, main component composition, compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content, also the suitability with SNI 01-6235-2000. Main component that used are rice husk, 2mm and 6 mm PET, and dried leaves. Composition variation in this research are marked as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 2 mm PET plastic and K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5 with 6 mm PET plastic. The total weight of the briquettes is 100 g and divided into 90% main components and 10% tapioca as binder. The compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content were tested according to ASTM D 5865-04, ASTM D 3173-03, ASTM D 3175-02, ASTM D 3174-02. The tested results were used to determine the best briquette by scoring method, and the chosen briquettes is K2 with 6 mm PET plastic. The composition is 70% rice husk, 20% 6 mm PET plastic, and 10% dried leaves with the compressive strength, caloric value, water content, vollatile content, and ash content value is 51,55 kg/cm2; 5123 kal/g; 3,049%; 31,823%, dan 12,869%. The suitable value that meet the criteria according to SNI 01-6235-2000 is compressive strength, caloric value, water content, and ash content.

  20. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  1. Operational experiences and upgradation of waste management facilities Trombay, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Mahesh; Bodke, S.B.; Bansal, N.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Waste Management Facilities Trombay provide services for the safe management of radioactive wastes generated from the operation of non power sources at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. The paper describes in detail the current operational experience and facility upgradation by way of revamping of existing processes equipment and systems and augmentation of the facility by way of introducing latest processes and technologies to enhance the safety. Radioactive wastes are generated from the operation of research reactors, fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing, research labs. manufacture of sealed sources and labeled compounds. Use of radiation sources in the field of medical, agriculture and industry also leads to generation of assorted solid waste and spent sealed radiation sources which require proper waste management. Waste Management Facilities Trombay comprise of Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Decontamination Centre (DC) and Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS). Low level radioactive liquid effluents are received at ETP. Plant has 100 M 3 /day treatment capacity. Decontamination of liquid effluents is effected by chemical treatment method using co- precipitation as a process. Plant has 1800 M 3 of storage capacity. Chemical treatment system comprises of clarifloculator, static mixer and chemical feed tanks. Plant has concentrate management facility where chemical sludge is centrifuged to effect volume reduction of more that 15. Thickened sludge is immobilized in cement matrix. Decontamination Centre caters to the need of equipment decontamination from research reactors. Process used is ultrasonic chemical decontamination. Besides this DC provides services for decontamination of protective wears. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site is responsible for the safe management of solid waste generated at various research reactors, plants, laboratories in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Spent sealed radiation sources are also stored

  2. The national approach to radioactive waste management: the Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Alamares, A.L.; Salom, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) is tasked, among others, with the legally-mandated twin function of advancing and regulating the beneficial uses of nuclear energy and radiation technology. The PNRI is also responsible, among others, for the safe management of radioactive wastes generated by all licensed users of radioisotopes, including about 100 medical and industrial users. This papers describes the efforts taken by the PNRI, with technical assistance provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency to establish a low level radioactive waste management facility in the country and the subsequent upgrading of its waste management infrastructure. The conceptual approach and sebsequent implementation of the work programme is presented. Problems attendant to these efforts are briefly outlined including treatment methodologies for specific wastes. The commissioning and operational experiences using a batch type chemical precipitation plant appropriate for the volume of liquid wastes generated in the country is also presented. Data on radioactive waste arisings from 1980 are also presented including anticipated or projected wastes arisings should the repair of the PRR-1 (Philippine Research Reactor-1) research reactor be completed. The government initiatives towards the organizational development of a centralized waste management facility for low level wastes are also discussed. The formulation and adoption of a waste acceptance criteria and the R and D activities on various treatment procedures are also described. The current activities of the PNRI, as the lead agency in two important areas, one of which is in radioactive waste management, will be reported. National, regional and international cooperation in radioactive waste management will also be presented

  3. Evaluation of dry-solids-blend material source for grouts containing 106-AN waste: September 1990 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Osborne, S.C.; Francis, C.L.; Scott, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    Stabilization/solidification (S/S) is the most widely used technology for the treatment and ultimate disposal of both radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes. Such technology is being utilized in a Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the disposal of various wastes, including 106-AN wastes, located on the Hanford Reservation. The WHC personnel have developed a grout formula for 106-AN disposal that is designed to meet stringent performance requirements. This formula consists of a dry-solids blend containing 40 wt % limestone, 28 wt % granulated blast furnace slag (BFS), 28 wt % ASTM Class F fly ash, and 4 wt % Type I-II-LA Portland cement. The blend is mixed with 106-AN waste at a ratio of 9 lb of dry-solids blend per gallon of waste. This report documents progress made to date on efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of WHC's Grout Technology Program to assess the effects of the source of the dry-solids-blend materials on the resulting grout formula

  4. Overview - Defense Waste Processing Facility Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility. Radioactive operations began in March 1996 and over 1,000 canisters have been produced. This paper presents an overview of the DWPF process and a summary of recent facility operations and process improvements. These process improvements include efforts to extend the life of the DWPF melter, projects to increase facility throughput, initiatives to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated, improved remote decontamination capabilities, and improvements to remote canyon equipment to extend equipment life span. This paper also includes a review of a melt rate improvement program conducted by Savannah River Technology Center personnel. This program involved identifying the factors that impacted melt rate, conducting small scale testing of proposed process changes and developing a cost effective implementation plan

  5. Experiences in the treatment of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-04-01

    Low and medium level wastes have been routinely treated for many years at the technical scale with good success and processed to products safe for final storage so that inadmissible contamination of the environment whatsoever has not occurred. In the majority of cases the maximum permissible values were not reached by far. The treatment of highly active and ..cap alpha..-wastes has not yet been demonstrated at the technical scale because these accumulate to a larger extent only in a further developed nuclear technology. The methods developed for this have proved their feasibility and reached such a degree of maturity that it can be assumed that they will be available to the extent and at the time given by the general development of nuclear technology.

  6. Experiences in the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1977-01-01

    Low and medium level wastes have been routinely treated for many years at the technical scale with good success and processed to products safe for final storage so that inadmissible contamination of the environment whatsoever has not occurred. In the majority of cases the maximum permissible values were not reached by far. The treatment of highly active and α-wastes has not yet been demonstrated at the technical scale because these accumulate to a larger extent only in a further developed nuclear technology. The methods developed for this have proved their feasibility and reached such a degree of maturity that it can be assumed that they will be available to the extent and at the time given by the general development of nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  7. Engineering spray-dried rosemary extracts with improved physicomechanical properties: a design of experiments issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza T. Chaul

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 33 Box–Behnken design and Response Surface Methodology were performed to evaluate the influence of extract feed rate, drying air inlet temperature and spray nozzle airflow rate on the process yield, stability parameters (moisture content and water activity and on several physicomechanical properties of spray-dried rosemary extracts. Powder yield ranged from 17.1 to 74.96%. The spray-dried rosemary extracts showed moisture content and water activity below 5% and 0.5%, respectively, which indicate their chemical and microbiological stabilities. Even without using drying aids, some sets of experimental conditions rendered dried products with suitable flowability and compressibility characteristics for direct preparation of solid dosage forms. Analysis of variance and Response Surface Methodology proved that studied factors significantly affected most of the spray-dried rosemary extract quality indicators at different levels. The main processing parameter affecting the spray-dried rosemary extract characteristics was inlet temperature. The best combination of parameters used to obtain a reasonable yield of stable dry rosemary extracts with adequate technological properties for pharmaceutical purpose involves an extract feed rate of 2 ml/min, 80 °C inlet temperature and 40 l/min SA. The design of experiments approach is an interesting strategy for engineering spray-dried rosemary extracts with improved characteristics for pharmaceutical industrial purpose.

  8. Operational experience acquired in radioactive waste compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, S.; Mohr, P.; Hempelmann, W.

    1993-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste scrapping facility in the KfK decontamination division was commissioned in 1983. Non-combustible residues and removed system components of low activity, but which are to be handled and disposed of as radioactive waste are in drums, casks or containers delivered to the facility. The waste usually undergoes pretreatment in a crusher, with the volume being definitively reduced at a pressure of 690 bar in the high-pressure compactor. In 1990, the overhead-crane was refurbished for remote control handling in the scrapping caisson. The parts to undergo scrapping are unpacked in the material lock, and then go into the scrapping caisson. It is possible to use here various mechanical and thermal methods to dismantle the respective parts. But most of the parts to undergo scrapping are such as that it is possible to directly pretreat them in the crusher. The obtained scrap is loaded into 180-liter drums. Most of the machinery in the caisson is manually operated. The operating crew enters the caisson in fully ventilated protective overalls. The drums filled with the scrap then go to the high-pressure compactor in the caisson. The compacts are temporarily stored, until recalled depending on their height and filled into drums such as that optimal drum filling is guaranteed

  9. JET experience on managing radioactive waste and implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Stephen, E-mail: Stephen.reynolds@ccfe.ac.uk [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE/Power and Active Operations Department, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Newman, Mark; Coombs, Dave; Witts, David [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE/Power and Active Operations Department, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We describe the current waste management structure and processes in place for managing radioactive waste generated as part of JET operations. • We detail the key lessons to be learnt for future fusion experiments and specifically ITER. • Early involvement of specialist waste management advisors and representatives are recommended. • Implementation of a complete integrated electronic waste tracking system will streamline the waste management process. - Abstract: The reduced radiotoxicity and half-life of radioactive waste arisings from nuclear fusion reactors as compared to current fission reactors is one of the key benefits of nuclear fusion. As a result of the research programme at the Joint European Torus (JET), significant experience on the management of radioactive waste has been gained which will be of benefit to ITER and the nuclear fusion community. The successful management of radioactive waste is dependent on accurate and efficient tracking and characterisation of waste streams. To accomplish this all items at JET which are removed from radiological areas are identified and pre-characterised, by recording the radiological history, before being removed from or moved between radiological areas. This system ensures a history of each item is available when it is finally consigned as radioactive waste and also allows detailed forecasting of future arisings. All radioactive waste generated as part of JET operations is transferred to dedicated, on-site, handling facilities for further sorting, sampling and final streaming for off-site disposal. Tritium extraction techniques including leaching, combustion and thermal treatment followed by liquid scintillation counting are used to determine tritium content. Recent changes to government legislation and Culham specific disposal permit conditions have allowed CCFE to adopt additional disposal routes for fusion wastes requiring new treatment and analysis techniques. Facilities currently under

  10. Spanish experience in managing low and intermediate activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Spanish experience in management of low and intermediated level radioactive wastes is presented. The radioactive wastes stored come from research reactors, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle, scientific research, radiodiagnostic and medical applications. The commonest method is incorporation in cement inside special drums, even though some facilities use processes based on urea formal dehyde and on asphalt. Transport of the wastes is carried out by private undertakings and the Nuclear Energy Board. The sites used for storing are temporary in nature. The wastes produced by nuclear power plants are stored on site, with those processed by the Nuclear Energy Board are taken to a province of Cordoba. The National Company ENRESA for managing of all kinds of wastes was created. The Spanish legislation on this subject and the research being carried out by Spain itself and in cooperation with other States, are described. (Author) [pt

  11. Dry storage developments in France build on CASCAD experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, C.; Giraud, C.

    1992-01-01

    The CASCAD dry store, located at CEA's research centre at Cadarache, stores spent fuel from the EL4 heavy water reactor and the Osiris research reactor. The design was based on the following criteria: Storage period. Interim storage is provided for 50 years. Containment. The fuel is contained by a multiple barrier system consisting of: the fuel canister (primary barrier); the sealed stainless steel storage well; and the storage building which includes a ventilation system to provide dynamic containment during handling operations. The fuel is loaded into canisters at the reactor site to avoid contamination in the storage building. The integrity of the primary barrier is periodically monitored by sampling of air from the storage well. Cooling. The storage wells are cooled by a natural convection system that maintains the temperature of the fuel below its stated limit and the temperature of the concrete below 80 o C. Criticality. Criticality incidents are prevented by static design measures such as maintaining a minimum pitch between storage wells and providing sufficient storage well diameter. Radiation protection. Radiation shielding limits the maximum equivalent dose rate for operating personnel to less than 25μSv/h at the handling cell floor and the wall adjoining the control room, and to less than 7.5μSv/h at the outside walls of the storage building. Cannister design. The canister must resist corrosion caused by condensation as well as pressure due to radiolytic gases. The canister must also withstand a drop of up to 10m without losing its integrity. The design has now been adapted to accommodate light reactor fuels and is known as CASCAD+. (Author)

  12. Preliminary experiments on wastes degradation by thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cota S, G.; Pacheco S, J.; Segovia R, A.; Pena E, R.; Merlo S, L.

    1996-01-01

    This work presents the fundamental aspects involved in the installation and start up of an experimental equipment for the hazardous wastes degradation using the thermal plasma technology. It is mentioned about the form in which the thermal plasma is generated and the characteristics that its make to be an appropriate technology for the hazardous wastes degradation. Just as the installed structures for to realize the experiments and results of the first studies on degradation, using nylon as problem sample. (Author)

  13. Guide Of Treatment On Noxious Waste Of Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-05-15

    This book deals with environmental safe management and smooth driving of facilities, which indicates purpose of this guide, responsibility of environmental safe management, division of collect of starting point treatment, batch processing system, treatment of noxious waste of experiment, regulation of harmful waste such as medicine, corrosivity liquid, and treatment of cleaning solution of chrome-sulfuric acid, and regulation of Kyungpook National University Department Environmental Engineering Research Center, environmental protection law and the other related law.

  14. Guide Of Treatment On Noxious Waste Of Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    This book deals with environmental safe management and smooth driving of facilities, which indicates purpose of this guide, responsibility of environmental safe management, division of collect of starting point treatment, batch processing system, treatment of noxious waste of experiment, regulation of harmful waste such as medicine, corrosivity liquid, and treatment of cleaning solution of chrome-sulfuric acid, and regulation of Kyungpook National University Department Environmental Engineering Research Center, environmental protection law and the other related law.

  15. Cobra-TF simulation of BWR bundle dry out experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frepoli, C.; Ireland, A.; Hochreiter, L.; Ivanov, K. [Penn State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA (United States); Velten, R. [Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The COBRA-TF computer code uses a two-fluid, three-field and three-dimensional formulation to model a two-phase flow field in a specific geometry. The liquid phase is divided in a continuous liquid field and a separate dispersed field, which is used to describe the entrained liquid drops. For each space dimension, the code solves three momentum equations, three mass conservation equations and two energy conservation equations. Entrainment and depositions models are implemented into the code to model the mass transfer between the two liquid fields. This study presents the results obtained with COBRA-TF for the simulation of the Siemens 9-9Q BWR Bundle Dryout experiments. The model includes 20 channels and 34 axial nodes in the heated section. The predicted critical power and dryout location is compared with the measured values. An assessment of the code entrainment and de-entrainment models is presented. (authors)

  16. Experiences with waste incineration for energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus; Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits

    The Bioenergy Department in SENER have requested assistance with planning for the deployment of bioenergy (Biomass, biogas and waste incineration) in Mexico and information on Danish experiences with developing policy initiatives promoting bioenergy. This introduction to the Danish experiences...... with waste incineration for energy production use is compiled as preparation for SENER’s potential visit to Denmark in 2014. This report was prepared 19 June, 2014 by COWI DTU System Analysis to Danish Energy Agency (DEA) as part of a frame contract agreement....

  17. Buried for ever. The US experience of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, Marvin.

    1987-01-01

    The United States is the largest producer of radioactive wastes and has considerable experience, not all good, of shallow disposal methods for low level wastes. Indeed, as a result of leakage and contamination, three sites have been closed down and there is concern over another site, at Barnwell in South Carolina. This chapter analyses the geological and technical problems of each of the sites from the viewpoint of the environmental pressure group, the Sienna Club. The sites are at Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Sheffield, Illinois; West Valley, New York; Barnwell; Richland, Washington and Beatly, Nevada. The problems have been those situated in the humid, northern regions where there has been excessive ground water, degradation of waste containers, subsidence and erosion, the presence of chelating agents and a lack of stabilisation and funding for long-term care. In the semi-arid western sites the problems are fewer. However, the cost of transporting the waste to them is high. It is suggested that some of the low-level wastes should be reclassified as high-level wastes and should be disposed of deep underground. (UK)

  18. Research, development and experience of radioactive waste management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, I.; Imai, K.; Araki, K.

    1983-01-01

    Research, development and experience of radioactive wastes are presented in this paper. A total of about 330,000 drums of conditioned radioactive wastes arising from nuclear power plants such as low- and intermediate-level wastes (LLW) have been stored on-site. LLW from research activities and alpha-contaminated wastes (α-wastes) from the PNC Post-Irradiation Examination Facility for Experimental FBR Spent Fuel and Material have also been conditioned and stored in JAERI. Pilot-scale plants have been developed by JAERI and Tokyo Electric Co. for both plastic immobilization and wet oxidation of organic wastes with Fe(II) - H 2 O 2 . For the treatment of α-wastes, techniques such as incineration, acid digestion, electroslag melting and solidification into ceramics have been developed and will be demonstrated in the PNC Pu-contaminated Waste Treatment Facility in 1983. The safety evaluation of LLW for ocean dumping has been carried out with high pressure leaching test apparatus by JAERI and in sea site tests including the recovery of cold samples. A test facility for shallow-land disposal will be constructed by 1983. About 120 tonnes of LWR spent fuels have been reprocessed at the PNC Reprocessing Plant at Tokai since 1977 and, as a result, approximately 110 m 3 of HLW have been generated and stored in tanks. R and D efforts on HLW management have been performed on the basis of the policy established by the Japan Atomic Energy Commission. Vitrification technology has been developed since 1976 in a combination of cold laboratory tests, cold engineering tests and hot laboratory tests. The Vitrification Pilot Plant is planned for construction in the late 1980s. Surveys of potential geological formations for disposal and the development of engineered barriers and of repository systems are under way in PNC

  19. AECL experience with low-level radioactive waste technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-08-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), as the Canadian government agency responsible for research and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has had experience in handling a wide variety of radioactive wastes for over 40 years. Low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is generated in Canada from nuclear fuel manufacturers and nuclear power facilities, from medical and industrial uses of radioisotopes and from research facilities. The technologies with which AECL has strength lie in the areas of processing, storage, disposal and safety assessment of LLRW. While compaction and incineration are the predominant methods practised for solid wastes, purification techniques and volume reduction methods are used for liquid wastes. The methods for processing continue to be developed to improve and increase the efficiency of operation and to accommodate the transition from storage of the waste to disposal. Site-specific studies and planning for a LLRW disposal repository to replace current storage facilities are well underway with in-service operation to begin in 1991. The waste will be disposed of in an intrusion-resistant underground structure designed to have a service life of over 500 years. Beyond this period of time the radioactivity in the waste will have decayed to innocuous levels. Safety assessments of LLRW disposal are performed with the aid of a series of interconnected mathematical models developed at Chalk River specifically to predict the movement of radionuclides through and away from the repository after its closure and the subsequent health effects of the released radionuclides on the public. The various technologies for dealing with radioactive wastes from their creation to disposal will be discussed. 14 refs

  20. Dry spent fuel storage experience at overseas nuclear stations focus USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, T. L.; Kumar, S.; Marcelli, D. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of US dry spent fuel storage experience, including application of this experience outside the United States. Background information on the US nuclear and spent fuel storage industry is provided as a basis for discussing the various types of options and systems available. An overview of technology options is presented, including systems being used and/or considered by the US government and private sector, as well as a discussion of overall system design, licensing and operation. Factors involved in selecting the best available technology option for a specific site or group of sites are presented, along with a typical timeline for project implementation. Cross-geographical use of technologies under different regulatory and technological regimes is also discussed. The paper concludes that dry storage is safe and reliable based on a successful ten year period. The information presented may be considered for use in the development of dry spent fuel storage in Korea and other countries. (author)

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated RH TRU waste experiments: Data and interpretation pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Argueello, G.J.; Beraun, R.

    1993-04-01

    The simulated, i.e., nonradioactive remote-handled transuranic waste (RH TRU) experiments being conducted underground in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were emplaced in mid-1986 and have been in heated test operation since 9/23/86. These experiments involve the in situ, waste package performance testing of eight full-size, reference RH TRU containers emplaced in horizontal, unlined test holes in the rock salt ribs (walls) of WIPP Room T. All of the test containers have internal electrical heaters; four of the test emplacements were filled with bentonite and silica sand backfill materials. We designed test conditions to be ''near-reference'' with respect to anticipated thermal outputs of RH TRU canisters and their geometrical spacing or layout in WIPP repository rooms, with RH TRU waste reference conditions current as of the start date of this test program. We also conducted some thermal overtest evaluations. This paper provides a: detailed test overview; comprehensive data update for the first 5 years of test operations; summary of experiment observations; initial data interpretations; and, several status; experimental objectives -- how these tests support WIPP TRU waste acceptance, performance assessment studies, underground operations, and the overall WIPP mission; and, in situ performance evaluations of RH TRU waste package materials plus design details and options. We provide instrument data and results for in situ waste container and borehole temperatures, pressures exerted on test containers through the backfill materials, and vertical and horizontal borehole-closure measurements and rates. The effects of heat on borehole closure, fracturing, and near-field materials (metals, backfills, rock salt, and intruding brine) interactions were closely monitored and are summarized, as are assorted test observations. Predictive 3-dimensional thermal and structural modeling studies of borehole and room closures and temperature fields were also performed

  2. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at ∼40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations

  3. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  4. Sound propagation in dry granular materials : discrete element simulations, theory, and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study sound wave propagation through different types of dry confined granular systems is studied. With three-dimensional discrete element simulations, theory and experiments, the influence of several micro-scale properties: friction, dissipation, particle rotation, and contact disorder, on

  5. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH 4 + and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  6. Evaluation of dried bread waste as feedstuff for growing crossbred pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the effect of bread waste feeding on feed intake, utilization and growth performance of crossbred pigs and to evaluate the economics of bread waste feeding. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for a period of 3 months (December, 2012-March, 2013. Large White Yorkshire crosses (LWY X Desi were included in the study. A total of 24 weaned crossbred growing pigs were randomly assigned to four different groups, with six animals in each group. The experimental animals were fed as per their body weight following Indian Council of Agricultural Research requirements. They were fed twice a day according to schedule at 9:00 am and 3:00 pm. The water was kept available to animals round the clock. The cost of the experimental diets was calculated based on the existing price of the ingredients during the experimental period. Samples of feed were collected for analysis of proximate principles as per Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Body weight of all animals was recorded fortnightly basis in the morning before feeding with the use of platform type electronic weighing balance. Feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein conversion ration was calculated by using a standard formula. Data were analyzed, using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Means showing significant differences in the ANOVA table were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. Results: Crude protein content (% of the diets was 16.01±0.02, 16.13±0.02, 16.14±0.02, 16.04±0.02, 16.08±0.02 and 12.72±0.03, respectively for the G1, G2, G3 and G4, groups. Proximate compositions (% of diets used in the experiment were not significantly different. Digestibility coefficients of all the nutrients were significantly varied among the experimental groups. Daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05 varied among the groups. Average daily gain (kg/pig/day were significantly (p<0.01 higher in group G2 (0.377. FCR was significantly (p<0.01 higher in the

  7. Drying and incineration of wastewater sludge. Experiences and perspectives based on the development in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, N.; Bruus, J.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the recent development within sludge disposal in Denmark, where the traditional disposal for agricultural use has changed to other disposal routes. One of the main routes is the thermal treatment, drying and/or incineration. The great majority of WWTP's in Denmark are small and middle-sized plants, which is why these plants are in focus. Drying and incineration concepts adapted to this size of plants have been developed, and the experience has shown that these concepts are sustainable in all main respects, i.e. energy utilisation, environment, operation etc. (author)

  8. Experience with radioactive waste incineration at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, V.T.; Beamer, N.V.; Buckley, L.P.

    1988-06-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories is a nuclear research centre operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. A full-scale waste treatment centre has been constructed to process low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes generated on-site. A batch-loaded, two-stage, starved-air incinerator for solid combustible waste is one of the processes installed in this facility. The incinerator has been operating since 1982. It has consistently reduced combustible wastes to an inert ash product, with an average volume reduction factor of about 150:1. The incinerator ash is stored in 200 L drums awaiting solidification in bitumen. The incinerator and a 50-ton hydraulic baler have provided treatment for a combined volume of about 1300 m 3 /a of solid low-level radioactive waste. This paper presents a review of the performance of the incinerator during its six years of operation. In addition to presenting operational experience, an assessment of the starved-air incineration technique will also be discussed

  9. Reduction experiment of iron scale by adding waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    The special features of waste plastics in China are huge in total amount, various in type and dispersive in deposition. Therefore, it is necessary to try some new ways that are fit to Chinese situation for disposing waste plastics as metallurgical raw materials more effectively and flexibly. Owing to its high ferrous content and less impurity, the iron scale became ideal raw material to produce pure iron powder. One of the methods to produce pure iron powder is Hoganas Method, by which, after one or multistage of reduction steps, the iron scale can be reduced pure iron powder. However, combining utilization of waste plastics and iron powder production, a series of reduction experiments were arranged and investigated, which is hoped to take use of both thermal and chemical energy contained in waste plastics as well as to improve the reducing condition of iron scale, and hence to develop a new metallurgical way of disposing waste plastics. The results show that under these experimental conditions, the thermal-decomposition of water plastics can conduce to an increase of porosity in the reduction systems. Moreover, better thermodynamics and kinetics conditions for the reduction of scale can be reached. As a result, the reduction rate is increased.

  10. Buried for ever: The US experience of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, M.

    1987-01-01

    The United States is the largest producer of radioactive wastes, and has considerable experience with shallow disposal methods. This experience is mixed, with major problems of leakage and contamination occurring in those sites in the wetter eastern part of the country. As a result three sites have been closed down, and there is concern about the potential hazards at the remaining eastern site at Barnwell, South Carolina. This paper, written from the perspective of the national environmental pressure group, the Sierra Club, analyses the geological and technical problems at each of the sites, and suggests the lessons that can be learned from this experience

  11. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Björn; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-01-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations.

  12. Emissions from small-scale energy production using co-combustion of biofuel and the dry fraction of household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Bjoern; Burvall, Jan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-01-01

    In sparsely populated rural areas, recycling of household waste might not always be the most environmentally advantageous solution due to the total amount of transport involved. In this study, an alternative approach to recycling has been tested using efficient small-scale biofuel boilers for co-combustion of biofuel and high-energy waste. The dry combustible fraction of source-sorted household waste was mixed with the energy crop reed canary-grass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.), and combusted in both a 5-kW pilot scale reactor and a biofuel boiler with 140-180 kW output capacity, in the form of pellets and briquettes, respectively. The chlorine content of the waste fraction was 0.2%, most of which originated from plastics. The HCl emissions exceeded levels stipulated in new EU-directives, but levels of equal magnitude were also generated from combustion of the pure biofuel. Addition of waste to the biofuel did not give any apparent increase in emissions of organic compounds. Dioxin levels were close to stipulated limits. With further refinement of combustion equipment, small-scale co-combustion systems have the potential to comply with emission regulations

  13. ISOLATION OF ENT-KAUR-16-EN-19-OIC AND ENT-TRACHILOBAN-19-OIC ACIDS FROM THE SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.DRY WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicon Ungur

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple method for isolation of the mixture of ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic (1 and ent-trachiloban-19-oic (2 acids from dry waste of sunflower processing has been elaborated, and it has been shown that the waste can serve as an accessible source of ent-kauranic and ent-trachilobanic diterpenoids.

  14. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS -1 ), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS -1 ) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Co-combustion of low rank coal/waste biomass blends using dry air or oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass species such as the rice husk and the olive milling residue, and a low quality Turkish coal, Soma Denis lignite, were burned in a thermal analyzer under pure oxygen and dry air up to 900 °C, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) analysis profiles were obtained. Co-combustion experiments of lignite/biomass blends containing 5–20 wt% of biomass were also performed. The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio of biomass were evaluated considering some thermal reactivity indicators such as the maximum burning rate and its temperature, the maximum heat flow temperature, and the burnout levels. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to characterize the samples, and the variations in the combustion characteristics of the samples were interpreted based on the differences in the intrinsic properties of the samples. - Highlights: ► Co-combustion of lignite/biomass blends. ► The effects of the oxidizer type and the blending ratio. ► Effects of intrinsic properties on combustion characteristics.

  16. Using mixture experiments to develop cementitious waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Anderson, C.M.; Piepel, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Mixture experiments are presented as a means to develop cementitious waste forms. The steps of a mixture experiment are (1) identifying the waste form ingredients; (2) determining the compositional constraints of these ingredients; (3) determining the extreme vertices, edge midpoints, and face centroids of the constrained multidimensional volume (these points along with some interior points represent the set of possible compositions for testing); (4) picking a subset of these points for the experimental design; (5) measuring the properties of the selected subset; and (6) generating the response surface models. The models provide a means for predicting the properties within the constrained region. This article presents an example of this process for one property: unconfined compressive strength

  17. Experiences in the emptying of waste silos containing solid nuclear waste from graphite- moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2003-01-01

    difference in the two streams lays in the chosen retrieval technology, reflecting the different problems involved. The most significant differences in the retrieval solutions are; - MAC recovery is achieved with a hydraulic Artisan manipulator arm deployed through a series of new access points in the vault roof; - FED recovery utilizes two retrieval units which deploy petal grabs through tubes originally connected to the waste discharge conveyors. The waste is then transported for further treatment including monitoring, packing, lid and grouting fitting, box filling and swabbing of the boxes to eliminate external contamination. This poster session discusses the experiences made with the retrieval and emptying of graphite containing nuclear waste silos

  18. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  19. VUJE experience with cementation of liquid and wet radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravarik, Kamil; Holicka, Zuzana; Pekar, Anton; Zatkulak, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid and wet LLW generated during operation as well as decommissioning of NPPs is treated with different methods and fixed in a suitable fixation matrix so that a final product meets required criteria for its disposal in a final repository. Cementation is an important process used for fixation of liquid and wet radioactive waste such as concentrate, spent resins and sludge. Active cement grout is also used for fixation of low level solid radioactive waste loaded in final packing containers. VUJE Inc. has been engaged in research of cementation for long. The laboratory for analyzing radioactive waste properties, prescription of cementation formulation and estimation of final cement product properties has been established. Experimental, semi-production cementation plant has been built to optimize operation parameters of cementation. VUJE experience with cementation of liquid and wet LLW is described in the presented paper. VUJE has assisted in commissioning of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. Cement formulations for treatment of concentrate, spent resins and sludge have been developed. Research studies on the stability of a final concrete packaging container for disposal in repository have been performed. Gained experience has been further utilized for design and manufacture of several cementation plants for treatment of various liquid and wet LLW. Their main technological and technical parameters as well as characterization of treated waste are described in the paper. Applications include the Mochovce Final Treatment Centre, Movable Cementation Facility utilizing in-drum mixing for treatment of sludge, Cementation Facility for treatment of tritiated water in Latvia and Cementation Facility for fixation of liquid and solid institutional radioactive waste in Bulgaria, which utilizes lost stirrer mixer. (author)

  20. Biomethanization of tannery waste: An industrial experiment: Demonstration project. Biomethanisation de residus de tannerie: Une experience industrielle: Projet de demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloy, M.; Mermet, R.; Sanejouand, J.

    1988-01-01

    The tanning and leather dressing industry produces large amounts of waste products including which can be placed in three categories: unrtanned waste, tanned waste, and liquid waste. Both untanned and liquid waste have a high organic content (proteins and fats) and their humidity levels are such that they are readily degraded by methanic fermentation. The results of the experiments confirm the technical feasibility of the project and indicate the economic limits of this type of plant. 14 figs.

  1. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  2. Stream-simulation experiments for waste-repository investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration by groundwater flow from a breached-water repository depends on the leaching process and on chemical changes that might occur as the radionuclide moves away from the repository. Therefore, migration involves the interactions of leached species with (1) the waste and canister, (2) the engineered barrier, and (3) the geologic materials surrounding the repository. Rather than attempt to synthesize each species and study it individually, another approach is to integrate all species and interactions using stream-simulation experiments. Interactions identified in these studies can then be investigated in detail in simpler experiments

  3. The postirradiation examination of the DC [Dry Capsule] melt dynamics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, C.P.; Hitchcock, J.T.

    1988-07-01

    The Dry Capsule experiment series investigates the coolability of dry fast reactor core debris through nuclear heating of actual reactor materials in order to obtain the thermal properties of dry debris, the nature of the transition from a debris bed to a molten pool, and the thermal and kinetic behavior of molten pools. The purpose is to develop a data base in support of model development. The work is jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC, Japan), and Joint Research Centre, Ispra (EURATOM). This report provides a brief description of the two experiments in the Dry Capsule series and presents the results of the postirradiation examination. These tests investigated dry debris beds (/approximately/2kg) composed of pure UO 2 and mixed UO 2 and stainless steel. The beds were taken into melt to observe the growth of a molten pool in the UO 2 bed and the agglomeration and migration of steel in a composite bed. The peak measured temperature in the UO 2 bed was above 3100/degree/C. Approximately 50 percent of the urania formed a molten pool. Surrounding the molten pool and an overlying void was a high density urania crust. Lenticular pore formation and migration caused by urania vapor transport in the strong thermal gradient were seen in the urania crust. In the mixed UO 2 and steel bed, the peak measured temperature was 2600/degree/ C. All of the steel had been molten. Steel and urania migration were observed; both were thought to be caused by vapor transport mechanisms

  4. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  5. Radioactive waste management in Sweden experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikstroem, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since some years, the necessary facilities are in operation in Sweden for the safe transport and storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel from nuclear power production. These include a final repository, SFR, for short-lived low and intermediate level waste, a central interim storage facility, CLAB, for spent fuel and a sea-based transport system. The experiences from the operation of these facilities have generally been very good. The next step is the development of an encapsulation facility and a deep repository for the spent nuclear fuel. R and D-work on direct disposal have been conducted in Sweden for more than 20 years. In the preferred method the spent fuel will be encapsulated in a copper canister with a steel internal structure, and the canister will then be disposed of at about 500 metres depth in the Swedish bedrock. The siting and design of the encapsulation facility and the deep repository is now in progress. (author)

  6. Savannah River Site Operating Experience with Transuranic (TRU) Waste Retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.A.; Milner, T.N.

    2006-01-01

    Drums of TRU Waste have been stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) on concrete pads from the 1970's through the 1980's. These drums were subsequently covered with tarpaulins and then mounded over with dirt. Between 1996 and 2000 SRS ran a successful retrieval campaign and removed some 8,800 drums, which were then available for venting and characterization for WIPP disposal. Additionally, a number of TRU Waste drums, which were higher in activity, were stored in concrete culverts, as required by the Safety Analysis for the Facility. Retrieval of drums from these culverts has been ongoing since 2002. This paper will describe the operating experience and lessons learned from the SRS retrieval activities. (authors)

  7. Leaching experiment of cement solidified waste form under unsaturated condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Yao Laigen; Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Cai Yun; Li Dan; Han Xinsheng; An Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    A device for unsaturated leaching experiments was designed and built up. 8 different sizes, ranging from 40.2 cm 3 to 16945.5 cm 3 , of solidified waste form were tested in the experiment. 5 different water contents, from 0.15 to 0.40, were used for the experiment. The results show that the cumulative leaching fraction increases with water content when the sizes of the forms are equal to and less than 4586.7 cm 3 , for example, the ratios of the cumulative leaching fractions are between 1.24-1.41 under water content of 0.35 and 0.15 on 360 day of Teaching. It can also be seen that the cumulative leaching fraction under higher water content is close to that under saturated condition. The cumulative leaching fraction decreases with size of the form. Maximum leached depth of the solidified waste forms is about 2.25 cm after one year Teaching. Moreover, it has no clear effect on cumulative leaching fraction that sampling or non-sampling during the experiment

  8. An assessment of radioactivity level in 51Cr-contaminated dry solid waste generated from a research facility for verification of clearance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Ono, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from research laboratories and other facilities is regulated by the Law Concerning Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes etc. (Prevention Law). However, the Prevention Law does not provide the level of clearance or the procedures to follow for compliance monitoring. To assess radioactivity amounts for making decisions about clearance levels, the radioactivity levels in dry solid semi-combustible wastes generated from biomedical research, such as 51 Cr-release assays, were measured and evaluated. Radioactivity of semi-combustible waste was 1.42-6.32% of the initial level. In comparison, records for the past 8 years in the Shikata Laboratory, Department of Radiation Research, Okayama University Advanced Science Research Center, indicated 7% to 90% of the initial radioactivity remained in the waste and was differed widely among researchers. This study determined an accurate radioactivity level in dry solid waste, which could lead to savings in disposal costs. (author)

  9. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-01-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene,...

  10. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of dry barriers for containment and remediation at waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, B.M.; Morris, C.E.; Ankeny, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a concept in which dry air is injected into an unsaturated formation to reduce the soil moisture content, referred to here as a dry (or sometimes tensiometric) barrier. The objective is to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the unsaturated media to the point where liquid phase transport becomes negligible, thereby achieving containment. The concept could be applied in subsurface formations to provide containment from a leaking facility, or it could be incorporated into a cover design to provide redundancy for a capillary barrier. The air injection process could in principle be coupled with a vacuum extraction system to recover soil vapors, which would then provide a remediation process that would be appropriate if volatile organic compounds were present. Work to date has consisted of a combined theoretical, laboratory, and field research investigation. The objective of this research was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the dry barrier concept by identifying the parameters which determine its effectiveness. Based on the results obtained for the experimental and theoretical studies, feasibility analyses were prepared for as a modification for a landfill cover design to prevent infiltration from atmospheric precipitation and for potential application of dry barriers to achieve subsurface containment and removal of volatile constituents. These analyses considered the technical as well as the economic aspects of the dry barrier concept

  12. Repository-analog experiments of nuclear waste leaching and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for radionuclide migration from a breached nuclear-waste repository depends on the leaching and subsequent interaction of the leached radionuclides with materials in the groundwater flow path. An attempt is made to consider all interactions using experiments that integrate repository materials. Results of a repository-analog experiment using borosilicate glass, fissured granite, and flowing water suggest: (1) plutonium was immobile possibly because of its low solubility; (2) caesium migrated down slowly because of sorption; and (3) neptunium remained oxidized even in water of low oxidation potential. By summing the effects of all interactions, not just sorption, the repository-analog experiment produced radionuclide migration that could be expected from a breached repository. (author)

  13. Solidification of hesperidin nanosuspension by spray drying optimized by design of experiment (DoE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qionghua; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2018-01-01

    To accelerate the determination of optimal spray drying parameters, a "Design of Experiment" (DoE) software was applied to produce well redispersible hesperidin nanocrystals. For final solid dosage forms, aqueous liquid nanosuspensions need to be solidified, whereas spray drying is a large-scale cost-effective industrial process. A nanosuspension with 18% (w/w) of hesperidin stabilized by 1% (w/w) of poloxamer 188 was produced by wet bead milling. The sizes of original and redispersed spray-dried nanosuspensions were determined by laser diffractometry (LD) and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and used as effect parameters. In addition, light microscopy was performed to judge the redispersion quality. After a two-step design of MODDE 9, screening model and response surface model (RSM), the inlet temperature of spray dryer and the concentration of protectant (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP K25) were identified as the most important factors affecting the redispersion of nanocrystals. As predicted in the RSM modeling, when 5% (w/w) of PVP K25 was added in an 18% (w/w) of hesperidin nanosuspension, subsequently spray-dried at an inlet temperature of 100 °C, well redispersed solid nanocrystals with an average particle size of 276 nm were obtained. By the use of PVP K25, the saturation solubility of the redispersed nanocrystals in water was improved to 86.81 µg/ml, about 2.5-fold of the original nanosuspension. In addition, the dissolution velocity was accelerated. This was attributed to the additional effects of steric stabilization on the nanocrystals and solubilization by the PVP polymer from spray drying.

  14. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  15. Dry ripened mortar with quarry waste and rubber powder from unserviceable tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone-quarry fines have been evaluated in mortar and concrete, but have presented drying shrinkage and consequently higher incidence of cracks than those with natural sand. This study compared the dry ripened mortar in two types of aggregates added of 8% rubber powder. It was used quicklime, artificial and natural sand in volumetric proportions of 1:6. Mixtures were oven-dried, received the cement, establishing the volumetric proportion of 1: 1.5:9. Inplastic state, we evaluated aspects such as consistence, air content, water retention and bleeding; whereas compressive strength, static deformation modulus and water absorption by capillarity was determined in hardened state. Cracking aspects were evaluated in substrate. As a result, the mortar with artificial sand showed higher increases in compressive strength, capillarity rate and cracking, and greater reductions in air content and bleeding. As for the rubber powder, exhibited a greater reduction in the cracking rate and capillarity was found.

  16. Natural draught centralized dry store for irradiated fuel and active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Brown, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A modular design is described for the long term dry storage of irradiated fuel and vitrified fission products. The specification set by the Central Electricity Generating Board for the AGR fuel store was that the store should be capable of accommodating the lifetime discharge from 10 AGR reactors (7200 tonnes of irradiated fuel) and be cooled by natural convection. The fuel assemblies should be enclosed in individual steel containers. The store has an area for drying the AGR fuel and containering. The single dry cell storage capacities are, 5 years output from 1300 MWe station stored as fuel elements, or 14 year output from 1300 MWe thermal reactors stored as vitrified fission products. (U.K.)

  17. Drying of residue and separation of nitrate salts in the sludge waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the dissolution process by water and the drying property of residue after separating nitrates in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97% at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue These were decomposed over 600 .deg. C and calcium carbonate, which was consisted mainly of residue, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 .deg. C. The residue have to be decomposed over 800 .deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six value into the stable U 3 O 8 of four value. As a result of removing the nitrates at the water adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 .deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80%

  18. A comparison of costs associated with utility management options for dry active waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, C. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The economics of low level waste management is receiving more attention today than ever before. This is due to four factors: (1) the increases in the cost of processing of these wastes; (2) increases in the cost of disposal; (3) the addition of storage costs for those without access to disposal; and (4) the increasing competitive nature of the electric generation industry. These pressures are forcing the industry to update it`s evaluation of the mix of processing that will afford it the best long term economics and minimize it`s risks for unforeseen costs. Whether disposal is available or not, all utilities face the same challenge of minimizing the costs associated with the management of these wastes. There are a number of variables that will impact how a utility manages their wastes but the problem is the uncertainty of what will actually happen, i.e., will disposal be available, when and at what cost. Using the EPRI-developed WASTECOST: DAW code, this paper explores a variety of LLW management options available to utilities. Along with providing the costs and benefits, other technical considerations which play an important part in the management of these wastes are also addressed.

  19. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments.

  20. Corrosion experiments on stainless steels used in dry storage canisters of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Adams, J.P.; Faw, E.M.; Anderson, P.A.

    1996-09-01

    Nonradioactive (cold) experiments have been set up in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP)-1634, and radioactive (hot) experiments have been set up in the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility (IFSF) at ICPP. The objective of these experiments is to provide information on the interactions (corrosion) between the spent nuclear fuel currently stored at the ICPP and the dry storage canisters and containment materials in which this spent fuel will be stored for the next several decades. This information will be used to help select canister materials that will retain structural integrity over this period within economic, criticality, and other constraints. The two purposes for Dual Purpose Canisters (DPCs) are for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel and for shipment to a final geological repository. Information on how corrosion products, sediments, and degraded spent nuclear fuel may corrode DPCs will be required before the DPCs will be allowed to be shipped out of the State of Idaho. The information will also be required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to support the licensing of DPCs. Stainless steels 304L and 316L are the most likely materials for dry interim storage canisters. Welded stainless steel coupons are used to represent the canisters in both hot and cold experiments

  1. Low-level waste incineration: experience at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohrer, H.A.; Dalton, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) is a low level radioactive waste treatment facility being operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A key component of the facility is a dual chambered controlled air incinerator with a dry off-gas treatment system. The incinerator began processing radioactive waste in September, 1984. Limited operations continued from that data until October, 1985, at which time all INEL generators began shipping combustible waste for incineration. The incinerator is presently processing all available INEL combustible Dry Active Waste (DAW) (approximately 1700 m 3 per year) operating about five days per month. Performance to date has demonstrated the effectiveness, viability and safety of incineration as a volume reduction method of DAW. 3 figures

  2. Possibilities of Mercury Removal in the Dry Flue Gas Cleaning Lines of Solid Waste Incineration Units

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, JAN 15 (2016), s. 499-511 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : waste incineration * mercury removal * flue gas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  3. Dynamics of soil water evaporation during soil drying: laboratory experiment and numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangbo; Zhou, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68 cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71 cm during stage 3.

  4. Dynamics of Soil Water Evaporation during Soil Drying: Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangbo; Zhou, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68 cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71 cm during stage 3. PMID:24489492

  5. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  6. Evaluation of radwaste minimization program of dry and wet active waste in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Garza, Hector

    2001-01-01

    A growing rate of radwaste volume production combined with an increase of both, costs and associated dose involved in its treatment and disposition processes have created a serious problem to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (BWR, two Units, 682 Mwe each) in Mexico. Due the lack of a Final Repository in the country, the solution in the short or long terms relies on the success of a continuous and aggressive minimization program mainly based on modifications and upgrades applied to these processes. Technical and administrative strategies adopted by LVNPP for the reduction of Liquid Effluents and Dry and Wet Active Waste in the next three years are described. Based on the results of the LVNPP current radwaste process systems, an estimated accumulation of 11,502 m 3 by the year 2035 will exceed the actual on-site storage capacity. If the strategies succeed, this production would fall to an expected manageable volume of 4067 m 3 . (author)

  7. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkad, Hardik; Khot, Mahesh; Zinjarde, Smita; RaviKumar, Ameeta; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D

    2015-12-01

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Performance of dry anaerobic technology in the co-digestion of rural organic solid wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianxue; Li, Yingjun; Gao, Jixi; Huang, Caihong; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Lieyu; Wang, Xiaowei; Zhao, Ying; Xi, Beidou; Li, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The dry anaerobic co-digestion of LW (livestock waste), OFHW (organic fraction of household waste), and AR (agricultural residue) was evaluated in terms of pH stability, organic removal rate, and methane yield. The total quantity of the solids involved in the digestion was adjusted to 25%. All the reactors were inoculated by 20% (in dry weight) of the municipal sludge. The dynamic changes in the pH values of the LW-AR-OFHW mixture co-digestions underwent four stages and differed from those of wet anaerobic digestion. The decrease in VS (volatile solids), volume, and weight of the LW-AR-OFHW mixtures was higher than those in AR and OFHW. The VS, volume, and weight reductions in LW-AR-OFHW co-digestion were 54.7%, 82.2%, and 72.7%, respectively. However, the VS, volume, and weight reductions in AR were only 11.1%, 20.5%, and 19.8%, respectively, and those in OFHW were only 27.4%, 45.0%, and 40.9%, respectively. The LW-AR-OFHW mixture co-digestions enhanced the methane production of the co-digester (256 m 3 /ton VS), whereas AR and OFHW produced only 12 and 93 m 3 methane/ton VS, respectively. - Highlights: • The pH values dynamic of LW-AR-OFHW differed from wet anaerobic digestion. • The degradation effect of LW-AR-OFHW was better than those of AR and OFHW. • The LW-AR-OFHW mixture co-digestions enhanced the methane production.

  9. Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the Topaz-2 Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J.; Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Loynstev, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations

  10. Towards zero waste in emerging countries - a South African experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management [DEAT, 2001. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Government of South Africa. Polokwane Declaration. Drafted by Government, Civil Society and the Business Community. National Waste Summit, Polokwane, 26-28 September 2001], which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa.

  11. Electrolysis of polluting wastes: I - Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry

    OpenAIRE

    Angelis, Dejanira F. de; Corso, Carlos R.; Bidoia, Ederio D.; Moraes, Peterson B.; Domingos, Roberto N.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.

    1998-01-01

    Wastewater from a seasoning freeze-drying industry was electrolysed to increase its biodegradability. Stainless-steel electrodes were used at 9.09 A/m², for up to 80 min. Conductivity, pH, biochemical (BOD) and chemical (COD) oxygen demands, Daphnia similis acute toxicity bioassays, and bacteria counting through the plate count agar method were determined after different times of electrolysis. The results (e.g. higher BOD and lower COD) showed that the biodegradability of the wastewater was s...

  12. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Grebenkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  13. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  14. Towards Zero Waste in emerging countries - A South African experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matete, Ntlibi; Trois, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the optimisation of Waste Minimisation/Zero Waste strategies into an already established integrated waste management system and to present a Zero Waste model for post-consumer waste for urban communities in South Africa. The research was undertaken towards the fulfilment of the goals of the Polokwane Declaration on Waste Management , which has set as its target the reduction of waste generation and disposal by 50% and 25%, respectively, by 2012 and the development of a plan for Zero Waste by 2022. Two communities, adjacent to the Mariannhill Landfill site in Durban, were selected as a case study for a comparative analysis of formal and informal settlements. Since the waste generated from these two communities is disposed of at the Mariannhill landfill, the impact of Zero Waste on landfill volumes could be readily assessed. A Zero Waste scheme, based on costs and landfill airspace savings, was proposed for the area. The case study demonstrates that waste minimisation schemes can be introduced into urban areas, in emerging countries, with differing levels of service and that Zero Waste models are appropriate to urban areas in South Africa

  15. Long-term durability experiments with concrete-based waste packages in simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatti, A.

    1993-03-01

    Two extensive experiments on long-term durability of waste packages in simulated repository conditions are described. The first one is a 'half-scale experiment' comprising radioactive waste product and half-scale concrete containers in site specific groundwater conditions. The second one is 'full-scale experiment' including simulated inactive waste product and full-scale concrete container stored in slowly flowing fresh water. The scope of the experiments is to demonstrate long-term behaviour of the designed waste packages in contact with moderately concrete aggressive groundwater, and to evaluate the possible interactions between the waste product, concrete container and ground water. As the waste packages are made of high-quality concrete, provisions have been made to continue the experiments for several years

  16. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Dry storage facility for spent fuel or high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, J.; Dobremelle, M.; Fabre, J.C.; Bonnet, C.

    1989-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has specific irradiated fuels which, due to their properties, cannot be reprocessed directly in existing industrial facilities. Accordingly, for the spent fuels from the EL4 and OSIRIS power plants, the CEA has been faced with the problem of selecting a process that will allow the storage of these materials under satisfactory technical and economic conditions. The authors discuss how three conditions must be satisfied to store irradiated fuels releasing heat: containment of radioactive materials, biological shielding, and thermal cooling to guarantee an acceptable temperature- level throughout. In view of the need for an interim storage facility using a simple cooling process requiring only minimal maintenance and monitoring, dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection was selected. This choice was made within the framework of a research and development program in which theoretical heat transfer investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection

  18. Multi-material classification of dry recyclables from municipal solid waste based on thermal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundupalli, Sathish Paulraj; Hait, Subrata; Thakur, Atul

    2017-12-01

    There has been a significant rise in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the last few decades due to rapid urbanization and industrialization. Due to the lack of source segregation practice, a need for automated segregation of recyclables from MSW exists in the developing countries. This paper reports a thermal imaging based system for classifying useful recyclables from simulated MSW sample. Experimental results have demonstrated the possibility to use thermal imaging technique for classification and a robotic system for sorting of recyclables in a single process step. The reported classification system yields an accuracy in the range of 85-96% and is comparable with the existing single-material recyclable classification techniques. We believe that the reported thermal imaging based system can emerge as a viable and inexpensive large-scale classification-cum-sorting technology in recycling plants for processing MSW in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizing and managing radioactive waste disposal as an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.J.; Emel, J.L.; Kasperson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines organization and management issues engendered by the national program for permanent disposal of commercial radioactive wastes. The description of current organizational and managerial responses to the waste disposal problem serves as a springboard for consideration of the technical, political, and organizational constraints that impinge upon the waste-management effort. Taking these constraints into account, the authors apply ideas that have emerged from previous radioactive waste-management studies and research on organizations, concluding that a change of course is needed. As an alternative, they propose an experimental approach predicated on the waste-management organization's acknowledging uncertainty and constructing responses that seek to reduce uncertainty systematically and without distortion

  20. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagüe, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of sludge was determined over time. Leaching of the bricks was determined according to the NEN 7345 standard. In most cases the addition of sludge produces a decrease in porosity and absorption coefficients and an increase in compressive strength, so one could expect these bricks to have greater durability. As regards leaching pollutants in the bricks, they are below the limit of the Dutch NEN standard for construction materials and thus can be classified as inert material.

    El estudio ha consistido en la utilización de lodo seco de origen biológico de la depuradora de aguas residuales de Sabadell (Riu Sec, como adición en la preparación de adoquines de hormigón prefabricado. Después de caracterizar los lodos y el proceso de fabricación de los adoquines que utilizaremos, definimos las condiciones de adición de los lodos en esta fabricación. Se prepararon muestras de referencia, sin adición, y muestras con el 2 % de lodo seco sobrepeso de cemento. Se determinaron cómo variaban en el tiempo, con la presencia de lodos: la densidad, la porosidad y el coeficiente de absorción, y la resistencia mecánica a compresión de los adoquines. También se determinó la lixiviación que estas piezas presentaban de acuerdo a la norma NEN 7345. La adición de lodos produce, en la mayoría de los casos, una disminución de las porosidades y de los coeficientes de absorción y un aumento en las resistencias mecánicas, por lo que cabe esperar una mayor

  2. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.; Dayal, R.

    1982-01-01

    This program is sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address basic concerns in assessing the performance of solidified radwaste. Experiments were initiated to address these concerns. In particular, leachability of solidified radwastes and the physical stability of the ensuing waste forms were evaluated. In addition, leaching experiments designed to address the effects of alternating wet/dry cycles and of varying the length of these cycles on the leach behavior of waste forms were initiated

  3. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  4. Experience in the upgrading of radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive disposal facility 'Ekores' is designed for waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. Currently 12-20 tons of waste and over 6000 various types spent sources annually come to the 'Ekores'. Total activity in the vaults is evaluated as 352.8 TBq. Approximately 150 000 spent sources disposed of in the vaults and wells have total activity about 1327 TBq. In 1997 the Government initiated a project for the facility reconstruction in order to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing and storage of the waste. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists has been reviewed by IAEA experts. This covers modernising technologies for new coming waste and also that the waste currently disposed in the pits is retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as the new coming waste

  5. Activities in support of licensing Ontario Hydro's Dry Storage Container for radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.M.; Lee, H.P.; Nadeau, E.; Taralis, D.; Sauve, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Dry Storage Container (DSC) is being developed by Ontario Hydro for the on-site storage and possible future transportation of used fuel. The DSC is essentially rectangular in shape with outer dimensions being approximately 3.5 m (H) x 2.1 m (W) x 2.2 m (L) and has a total weight of approximately 68 Mg when loaded with used fuel. The container cavity is designed to accommodate four standard fuel modules (each module contains 96 CANDU fuel bundles). The space between inner and outer steel linear (each about 12.7 mm thick) is filled with high-density reinforced shielding concrete (approximately 500 mm thick). Foam-core steel-lined impact limiters will be fitted around the container during transportation to provide impact protection. In addition, an armour ring will be installed around the flanged closure weld (inside the impact limiter) to provide protection from accidental pin impact. Testing and impact analyses have demonstrated that the DSC was able to withstand a 9 m top corner drop and a 1 m drop onto a cylindrical pin (at the welded containment flange) without compromising the structural integrity of the DSC. Thermal analysis of the DSC during simulated fire accident conditions has shown that at the end of the fire, the exterior wall and interior cavity wall temperatures were 503degC and 78degC, respectively. The maximum fuel sheath temperature predicted was 137degC which was below the maximum allowable temperature for the fuel. The FD-HEAT code used for this analysis was validated through a heat conduction test of an actual DSC wall section. (J.P.N.)

  6. Experience with the EPA manual for waste minimization opportunity assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual (EPA/625/788/003) was published to assist those responsible for managing waste minimization activities at the waste generating facility and at corporate levels. The Manual sets forth a procedure that incorporates technical and managerial principles and motivates people to develop and implement pollution prevention concepts and ideas. Environmental management has increasingly become one of cooperative endeavor whereby whether in government, industry, or other forms of enterprise, the effectiveness with whirl, people work together toward the attainment of a clean environment is largely determined by the ability of those who hold managerial position. This paper offers a description of the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual procedure which supports the waste minimization assessment as a systematic planned procedure with the objective of identifying ways to reduce or eliminate waste generation. The Manual is a management tool that blends science and management principles. The practice of managing waste minimization/pollution prevention makes use of the underlying organized science and engineering knowledge and applies it in the light of realities to gain a desired, practical result. The early stages of EPA's Pollution Prevention Research Program centered on the development of the Manual and its use at a number of facilities within the private and public sectors. This paper identifies a number of case studies and waste minimization opportunity assessment reports that demonstrate the value of using the Manual's approach. Several industry-specific waste minimization assessment manuals have resulted from the Manual's generic approach to waste minimization. There were some modifications to the Manual's generic approach when the waste stream has been other than industrial hazardous waste

  7. Thermal-hydraulic experiment and analysis for interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Hun

    2011-02-01

    The experimental and numerical studies of interim storages for nuclear spent fuels have been performed to investigate thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the dry storage systems and to propose new methodologies for the analysis and the design. Three separate researches have been performed in the present study: (a) Development of a scaling methodology and thermal-hydraulic experiment of a single spent fuel assembly simulating a dry storage cask: (b) Full-scope simulation of a dry storage cask by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code: (c) Thermal-hydraulic design of a tunnel-type interim storage facility. In the first study, a scaling methodology has been developed to design a scaled-down canister. The scaling was performed in two steps. For the first step, the height of a spent fuel assembly was reduced from full height to half height. In order to consider the effect of height reduction on the natural convection, the scaling law of Ishii and Kataoka (1984) was employed. For the second step, the quantity of spent fuel assemblies was reduced from multiple assemblies to a single assembly. The scaling methodology was validated through the comparison with the experiment of the TN24P cask. The Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT), temperature gradients, and the axial and radial temperature distribution in the nondimensional forms were in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the developed methodology, we have performed a single assembly experiment which was designed to simulate the full scale of the TN24P cask. The experimental data was compared with the CFD calculations. It turns out that their PCTs were less than the maximum allowable temperature for the fuel cladding and that the differences of their PCTs were agreed within 3 .deg. C, which was less than measurement uncertainty. In the second study, the full-scope simulations of the TN24P cask were performed by FLUENT. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the numerical and physical

  8. Financing Waste to Wealth Project-Malaysian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nasir Adnan

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, waste were coming from industrial waste, residential waste and others. So, all of these wastes were dumped into landfill and some was treated back for several purposes. All these efforts will need more money to make sure it proceeds. So, this presentation focused on how we can generate back our money from these waste. According to statistics, more than 95 % waste will go to landfills and only 5 % was recycled. 47 % were organic waste, 15 % paper, 14 % plastics, 4 % metal and only 3 % were glass or ceramics with 291 open dumpsites all over the country. So, with the establishment of RRC/ RDF-WTE, all of these wastes were managed systematically. The establishment of waste RDF plants to generate electricity also can give opportunities to government as alternative ways from depending on fossil fuel plants. Although there are several challenges such as market failure, absence of legal framework, lack of institutional measures and others, these will not break the spirit to make sure that someday all of these efforts will meet their targets.

  9. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  10. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  11. Dry critical experiments and analyses performed in support of the TOPAZ-2 safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelowitz, D.B.; Sapir, J.; Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Kompanietz, G.B.; Krutov, A.M.; Polyakov, D.N.; Lobynstev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz-2 space nuclear power system. Functional safety requirements developed for the Topaz mission mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when flooded and immersed in water. Initial experiments and analyses performed in Russia and the United States indicated that the reactor could potentially become supercritical in several water- or sand-immersion scenarios. Consequently, a series of critical experiments was performed on the Narciss M-II facility at the Kurchatov Institute to measure the reactivity effects of water and sand immersion, to quantify the effectiveness of reactor modifications proposed to preclude criticality, and to benchmark the calculational methods and nuclear data used in the Topaz-2 safety analyses. In this paper we describe the Narciss M-II experimental configurations along with the associated calculational models and methods. We also present and compare the measured and calculated results for the dry experimental configurations. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  13. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode. The reason is that, for this kind of waste, the temperature on the surface of the containers will be high enough to avoid any condensation phenomena for several years. Even if the scale growth kinetics is expected to be very slow since the temperature will be moderate at the beginning of the storage (around 300 deg. C) and will keep on decreasing, the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies, performed in the frame of the COCON programme. All existing oxidation models are based on the two main oxidation theories developed by Wagner between the 1930's and 1970's on the one hand, and by Cabrera and Mott in the 1960 and next by Fromhold on the other hand. These used to be associated with high temperature behaviour for Wagner's theory and with low temperature for the second one. Indeed it is certainly more relevant to consider their range of application in terms of the oxide scale thickness rather than in terms of temperature. The question is posed about which theory should an appropriate model rely on. It can be expected that the oxide scale could have a thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers up to several tens of micrometers depending on temperature and class of alloys chosen. At the present time, low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste containers in long term interim storage. For this type of alloys, the scale formed during the dry oxidation stage will be 'rapidly' thick enough to neglect the Mott field. Hence, in a first step, some basic models based on a parabolic rate assumption, that is to say Wagner's model, have been derived from experimental data on iron and on low-alloy steel

  14. Analysis of the use of waste heat obtained from coal-fired units in Organic Rankine Cycles and for brown coal drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Kochaniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions have created a need for new energy technologies. One way to meet these new requirements is to optimise the efficiency of power units. This paper presents two energy technologies that, if used, will increase the efficiency of electricity generation. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of brown coal-fired units is by drying the coal that is fed into the boiler. Here, we describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. This paper also presents an analysis of the feasibility of and potential for using waste heat obtained from exhaust gases to feed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Several low-temperature working fluids were considered, which were selected based on properties that were best suited for these types of cycles. The impact of these working fluids on the efficiency and capacity of the ORC was also examined. The calculations for ORCs fed with waste heat obtained from exhaust gases from hard coal- and brown coal-fired boilers were compared. -- Highlights: ► We describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. ► The impact of using different working fluids with a low boiling point is examined. ► We describe integrating the ORC with the power unit. ► The use of waste heat from boiler exhaust gases to dry brown coal is proposed. ► We demonstrate a possible increase in power unit efficiency.

  15. NORM waste management in the oil and gas industry. The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2003-01-01

    Syrian experience with respect to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) waste produced by the Syrian oil industry is described. Three main categories of NORM waste were identified. First, hard scales from decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubings which are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra); this type of waste being currently stored in standard barrels in a controlled area. Second, sludge wastes containing low levels of radium isotopes were found in large amounts in each Syrian oilfield; plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. However, disposal criteria for the above two categories of NORM waste are still under discussions. Third, soil contaminated with NORM as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The Syrian criteria for disposal and clean up of this type of waste has been defined and approved by the Regulatory Office. (author)

  16. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-01-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  17. Experience in radioactive waste management of research centre-CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2001-01-01

    China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is the birthplace of China nuclear science and technology and the important base for nuclear science and technology implementing pioneering, basic and comprehensive studies. The major tasks and activities of CIAE are: (1) Fundamental research of nuclear science and technology; (2) Research and development of advanced nuclear energy; and (3) Application of nuclear technology. CIAE is equipped with three research reactors (15MW heavy water reactor, 3.5MW light water swimming pool reactor, 27kW neutron source reactor), four zero-power facilities, eleven accelerators, hot cells and a lot of glove boxes which produce various kinds of radioactive wastes. CIAE pays great attention to the safe management of radioactive waste. Many measurements were and are adopted. CIAE carries out the national policy of radioactive waste management and the international fundamental principles of radioactive waste management. To protect human body and environment both now and future generation minimizes the releasing amounts and activity, minimizes the solidified wastes to be disposed of. The principles of 'controlled generation, categorized collection, volume-reduction immobilization, reliable package, in-situ storage, safe transportation and disposal' are followed in managing LLW and ILW. The liquid wastes are separately treated by precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange or adsorption by organic or inorganic materials. The spent organic solvents are treated by incineration at a special incinerator. The low level radioactive gases and liquids can be discharged into the environment only when they are clean-up and permissible level is achieved. Such discharge is controlled by two factors: total discharge amount and specific activity. The solid wastes are separately collected in site according to their physical properties and specific activity. The storage waste is retrievable designed. The spent/sealed radiation sources are collected and stored with

  18. Groundwater-stream-simulation experiments for the evaluation of the safety of proposed nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    A bench-scale experimental design which integrates repository components to simulate a groundwater stream infiltrating a breached repository is described in this paper. An experiment performed with a nuclear waste solid and one rock core is briefly summarized. The nuclear waste solid consists of borosilicate glass containing formulated nuclear waste and is the source of the leached radionuclides. The rock core used is of granite and serves as the adsorption medium for the leached radionuclides

  19. Aeolian process of the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor, China: a wind tunnel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Hua, Ting

    2017-08-01

    Wind tunnel studies, which remain limited, are an important tool to understand the aeolian processes of dried-up riverbeds. The particle size, chemical composition, and the mineral contents of sediments arising from the dried river beds are poorly understood. Dried-up riverbeds cover a wide area in the Hexi Corridor, China, and comprise a complex synthesis of different land surfaces, including aeolian deposits, pavement surfaces, and Takyr crust. The results of the present wind tunnel experiment suggest that aeolian transport from the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor ranges from 0 to 177.04 g/m 2 /min and that dry riverbeds could be one of the main sources of dust emissions in this region. As soon as the wind velocity reaches 16 m/s and assuming that there are abundant source materials available, aeolian transport intensity increases rapidly. The dried-up riverbed sediment and the associated aeolian transported material were composed mainly of fine and medium sands. However, the transported samples were coarser than the bed samples, because of the sorting effect of the aeolian processes on the sediment. The aeolian processes also led to regional elemental migration and mineral composition variations.

  20. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  1. Test plan for Fauske and Associates to perform tube propagation experiments with simulated Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.D.; Babad, H.

    1996-05-01

    This test plan, prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, provides guidance for performing tube propagation experiments on simulated Hanford tank wastes and on actual tank waste samples. Simulant compositions are defined and an experimental logic tree is provided for Fauske and Associates (FAI) to perform the experiments. From this guidance, methods and equipment for small-scale tube propagation experiments to be performed at the Hanford Site on actual tank samples will be developed. Propagation behavior of wastes will directly support the safety analysis (SARR) for the organic tanks. Tube propagation may be the definitive tool for determining the relative reactivity of the wastes contained in the Hanford tanks. FAI have performed tube propagation studies previously on simple two- and three-component surrogate mixtures. The simulant defined in this test plan more closely represents actual tank composition. Data will be used to support preparation of criteria for determining the relative safety of the organic bearing wastes

  2. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  3. Pushing precipitation to the extremes in distributed experiments: Recommendations for simulating wet and dry years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Alan K.; Avolio, Meghan L.; Beier, Claus; Carroll, Charles J.W.; Collins, Scott L.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Fraser, Lauchlan H.; Griffin-Nolan, Robert J.; Hoover, David L.; Jentsch, Anke; Loik, Michael E.; Phillips, Richard P.; Post, Alison K.; Sala, Osvaldo E.; Slette, Ingrid J.; Yahdjian, Laura; Smith, Melinda D.

    2017-01-01

    Intensification of the global hydrological cycle, ranging from larger individual precipitation events to more extreme multiyear droughts, has the potential to cause widespread alterations in ecosystem structure and function. With evidence that the incidence of extreme precipitation years (defined statistically from historical precipitation records) is increasing, there is a clear need to identify ecosystems that are most vulnerable to these changes and understand why some ecosystems are more sensitive to extremes than others. To date, opportunistic studies of naturally occurring extreme precipitation years, combined with results from a relatively small number of experiments, have provided limited mechanistic understanding of differences in ecosystem sensitivity, suggesting that new approaches are needed. Coordinated distributed experiments (CDEs) arrayed across multiple ecosystem types and focused on water can enhance our understanding of differential ecosystem sensitivity to precipitation extremes, but there are many design challenges to overcome (e.g., cost, comparability, standardization). Here, we evaluate contemporary experimental approaches for manipulating precipitation under field conditions to inform the design of ‘Drought-Net’, a relatively low-cost CDE that simulates extreme precipitation years. A common method for imposing both dry and wet years is to alter each ambient precipitation event. We endorse this approach for imposing extreme precipitation years because it simultaneously alters other precipitation characteristics (i.e., event size) consistent with natural precipitation patterns. However, we do not advocate applying identical treatment levels at all sites – a common approach to standardization in CDEs. This is because precipitation variability varies >fivefold globally resulting in a wide range of ecosystem-specific thresholds for defining extreme precipitation years. For CDEs focused on precipitation extremes, treatments should be based

  4. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  5. Modeling of Seepage Losses in Sewage Sludge Drying Bed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to develop a model governing seepage losses in sewage sludge drying bed. The model will assist in the design of sludge drying beds for effective management of wastes derived from households' septic systems. In the experiment conducted this study, 125kg of sewage sludge, 90.7% moisture ...

  6. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  7. Dry corrosion prediction of radioactive waste containers in long term interim storage: mechanisms of low temperature oxidation of pure iron and numerical simulation of an oxide scale growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, N.

    2006-10-01

    In the framework of research on long term behaviour of radioactive waste containers, this work consists on the one hand in the study of low temperature oxidation of iron and on the other hand in the development of a numerical model of oxide scale growth. Isothermal oxidation experiments are performed on pure iron at 300 and 400 C in dry and humid air at atmospheric pressure. Oxide scales formed in these conditions are characterized. They are composed of a duplex magnetite scale under a thin hematite scale. The inner layer of the duplex scale is thinner than the outer one. Both are composed of columnar grains, that are smaller in the inner part. The outer hematite layer is made of very small equiaxed grains. Markers and tracers experiments show that a part of the scale grows at metal/oxide interface thanks to short-circuits diffusion of oxygen. A model for iron oxide scale growth at low temperature is then deduced. Besides this experimental study, the numerical model EKINOX (Estimation Kinetics Oxidation) is developed. It allows to simulate the growth of an oxide scale controlled by mixed mechanisms, such as anionic and cationic vacancies diffusion through the scale, as well as metal transfer at metal/oxide interface. It is based on the calculation of concentration profiles of chemical species and also point defects in the oxide scale and in the substrate. This numerical model does not use the classical quasi-steady-state approximation and calculates the future of cationic vacancies at metal/oxide interface. Indeed, these point defects can either be eliminated by interface motion or injected in the substrate, where they can be annihilated, considering sinks as the climb of dislocations. Hence, the influence of substrate cold-work can be investigated. The EKINOX model is validated in the conditions of Wagner's theory and is confronted with experimental results by its application to the case of high temperature oxidation of nickel. (author)

  8. Wet vs dry bottom ash handling compared: one plant's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianci, V. [Magaldi R & D, Salerno (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    A multi-unit coal-fired power station where both dry and wet bottom ash handling systems are employed provides an opportunity for detailed comparison of the two approaches. The study reported in the article was carried out at a plant which has four 314 MWe coal fired units. It was designed for baseload operation and the wet system, coexisting with the dry Magaldi Ash Cooler (MAC) system has high dependability. The design is in fact a hybrid of water impounded hopper system and a submerged chain conveyor (SCC) system for both bottom ash and pyrites handling. Dry ash technology was introduced in 2004. The dry system resulted in water saving of about 258,000 m{sup 3} per year. It also reduces ash disposal costs and increases boiler efficiency due to recovery of much of the heat leaving the boiler. A net thermal power saving of 1316 KWt per MAC system is made. The study also showed that the Superbelt (a steel mesh belt conveyor coupled with overlapping steel plates) applied to dry ash conveying, as in the MAC system, is much more dependable than a chain conveying system, for both wet and dry systems. By 2008 all four units of the plant will be replaced with dry MAC systems. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.

    2013-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design...

  10. Laboratory experience in the analysis of orphan waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Kharkar, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy related low level radioactive waste mixed with inorganic and organic hazardous waste derive from all stages of the fuel cycle. In order to comply with EPA and NRC regulations, prior to disposal this waste must be analyzed. For the analytical laboratory, the samples comprise both a potential radiation and chemical hazard. Screening procedures for handling such samples are described. Sophisticated instrumentation is necessary to identify the contaminants with the sensitivity required by the EPA and NRC. Aliquotting and dilution techniques have been adequate to reduce the activity levels sufficiently to allow operations in an uncontrolled laboratory and meet the minimum detection levels. Higher level samples are analyzed in a controlled area employing dedicated instrumentation and health physics precautions

  11. Operational experience for liquid radioactive waste in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of the preliminary removal of sludge from the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool in the RA reactor, mechanical filtration of the pool water and sludge conditioning and storage. Yugoslavia is a country without a nuclear power plant (NPP) on its territory. The law which strictly forbids NPP construction is still valid, but, nevertheless we must handle and dispose radioactive waste. In the last forty years, in the ''Vinca'' Institute, as a result of two research reactors being operational, named RA and RB, and as a result of the application of radionuclides in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of different levels of specific activity were generated. As a temporary solution, radioactive waste materials are stored in two interim storages. Radwaste materials that were immobilized in the inactive matrices are to be placed in concrete containers, for further manipulation and disposal. (orig.)

  12. Design of experiment characterization of microneedle fabrication processes based on dry silicon etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, J.; Gaspar, J.; Ruther, P.; Hagner, M.; Cismak, A.; Heilmann, A.; Paul, O.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of dry etching-based processes for the fabrication of silicon microneedles using a design of experiment (DoE) approach. The possibility of using such microneedles as protruding microelectrodes able to electroporate adherently growing cells and record intracellular potentials motivates the systematic analysis of the influence of etching parameters on the needle shape. Two processes are characterized: a fully isotropic etch process and a three-step etching approach. In the first case, the shape of the microneedles is defined by a single etch step. For the stepped method, the structures are realized using the following sequence: a first, isotropic step defines the tip; this is followed by anisotropic etching that increases the height of the needle; a final isotropic procedure thins the microneedle and sharpens its tip. From the various process parameters tested, it is concluded that the isotropic fabrication is influenced mostly by four process parameters, whereas six parameters dominantly govern the outcome of the stepped etching technique. The dependence of the needle shape on the etch mask diameter is also investigated. Microneedles with diameters down to the sub-micrometer range and heights below 10 µm are obtained. The experimental design is performed using the D-optimal method. The resulting geometry, i.e. heights, diameters and radii of curvature measured at different positions, is extracted from scanning electron micrographs of needle cross-sections obtained from cuts by focused ion beam. The process parameters are used as inputs and the geometry features of the microneedles as outputs for the analysis of the process.

  13. Design of experiment characterization of microneedle fabrication processes based on dry silicon etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, J; Gaspar, J; Ruther, P; Paul, O; Hagner, M; Cismak, A; Heilmann, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of dry etching-based processes for the fabrication of silicon microneedles using a design of experiment (DoE) approach. The possibility of using such microneedles as protruding microelectrodes able to electroporate adherently growing cells and record intracellular potentials motivates the systematic analysis of the influence of etching parameters on the needle shape. Two processes are characterized: a fully isotropic etch process and a three-step etching approach. In the first case, the shape of the microneedles is defined by a single etch step. For the stepped method, the structures are realized using the following sequence: a first, isotropic step defines the tip; this is followed by anisotropic etching that increases the height of the needle; a final isotropic procedure thins the microneedle and sharpens its tip. From the various process parameters tested, it is concluded that the isotropic fabrication is influenced mostly by four process parameters, whereas six parameters dominantly govern the outcome of the stepped etching technique. The dependence of the needle shape on the etch mask diameter is also investigated. Microneedles with diameters down to the sub-micrometer range and heights below 10 µm are obtained. The experimental design is performed using the D-optimal method. The resulting geometry, i.e. heights, diameters and radii of curvature measured at different positions, is extracted from scanning electron micrographs of needle cross-sections obtained from cuts by focused ion beam. The process parameters are used as inputs and the geometry features of the microneedles as outputs for the analysis of the process.

  14. 40 years of experience in incineration of radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanbrabant, R.; Deckers, J.; Luycx, P.; Detilleux, M.; Beguin, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities; several R and D projects were realised in this specific field and different facilities were erected and operated. An experimental furnace ''Evence Coppee'' was built in 1960 for treatment of LLW produced by the Belgian Research Centre (SCK/CEN). Regularly this furnace has been modified, improved and equipped with additional installations to obtain better combustion conditions and a more efficient gas cleaning system. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the ''Evence Coppee'', a completely new industrial incineration installation has been designed in the nineties and commissioned in May 1995, in the frame of the erection of the Belgian Centralised Treatment/Conditioning Facility CILVA. At the end of 1998, the new furnace has burnt 455 tons of solid waste and 246 tons of liquid waste. Besides the conventional incineration process, a High Temperature Slagging Incinerator (HTSI) has been developed, constructed and operated for 10 years in the past. This installation was the combination of an incinerator and a melter producing melted granulated material instead of ashes, and provided experience in the incineration of hazardous waste, such as chlorinated organic compounds and waste with PCB content. The paper presents ''the Belgian Experience'' accumulated year after year with the design and the operation of the above mentioned facilities and demonstrates how the needs required today for a modern installation are met. The paper covers the following aspects; design particularities and description of the systems, operational results for different solid waste categories (bulk waste, precompacted waste, ion exchange resins) and for different liquid waste categories (organic, aqueous, oil), required pretreatment of the waste, ashes conditioning

  15. Poro-elasto-plastic behaviour of dry compacted Fo-Ca clay: experiment and modelling. Application to the re-saturation of an engineered clay barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassabatere, Th.; Imbert, Ch.; Etile, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Many projects of underground repositories for high level radioactive waste involve an engineered clay barrier, placed between the waste canister and the surrounding rock. When hydrated, this barrier seals the gap and provides a good watertightness. The natural clay powder, dried and compacted, exhibits hydro-mechanical couplings during the hydration. Such a coupled behaviour, interesting for the industrial application, has been clearly demonstrated by many studies and laboratory experiments. But the modelling of this behaviour, in order to predict the hydration of the clay barrier, is difficult. A coupled modelling, based, at a macroscopic scale, on the thermodynamics of unsaturated porous media, is proposed. This thermodynamical model founds a general framework for non linear poro-elastic and poro-elasto-plastic coupled behaviours. The symmetries of this coupling, induced by this thermodynamical framework, let us take into account the often neglected influence of the mechanical state on the hydraulic problem of the re-saturation of the clay. The complete resolution of the flow problem, coupled with the mechanical behaviour, leads us to study the influence of the rheological behaviour chosen for the clay (elastic - linear or no linear -, or elastoplastic) on the evaluation of the duration of the re-saturation of the clay barrier). (authors)

  16. Rainfall and wet and dry cycle's impact on ash thickness. A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Keestra, Saskia; Peters, Piet; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Ash is the most important and effective soil protection in the immediate period after the fire (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015a). This protection can last for days or weeks depending on the fire severity, topography of the burned area and post-fire meteorological conditions. In the initial period after the fire, ash is easily transported by wind. However after the first rainfalls, ash is eroded, or bind in soil surface (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015a). Ash thickness has implications on soil protection. The soil protection against the erosion and the ash capacity to retain water increases with the ash thickness (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash cover is very important after fire because store water and releases into soil a large amount of nutrients, fundamental to vegetation recuperation (Pereira et al., 2014). Despite the importance of ash thickness in post fire environments, little information is available about the effects of rainfall and wet and dry cycle's effects on ash thickness. This work aims to fill this gap. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of rainfall and wet and dry cycles in the ash thickness of two different under laboratory conditions. Litter from Oak (Quercus robur) and Spruce (Picea abis) were collected to and exposed during 2 hours to produce ash at 200 and 400 C. Subsequently a layer of 15 mm ash was spread on soil surface in small boxes (24x32 cm) and then subjected to rainfall simulation. Boxes were placed at a 17% of inclination and a rainfall intensity of 55 mm/h during 40 minutes was applied. After the rainfall simulation the plots were stored in an Oven at the temperature of 25 C during four days, in order to identify the effects of wet and dry cycles (Bodi et al., 2013). Ash thickness was measured after the first rainfall (AFR), before the second rainfall (BSR) - after the dry period of 4 days - and after the second rainfall (ASR). In each box a grid with 57 points was designed in order to analyse ash thickness

  17. Three Mile Island Cleanup: experiences, waste disposal, and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    These papers were presented in a two-session symposium during the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1981 Summer National meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August 16-19, 1981. The cleanup activities described included the venting of the gases, mostly krypton-85, from the reactor containment building and several entries of personnel into the containment building to determine the physical conditions and the levels of radiation and radioactive contamination. Results of the latest process development tests of the flowsheet for the submerged Demineralizer Water Treatment System for decontaminating the water in the containment building were presented. The status of existing knowledge of radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in radioactive waste management were reviewed. A program to demonstrate incorporation of the loaded zeolite into a glass as a final waste form was also described. The generation, classification, treatment, and disposal of solid waste forms resulting from the cleanup were discussed with special consideration of the ion exchange media used for cleanup of liquids with relatively high radionuclide concentrations. The radiological, socioeconomic, and psychological impacts of the cleanup were evaluated. This work formed the basis for the recent issuance by the NRC of a programmatic environmental impact statement relative to decontamination and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from the accidents

  18. Nuclear rich alpha cellulosic waste management experiments by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal; Cousinou; Desille; Maigret.

    1985-03-01

    At Cadarache, where the French plutonium fuel fabrication plant is located, the strategy used for the management of rich alpha waste (superior to accepted level for storage) consist in incinerating the wastes, crushed and washed by cryogenic crushing and soda-nitric solutions. Although all ''technological'' wastes could be processed this way, the cellulosic are sorted and treated separately by the sulfuric acid digestion process. This process has definite advantages, particularly since it is specific to cellulosis, which dissolves easily at low temperature, i-e under the boiling point of H 2 SO 4 . Except for this aspect, of great importance for the gaz treatment operations and the resistance of material to corrosion, the process is identical to the one given in the literature: dehydration of cellulosis by H 2 SO 4 72% and carbon oxydation by HNO 3 13N. The apparatus used hold in a small volume (10 m 3 ); the gloves-box in which the dissolver and the filtration treatments (insoluble Pu sulfate for one part, and reaction gas for the other) are placed is in stainless steel coated with corrosion proof paint; the equipments are made of glass (dissolver) teflon (flanges) PVDF (pipes) hastelloy (pompes). A general balance is given for the recuperated nuclear materials, as well as for the mass and volumes of input and output cellulosic wastes

  19. The integral treatment of urban solid wastes. Experience at Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, which is the origin of the urban solid wastes in a City, how is it classify and which are the most important methods for its elimination, once have been collected are presented. Statistics on the Spanish Case, how is the treatment system and which are the most representative methods for its elimination is describe

  20. Bioavailability and Digestibility of Nutrients from the Dried Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes): In Vivo Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Julita; Suliburska, Joanna; Siwulski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    There is a limited number of publications on the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients contained in macrofungi. The aim of this study was to assess the bioavailability and digestibility of macronutrients using in vivo experiments on laboratory animals. The experiments were conducted with the commercial oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Semisynthetic diets were prepared based on the modified AIN-93M diet and were supplemented with 4% and 8% mushroom powder. Between days 4 and 13, apparent digestibility indexes were determined for all animals using the conventional balance method. The hematological indexes-that is, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, white blood cells, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration-were determined using a Sysmex K-1000 hematological analyzer. Feeding rats with semisynthetic diets supplemented with dried oyster mushroom had no negative effect on body weight gain or feeding efficiency, expressed in the amount of body weight gain per unit of metabolic energy uptake. Introduction of dried oyster mushroom to the diet resulted in reduced digestibility of the diet and the protein and fat it contained, as well as decreased apparent energy availability. These changes were dependent on the volume of dried mushroom added to the semisynthetic diet. The addition of dried oyster mushroom to the semisynthetic diet considerably reduced passage time through the alimentary tract of rats.

  1. Investigation into the behaviour of highly compacted dry low-level radioactive waste under repository conditions. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.N.; Wang, J.

    1991-01-01

    Supercompaction is a process in which drums containing low-level radioactive waste are compressed at a high axial pressure of up to 70 MPa, resulting in a significant saving in the volume of a repository built to store such waste. Recent practice of supercompaction is to compact waste which has been placed in a sealed primary container, typically a 200-litre steel drum. During the process of compaction the drum is squashed with its contents into a flat pellet; and the compaction ratio can reach as high as 20:1. Although the compaction of radioactive waste has long been a popular means for reducing its storage volume, there is virtually no available information as to the physical or chemical characteristics of such compacted wastes. The primary objective of this project has been to investigate the physical and some of the chemical characteristics of such supercompacted pellets. All the work was carried out on full-scale 200-litre drums of simulated, but non-radioactive, waste. The compaction ratio reached in this study ranged from 5 to 21, depending on the type of waste. Upon completion of compaction, all drums exhibited a tendency to expand. The magnitude of ultimate expansion for dry storage was of the order of 1 mm only, whereas under wet storage conditions values were up to about 10 mm. As the presence of moisture can significantly increase the expansion of compacted waste drums or stress developed due to restraint, it is recommended that the waste repository be made water/vapour-tight

  2. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waste Experiences: More Than You May Think

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, D. C.; Honerlah, H. B.

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) works with other federal, and state agencies through several different programs on numerous Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste (HTRW) sites. Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Program (FUSRAP), Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS), EPA Superfund, Installation Restoration, Army Deactivated Nuclear Reactor Program, and many other programs present hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste issues. While the USACE has a reputation of excellent dirt movers, little is discussed of our other waste management experiences. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing the Health Physics (HP) staff of the USACE. The HP staff is currently organized as one team, the Radiation Safety Support Team (RSST), comprised of 15 individuals at 6 locations across the country. With typical RSST missions including HP consultation to USACE activities world wide, many waste challenges arise. These challenges have involved radioactive wastes of all classifications and stability. Sealed and unsealed sources; instruments and dials; contaminated earth and debris; liquids; lab, reactor, and medical wastes are all successfully managed by the USACE. USACE also develops, evaluates, and utilizes waste treatment Types of radioactive waste at HTRW sites include: Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW) (class A, B, C, and greater than C), 11e.(2), Transuranic (TRU), Mixed, and Naturally Occurring (NORM/TENORM)

  3. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of 2017 experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    A full-scale, transparent mock-up of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Project High Level Waste glass melter riser and pour spout has been constructed to allow for testing with visual feedback of particle settling, accumulation, and resuspension when operating with a controlled fraction of crystals in the glass melt. Room temperature operation with silicone oil and magnetite particles simulating molten glass and spinel crystals, respectively, allows for direct observation of flow patterns and settling patterns. The fluid and particle mixture is recycled within the system for each test.

  4. Dry thermophilic semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste: Performance evaluation, modified Gompertz model analysis, and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeong, Seong Yeob; Jeung, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy self-sufficiency/energy recovery with thermophilic DScAD of FW was evaluated. • The maximum biogas production rate was positively influenced by OLRs. • Maximum (average) electrical energy recoverable from a 1 tons of FW was 1050 kW h. • Thermophilic DScAD can substantially reduce the VS and recover energy to serve itself. • A modified Gompertz model fitted well with the experimental results for all phases. - Abstract: A thermophilic, dry semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (DScAD) method was used to effectively transform food waste (FW) into renewable energy. This study aims to thoroughly evaluate the system performance and model simulation to predict biogas production, intermediate products and their outcomes, energy recovery potential, and energy balance, while operating with organic loading rates ranging from 2.3 to 9.21 kg-TS/m"3 day. The results indicate that volatile solids (VS) reduction and biogas production both improved as the organic loading rates (OLR) increased, and the cost of FW valorization remained low. The greatest VS reduction achieved was 87.01%, associated with 170 m"3 of biogas yield per ton of sludge (69% methane) at an ORL of 9.21 ± 0.89 kg-TS/m"3 day (8.62 ± 0.34 kg-VS/m"3 day) although the amounts of ammonia (3700 mg/L), hydrogen sulfide (420 ppm), and total volatile fatty acids (7101 mg/L) during fermentation were relatively high. Furthermore, 75% of total energy requirement for the system could be recovered via biomethane production, resulting in a considerably reduced specific energy supply (kW h/ton of treating FW). The results suggest that a modified Gompertz model is suitable for estimating the biogas and methane production potential and rate. The results also reveal that the DScAD of FW at 55 °C is a reliable, stable, and robust option for both solids reduction and energy recovery via biogas generation.

  5. Technical experiences for liquid radioactive waste in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.

    2002-01-01

    Yugoslavia is a country without any Nuclear Power Plant on its territory. In the last forty years, in Nuclear Sciences Institute 'Vinca', as a result of the two reactors operation, named RA and RB, and as a result of the radionuclides application in medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of different levels of specific activity were generated. As a temporary solution, radioactive waste materials are stored in two interim storage facilities. Radwaste that were immobilized in the inactive matrices are to be placed into the concrete containers, for the further manipulation and disposal. The present paper reports the results on preliminary removal of sludge from the bottom of the spent fuel storage pool in RA reactor, mechanical filtration of the pool water and sludge conditioning and storage. (authors)

  6. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  7. Evaluation of Gas Retention in Waste Simulants: Tall Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Powell, Michael R.; Boeringa, Gregory K.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Karri, Naveen K.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Tran, Diana N.; Sande, Susan; Heldebrant, David J.; Meacham, Joseph E.; Smet, Dave; Bryan, Wesley E.; Calmus, Ronald B.

    2014-05-16

    Gas generation in Hanford’s underground waste storage tanks can lead to gas accumulation within the layer of settled solids (sludge) at the tank bottom. The gas, which typically has hydrogen as the major component together with other flammable species, is formed principally by radiation-driven chemical reactions. Accumulation of these gases within the sludge in a waste tank is undesirable and limits the amount of tank volume for waste storage. Further, accumulation of large amounts of gas in the sludge may potentially result in an unacceptable release of the accumulated gas if the sludge-layer density is reduced to less than that of the overlying sludge or that of the supernatant liquid. Rapid release of large amounts of flammable gases could endanger personnel and equipment near the tank. For this reason, a thorough understanding of the circumstances that can lead to a potentially problematic gas accumulation in sludge layers is needed. To respond to this need, the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Program (DSGREP) was commissioned to examine gas release behavior in sludges.

  8. Experience of waste characterization study for the State of Penang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Zarina Zainuddin

    2004-01-01

    The state of Penang has been identified as a major city along with Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru. Along with this recognition came rapid development and an increase in the amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) that needs treatment. The state government has engaged a study to have an integrated waste management system. MIREC was enlisted into a consortium of consultants that would propose to the state and central government a solution to the problem. MIREC has been actively involved with waste characterization in Malaysia, but due to the fact that there are no standards for such processes, the study underwent many changes during the course of the project. Apart from this, the Terms of Reference for the study was not well established causing much inconvenience to the study team. However, the project was successful in terms of MIREC being able to transfer some technology to the local company, part of the study was also used to enhance the R and D capability of MIREC and also worked as a training ground for new staff to acquire practical knowledge. Hence, this kind of projects are good in terms of allowing for new R and D development and also to work as an income to MIREC. (Author)

  9. Partitioning of high level liquid waste: experiences in plant level adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, Smitha; Kaushik, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Wastes are presently vitrified in borosilicate matrices in all our back end facilities in our country. This is in accordance with internationally endorsed methodology for the safe management of high level radioactive wastes. Recent advancements in the field of partitioning technology in our group, has presented us with an opportunity to have a fresh perspective on management of high level liquid radioactive wastes streams, that emanate from reprocessing operations. This paper will highlight our experiences with respect to both partitioning studies and vitrification practices, with a focus on waste volume reduction for final disposal. Incorporation of this technique has led to the implementation of the concept of recovering wealth from waste, a marked decrease on the load of disposal in deep geological repositories and serve as a step towards the vision of transmutation of long lived radionuclides

  10. CJSC ECOMET-S facility for reprocessing and utilisation of radioactive metal waste: operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbutovsky, A.B.; Kishkin, S.A.; Mochenov, M.I.; Troshev, A.V.; Cheremisin, P.I.; Chernichenko, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of the paper is to present operating experience in management of radioactive metal waste, originating at nuclear power facilities of the Russian Federation. Issues of radioactive metal waste recycling by melting, with the purpose of unrestricted re-use in industry, or restricted re-use within the nuclear industry, have been considered. The necessity for using a method of melting at the final stage of radioactive metal waste recycling has been proved. Priority measures to be taken and results achieved in the implementation of the Governmental purpose-oriented programme 'Radioactive Metal Waste Reprocessing and Utilization' have been considered, the CJSC ECOMET-S being the main contractor on the Programme. Main specifications and results of operating a commercial melting facility, owned by CJSC 'ECOMET-S' and used to recycle low-level radioactive metal waste originated at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, have been presented. (author)

  11. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  12. Investigation on the influence of pre-treatments on drying behaviour of broccoli by MRI experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.; Straten, van G.; Boom, R.M.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) allows the monitoring of internal moisture content of food products during drying non-destructively. In an experimental set-up with continuous and controlled hot air supply, the internal moisture distribution of broccoli with different pre-treatments are

  13. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  14. Optimization and characterization of spray-dried IgG formulations: a design of experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Homa; Najafabadi, Abdolhosein Rouholamini; Vatanara, Alireza

    2017-10-24

    The purpose of the present study is to optimize a spray-dried formulation as a model antibody regarding stability and aerodynamic property for further aerosol therapy of this group of macromolecules. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed milligrams of Cysteine (X 1 ), Trehalose (X 2 ), and Tween 20 (X 3 ) as independent variables. The dependent variables were quantified and the optimized formulation was prepared accordingly. SEC-HPLC and FTIR-spectroscopy were conducted to evaluate the molecular and structural status of spray-dried preparations. Particle characterization of optimized sample was performed with the aid of DSC, SEM, and TSI examinations. Experimental responses of a total of 17 formulations resulted in yield values, (Y 1 ), ranging from 21.1 ± 0.2 to 40.2 ± 0.1 (%); beta-sheet content, (Y 2 ), from 66.22 ± 0.19 to 73.78 ± 0.26 (%); amount of aggregation following process, (Y 3 ), ranging from 0.11 ± 0.03 to 0.95 ± 0.03 (%); and amount of aggregation upon storage, (Y 4 ), from 0.81 ± 0.01 to 3.13 ± 0.64 (%) as dependent variables. Results-except for those of the beta sheet content-were fitted to quadratic models describing the inherent relationship between main factors. Co-application of Cysteine and Tween 20 preserved antibody molecules from molecular degradation and improved immediate and accelerated stability of spry-dried antibodies. Validation of the optimization study indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology in preparation of stable spray-dried IgG. Graphical abstract Spray drying of IgG in the presence of Trehalose, Cysteine and Tween 20.

  15. Management of legacy spent nuclear fuel wastes at the Chalk River Laboratories: operating experience and progress towards waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.S.; Bainbridge, I.B.; Greenfield, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    AECL has been managing and storing a diversity of spent nuclear fuel, arising from operations at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site over more than 50 years. A subset of about 22 tonnes of research reactor fuels, primarily metallic uranium, have been identified as a high priority for remediation, based on monitoring and inspection that has determined that these fuels and their storage containers are corroding. This paper describes the Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) project, which AECL has launched to retrieve these fuels from current storage, and to emplace them in a new above-ground dry storage system, as a prerequisite step to decommissioning some of the early-design waste storage structures at CRL. The retrieved fuels will be packaged in a new storage container, and subjected to a cold vacuum drying process that will remove moisture, and thereby reduce the extent of future corrosion and degradation. The FPS project will enable improved interim storage to be implemented for legacy fuels at CRL, until a decision is made on the ultimate disposition of legacy fuels in Canada. (author)

  16. The TN-GEMINI: experience on a versatile alpha waste transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Chanzy, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper discusses experience gained in moving alpha wastes and its teachings regarding transport aspects of D and D. Alpha wastes are generated in fuel cycle facilities such as those involved in reprocessing, in manufacture of mixed oxide fuel, and by research laboratories. If a significant amount of wastes has to be transported, then a Type B packaging is required. Developed by Transnucleaire and COGEMA, the TN GEMINI container enables nuclear facilities operators to optimise their alpha waste transport management, and more generally contribute to their D and D projects. After describing succinctly the design of the TN GEMINI, the paper will explain how the packaging is being operated. Teachings from experience will be shared. (orig.)

  17. 9+ years of disposal experience at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, Norbert T.; Nelson, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    With almost a decade of operating experience, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has established an enviable record by clearly demonstrating that a deep geologic repository for unconditioned radioactive waste in rock salt can be operated safely and in compliance with very complex regulations. WIPP has disposed of contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste since 1999 and remote-handled TRU waste since 2007. Emplacement methods range from directly stacking unshielded 0.21-4.5 m 3 containers inside disposal rooms to remotely inserting highly radioactive 0.89 m 3 canisters into horizontally drilled holes (shield plugs placed in front of canisters protect workers inside active disposal rooms). More than 100 000 waste containers have been emplaced, and one-third of WIPP's authorized repository capacity of 175,000 m 3 has already been consumed. Principal surface operations are conducted in the waste handling building, which is divided into CH and RH waste handling areas. Four vertical shafts extend from the surface to the disposal horizon, 655 m below the surface in a 1000 m thick sequence of Permian bedded salt. The waste disposal area of about 0.5 km 2 is divided into ten panels, each consisting of seven rooms. Vertical closure (creep) rates in disposal rooms range up to 10 cm per year. While one panel is being filled with waste, the next one is being mined. Mined salt is raised to the surface in the salt shaft, and waste is lowered down the waste shaft. Both of these shafts also serve as principal access for personnel and materials. Underground ventilation is divided into separate flow paths, allowing simultaneous mining and disposal. A filter building near the exhaust shaft provides the capability to filter the exhaust air (in reduced ventilation mode) through HEPA filters before release to the atmosphere. WIPP operations have not exposed employees or the public to radiation doses beyond natural background variability. They consistently meet or exceed regulatory

  18. Results on Technical and Consultants Service Meetings on Lessons Learned from Operating Experience in Wet and Dry Spent Fuel Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.; Zou, X.

    2015-01-01

    Spent fuel storage has been and will continue to be a vital portion of the nuclear fuel cycle, regardless of whether a member state has an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle. After removal from the reactor core, spent fuel cools in the spent fuel pool, prior to placement in dry storage or offsite transport for disposal or reprocessing. Additionally, the inventory of spent fuel at many reactors worldwide has or will reach the storage capacity of the spent fuel pool; some facilities are alleviating their need for additional storage capacity by utilizing dry cask storage. While there are numerous differences between wet and dry storage; when done properly both are safe and secure. The nuclear community shares lessons learned worldwide to gain knowledge from one another’s good practices as well as events. Sharing these experiences should minimize the number of incidents worldwide and increase public confidence in the nuclear industry. Over the past 60 years, there have been numerous experiences storing spent fuel, in both wet and dry mediums, that when shared effectively would improve operations and minimize events. These lessons learned will also serve to inform countries, who are new entrants into the nuclear power community, on designs and operations to avoid and include as best practices. The International Atomic Energy Agency convened a technical and several consultants’ meetings to gather these experiences and produce a technical document (TECDOC) to share spent fuel storage lessons learned among member states. This paper will discuss the status of the TECDOC and briefly discuss some lessons learned contained therein. (author)

  19. Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-04-01

    In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities

  20. In situ experiments associated with the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Stripa Project was launched in 1980 under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency at the disused Stripa iron-ore mine in Sweden to study the ability of crystalline rock to isolate radioactive waste. This is the third in a series of proceedings from Symposia held since then to review progress in the three main areas covered by the Project: (1) the development and improvement of site assessment methods and concepts; (2) characterization of the Stripa granite and validation of concepts for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport through fractures; and (3) techniques and materials for the engineered sealing of possible groundwater flow paths through crystalline rock

  1. Corrosion experience in nuclear waste processing at Battelle Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.C.; Maness, R.F.

    1976-11-01

    Emphasis is on corrosion as related to waste storage canister. Most work has been done in support of the In-Can Melter (ICM) vitrification system. It is assumed that the canister goes through the ICM process and is then stored in a water basin. The most severe corrosion effect seen is oxidation of stainless steel (SS) surfaces in contact with gases containing oxygen during processing. The processing temperature is near 1100 0 C and furnace atmosphere, used until now, has been air with unrestricted flow to the furnace. The oxidation rate at 1100 0 C is 15.8 g/cm 2 for 304L SS. Techniques for eliminating this corrosion currently being investigated include the use of different materials, such as Inconel 601, and the use of an inert cover gas. Corrosion due to the waste melt is not as rapid as the air oxidation. This effect has been studied extensively in connection with the development of a metallic crucible melter at Battelle. Data are available on the corrosion rates of several waste compositions in contact with various materials. Long-term compatibility tests between the melt and the metal have been run; it was found the corrosion rates due to the melt or its vapor do not pose a serious problem to the waste canister. However, these rates are high enough to preclude the practical use of a metallic melter. Interim water storage of the canister may be a problem if proper corrective measurements are not taken.The canister may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) because it will be sensitized to some extent and it will be nearly stressed to yield. The most favorable solution to SCC involves minimizing canister sensitization and stress plus providing good water quality control. It has been recommended to keep the chlorine ion concentration below 1 ppM and the pH above 10. At these conditions no failures of 304L are predicted due to SCC. It is concluded that corrosion of a canister used during the In-Can Melter process and interim storage can be controlled

  2. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 [Solid Waste Storage Area] Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Stimulation of the anaerobic digestion of the dry organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with carbon-based conductive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Sun, Dezhi; Woodard, Trevor L; Wang, Li-Ying; Nevin, Kelly P; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-08-01

    Growth of bacterial and archaeal species capable of interspecies electron exchange was stimulated by addition of conductive materials (carbon cloth or granular activated carbon (GAC)) to anaerobic digesters treating dog food (a substitute for the dry-organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW)). Methane production (772-1428mmol vs carbon cloth than controls. OFMSW degradation was also significantly accelerated and VFA concentrations were substantially lower in reactors amended with conductive materials. These results suggest that both conductive materials (carbon cloth and GAC) can promote conversion of OFMSW to methane even in the presence of extremely high VFA concentrations (∼500mM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Large-scale continuous process to vitrify nuclear defense waste: operating experience with nonradioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosper, M.B.; Randall, C.T.; Traverso, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The developmental program underway at SRL has demonstrated the vitrification process proposed for the sludge processing facility of the DWPF on a large scale. DWPF design criteria for production rate, equipment lifetime, and operability have all been met. The expected authorization and construction of the DWPF will result in the safe and permanent immobilization of a major quantity of existing high level waste. 11 figures, 4 tables

  5. WASTE PACKAGE CORROSION STUDIES USING SMALL MOCKUP EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.E. Anderson; K.B. Helean; C.R. Bryan; P.V. Brady; R.C. Ewing

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion of spent nuclear fuel and subsequent mobilization of radionuclides is of great concern in a geologic repository, particularly if conditions are oxidizing. Corroding A516 steel may offset these transport processes within the proposed waste packages at the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) by retaining radionuclides, creating locally reducing conditions, and reducing porosity. Ferrous iron, Fe 2+ , has been shown to reduce UO 2 2+ to UO 2(s) [1], and some ferrous iron-bearing ion-exchange materials adsorb radionuclides and heavy metals [2]. Of particular interest is magnetite, a potential corrosion product that has been shown to remove TcO 4 - from solution [3]. Furthermore, if Fe 2+ minerals, rather than fully oxidized minerals such as goethite, are produced during corrosion, then locally reducing conditions may be present. High electron availability leads to the reduction and subsequent immobilization of problematic dissolved species such as TcO 4 - , NpO 2 + , and UO 2 2+ and can also inhibit corrosion of spent nuclear fuel. Finally, because the molar volume of iron material increases during corrosion due to oxygen and water incorporation, pore space may be significantly reduced over long time periods. The more water is occluded, the bulkier the corrosion products, and the less porosity is available for water and radionuclide transport. The focus of this paper is on the nature of Yucca Mountain waste package steel corrosion products and their effects on local redox state, radionuclide transport, and porosity

  6. Freeze dried bone allografts in dental and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery - experience in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rani Samsudin; Meor Zaidi Meor Kamal

    1999-01-01

    The utilisation of vascularised and free bone autografts remain the goal standard in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery in Malaysia, but the use of freeze dried bone allograft is still widely practiced in many centres with variable results. This study evaluate the effectiveness and clinical efficacy of using radiation sterilised freeze dried bone allografts in oral and maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. The bone grafts were prepared at the Malaysian National Tissue Bank. Seventy eight patients who had undergone oral and Maxillofacial surgical procedures with reconstruction using bone allografts were included in this study. 50 patients were male and 28 patients were female and their age ranged from 14 to 75 years. Forty two patients underwent enucleation of benign cystic lesions in the jaws, 15 patients underwent repair of orbital floor fractures, 6 patients of jaw fractures with partial loss of bone while 8 patients underwent augmentation of depressed cheek bone. Another 4 patients had partial resection of the mandible because of cancer and 3 patients had facial osteotomies. A follow up period of 12 months up to 4 years was carried out. The patients were assessed both clinically and radiologically throughout their follow up visits. Clinical assessment showed no evidence of rejection of the implanted freeze dried allografts. Bone allografts implanted as inlay grafts demonstrated a better clinical performance than onlay grafts and the poorest results were obtained following bridging bony defects in the jaws. Radiation sterilised freeze dried bone allografts produced at the Malaysian National Tissue Bank are bio-compatible, functional, and provide predictable results when applied to selected areas of the facial skeleton

  7. Reactivation of a cryptobiotic stream ecosystem in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: A long-term geomorphological experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Diane M.; Tate, C.M.; Andrews, E.D.; Niyogi, D.K.; Cozzetto, K.; Welch, K.; Lyons, W.B.; Capone, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica contain many glacial meltwater streams that flow for 6 to 12??weeks during the austral summer and link the glaciers to the lakes on the valley floors. Dry valley streams gain solutes longitudinally through weathering reactions and microbial processes occurring in the hyporheic zone. Some streams have thriving cyanobacterial mats. In streams with regular summer flow, the mats are freeze-dried through the winter and begin photosynthesizing with the onset of flow. To evaluate the longer term persistence of cyanobacterial mats, we diverted flow to an abandoned channel, which had not received substantial flow for approximately two decades. Monitoring of specific conductance showed that for the first 3??years after the diversion, the solute concentrations were greater in the reactivated channel than in most other dry valley streams. We observed that cyanobacterial mats became abundant in the reactivated channel within a week, indicating that the mats had been preserved in a cryptobiotic state in the channel. Over the next several years, these mats had high rates of productivity and nitrogen fixation compared to mats from other streams. Experiments in which mats from the reactivated channel and another stream were incubated in water from both of the streams indicated that the greater solute concentrations in the reactivated channel stimulated net primary productivity of mats from both streams. These stream-scale experimental results indicate that the cryptobiotic preservation of cyanobacterial mats in abandoned channels in the dry valleys allows for rapid response of these stream ecosystems to climatic and geomorphological change, similar to other arid zone stream ecosystems. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Operating experience of a mobile waste shredding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.N.; Volodzko, M.; Naughton, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States has become a significant problem challenging the commercial nuclear power industry. Over the past several years, there have been major changes in various aspects of LLW generation, shipment and disposal. These changes have been characterized by legislative uncertainty, more stringent regulations and increasing restrictions on shipments imposed by disposal sites and regulatory requirements. These effects have strongly impacted the current nationwide disposal system for LLW, and the industry is faced with higher shipping and disposal costs, on-site storage and soon, in some cases, no availability LLW disposal sites. The industry is responding to this problem by scrutinizing and improving the way in which LLW is managed on-site. Conventional and advanced volume reduction (VR) radwaste treatment systems are receiving more attention with both short- and long-term solutions being considered

  9. Defense waste processing facility radioactive operations. Part 1 - operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, D.B.; Gee, J.T.; Barnes, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) near Aiken, SC is the nation's first and the world's largest vitrification facility. Following a ten year construction program and a 3 year non-radioactive test program, DWPF began radioactive operations in March 1996. This paper presents the results of the first 9 months of radioactive operations. Topics include: operations of the remote processing equipment reliability, and decontamination facilities for the remote processing equipment. Key equipment discussed includes process pumps, telerobotic manipulators, infrared camera, Holledge trademark level gauges and in-cell (remote) cranes. Information is presented regarding equipment at the conclusion of the DWPF test program it also discussed, with special emphasis on agitator blades and cooling/heating coil wear. 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. WWER nuclear waste management regulatory experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, Tero

    2000-01-01

    About 30% of all electricity produced in Finland is generated by nuclear power. Four reactors, with a total capacity of 2 656 MW e (net), are currently in operation. At Loviisa, there are two 488 MW e WWER units (recently upgraded 440-units) and at Olkiluoto two 840 MW e BWR units. At the Loviisa plant conditioning, storage and final disposal of low-and intermediate-level wastes from reactor operation will take place at the NPP sites. Intermediate level ion exchange resins and evaporation concentrates are currently stored in tanks. However, a license application for constructing a solidification plant based on cementation is currently under STUKs regulatory review. The construction of the final repository for I/LLW at the Loviisa site was started in 1993 and the Government granted the operating license in 1998. The nuclear legislation requires disposal of spent fuel into the Finnish bedrock. (Authors)

  11. Integral migration and source-term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Howse, R.M.; Sharpe, B.M.; Smith, A.J.; Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.; Young, M.

    1986-01-01

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate-level waste-forms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of waste-form, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two waste forms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe in the Federal Republic of Germany and bitumenized intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium were rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the waste-form. The released of all nuclides from the bitumenized waste was very low

  12. Experiment of Industrial Waste Absorption using Activated Carbon from Coal of Tanjung Tabalong, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ulum Gani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.130Activated carbon made from Tanjung Tabalong coal was investigated its absorption capability to organic and inorganic elements in industrial waste. Coal was carbonized at low temperature of 600C to produce semicoke, and then was activated at temperature of 700C with activation time of 120 minutes with water steam flow. The absorption capability of activated carbon to chemical oxygen demand (COD was performed using 2.5 and 9.0 g activated carbon for 250 ml and 300 ml COD waste respectively. The agitation time of each experiment were 30, 60, and 90 minutes. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS was used to analyze the COD waste. The result shows that 2.5 g activated carbon could absorb COD waste ranging from 6.9-67.5 %, while the utilization of 9 g could absorb COD waste ranging from 88.9 - 100 %. The more activated carbon and the longer time of agitation used in this experiment, the more the absorption of COD waste.

  13. Experience of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office with EARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, B.J.; Pollock, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) was established by the federal government in 1982 to carry out the government's responsibilities for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management in Canada. The LLRWMO mandate includes the resolution of historic waste problems which are a federal responsibility. Assessment of LLRWMO projects in accordance with the federal Environmental Assessment Review Process (EARP) has been a long-standing requirement, both as a matter of AECL policy and because the work is federally funded. Several projects have required interim storage at, or near, the original waste site. This aspect, interim storage, can be controversial, and is the primary focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper describes LLRWMO experience with environmental assessment, including public consultation as an integral part of the assessment process, for projects from 1983 to present which have involved substantial volumes of contaminated soil. (author)

  14. Operating experience during high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, P.J.; Elliott, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of operational experiences, component and system performance, and lessons learned associated with the operation of the Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The VF was designed to convert stored high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stable waste form (borosilicate glass) suitable for disposal in a federal repository. Following successful completion on nonradioactive test, HLW processing began in July 1995. Completion of Phase 1 of HLW processing was reached on 10 June 1998 and represented the processing of 9.32 million curies of cesium-137 (Cs-137) and strontium-90 (Sr-90) to fill 211 canisters with over 436,000 kilograms of glass. With approximately 85% of the total estimated curie content removed from underground waste storage tanks during Phase 1, subsequent operations will focus on removal of tank heel wastes

  15. Management of radioactive wastes from non-power applications. The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Jova, L.

    2001-01-01

    ; Safety analysis for Cuban long term Storage Facility; Decommissioning of small nuclear facilities; Conditioning of disused sealed sources; Management of disused high activity radioactive sources; Management of disused long-lived radioactive sources. Expert Missions in Latin-America Region. CPHR specialists have participated in some IAEA expert missions in Latin America countries, such as: Radioactive Decontamination of brachytherapy areas at Oncology Institute 'Dr. Heriberto Pieter' in Dominican Republic (1996); Radiological Characterization and Relocation of Radioactive Wastes at the INEA - Colombia (1996); Conditioning of Spent Radium Sources for Safe Long Term Storage in Colombia (1997); Review draft regulation on Waste Safety in Panama (1998); Organizers and Lecturers in the Regional Training Course on 'Management of Radioactive Waste from Nuclear Applications' (1999); Assessment of current situation on Waste Safety in Dominican Republic and to review draft regulation on Waste Safety (2000); Lecturer in Regional Training Course on Control of Discharges of Radioactive Materials related with medical and industrial applications (2000). The Cuban Radioactive Waste Management program includes all elements of an integrated system, that means laws and regulations, operating and regulating organization, systems for processing and long term storage of radioactive wastes. In parallel with the operation of these facilities, an R and D program is in progress, covering different aspects of radioactive waste management. The gained practical experience in radioactive decontamination and decommissioning of small facilities is one of the most important achievements of the nuclear programme in Cuba. (author)

  16. Off-the-job microsurgical training on dry models: Siberian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, Evgenii; Byvaltsev, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgical training has become an obligatory part of many neurosurgical training programs. To assess the cost and effectiveness of acquiring and maintaining microneurosurgical skills by training on an off-the-job basis using dry models. A dry off-the-job microneurosurgical training module was set up. Training exercises involved microdissection in a deep operation field, suturing and tying on gauze, untying, pushing of thread end, and microanastomosis. The time to complete the task and success rate were evaluated. The total cost of all necessary equipment and expendables for the training module was US$910. Fifteen residents participated in the continuous off-the-job training. The average time taken to perform the anastomosis decreased after the month of training from 90 to 20 minutes. Authors revealed that at 2 months, the total time and time to complete anastomosis increased significantly for the participants who discontinued practice after the first month, compared with those who just practiced suturing on gauze after the first month (P job training showed to be readily available and can be helpful for microsurgical training in the low-income regions of the world. Our data suggest that microsurgical training should be continuous and repetitive. Simulation training may benefit from models for repetitive training of relevant technical part-skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Malaysian experiences in radiological safety assessment on norm wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad; Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol

    2000-01-01

    Radiological Impact Assessments (RIAs) on proposed disposal sites for NORM wastes were performed in Malaysia. Analysis results were used to derive site specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil, calculation of doses and risks. Appropriate use scenarios and site specific parameters were used as much as possible so as to be realistic so that will reasonably ensure that individual dose limits and or constraints will be achieved. Disposals were performed to fulfil Atomic Energy Licensing Board of Malaysia (AELB) requirements for which the operator must carry out a radiological impact assessment. This is to demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/year from all activities. Fatal cancer risk factor is 5x10 -2 per man.Sv. Radionuclides of main concern are radium-226 and radium-228 which are considered as toxic. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were performed to show that the parameters used as input into the computer model were justified so as to improve confidence of the public and the AELB in respect of the results of the analysis. Case study to determine a proposed near surface disposal site for treated oil sludge was described. (author)

  18. On performance experience and measurements with Ningyo Waste Assay System (NWAS). 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaima, Naoki; Nakashima, Shin'ichi; Nakatsuka, Yoshiaki; Kado, Kazumi; Fujiki, Naoki

    2014-03-01

    A uranium mass assay system, NWAS (Ningyo Waste Assay System), for 200-litter wastes drums applied by NDA method was developed and accumulated the data of the actual uranium bearing wastes drums. The system consists of the 16 pieces of Helium-3 proportional counters for neutron detection generated from U-234(α,n) reaction or U-238 spontaneous fissions with polyethylene moderation and a Germanium solid state detector (Ge-SSD) for gamma ray detection as to determine uranium enrichment. In previous report, some measurement experiences had been introduced briefly. After that the measurements campaigns against the actual wastes drums stored in URCP had been carried out successfully, the uranium determination data of 850 drums had been accumulated approximately. Those characteristics were rich in variety including various kinds of matrices, uranium chemical compositions and range of uranium mass and so on. These works have contributed the decrease of the MUF in URCP, for which was the first purpose of introduction of NWAS. On the other hand several considerable problems on the system or methodology had been revealed technically or analytically through the measurements experiences. Such experiences are to be described precisely, in addition newly gained knowledge will be marshaled. Furthermore as the next improvement plans, the active neutrons assay for uranium bearing wastes drums are now progressing. The results of complications will lead us to the progressive next steps. (author)

  19. A new approach for concurrently improving performance of South Korean food waste valorization and renewable energy recovery via dry anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Yeop, Jeong Seong; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-08-01

    Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m 3 day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions. In all cases tested, the digesters' best performance was achieved at the SLR of 9.21kg TS/m 3 day, with 74.02% and 80.98% reduction of volatile solids (VS), 0.87 and 0.90m 3 biogas/kg VS removed , and 0.65 (65% CH 4 ) and 0.73 (60.02% CH 4 ) m 3 biogas/kg VS fed , under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Thermophilic dry AD is recommended for FW treatment in South Korea because it is more efficient and has higher energy recovery potential when compared to mesophilic dry AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foreign experience in alpha-contaminated waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, P.

    1982-01-01

    The European presentations provided some useful comparisons with the situation int he United States regarding the transuranic (TRU) waste limit. First, in Europe, there appears to be a more moderate view on intrusion compared to the preoccupation in United States with this issue. Second, and superficially, in the United Kingdom and France, the working limit for near-surface disposal is greater than 10 nCi/g and more like 100 nCi/g. Looking beneath the superficial, however, the important difference is that their limits are working limits; they are not cast in bronze like the 10 nCi/g US value is not perceived to be. Europeans seem to have a more flexible and practical view of the issue and have reserved for its solution a rather large middle ground that appears to be lacking in the US position. For example, the United Kingdom is moving actively toward a version of greater confinement disposal or engineered disposal at a greater depth (with plutonium numbers like 10 4 nCi/g projected) and then moving on to the modified mine with limits like 10 5 nCi/g. From the French presentations, limits like 10 3 nCi/g were discussed. As we debate the TRU limit issue, what we seem to hear is an argument between the advocates of a generic limit of perhaps 100 nCi/g and the arguments for site-specific limits. This debate clouds perhaps the more basic issue of the need for a middle ground disposal approach between the extremes of a room trash limit and geologic disposal

  1. Experiences in the treatment of radioactive wastes in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambros, R.; Rittscher, D.

    1983-01-01

    The liquid, gaseous and solid radioactive wastes arising from the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) have - if they cannot be reused - to be disposed of according to rules set up by the competent authorities. In this paper the treatment of wastes from NPP is described as it is carried out today due to the actual lack of a waste repository in the FRG. As most NPP have only an interim storage capacity for 1 year, measures for a further reduction of waste arisings, for volume reduction of the waste and for extension of the storage capacity have become necessary. The reduction of the waste arisings to the possible minimum is being achieved by administrative measures. A volume reduction of the waste is achieved by improvement of already existing methods and by development of new methods. Mixed solid wastes are reduced in volume by baling at high pressure. Burnable wastes can be reduced in volume by incineration. Liquid radioactive concentrates are reduced in volume by water separation, evaporation or drying. The volume reduction factors achieved are large as compared to the formerly applied cementation. The products arising are put into cast-iron containers which following the actual knowledge, should meet the requirements for final disposal with respect to the pressure stability, corrosion resistance and leach resistance. Due to the high density of the container material and the great wall thickness the specific activity of the waste can be increased without exceeding the dose rate limits at the outside of the containers. (author)

  2. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An experiment to examine the mechanistic behaviour of irradiated CANDU fuel stored under dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldaker, I.E.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Keltie, R.J.; Truss, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A program has begun to use the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment dry-storage canisters to store some selected CANDU irradiated fuel bundles in an 'easily retrievable basket.' The object of the experimental program is to study the long-term stability of the Zircaloy-sheathed UO 2 and UC fuel elements when stored in air. Bundles were loaded into a canister in October 1979 following detailed examination and removal of up to three complete elements from most bundles. These elements are currently being subjected to detailed destructive examinations, including metallography and scanning electron micrography, to fully characterize their pre-storage condition. After four years, and every five years thereafter, further elements will be examined similarly to study the effects of the storage environment on the stability of the Zircaloy sheathing, and on its continued ability to contain the fuel safely in an interim storage facility. (author)

  4. Plant and Industry Experience. MAS-122. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to use plant and industry experience to improve plant safety and reliability. The following topics are covered in the module's individual…

  5. Experience in the management of radioactive wastes from power reactors - scope for regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.; Khan, A.A.

    The paper presents the R and D and operational experience of India in the development of a viable technology in the field of radioactive waste management and examines the scope for regional cooperation between countries with comparable conditions with a view to minimise the discharge of radioactivity to the environment. (author)

  6. Quality assurance in management of geotechnical experiments for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Simmons, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    Research and development (R and D) of technology for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock is being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, jointly funded by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Research and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owner's Group. A major component of the R and D is geotechnical research to improve the understanding of the response of the host rock to a waste repository; investigate the interactions between the waste package, sealing systems, and rock; elucidate geotechnical factors affecting potential transport of waste elements from the repository; and establish and refine techniques and procedures for repository engineering. Nine major experimental activities are currently in various stages of planning and implementation at AECL's Underground Research Laboratory (URL). A general description of a quality assurance (QA) program developed at AECL for R and D on nuclear waste disposal has been published previously. This QA program is project-oriented and is designed specifically for and R and D environment. The full application of the QA program is being phased into the management of the operating phase experiments because some activities were under way prior to establishment of the QA program

  7. Wet-dry cycles effect on ash water repellency. A laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Oliva, Marc; Mataix, Jorge; Jordán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In the immediate period after the fire, the ash layer has a strong influence on soil hydrological processes, as runoff, infiltration and erosion. Ash is very dynamic in the space and time. Until the first rainfall periods, ash is (re)distributed by the wind. After it can cover the soil surface, infiltrate or transported to other areas by water transport (Pereira et al., 2013a, b). This will have strong implications on nutrient redistribution and vegetation recovery. Ash layer may affect soil water repellency in different ways, depending on fire severity, soil properties and vegetation. Ash produced at low temperatures after low-severity burning is usually hydrophobic (Bodi et al., 2011, 2012). Wet-dry cycles have implications on ash physical and chemical properties, changing their effects in space and time. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of fire temperature and severity on ash water repellency. Pinus sylvestris needles were collected in a Lithuania forest in Dzukija National Park (53º 54' N and 24º 22' E), transported to laboratory and washed with deionized water to remove soil particles and other residues. Needle samples were dried during 24 hours and exposed to different temperatures: 200, 300, 400 and 500 ºC, during 2 hours. Ash colour was analysed according to the Munsell Soil Color charts. Ash was black (10 YR 2/1) at 200 ºC, very dark grey (10YR 3/1) at 300 ºC, gray (10YR 5/1) at 400 ºC and light gray (10YR 7/1) at 500 ºC. Ten samples of ash released after each treatment were placed in plastic dishes (50 mm in diameter) in an amount enough to form a 5 mm thick layer, and ash water repellency was measured according to the Water Drop Penetration Test. Later, ash was carefully wetted with 15 ml of deionized water and placed in an oven during 4 days (96 hours), as in Bodí et al. (2012). This procedure was repeated 5 times in order to observe the effects of wet-dry cycles in ash water repellency. The results showed significant differences

  8. Slaughterhouse waste co-digestion - Experiences from 15 years of full-scale operation

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Anders; Hallin, Sara; Vallin, Lina; Schnurer, Anna; Karlsson, Martin

    2011-01-01

    At Tekniska Verken in Linköping AB (TVAB) there is a long time experience of handling and producing biogas from large volumes of slaughterhouse waste. Experiences from research and development and plant operations have lead to the implementation of several process improving technological/biological solutions. We can in this paper describe how the improvements have had several positive effects on the process, including energy savings, better odor control, higher gas quality, increased organic ...

  9. Validation Experiments for Spent-Fuel Dry-Cask In-Basket Convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Barton L.

    2016-01-01

    This work consisted of the following major efforts; 1. Literature survey on validation of external natural convection; 2. Design the experiment; 3. Build the experiment; 4. Run the experiment; 5. Collect results; 6. Disseminate results; and 7. Perform a CFD validation study using the results. We note that while all tasks are complete, some deviations from the original plan were made. Specifically, geometrical changes in the parameter space were skipped in favor of flow condition changes, which were found to be much more practical to implement. Changing the geometry required new as-built measurements, which proved extremely costly and impractical given the time and funds available

  10. Validation Experiments for Spent-Fuel Dry-Cask In-Basket Convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2016-08-16

    This work consisted of the following major efforts; 1. Literature survey on validation of external natural convection; 2. Design the experiment; 3. Build the experiment; 4. Run the experiment; 5. Collect results; 6. Disseminate results; and 7. Perform a CFD validation study using the results. We note that while all tasks are complete, some deviations from the original plan were made. Specifically, geometrical changes in the parameter space were skipped in favor of flow condition changes, which were found to be much more practical to implement. Changing the geometry required new as-built measurements, which proved extremely costly and impractical given the time and funds available

  11. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE FROM INSTALLATION OF SEMI-DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANT IN JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Plaskacz-Dziuba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of waste from semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation installation called Integrated Novel Desulphurisation (NID. A comprehensive analysis of the physicochemical properties was conducted, including analyzes of the content of ions SO32- and SO42- (relating to 2CaSO3·H2O i CaSO4·2H2O, moisture, SiO2 and R2O3 and SEM-EDX analysis. The original method for the determination of sulphates (IV using a potentiometric titrator was designed. Determined that the main component of both studied wastes was 2CaSO3·H2O, and its content is for NID 1 – 41,24±0,63%, for NID 2 – 45,53±0,33%. The content of CaSO4·2H2O, which was determined by gravimetric method amounted for the NID 1 – 8,92±0,12%, for the NID 2 – 8,27±0,08%. The moisture content for both tested materials was about 4%, the content of SiO2 was in the range of 8–10%, and R2O3 content was about 1%. It was also shown that the test material is not homogenous. Images from scanning electron microscope showed that in the waste occured irregularly agglomerates with a diameter between 30 and 100 microns. EDX analysis revealed that elements constituted NID wastes are oxygen, sulfur, calcium, chlorine, silicon, aluminum, copper and carbon.

  12. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  13. Comparative evaluation of organic wastes for improving maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of three agricultural waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), banana waste (BW) and pressmud (PM) was tested in a pot experiment growing maize. The results of the experiment showed highly significant increase in plant height, dry matter yields and NPK contents with the application of fertilizers, particularly ...

  14. Pilot plant experience on high-level waste solidification and design of the engineering prototype VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guber, W; Diefenbacher, W; Hild, W; Krause, H; Schneider, E; Schubert, G

    1972-11-01

    In the present paper the solidification process for highly active waste solutions as developed in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center is presented. Its principal steps are: denitration, calcination in a spray calciner operated with superheated steam, melting of the calcine with appropriate additives to borosilicate glass in an induction-heated melting furnace. The operational experiences gained so far in the inactive 1:1 pilot plant are reported. Furthermore, a description is given of the projected multi-purpose experimental facility VERA 2 which is provided for processing the highly active waste solutions from the first German reprocessing plant WAK.

  15. Experience stemming from the management of a low and medium activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisantieu, D.; Bendejac, R.

    1985-01-01

    Since November 1979, STMI has been in charge of CM management on behalf of ANDRA. Lessons drawn from more than 4 years of operations noticeable for the constant increase of waste volume and a large evolution of storage prescriptions decided by safety authorities, are very numerous. They mostly deal with the structure of the operating team and its health physics, as well as design and planning of storage installations. This experience allows STMI to look forward an evolution of storage practices aiming at improving altogether the safety of radioactivity confinement, the physical and radiological protection of workers and the economic conditions of waste storage [fr

  16. Experience stemming from the management of a low and medium activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisantieu, D.; Bendejac, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since November 1979, STMI has been in charge of CM management on behalf of ANDRA. Lessons drawn from more than 4 years of operations noticeable for the constant increase of waste volume and a large evolution of storage prescriptions decided by safety authorities, are very numerous. They mostly deal with the structure of the operating team and its health physics, as well as design and planning of storage installations. This experience allows STMI to look forward an evolution of storage practices aiming at improving altogether the safety of radioactivity confinement, the physical and radiological protection of workers and the economic conditions of waste storage [fr

  17. Assessment of the recycling potential of fresh concrete waste using a factorial design of experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, S L; Souza, F L; Dienstmann, G; Segadães, A M

    2009-11-01

    Recycling of industrial wastes and by-products can help reduce the cost of waste treatment prior to disposal and eventually preserve natural resources and energy. To assess the recycling potential of a given waste, it is important to select a tool capable of giving clear indications either way, with the least time and work consumption, as is the case of modelling the system properties using the results obtained from statistical design of experiments. In this work, the aggregate reclaimed from the mud that results from washout and cleaning operations of fresh concrete mixer trucks (fresh concrete waste, FCW) was recycled into new concrete with various water/cement ratios, as replacement of natural fine aggregates. A 3(2) factorial design of experiments was used to model fresh concrete consistency index and hardened concrete water absorption and 7- and 28-day compressive strength, as functions of FCW content and water/cement ratio, and the resulting regression equations and contour plots were validated with confirmation experiments. The results showed that the fresh concrete workability worsened with the increase in FCW content but the water absorption (5-10 wt.%), 7-day compressive strength (26-36 MPa) and 28-day compressive strength (32-44 MPa) remained within the specified ranges, thus demonstrating that the aggregate reclaimed from FCW can be recycled into new concrete mixtures with lower natural aggregate content.

  18. Stabilization of compactible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. In situ experiments for disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report reviews the current status of in-situ experiments undertaken to assess various concepts for disposal of spent fuel and reprocessed high-level waste in deep geological formations. Specifically it describes in-situ experiments in three geological formations - clay, granite and domed salt. The emphasis in this report is on the in-situ experiments which deal with the various issues related to the near-field effects in a repository and the geological environment immediately surrounding the repository. These near-field effects are due to the disturbance caused by both the construction of the repository and the waste itself. The descriptions are drawn primarily from four underground research facilities: the Underground Experimental Facility, Belgium (clay), the Stripa Project, Sweden and the Underground Research Laboratory, Canada (granite) and the Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany (salt). 54 refs, figs and tab

  20. Snow depth manipulation experiments in a dry and a moist tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, M. J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Jung, J. Y.; Kim, M.; Lee, Y. K.; Nam, S.; Wagner, I.

    2017-12-01

    As a result of global warming, precipitation in the Arctic is expected to increase by 25-50% by the end of this century, mostly in the form of snow. However, precipitation patterns vary considerable in space and time, and future precipitation patterns are highly uncertain at local and regional scales. The amount of snowfall (or snow depth) influences a number of ecosystem properties in Arctic ecosystems, such as soil temperature over winter and soil moisture in the following growing season. These modifications then affect rates of carbon-related soil processes and photosynthesis, thus CO2 exchange rates between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. In this study, we investigate the effects of snow depth on the magnitude, sources and temporal dynamics of CO2 fluxes. We installed snow fences in a dry dwarf-shrub (Cambridge Bay, Canada; 69° N, 105° W) and a moist low-shrub (Council, Alaska, USA; 64° N, 165° W) tundra in summer 2017, and established control, and increased and reduced snow depth plots at each snow fence. Summertime CO2 flux rates (net ecosystem exchange, ecosystem respiration, gross primary production) and the fractions of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration to ecosystem respiration were measured using manual chambers and radiocarbon signatures. Wintertime CO2 flux rates will be measured using soda lime adsorption technique and forced diffusion chambers. Soil temperature and moisture at multiple depths, as well as changes in soil properties and microbial communities will be also observed, to research whether these changes affect CO2 flux rates or patterns. Our study will elucidate how future snow depth and its impact on soil physical and biogeochemical properties influence the magnitude and sources of tundra-atmosphere CO2 exchange in the rapidly warming Arctic.

  1. Limited BRC rulemaking: Regulatory approach and experience in Texas for short-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, Ruth E.; Pollard, Christine G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Texas Department of Health (TDH) implemented a rule to allow, under certain conditions, wastes containing limited concentrations of short- lived radionuclides (less than 300-day half-life) to be disposed of in Type I sanitary landfills. The rule was based on a technical analysis that demonstrated the degree of safety for approximately 340 m of radioactive waste generated annually in Texas and identified major restrictions and conditions for disposal. TDH's Bureau of Radiation Control staff have been able to maintain an account of licensees utilizing the rule during the past years. Several research and industrial facilities in the state have saved significantly on waste disposal expenses. Public concerns and economic impacts for licensees as well as other regulatory aspects and experiences with the rule are discussed. (author)

  2. Non-destructive measurements of nuclear wastes. Validation and industrial operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Tchemitciieff, E.

    1993-01-01

    After a short survey of the means employed for the non-destructive measurement of specific activities (γ and X-ray) in waste packages and raw waste, the performances of the device and the ANDRA requirements are presented. The validation of the γ and X-ray measurements on packages is obtained through determining, by destructive means, the same activity on coring samples. The same procedure is used for validating the homogeneity measurements on packages (either homogeneous or heterogeneous). Different operating experiences are then exposed for several kinds of packages and waste. Up to now, about twenty different types of packages have been examined and more than 200 packages have allowed the calibration, validation, and control

  3. Review of the literature for dry reprocessing oxide, metal, and carbide fuel: The AIROX, RAHYD, and CARBOX pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.; Rhee, B.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Energy Systems Group

    1979-09-30

    The state of the art of dry processing oxide, carbide, and metal fuel has been determined through an extensive literature review. Dry processing in one of the most proliferation resistant fuel reprocessing technologies available to date, and is one of the few which can be exported to other countries. Feasibility has been established for oxide, carbide, and metal fuel on a laboratory scale, and large-scale experiments on oxide and carbide fuel have shown viability of the dry processing concept. A complete dry processing cycle has been demonstrated by multicycle processing-refabrication-reirradiation experiments on oxide fuel. Additional experimental work is necessary to: (1) demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for carbide and metal fuel, (2) optimize dry processing conditions, and (3) establish fission product behavior. Dry process waste management is easier than for an aqueous processing facility since wastes are primarily solids and gases. Waste treatment can be accomplished by techniques which have been, or are being, developed for aqueous plants.

  4. The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Stumpp

    Full Text Available The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity.

  5. Elaboration of amniotic membrane dressing dried by air and irradiated - Peruvian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamero, E.C.; Perez Caballero, N.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare dressings from the amniotic membrane to be used in cases of skin damage principally due to superficial and intermediate second-degree burns. The amnion is a transparent membrane that lines the chorion. It is resistant and rich in collagen. Due to these characteristics it can be well used as biological dressing as it diminishes the loss of fluids, electrolytes and proteins, it also protects the growing epithelium and adheres well to the surface of the wound, improves mobility of the patient, diminishing pain and stimulating neovascularization. The ISN-IPEN Tissue Bank promoted by IAEA has processed amniotic membrane since July 1997. Initially dressings were prepared using antibiotics, after IAEA training at the MINT of Malaysia, it is processed dried by air, lyophylized and in both presentations, sterilized by gamma-rays. Amniotic membranes are procured from Lima Maternity. Tissues must comply with VDRL, HIV, Hepatitis B and C exclusion tests. The process is held in a laminar flow hood and amnion already separated from the chorion is washed with sterile distilled water, a solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite, and normal saline. Then it is cut into appropriate sizes and double packed in PE films. The dressings are then carried to the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy for irradiation, depending on the number of samples either irradiated with gamma-rays at the Gammacell 220 or at the Irradiation Facility located in Santa Anita. The delivered dose is 25 kGy. The product is only released if it complies with the end product quality controls. Meanwhile, microbiological tests are carried out during all the processing stages, in order to monitor the microbial load during production. In conclusion we can state that dressings prepared as above mentioned have the following advantages: not complicated preparation; reliable and safe for clinical use; diminish infection rates and days spent in the hospital; easy to storage; and can be

  6. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the basic processes that occur in the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive wastes are needed to engineer facilities with guaranteed performance, to validate models for system predictions, and to provide input to models that consider contaminant pathways out of the facility. Two types of novel experiments that will provide experimental data on the basic processes in shallow land burial facilities are described in this paper. Generic experiments that give data on the movement of water and radionuclides and an experiment that is particularly important for semi-arid sites are described

  7. Optimisation of single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion under high organic loading rates of industrial municipal solid waste: population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2013-10-01

    Different high feed organic loading rates (OLRs) (from 5.7 g to 46.0 g TVS/l/d) or hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (from 15 d to 2 d) in single-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) were investigated. The specific gas production (SGP) values (0.25-0.53 m(3)/kg TVS) and the percentages of Eubacteria, Archaea, H2-utilising methanogens (HUMs) and acetate-utilising methanogens (AUMs) were stable within the ranges 80.2-91.1%, 12.4-18.5%, 4.4-9.8% and 5.5-10.9%, respectively. A HUM/AUM ratio greater than 0.7 seems to be necessary to maintain very low partial pressures of H2 required for dry AD process. Increasing OLR resulted in an increase in all the populations, except for propionate-utilising acetogens (PUAs). Optimal conditions were obtained at 3d HRT (OLR=30.7 g TVS/l/d), which is lower than the doubling time of acetogens and methanogens. The methane production (MP) was clearly higher than those reported in AD of OFMSW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Waste Estimates for a Future Recycling Plant in the US Based Upon AREVA Operating Experience - 13206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foare, Genevieve; Meze, Florian [AREVA E and P, SGN - 1, rue des Herons, 78182 Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France); Bader, Sven; McGee, Don; Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services LLC, 7207 IBM Drive, Mail Code CLT- 1D, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States); Prud' homme, Pascal [AREVA NC SA - 1, place Jean Millier, 92084 Paris La Defense CEDEX (France)

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of process and secondary wastes produced by a recycling plant built in the U.S., which is composed of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing facility and a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility, are performed as part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored study [1]. In this study, a set of common inputs, assumptions, and constraints were identified to allow for comparison of these wastes between different industrial teams. AREVA produced a model of a reprocessing facility, an associated fuel fabrication facility, and waste treatment facilities to develop the results for this study. These facilities were divided into a number of discrete functional areas for which inlet and outlet flow streams were clearly identified to allow for an accurate determination of the radionuclide balance throughout the facility and the waste streams. AREVA relied primarily on its decades of experience and feedback from its La Hague (reprocessing) and MELOX (MOX fuel fabrication) commercial operating facilities in France to support this assessment. However, to perform these estimates for a U.S. facility with different regulatory requirements and to take advantage of some technological advancements, such as in the potential treatment of off-gases, some deviations from this experience were necessary. A summary of AREVA's approach and results for the recycling of 800 metric tonnes of initial heavy metal (MTIHM) of LWR UNF per year into MOX fuel under the assumptions and constraints identified for this DOE study are presented. (authors)

  9. Slaughterhouse waste co-digestion - Experiences from 15 years of full-scale operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, A.E.W. (Swedish Biogas International Korea Co., Ltd, Totaleco B/D 1302-7, Seocho-Dong, Seocho-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Hallin, S.; Vallin, L. (Dept. of Biogas R and D, Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping AB (Sweden)); Schnurer, A. (Dept. of Microbiology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)); Karlsson, M. (Dept. of Biogas R and D, Tekniska Verken i Linkoeping AB (Sweden); Dept. of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), E-mail: martin.karlsson@tekniskaverken.se

    2012-01-15

    At Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping AB (TVAB) there is a long time experience of handling and producing biogas from large volumes of slaughterhouse waste. Experiences from research and development and plant operations have lead to the implementation of several process improving technological/biological solutions. We can in this paper describe how the improvements have had several positive effects on the process, including energy savings, better odor control, higher gas quality, increased organic loading rates and higher biogas production with maintained process stability. In addition, it is described how much of the process stability in anaerobic digestion of slaughter house waste relates to the plant operation, which allow the microbiological consortia to adapt to the substrate. Since digestion of proteinaceous substrates like slaughterhouse waste lead to high ammonia loads, special requirements in ammonia tolerance are placed on the microbiota of the anaerobic digestion. Biochemical assays revealed that the main route for methane production proceed through syntrophic acetate oxidation, which require longer retention times than methane production by acetoclastic methanogens. Thus, the long retention time of the plant, accomplished by a low dilution of the substrate, is a vital component of the process stability when treating high protein substrates like slaughterhouse waste

  10. Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetriwal, Deepali Sinha; Kraeuchi, Philipp; Widmer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    E-waste, a relatively recent addition to the waste stream in the form of discarded electronic and electric equipment, is getting increasing attention from policy makers as the quantity being generated is rising rapidly. One of the most promising policy options to address this issue is to extend the producers responsibility for their products beyond the point of sale, until end-of-product-life. This paper briefly introduces the concept of extended producer responsibility (EPR) and its applicability in the area of the end-of-life management of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE). It then examines the decade-long experience of Switzerland in using EPR to manage its e-waste, elaborating on the experience of the Swiss system in overcoming specific issues, and finally wrapping up with a synopsis of the lessons for policy makers. We consider each issue as an enquiry of questions confronting a policy maker and the choices that may present themselves. The five issues discussed are: (i) the challenges in getting an EPR based system started; (ii) securing financing to ensure a self-sustaining and smooth functioning system; (iii) organising a logistics network for the take back and collection of the e-waste; (iv) ensuring compliance of the various actors involved; and finally (v) reducing the threat of monopolistic practices.

  11. Efficient sorting of waste by means of dry stabilisation and separation of inert materials; Effiziente Sortierung von Restabfall durch Trockenstabilisierung und Inertstoffabscheidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heering, B.M. [Herhof-Umwelt GmbH, Solms-Niederbiel (Germany); Heil, J. [Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Kokereiwesen, Brikettierung und Thermische Abfallbehandlung, Aachen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Sorting of waste takes place in two stages: First, the waste is dried to a moisture of 15 % by weight, making use of its microbial activities. After this, the stabilised residue is sorted according to grain size, density, magnetic susceiptibility, electric conductivity, and comminution characteristics. This way, recyclable materials are recovered almost completely (e.g. metals, stone, ceramics, glass). The refuse-derived fuel fraction has significantly lower heavy metal concentrations because the metals were sorted out, and its calorific value and homogemeity are optimised as well. The fuel fraction can be combusted at once or stored for further use. [German] Die stoffliche Trennung des Restabfalls kann in zwei aufeinander folgende Schritte unterteilt werden. Den ersten Schritt stellt eine Trocknung unter Ausnutzung der mikrobiellen Aktivitaeten des Materials dar. Durch diese Massnahme wird ein trockenes Material mit einer Restfeuchte von unter 15 Gew.-% erzeugt. Den zweiten Verfahrensschritt stellt die Sortierung des stabilisierten Restabfall dar. Als Sortierkriterium werden die Eigenschaften Korngroesse, Dichte, magnetische Suszeptibilitaet, elektrische Leitfaehigkeit und Zerkleinerungsverhalten angewandt. Hierdruch ist eine nahezu vollstaendige und sortenreine Rueckgewinnung der im Abfall enthaltenen Wertstoffe wie Eisen-/Nichteisenmetalle, Steine/Keramik und Glas sichergestellt. Weiterhin erhaelt man als Brennstofffraktion das Trockenstabilat {sup circledR}. Aufgrund der Abtrennung der hauptsaechlichen Schwermetalltraeger, Eisen- und Nichteisenmetalle, besitzt dieser Sekundaerbrennstoff gegenueber dem unbehandeltem Restabfall deutlich verminderte Schwermetallkonzentrationen. Zudem sind seine verbrennungstechnisch relevanten Eigenschaften Heizwert und Homogenitaet deutlich optimiert. Das Trockenstabilat {sup circledR} wird sofort oder zeitversetzt der energetischen Verwertung zugefuehrt. (orig.)

  12. Performance evaluation and operational experience with a semi-automatic monitor for the radiological characterization of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Csullog, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) have undertaken a Waste Disposal Project to co-ordinate the transition from the current practice of interim storage to permanent disposal for low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The strategy of the project is to classify and segregate waste segments according to their hazardous radioactive lifetimes and to emplace them in disposal facilities engineered to isolate and contain them. To support this strategy, a waste characterization program was set up to estimate the volume and radioisotope inventories of the wastes managed by CRNL. A key element of the program is the demonstration of a non-invasive measurement technique for the isotope-specific characterization of solid LLW. This paper describes the approach taken at CRNL for the non-invasive assay of LLW and the field performance and early operational experience with a waste characterization monitor to be used in a waste processing facility

  13. Performance evaluation and operational experience with a semi-automatic monitor for the radiological characterization of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.C.; Csullog, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) have undertaken a Waste Disposal Project to co-ordinate the transition from the current practice of interim storage to permanent disposal for low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The strategy of the project is to classify and segregate waste segments according to their hazardous radioactive lifetimes and to emplace them in disposal facilities engineered to isolate and contain them. To support this strategy, a waste characterization program was set up to estimate the volume and radioisotope inventories of the wastes managed by CRNL. A key element of the program is the demonstration of a non-invasive measurement technique for the isotope-specific characterization of solid LLW. This paper describes the approach taken at CRNL for the non-invasive assay of LLW and the field performance and early operational experience with a waste characterization monitor to be used in a waste processing facility

  14. Chemical reactivity of precursor materials during synthesis of glasses used for conditioning high-level radioactive waste: Experiments and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    The glass used to store high-level radioactive waste is produced by reaction of a solid waste residue and a glassy precursor (glass frit). The waste residue is first dried and calcined (to lose water and nitrogen respectively), then mixed with the glass frit to enable vitrification at high temperature. In order to obtain a good quality glass of constant composition upon cooling, the chemical reactions between the solid precursors must be complete while in the liquid state, to enable incorporation of the radioactive elements into the glassy matrix. The physical and chemical conditions during glass synthesis (e.g. temperature, relative proportions of frit and calcine, amount of radioactive charge) are typically empirically adjusted to obtain a satisfactory final product. The aim of this work is to provide new insights into the chemical and physical interactions that take place during vitrification and to provide data for a mathematical model that has been developed to simulate the chemical reactions. The consequences of the different chemical reactions that involve solid, liquid and gaseous phases are described (thermal effects, changes in crystal morphology and composition, variations in melt properties and structure). In a first series of experiments, a simplified analogue of the calcine (NaNO 3 -Al 2 O 3 ± MoO 3 /Nd 2 O 3 ) has been studied. In a second series of experiments, the simplified calcines have been reacted with a simplified glass frit (SiO 2 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 ) at high temperature. The results show that crystallization of the calcine may take place before interaction with the glass frit, but that the reactivity with the glass at high temperature is a function of the nature and stoichiometry of the crystalline phases which form at low temperature. The results also highlight how the mixing of the starting materials, the physical properties of the frit (viscosity, glass transition temperature) and the Na 2 O/Al 2 O 3 of the calcine but also its

  15. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. Dry process of smokes treatment with sodium bicarbonate and the recycling of sodic wastes; Proceso seco de depuracion de humos con bicarbonato sodico de reciclado de productos sodicos residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, X.

    1996-12-01

    The Neutrec process of Solvay for the acid emissions treatment by sodium bicarbonate is using in Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherland and Spain. there are 28 facilities for the smokes treatment. these smokes are coming from the urban, sanitary and hazardous wastes. The Neutrec process is using dry reactive for neutralizing the acid smoker. (Author)

  17. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1983-09-01

    In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), experiments on hydrothermal rock/water interaction, corrosion, thermomechanics, and geochemical modeling calculations are being conducted. All of these activities require characterization of the initial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry of the potential repository host rock. This report summarizes the characterization done on samples of the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff (Tcfb) used for Waste Package experimental programs. 11 references, 17 figures, 3 tables

  18. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  19. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Luebker, D.; Coyle, A.; Kalia, H.

    1984-10-01

    This is the First Annual report (1983) which describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste respository at the 800-meter level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report describes the test equipment, the Asse Salt Mine, the pretest properties of the salt in the test gallery, and the mine proper. Also included are test data for the first six months of operations on brine migration rates, room closure rates, extensometer readings, stress measurements, and thermal mechanical behavior of the salt. The duration of the experiments will be two years, ending in December 1985. 3 references, 34 figures, 13 tables

  1. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables

  2. Petrologic and geochemical characterization of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff: outcrop samples used in waste package experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauss, K.G.

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes characterization studies conducted with outcrop samples of Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (Tpt). In support of the Waste Package Task within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI), Tpt is being studied both as a primary object and as a constituent used to condition water that will be reacted with waste form, canister, or packing material. These studies directly or indirectly support NNWSI subtasks concerned with waste package design and geochemical modeling. To interpret the results of subtask experiments, it is necessary to know the exact nature of the starting material in terms of the intial bulk composition, mineralogy, and individual phase geochemistry. 31 figures, 5 tables.

  3. A process for treatment of residues from dry/semidry APC systems at municipal solid waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelmar, O. [VKI, Hoersholm (Denmark)] Holland, D. [FLS miljoe a/s, Valby (Denmark)] Poulsen, B. [KARA, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The main objective of the project has been to establish and test a process for treatment of residues from the semidry (and dry) lime injection based APC processes at MSWIs, which will ensure that the residues can be managed in an environmentally safe manner. In pursuit of this goal, the following activities have been carried out: Performance of pilot scale extractions (approximately 50 kg of residue per batch) at the KARA MSWI in Roskilde of semidry APC system residues in order to establish and optimize process conditions. The optimization includes consideration of the possibilities for subsequent treatment/stabilization of the extracted solid phase as well as the possibility of treatment and safe discharge/utilization of the extract; Performance of chemical characterization, hydrogeochemical model calculations and experimental work in order to improve the understanding of the mechanisms and factors which for several contaminants control the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases, both in the short and the long germ, and to use this information to obtain an environmentally acceptable method for stabilization/treatment of the extracted residues while at the same time minimizing the necessary amount of additives; production of treated residues and performance of leaching tests on these to assess and demonstrate the effectiveness of the entire process (extraction + stabilization/treatment); Evaluation of the technical, economical and environmental consequences of full scale implementation of the process. (EG) EFP-94. 19 refs.

  4. Dry hyperbaric gas metal arc welding of subsea pipelines: experiments and modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azar, Amin S.

    2012-07-01

    amount of dissipated heat from each source should be differentiated. An intermediate heat source model was employed for this purpose. The latter model is after Myhr and Grong that is called distributed point heat sources. This model can be accurately fit to the weld cross section geometry if calibrated accurately. The calibrated parameters were found to be very close to the ones required by Double-ellipsoidal heat source model. By using this approach, not only the effect of welding parameters on weld bead geometry can be categorized, but also the spent time for double-ellipsoidal heat source adjustments will be cut by 90%.A Gaussian heat source was also employed for welding thermal cycle simulations. Accompanying experiments suggested that the thermal gradients hardly change as pressure elevates. However, it was found that the increased pressure level might not necessarily result in higher or lower cooling rates despite the geometrical changes. In a parallel investigation, the metallurgical effect of different shielding environments on phase transformation and mechanical properties of the bead-onplate weld samples was studies. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) techniques were used to identify the effect of five different shielding environments on the phase transformation. Argon and Helium chamber gases offer the conditions that facilitate the highest amount of acicular ferrite transformation, yet, they show some differences in a number of crystallographic details. Co2 gas provided conditions for a lot of porosity in addition to the dominant polygonal ferrite/bainite transformation. He+1/2Co2 mixture resulted in bainite transformation that was found to follow the maximum heat flow direction in terms of crystallographic orientations.(Author)

  5. Super compacting of drums with dry solid radioactive waste in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Super compactacion de bidones con desecho radiactivo solido seco en la central nucleo electrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, R.; Lara H, M. A.; Cabrera Ll, M.; Verdalet de la Torre, O., E-mail: marco.lara@cfe.gob.m [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Nautla-Cardel Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde located in the Gulf of Mexico, completes in this 2009, nineteen years to produce by nuclear means 4.78% of the electric power that Mexico requires daily. During this time, the Unit 1 has generated more of 88.85 million mega watt-hour and the Unit 2 more of 69.48 million mega watt-hour with an availability average of 83.55%. Derived of their operation cycles, the nuclear power plant has generated (as any other installation of its type) radioactive wastes of low activity that at the moment are temporarily stored in the site. Due to the life cycle of the nuclear power plant, actually has become necessary to begin a project series focused to continue guaranteeing the storage of these wastes, guarantee that is a license requirement for the operation of this nuclear installation before the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards. The Federal Commission of Electricity beginning a project that allows continue guaranteeing space of sufficient storage for the wastes that the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde could generate for the rest of its useful life, this project consisted on a process of physical volume reduction of dry solid radioactive wastes denominated super compacting, it has made possible to reduce the volume that these wastes occupy in the temporary storage noted Dry Solid Radioactive Wastes Deposit located inside the site that occupies the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This work presents the super compacting results, as well as a description of the realization of this task until concluding with the super compacting of 5,854 drums with dry solid radioactive waste of low activity. We will enunciate which were the radiological controls that the Department of Radiological Protection of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde applied to this work that was realized for first time in Mexico and the nuclear power plant. (Author)

  6. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, P.; Biktasheva, L.; Saveliev, A.; Ratering, S.; Schnell, S.; Selivanovskaya, S.

    2015-06-01

    Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and hydrophobicity. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg-1 waste, 4.4 of 226Ra, 2.8 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg-1 of 40K and its treated variant (1.6 g kg-1 of TPH, 7.9 of 226Ra, 3.9 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg-1 of 40K) were examined in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The raw waste sample (H) was collected from tanks during cleaning and maintenance, and a treated waste sample (R) was obtained from equipment for oil waste treatment. Thermal steam treatment is used in the production yard to reduce the oil content. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase in the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0-20 cm), middle (20-40 cm), and lower (40-60cm) layers, respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R- columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5

  7. Effects of Formic or Acetic Acid on the Storage Quality of Mixed Air-Dried Corn Stover and Cabbage Waste, and Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of air-dried corn stover and cabbage waste was ensiled to preserve lignocellulosic biomass for use as biofuel. Furthermore, the effects of different fresh mass fractions (0.3 and 0.6 % of formic or acetic acid on the mixed silage quality were evaluated to guarantee its quality. The application of formic or acetic acid prior to mixing the silage led to higher water-soluble carbohydrate fractions than the negative control, indicating that both acids contributed to preservation of water-soluble carbohydrates during storage for 170 days. The dry matter content was also increased after storage from 90 to 170 days. It was found that the content of neutral and acid detergent fibre, cellulose and holocellulose (the sum of cellulose and hemicellulose in mixed silage treated with formic or acetic acid was significantly lower than that obtained in the negative control. The pH and the ratio of ammoniacal nitrogen to total nitrogen in mixed silage treated with acetic acid also significantly decreased. Furthermore, the addition of formic or acetic acid significantly weakened the fermentation intensity of lactic acid, depending on the ratio of lactic to acetic acid, as well as the ratio of lactic acid to total organic acids. The number of bacterial species and their relative abundance shifted during silage mixing, wherein microbial communities at phylum level mainly consisted of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The dominant bacteria were also observed to shift from Lactobacillus and Enterobacter in presilage biomass to Lactobacillus and Paralactobacillus. Specifically, Enterobacter disappeared after 130 days of storage. In conclusion, the addition of a low dose of acetic acid to fresh mass (0.3 % could effectively improve the fermentation quality and is conducive to the preservation of the organic components.

  8. Characterization of a WESF [Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility] cesium chloride capsule after fifteen months service in a dry operation/wet storage commercial irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjarmo, H.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1988-08-01

    After 15 months of service, a Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) 137 Cs gamma source capsule was removed for examination from a commercial irradiator at Radiation Sterilizers Incorporated (RSI), Westerville, Ohio. The examination was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and was the first study of a 137 Cs source capsule after use in a commercial dry operation/wet storage (dry/wet) irradiator. The capsule was cycled 3327 times during the 15-month period with steady-state temperature differences ranging from 70 to 82/degree/C during the air-to-water cycle. The capsule was examined to determine the amount of corrosion that had occurred during this period and to determine if any degradation of the container was evident as the result of thermal cycling. Metallographic examinations were performed on sections that were removed from the inner capsule wall and bottom end cap and the outer capsule bottom end cap weld. The three regions of the inner capsule that were examined for corrosion were the salt/void interface, midwall, and bottom (including the end cap weld). The amount of corrosion measured (0.0002 to 0.0007 in.) is comparable to the corrosion produced (about 0.001 in.) during the melt-cast filling of a capsule. No observable effects of irradiator operation were found during this examination. Consequently, based on this examination, no degradation of WESF 137 Cs capsules is expected when they are used in irradiators similar to the RSI irradiator. 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  9. CASTOR {sup ®} and CONSTOR {sup ®}. A well established system for the dry storage of spent fuel and high level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Hannes; Skrzyppek, Juergen; Koebl, Michael [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The German company GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH today looks back on more than 30 years of operational experience with dual-purpose casks for the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants and high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing. Following customer demands, GNS developed two different cask types for SNF. By now, almost 1,300 GNS-casks are in operation worldwide. This article gives an overview over several national and international projects and shows the bandwidth of customised solutions by GNS.

  10. Experience in selection and characterization of sites for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    An important matter in the development of a geological repository for disposal radioactive waste is the selection of a site that has characteristics that are favorable for isolation. A number of Member States have had national programmes under way for several decades to investigate sites to gather the geological information needed to design and construct a safe repository. The purpose of this report is to document this experience and to summarize what has been learned about the site selection and investigation process. It is hoped it will be of interest to scientists and engineers working in national disposal programmes by providing them information and key references regarding the disposal programmes in other countries. It may also be of interest to members of the public and to decision makers wanting an overview of the worldwide status of programmes to select and characterize geological disposal sites for radioactive waste

  11. Radiological Characterisation from a Waste and Materials End-State Perspective: Practices and Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommaert, Chantal; Andrieu, Caroline; Desnoyers, Yvon; Denis Pombet; Salsac, Marie-Delphine; Knaack, Michael; Altavilla, Massimo; Manes, Daniela; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ul Syed, Naeem; Palomo, Nieves Martin; Larsson, Arne; Dunlop, Alister; Susan Brown; Emptage, Matthew; Black, Greg; Abu-Eid, Rateb; Szilagyi, Andrew; Weber, Inge; )

    2017-01-01

    Radiological characterisation is a key enabling activity for the planning and implementation of nuclear facility decommissioning. Effective characterisation allows the extent, location and nature of contamination to be determined and provides crucial information for facility dismantling, the management of material and waste arisings, the protection of workers, the public and the environment, and associated cost estimations. This report will be useful for characterisation practitioners who carry out tactical planning, preparation, optimisation and implementation of characterisation to support the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the management of associated materials and waste. It compiles recent experience from NEA member countries in radiological characterisation, including from international experts, international case studies, an international conference, and international standards and guidance. Using this comprehensive evidence base, the report identifies relevant good practice and provides practical advice covering all stages of the characterisation process

  12. Present state of combined wet/dry cooling in the FRG and preliminary experience with the different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodicka, V.

    1976-01-01

    The physical reasons for the generation of the visible cooling tower plumes are explained. Today, there are several methods by which the visibility of the plumes can be suppressed. As the studies carried out show, a parallel connection of the wet and dry system on the air side is the most economical solution. Models for large-scale plants are presented, their operational performance is explained, and the cost is discussed. It is shown that wet/dry cooling is more economical than dry cooling alone, even with a relatively high proportion of dry heat discharge. (orig.) [de

  13. A qualitative study of laymens' experiences of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Gunnar; Ljungberg, Anneli

    1990-12-01

    This study aims at investigating laymens' experiences of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste. The data consisted of interviews. To begin with, a pilot study was conducted using 14 subjects, with the aim of generating issues that could be further penetrated in the main study. The main study consisted of interviews with 30 subjects. The final data analysis was based on 25 subjects' answers to the interviews, with 5 of the 30 persons omitted due to contradictory and extremely vague answers, making any coherent interpretation impossible. The results section is divided into 3 parts. The first clarifies the conditions for the possibility of experiencing risk. These conditions are so general that they are most likely valid as conditions for any kind of risk experience. The second part of the results section consists of a presentation and clarification of the components which made up the subjects experiences of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste. The third and final part of the results section consists of a presentation of the two main profiles in the experience of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste. These two main profiles can be conceived of as opposites. One of the risk profiles was constituted in the following way; a perception of the risk as high, a negative attitude to nuclear energy, presence of emotional expression, distrust towards significant people, an assumption that experts lacked sufficient knowledge and a focusing or widening frame of reference. The other main profile was constituted as follows; a perception of the risk as not high, an absence of emotional expression, trust towards significant people, an assumption that experts possessed sufficient knowledge and a focusing or weighing frame of reference

  14. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  15. Lidar Observations of Tropospheric Aerosols Over Northeastern South Africa During the ARREX and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.; Ji, Qiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Piketh, Stuart J.; Barenbrug, Marguerite; Holben, Brent; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the ARREX-1999 and SAFARI-2000 Dry Season experiments a micropulse lidar (523 nm) instrument was operated at the Skukuza Airport in northeastern South Africa. The Mar was collocated with a diverse array of passive radiometric equipment. For SAFARI-2000 the processed Mar data yields a daytime time-series of layer mean/derived aerosol optical properties, including extinction-to-backscatter ratios and vertical extinction cross-section profile. Combined with 523 run aerosol optical depth and spectral Angstrom exponent calculations from available CIMEL sun-photometer data and normalized broadband flux measurements the temporal evolution of the near surface aerosol layer optical properties is analyzed for climatological trends. For the densest smoke/haze events the extinction-to-backscatter ratio is found to be between 60-80/sr, and corresponding Angstrom exponent calculations near and above 1.75. The optical characteristics of an evolving smoke event from SAFARI-2000 are extensively detailed. The advecting smoke was embedded within two distinct stratified thermodynamic layers, causing the particulate mass to advect over the instrument array in an incoherent manner on the afternoon of its occurrence. Surface broadband flux forcing due to the smoke is calculated, as is the evolution in the vertical aerosol extinction profile as measured by the Han Finally, observations of persistent elevated aerosol during ARREX-1999 are presented and discussed. The lack of corroborating observations the following year makes these observation; both unique and noteworthy in the scope of regional aerosol transport over southern Africa.

  16. The potential for vault-induced seismicity in nuclear fuel waste disposal: experience from Canadian mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Chandler, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    A seismic event which causes damage to an underground opening is called a rockburst. Practical experience indicates that these damaging seismic events are associated with deep mines where extraction ratios are greater than 0.6. For the arrangement being considered by AECL for nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults, extraction ratios, for the room and pillar design, will be less than 0.3. At this extraction ratio the stress magnitudes will not be sufficient to induce seismic events that can damage the underground openings. Documented world-wide experience shows that unless the underground opening is very close to the source of a naturally occurring seismic event, such as an earthquake, the opening will also not experience any significant damage. Backfilling a disposal vault will improve its resistance to earthquake damage. Backfilling a disposal vault will also reduce the total convergence of the openings caused by thermal loads and hence minimize the potential for thermally-induced seismic events. (author)

  17. Optimisation of the two-phase dry-thermophilic anaerobic digestion process of sulphate-containing municipal solid waste: population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, S; Sales, D; Romero, L I; Solera, R

    2013-11-01

    Microbial population dynamics and anaerobic digestion (AD) process to eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (from 25d to 3.5d) in two-phase dry-thermophilic AD from sulphate-containing solid waste were investigated. Maximum values of gas production (1.9 ± 0.2 l H2/l/d; 5.4 ± 0.3 l CH4/l/d and 82 ± 9 ml H2S/l/d) and microbial activities were obtained at 4.5d HRT; where basically comprised hydrolysis step in the first phase (HRT=1.5d) and acidogenic step finished in the second phase as well as acetogenic-methanogenic steps (HRT=3d). In the first phase, hydrolytic-acidogenic bacteria (HABs) was the main group (44-77%) and Archaea, acetogens and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) contents were not significant; in the second phase (except to 2d HRT), microbial population was able to adapt to change in substrate and HRTs to ensure the proper functioning of the system and both acetogens and Archaea were dominated over SRBs. Decreasing HRT resulted in an increase in microbial activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. International conference on management of radioactive waste from non-power applications - Sharing the experience. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of the conference is to provide an opportunity for experts in this field to meet and exchange information, and to discuss experience, specific practices and technical solutions used in the management of radioactive waste derived from different non-power applications. This includes waste from the operation of research reactors, and from the production and application of radioisotopes, labelled compounds and sealed radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and education. The discussion may also include management of specific waste types, such as waste from radiological accidents, waste from remediation activities connected with old, inadequate waste management facilities, etc. The conference may also address the issues of management of very low level radioactive waste (VLLRW) and of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORMs) to identify the existing scale of the problems and to analyse current approaches of Member States to their solution. The conference is also intended to identify the most important and problematic components of the subject and to facilitate the sharing of experience in improving efficiency, safety and economy in the management of radioactive waste from non-power nuclear applications. This publication contains 89 extended synopses of the oral and poster presentations delivered at the conference. Each of them was indexed separately

  19. Pilot solid-waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, M.G.; Hootman, H.E.; Trapp, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental program to develop and confirm technology for incinerating solid radioactive waste is in progress at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in support of the short-term and long-term waste management objectives of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This report reviews the experience of a pilot incinerator with a capacity of 1.0 lb/hr. The facility was tested with nonradioactive materials similar to the radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River site. The experimental program included determining operating parameters, testing wet and dry off-gas treatment systems, and evaluating materials of construction

  20. Experience with the incorporation of low and medium-level wastes in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouin, G.; Hallier, P.; Bruand, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper deals with the experience gained in the packaging of low and medium-level radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins. A prototype workshop has been functioning in the Nuclear Research Centre at Grenoble since 1975. The wastes processed are evaporator concentrates and ion exchange resins. A pilot plant which has been built at the PWR power station in Chooz enables evaporator concentrates, ion-exchange resins and filter cartridges to be processed. In each case, the solidifying agent is based on a polyester or epoxy resin. The properties of the cured product (leaching rate, irradiation and fire resistance, and mechanical strength) are given. In order to widen the application of thermosetting resins, the containment of soluble radioactive salts has been studied. The use of this process for wastes arising from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations seems feasible. The coefficients of diffusion of radioactive elements through the thermosetting resins have been measured. Using them, the amounts of radioactivity released as a function of time have been calculated

  1. Fertilization effects of organic waste resources and bottom wood ash: results from a pot experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brod

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a pot experiment to study the fertilization effects of four N- and P-rich organic waste resources alone and in combination with K-rich bottom wood ash at two application rates (150 kg N ha–1 + 120 kg K ha–1, 300 kg N ha-1 + 240 kg K ha–1. Plant-available N was the growth-limiting factor. 48–73% of N applied with meat and bone meal (MBM and composted fish sludge (CFS was taken up in aboveground biomass, resulting in mineral fertilizer equivalents (MFE% of 53–81% for N uptake and 61–104% for yield. MFE% of MBM and CFS decreased for increasing application rates. Two industrial composts had weak N fertilization effects and are to be considered soil conditioners rather than fertilizers. Possible P and K fertilization effects of waste resources were masked by the soil’s ability to supply plant-available P and K, but effects on plant-available P and K contents in soil suggest that the waste resources may have positive effects under more nutrient-deficient conditions.

  2. Integral migration and source term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Howse, R.M.; Sharpe, B.M.; Smith, A.J.; Thomason, H.P.; Williams, S.J.; Young, M.

    1986-01-01

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate level wasteforms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of wasteform, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two wasteforms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe, W. Germany and bitumenised intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium wire rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the wasteform. The release of all nuclides from the bitumenised waste was very low. (author)

  3. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  4. US EPA's experiences implementing environmental safety standards at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - 16103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, R. Thomas; Byrum, Charles; Feltcorn, Ed; Lee, Raymond; Joglekar, Rajani; Ghose, Shankar; Eagle, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) developed environmental standards for the disposal of defense-related transuranic wastes for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE or the Department) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). EPA implements these standards for WIPP, which has been in operation for over ten years. The general environmental standards are set forth in the Agency's 40 CFR Part 191 Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes [1]. These standards are implemented by site-specific compliance criteria [2]. The WIPP Land Withdrawal Act requires DOE to submit a re-certification application every five years after the initial receipt of waste. DOE submitted the latest WIPP re-certification application in March 2009. For re-certification, DOE must identify changes that have occurred over the previous five years and analyze their impact on the potential long-term performance of the repository. Once EPA determines that the re-certification application is complete, the Agency has six months to review the application and make a final decision. During this review, EPA solicits and incorporates public comment where appropriate. During the first re-certification in 2004, several stakeholder groups brought up issues (e.g., karst) that were addressed in the original certification. EPA has received comments again raising some of these same issues for the 2009 re-certification. In addition, DOE must submit proposed changes to the WIPP repository to EPA for review and approval. This paper describes selected issues of concern to WIPP and highlights interactions between EPA as the regulatory authority and DOE as the implementing organization. In general EPA's experience points out the importance of communication, documentation and the regulator's responsibility in determining 'how much is enough'. (authors)

  5. Recent experience with the land burial of solid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Low-level, nuclear fuel cycle wastes are being disposed of at six commercially operated sites in the United States of America. Similar wastes resulting from Federal activities are being disposed of at five Federally operated sites. The hydrology, geology, climate and operational practices at these sites vary greatly. At three sites in the wetter eastern United States which have low-permeability burial media, it is difficult to keep water from getting into the trenches. Two commercial burial sites in New York and Kentucky have not performed as planned. Authorization to operate these facilities was based on site analyses which, it was believed, demonstrated that the buried radioactive wastes would not migrate from the site during their hazardous lifetime (i.e. for hundreds of years). In ten years or less, however, radioactivity has been detected offsite from these two sites. Radioactivity has migrated offsite from the Federal burial site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, also. State and Federal authorities have stated that the radioactivity in the environment around the site was not a health hazard at this time. Information is presented on recent disposal practices and experience at these three low-level burial facilities. Based on this experience, the paper (1) briefly describes operations and problems at the sites; (2) suggests factors which led to the problems; (3) identifies problems which appear to be generic to disposal in humid climates; (4) identifies specific problems which could either reduce the ability to predict the impact of disposal operations or reduce the retention capability of the site; and (5) recommends improvements which can be made in site selection, development, and operation to reduce the environmental impact of the site. (author)

  6. Paying School Fees through Wastes: The Experiences of an Eco Scholar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Allan P. Amparado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study explores the experiences of an Eco Scholar as he pays his school fees from the sales of recyclables under the Eco Scholarship of a university. This special non-academic scholarship of a university in Central Visayas, Philippines covers the tuition fees and allowance of the scholar and gives hope to an aspiring Marine Engineering student to finish the program. As the scholar segregates bio-degradable and non-biodegradable wastes in the Materials Recovery Facility, the student reminisces his experiences as a child from a poor broken family, his financial constraints in college, and the challenges and joys of his present work. The narratives of this case also revealed the personality of the scholar, the qualities that an Echo scholar should possess, and the difficulties he encountered while at work. The scholar shares the values he learned from solid waste management, his day-to-day struggle to make ends meet, and his dreams and aspirations for the family.

  7. Design of experiments-based monitoring of critical quality attributes for the spray-drying process of insulin by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; van de Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Moisture content and aerodynamic particle size are critical quality attributes for spray-dried protein formulations. In this study, spray-dried insulin powders intended for pulmonary delivery were produced applying design of experiments methodology. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in combination...... on the chemical information of the water molecules in the NIR spectrum. Models yielded prediction errors (RMSEP) between 0.39% and 0.48% with thermal gravimetric analysis used as reference method. The PLS models predicting the aerodynamic particle size were based on baseline offset in the NIR spectra and yielded...... less robust models with a Q (2) of 0.69. Based on the results in this study, NIR is a suitable tool for process analysis of the spray-drying process and for control of moisture content and particle size, in particular for smooth and spherical particles....

  8. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments. Asse salt mine: Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1985-01-01

    This is the Second Annual Report (1984) which describes experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800 meter-level of the Asse Salt Mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The report describes the Asse Salt Mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first sixteen months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress readings and thermal profiles) and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data laboratory analyses of results are also included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be two years, ending in December 1985. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments, Asse salt mine, Federal Republic of Germany. Annual report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Feddersen, H.K.; Schwarzianeck, P.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the second joint annual report (1984) on experiments simulating a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are test data for the first 19 months of operation on the following: brine migration rates, thermal mechanical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), and borehole gas pressures. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of results are included in this report. The duration of the experiment will be 2 years, ending in December 1985

  10. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Jantine

    2016-06-01

    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the 'social' is foreseen to be restricted to safeguarding the functioning of the 'technical', geological disposal is still a social experiment. In order to better understand this argument and explore how it could be addressed, we elaborate the idea of social experimentation with the notion of co-production and the analytical tools of delegation, prescription and network as developed by actor-network theory. In doing so we emphasize that geological disposal inherently involves relations between surface and subsurface, between humans and nonhumans, between the social, material and natural realm, and that these relations require recognition and further elaboration. In other words, we argue that geological disposal concurrently is a social and a technical experiment, or better, a long-term socio-technical experiment. We end with proposing the idea of 'actor-networking' as a sensitizing concept for future research into what geological disposal as a socio-technical experiment could look like.

  11. 40 Years of Experience of NIRAS / Belgoprocess on the Interim Storage of Low, Intermediate and High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Ghys, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: • ONDRAF/NIRAS and Belgoprocess have gained over time an extended experience on the interim storage of Low-Intermediate and High level waste. • An systematic inspection strategy was developed in order the verify the conformity of the different waste-packages and corrective measures were taken to guarantee safe storage conditions. • From 2022 , ONDRAF/NIRAS will operate a surface disposal facility for LLW

  12. On the experience of the management of solid alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, V.A.; Rakov, N.A.; Romanovskii, V.N.; Yakushev, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing is studied in a pilot plant. Low and high level radioactive wastes handling is described. Liquid wastes are solidified. Combustible solid wastes are incinerated. Non-combustible and ashes are send to disposal site. Volume reduction of alpha-bearing wastes is obtained by optimisation of the reprocessing and development of remote control methods

  13. Remote automatic plasma arc-closure welding of a dry-storage canister for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecace, R.P.; Blankenship, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    A carbon steel storage canister has been designed for the dry encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel assemblies or of logs of vitrified high level radioactive waste. The canister design is in conformance with the requirements of the ASME Code, Section III, Division 1 for a Class 3 vessel. The canisters will be loaded and sealed as part of a completely remote process sequence to be performed in the hot bay of an experimental encapsulation facility at the Nevada Test Site. The final closure to be made is a full penetration butt weld between the canister body, a 12.75-in O.D. x 0.25-in wall pipe, and a mating semiellipsoidal closure lid. Due to a combination of design, application and facility constraints, the closure weld must be made in the 2G position (canister vertical). The plasma arc welding system is described, and the final welding procedure is described and discussed in detail. Several aspects and results of the procedure development activity, which are of both specific and general interest, are highlighted; these include: The critical welding torch features which must be exactly controlled to permit reproducible energy input to, and gas stream interaction with, the weld puddle. A comparison of results using automatic arc voltage control with those obtained using a mechanically fixed initial arc gap. The optimization of a keyhole initiation procedure. A comparison of results using an autogenous keyhole closure procedure with those obtained using a filler metal addition. The sensitivity of the welding process and procedure to variations in joint configuration and dimensions and to variations in base metal chemistry. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma arc process for this application are summarized from the current viewpoint, and the applicability of this process to other similar applications is briefly indicated

  14. Water extraction from high moisture lignite by means of efficient integration of waste heat and water recovery technologies with flue gas pre-drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoqu; Yan, Junjie; Karellas, Sotirios; Liu, Ming; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Xiao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-saving potential of FPLPS in different cold-ends and lignite types is evaluated. • Water-saving of FPLPS is realized through recovery of water extracted from lignite. • Integrations of low pressure economizer and spray tower with FPLPS are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic performances of different schemes are investigated. - Abstract: The flue gas pre-dried lignite-fired power system (FPLPS) integrates the fan mill flue gas dryer with an open pulverizing system and yields an increase of the boiler efficiency. Particularly, the dryer exhaust gas contains a large amount of vapor removed from high moisture lignite, which exhibits great potential for waste heat and water recovery. Two available options are considered to realize the extraction of water from lignite: the low pressure economizer (LPE) for water-cooled units and the spray tower (SPT) integrated with heat pump for air-cooled units. This paper aims at evaluating the energy saving and water recovery potentials of the FPLPS integrated with both schemes. Results showed that the plant efficiency improvement of the FPLPS at base case varied from 1.14% to 1.47% depending on the moisture content of raw lignite. The water recovery ratio and plant efficiency improvement in the optimal LPE scheme were 39.4% and 0.20%, respectively. In contrast, 83.3% of water recover ratio and 110.6 MW_t_h heat supply were achieved in the SPT system. Both schemes were economically feasible with discounted payback periods of around 3 years. Moreover, parametric analysis was conducted to examine the economic viability of both schemes with different lignite types and market factors.

  15. Waste management experience during all the life cycle of treatment facilities from commissioning till decommissioning. Today's situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decobert, Guy; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Maurin, Matthieu

    2005-01-01

    Over time, the concepts of waste management have deeply evolved. In the case of the earlier generation of treatment plants, on-line conditioning was generally not implemented. In several cases, the strategy was clearly set as promoting storage of 'interim' raw waste, and implementing long-run R and D programs for future conditioning. Thus, one of the main objectives of the last generation of plants was to implement on-line conditioning of all waste, i.e. including waste issued from the used fuel and also those issued from plant operation (technological waste and effluent treatment waste). These strategic issues are naturally part of the core of the design of every new plant, as part of the operating performance. The enormous amount of experience collected from previous generations of plants, and managed by AREVA, allows us to go one step further. Indeed, our target is to rely on a comprehensive vision of waste management best practices, from the plant design through its decommissioning. This will allow AREVA to think about the next plant generation when encompassing the whole life cycle of the plant, including its different steps: Conception and building, Operation, Decommissioning. The first part of the paper will go back to waste management lessons and achievements in the design-construction phase and the operating phases of past and present treatment plants. From the past till today's generation, a factor of reduction of 50 for the volume of HLW-ILW type of waste was achieved leading to a ratio of 0.0012 m 3 /GWhe for a burn-up of 45 000 MWd/t! With regards to the development of the next generation of reactors and associated back-end, future improvements appear still possible in waste volume reduction. The second part of the paper will focus on decommissioning, which is likely to generate significant amount of waste, whose removal, handling, sorting, measurement, treatment and conditioning represent a substantial part of the cost of the program. Starting from

  16. Sophisticated lean gas management. A lot of synergies at the dry fermentation of the waste management services Uelzen; Ausgekluegeltes Schwachgasmanagement. Viele Synergien bei der Trockenfermentation des Abfallwirtschaftsbetrieb Uelzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Dorothee

    2013-04-01

    As part of the need for renewal of the composting facility of the waste management services Uelzen (Federal Republic of Germany), a biogas plant was planned which has to be low-emission and suitable for inhomogeneous biological wastes. The newly built biogas plant processes 12,000 tons of biological waste and green waste per year and is used for the heating of factory buildings, for composting and as a water treatment plant.

  17. Experiment, modeling and optimization of liquid phase adsorption of Cu(II) using dried and carbonized biomass of Lyngbya majuscula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Deepika; Dutta, Susmita

    2017-05-01

    The present work aims at evaluation of the potential of cyanobacterial biomass to remove Cu(II) from simulated wastewater. Both dried and carbonized forms of Lyngbya majuscula, a cyanobacterial strain, have been used for such purpose. The influences of different experimental parameters viz., initial Cu(II) concentration, solution pH and adsorbent dose have been examined on sorption of Cu(II). Kinetic and equilibrium studies on Cu(II) removal from simulated wastewater have been done using both dried and carbonized biomass individually. Pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm have been found to fit most satisfactorily to the kinetic and equilibrium data, respectively. Maximum 87.99 and 99.15 % of Cu(II) removal have been achieved with initial Cu(II) concentration of 10 and 25 mg/L for dried and carbonized algae, respectively, at an adsorbent dose of 10 g/L for 20 min of contact time and optimum pH 6. To optimize the removal process, Response Surface Methodology has been employed using both the dried and carbonized biomass. Removal with initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg/L, with 0.25 g adsorbent dose in 50 mL solution at pH 6 has been found to be optimum with both the adsorbents. This is the first ever attempt to make a comparative study on Cu(II) removal using both dried algal biomass and its activated carbon. Furthermore, regeneration of matrix was attempted and more than 70% and 80% of the adsorbent has been regenerated successfully in the case of dried and carbonized biomass respectively upto the 3rd cycle of regeneration study.

  18. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  19. Residents’ Preferences for Household Kitchen Waste Source Separation Services in Beijing: A Choice Experiment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A source separation program for household kitchen waste has been in place in Beijing since 2010. However, the participation rate of residents is far from satisfactory. This study was carried out to identify residents’ preferences based on an improved management strategy for household kitchen waste source separation. We determine the preferences of residents in an ad hoc sample, according to their age level, for source separation services and their marginal willingness to accept compensation for the service attributes. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the data, collected from 394 residents in Haidian and Dongcheng districts of Beijing City through a choice experiment. The results show there are differences of preferences on the services attributes between young, middle, and old age residents. Low compensation is not a major factor to promote young and middle age residents accept the proposed separation services. However, on average, most of them prefer services with frequent, evening, plastic bag attributes and without instructor. This study indicates that there is a potential for local government to improve the current separation services accordingly.

  20. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makisha Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  1. Scientific approach and practical experience for reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makisha, Nikolay; Gogina, Elena

    2017-11-01

    Protection of water bodies has a strict dependence on reliable operation of engineering systems and facilities for water supply and sewage. The majority of these plants and stations has been constructed in 1970-1980's in accordance with rules and regulations of that time. So now most of them require reconstruction due to serious physical or/and technological wear. The current condition of water supply and sewage systems and facilities frequently means a hidden source of serious danger for normal life support and ecological safety of cities and towns. The article reveals an obtained experience and modern approaches for reconstruction of waste water and sludge treatment plants that proved their efficiency even if applied in limited conditions such as area limits, investments limits. The main directions of reconstruction: overhaul repair and partial modernization of existing facilities on the basis of initial project; - restoration and modernization of existing systems on the basis on the current documents and their current condition; upgrade of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) performance on the basis of modern technologies and methods; reconstruction of sewage systems and facilities and treatment quality improvement.

  2. From waste minimization to ISO 14000: Taiwan`s experience and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Huei Chen; Wain-Sun Hou [China Technical Consultants, Inc., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1996-12-31

    Taiwan has completed a very successful five-year industrial waste minimization (IWM) demonstration and promotion project sponsored by the government. From 1990 to 1995, the project successfully disseminated the IWM concept of pollution prevention (P2) to industries. It effectively reduced industrial waste while significantly benefitting the economy by assisting industries in implementing in-plant IWM programs. In July 1995, the second stage of the five-year IWM and ISO 14000 promotion project was initiated for further promoting the IWM, P2, and cleaner production and, in particular, coping with the upcoming international environmental management standards (ISO 14000). To assist industries in establishing an environmental management system (EMS) and accumulating related experience, an EMS pilot demonstration project of five model industries and an ISO 14001 EMS demonstration and promotion project for 22 factories in 13 industries were initiated in October 1995 and August 1996, respectively. These projects can assist Taiwan`s industries in changing the constitution of their enterprises, enhancing competition in the international market, and helping our nation achieve the forerunner`s profits in sustainable development. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Mont Terri Project - Ventilation experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J. C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Velasco, M. [DM Iberia SA, Madrid (Spain); Gomez-Hernandez, J. [Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Escuela de Ingenieros de Caminos (UPV), Valencia (Spain); Lloret, A.; Matray, J.-M. [IRSN/DEI/SARG/LETS, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Coste, F. [Aradis ESG, Sevres Cedex (France); Giraud, A. [LAEGO-ENSG, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Rothfuchs, T. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Marschall, P. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Roesli, U. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Mayer, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    The ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository could produce the partial desaturation of the rock around the drifts, modifying its thermo-hydro-mechanical properties, especially in clayey rocks. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. To evaluate 'in situ' and better understand the desaturation process of a hard clay formation, the Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), generating a flow of dry air during several months along a section of a microtunnel. Specifically, the VE test has been performed, under practically isothermal conditions (T {approx_equal} 15-16 {sup o}C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal microtunnel (diameter = 1.3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri. The microtunnel is oriented perpendicular to the bedding strike direction of the rock (mean value of the bedding dip {approx_equal} 25{sup o}). The VE experiment real data and its modelling have shown that the desaturation of clayey rocks of low hydraulic conductivity (K < 10{sup -12} m/s) due to ventilation is very small. Under real repository conditions, the thermal and hydro-mechanical rock characteristics will not be practically affected by the ventilation. Specifically, the monitoring of the VE test (mainly the hygrometer data, confirmed also by the geoelectrical measurements) indicates that, after about 5 months of ventilation with almost dry air, the rock relative humidity (and then the degree of saturation) was less than 95% only in a ring of thickness less than 40 cm. Nevertheless, a suction state (subatmospheric liquid pressures) developed up to a distance of about 2 m, but it should be kept in mind that a clayey rock such as the

  4. Mont Terri Project - Ventilation experiment in Opalinus Clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, J. C.; Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Velasco, M.; Gomez-Hernandez, J.; Lloret, A.; Matray, J.-M.; Coste, F.; Giraud, A.; Rothfuchs, T.; Marschall, P.; Roesli, U.; Mayer, G.

    2007-01-01

    The ventilation of the underground drifts during the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository could produce the partial desaturation of the rock around the drifts, modifying its thermo-hydro-mechanical properties, especially in clayey rocks. This change of rock properties may have an impact on the design of the repositories (drifts spacing and repository size), which depends on the thermal load that the clay barrier and the rock can accept. To evaluate 'in situ' and better understand the desaturation process of a hard clay formation, the Ventilation Experiment (VE) has been carried out at the Mont Terri underground laboratory (Switzerland), generating a flow of dry air during several months along a section of a microtunnel. Specifically, the VE test has been performed, under practically isothermal conditions (T ≅ 15-16 o C), in a 10 m long section of a non-lined horizontal microtunnel (diameter = 1.3 m), excavated in 1999 in the shaly facies of the Opalinus Clay of Mont Terri. The microtunnel is oriented perpendicular to the bedding strike direction of the rock (mean value of the bedding dip ≅ 25 o ). The VE experiment real data and its modelling have shown that the desaturation of clayey rocks of low hydraulic conductivity (K -12 m/s) due to ventilation is very small. Under real repository conditions, the thermal and hydro-mechanical rock characteristics will not be practically affected by the ventilation. Specifically, the monitoring of the VE test (mainly the hygrometer data, confirmed also by the geoelectrical measurements) indicates that, after about 5 months of ventilation with almost dry air, the rock relative humidity (and then the degree of saturation) was less than 95% only in a ring of thickness less than 40 cm. Nevertheless, a suction state (subatmospheric liquid pressures) developed up to a distance of about 2 m, but it should be kept in mind that a clayey rock such as the Opalinus Clay is quasi-saturated for suction values up

  5. Hydrogeochemical assessment of crystaline rock for radioactive waste disposal: the Stripa experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.; Fontes, J.C.; Fritz, P.; Nordstroem, K.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents a program for the hydro-geochemical assessment of a crystalline rock site for radioactive waste disposal. It is based upon experience gained during the international program of hydrochemical work at the Stripa mine. The important result of this work are summarized in this report and fuller details may be found in the separate final reports of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 geochemical investigations of the Stripa groundwaters. The present report summarizes the general sampling requirements for a successful hydrochecmical investigation; the isotopic and chemical parameters which should be determined an the geochemical characterization of the rock matrix necessary for the interpretation of hydrochemistry. A general strategy for site evaluation by geochemical methods is presented. (authors)

  6. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  7. First results of in-can microwave processing experiments for radioactive liquid wastes at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B.; Mattus, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Handling and Packaging Plant is developing a microwave process to reduce and solidify remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) liquids and sludges presently stored in large tanks at ORNL. Testing has recently begun on an in drum microwave process using nonradioactive RH-TRU surrogates. The microwave process development effort has focused on an in-drum process to dry the RH-TRU liquids and sludges in the final storage container and then melt the salt residues to form a solid monolith. A 1/3-scale proprietary microwave applicator was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the essential features of the microwave design and to provide input into the design of the full-scale applicator. Conductivity cell measurements suggest that the microwave energy heats near the surface of the surrogate over a wide range of temperatures. The final wasteform meets the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a federal repository for defense transuranic wastes near Carlsbad, New Mexico. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  9. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  10. Improving plant performance through efficient nuclear waste management - The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses high and low level waste management and its effect on Plant Performance. In France, high level waste policy is an improtant factor in plant performance. The LLW section of the paper discusses the role of French Industry organization as well as the benefits of standard plants with standard practices. The regulation of the production of waste and the waste processing by utilities is covered

  11. Low-level radioactive waste management in France: two decades of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Human activities generate wastes and these wastes have potential impacts on our environment and important implications for the twilight years of the twentieth century. Radioactive wastes, in particular, is a matter of considerable concern to the public, with emotional debate often clouding the legitimate need of the public for information for the subject. In France, the development of the nuclear power program and the widespread use of radioisotopes by the medical profession, industry and the research community called for a radioactive waste management program. In 1979, the French Government created ANDRA, the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, which has the complete responsibility for radioactive waste disposal, including design, siting, construction and operation of waste disposal facilities. In 1991, the Waste Law reaffirmed ANDRA's principle functions and created the National Waste Observatory within ANDRA, whose the mission is to establish and maintain a current inventory of all radioactive waste storage and disposal sites on French territory. The present paper describes the generation of short-lived waste in France, the french policy on short-lived waste disposal, operation and cancellation of Manche plant, design and construction of Aube plant

  12. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO 3 , Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air. Material and substance flow analyses were performed in order to obtain transfer coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred to the biogas, 24% to the compost, 13% to residues and 40% into the atmosphere. For nitrogen, 69% was transferred to the compost, 10% volatilised to the biofilter, 11% directly into the atmosphere and 10% to residues. Finally, a full life cycle inventory was conducted for the combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Laboratory studies on leaching of low grade uranium ores and treatment of low level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palabrica, O.T.; Antonino, E.J.; Caluag, L.A.; Villamater, D.

    1980-07-01

    Acid leaching experiments of preconcentrated uranium ore were carried out at a pulp density of 50% solids, using sulfuric acid with sodium chlorate as oxidant. The different leaching parameters considered in this work were temperature, oxidant level and leaching time. In the experimental procedure, the concentration of oxidant and the temperature were varied to determine how they affect the leaching process. Experimental results are illustrated in tabulated form for better interpretation. Uranium analyses were done by fluorimetric and delayed-neutron activation analysis. An anion exchange method using Dowex 1 x 8, 200-400 mesh (Cl - ) was used in treating the low-level liquid waste generated by leaching experiments. The purpose of this treatment was to minimize radioactive contamination in the waste materials and also to recover some of the uranium left in the liquid waste. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the FSC Topical Session on Experience with Electronic, Web and Internet Platforms for Communicating on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. Particularly it explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public. This forum deals with the use of the web and internet platforms as ways of informing stakeholders and the public on radioactive waste management, and improving their knowledge in this area. The responses of various FSC members to a questionnaire dedicated to the use of electronic communication are synthesised and commented. Moreover various organisations like the Scottish Executive, Andra (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Wastes, France), NDA (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, United Kingdom), and NucNet (a news agency on nuclear issues, Switzerland) have shared their own experience on electronic communication

  15. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  16. Experience and projects concerning treatment, conditioning and storage of all radioactive wastes from Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, G.; Matsumoto, K.; Miyahara, K.

    1984-01-01

    The active operation of Tokai reprocessing plant started in September 1977, and about 170 t U of spent fuel were reprocessed between then and December 1982. During this period, the low-level waste processing plant reduced the amount of radioactivity discharged into the environment. For radioactive liquid waste, the treatment procedures consist mainly of evaporation to keep the discharge into the sea at a low level. For combustible low-level solid waste and the solvent waste, which is of low tributyl phosphate content, incineration has been used successfully (burned: about 150 t of combined LLSW, about 50 m 3 of solvent waste, i.e. diluent waste). Most of the past R and D work was devoted to reducing the activity discharged into the environment. Current R and D work is concerned with the treatment of solvent waste, the conditioning of solid wastes, the bituminization of low-level liquid waste and the vitrification of high-level liquid waste. The paper describes present practices, R and D work and future aspects of the treatment, conditioning and storage of all radioactive wastes from Tokai reprocessing plant. (author)

  17. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation's (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste

  18. Radioactive waste management at Cernavoda NPP after 5 years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raducea, D.

    2002-01-01

    Many human activities generate waste but people are worried about those produced in nuclear power plants. Their concern is an unjustified fear toward the hazard from radioactive wastes because any country, which produces electrical power in this way, pays a lot of attention of all relevant parties involved in radioactive waste management. The same policy is applied for Cernavoda NPP. Our concept establishes the general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of radioactive waste from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be ready for expansion when other units are brought into service. Among others, a major objective is to reduce the radioactive waste production and volume. In this regard we are trying to improve as much as possible our procedures and radioactive wastes management. Further, it will be presented the radioactive waste management, including the improvements in our program and the future plans.(author)

  19. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  20. Experience gained in the management of radioactive waste from maintenance, decontamination and partial decommissioning of a reprocessing plant and conclusions resulting for the management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a short description of the historical background of Eurochemic, its main tasks and the various operational phases, a detailed description of the waste management principles applied is presented. The practical experience in the waste treatment is reported for both the operational phase of the reprocessing plant and its decontamination and partial decommissioning after shutdown. Based on this experience and the presented data, an assessment of the practical operations is made and conclusions are drawn. Finally, recommendations are formulated both for the general waste management policy and the practical waste treatment processes in nuclear power reactors. (author)

  1. Bituminization of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. Experience from plant operation and development work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, W; Kluger, W; Krause, H

    1976-05-01

    A summary is given of the main operational experience gained at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in 4 years operation of the bituminization plant for evaporator concentrates from low- and medium level wastes. At the same time some of the essential results are compiled that have been obtained in the R + D activities on bituminization.

  2. SGN multipurpose dry storage technology applied to the Italian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.; Lanza, R.

    1999-01-01

    SGN has gained considerable experience in the design and construction of interim storage facilities for spent fuel and various nuclear waste, and can therefore propose single product and multipurpose facilities capable of accommodating all types of waste in a single structure. The pooling of certain functions (transport cask reception, radiation protection) and the choice of optimized technologies to answer the specific needs of clients (transfer of nuclear packages by shielded handling cask or nuclearized crane), the use of the same type of storage pit to cool the heat releasing packages (vitrified nuclear waste, fuel elements) makes it possible to propose industrially proven and cost-effective solutions. Studies carried out for the Dutch company COVRA (HABOG facility currently under implementation phase) provide an example of a multipurpose dry storage facility designed to store spent fuel, vitrified reprocessing waste, cemented hulls and end-pieces, cemented technological waste and bituminized waste from fuel reprocessing, i e. high level waste and intermediate level wastes. The study conducted by SGN and GENESI (an Italian consortium formed by Ansaldo's Nuclear Division and Fiat Avio), on behalf of the Italian utility ENEL, offers another example of the multipurpose dry storage facility designed to store in a centralised site all the remaining irradiated fuel elements plus the vitrified waste. This paper presents SGN's experience through a short description of reference storage facilities for various types of products (HLW and spent fuel). It continues with the typical application to the Italian situation to show how these proven technologies are combined to obtain multipurpose facilities tailored to the client's specific requirements. (author)

  3. Issues and Experiences on Radioactive Waste Quality Control / Quality Assurance with Regard to Future Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.; Bandt, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany all types of radioactive waste (short-lived, long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. Thus, the safe management of radioactive waste presupposes an appropriate conditioning of primary waste-to-waste packages suitable for emplacement in a repository as well as the documentation of pre-treatment, processing and packaging steps and the waste package characteristics being relevant for disposal. Due to the operation, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities as well as the application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine and research and development radioactive waste continuously arises in Germany. In order to manage this waste different measures and procedures regarding its conditioning and quality control/quality assurance were introduced and since many years successfully applied. Waste conditioning is especially characterized by a flexible application of the Konrad waste acceptance requirements. The rationale for this approach is due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany. Several examples of a 'tailor-made' application of the waste acceptance requirements in treatment, conditioning and documentation processes as well as the quality assurance/quality control processes illustrate the current German approach. (authors)

  4. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  5. Setting waste isolation times into a geological context: some experience with natural analogues in public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritschi, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of geological repositories: Permanent protection of humans and the environment by long-term passive isolation of the radioactive materials from the environment. Permanent means until radioactivity has decayed to insignificant levels (Many tens of thousands of years up to one million years into the future). Human experience with timescales: - Personal: Some 10 years, maybe up to 2 to (3) generations; - 'Rapid' (normally experienced as slow) and relevant changes with regard to personal well-being during this time span; - 100 years of European history; - Human History up to 5,000 years: but relevant to experience? So there is a complete mismatch of personal experience with the question addressed in the safety case. Understandable explanation of a geological repository: - Why is a geological repository necessary? - Why are geological repositories safe? - How can one be sure, what happens in 100,000 years? Radioactive waste must be disposed of in a way to ensure permanent protection of humans and the environment (Swiss Nuclear Energy Law). A Containment is thus necessary. Today's containment (storage) needs maintenance, but how about stability of society? How about the future development on the surface where we live? Passive safety is based on multiple barrier system: passive containment without the need of maintenance in a geological environment. Requirements on the host rock and the geosphere: Sound science and expertise is available for all the components. The need for translation: What pictures do you use to explain the functioning of a geological repository over long time scales? Pictures, Symbols, 'Analogues' must be adapted to the specific situation in a country. So whatever may happen on the surface over the next one million years: Time stands still in the underground

  6. The effects of unit pricing system upon household solid waste management: The Korean experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.

    1999-09-01

    Initial effects of adoption of a unit pricing system paired with aggressive recycling programs appear to be substantial. This paper explores the impact of price incentives under the unit pricing system on household solid waste generation and recycling in Korea. The author employs a simultaneous equation model considering the feedback effects between total waste generation and recycling. Estimation results using 3017 Korean household survey data indicate that a rise in waste collection fee induces households to recycle more wastes. However, this effect is partially offset by decreases in source-reduction efforts due to the feedback effects, resulting in relatively lower price elasticity of demand for solid waste collection services. This implies that household demand for solid waste collection services will not decrease much with additional increases in the collection fee, unless further recycling incentives such as more frequent recyclable pickup services are accompanied.

  7. Design and operational experience of low level radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwood, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Low level radioactive wastes have been disposed of at the Drigg near-surface disposal site for over 30 years. These are carried out under a disposal authorization granted by the UK Environment Agency. This is augmented by a three tier comprehensive system of waste controls developed by BNFL involving wasteform specification, consignor and waste stream qualification and waste consignment verification. Until 1988 wastes were disposed of into trench facilities. However, based on a series of integrated optioneering studies, new arrangements have since been brought into operation. Central to these is a wasteform specification based principally on high force compaction of wastes, grouting within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers to essentially eliminate associated voidage and subsequent disposal in concrete lined vaults. These arrangements ensure efficient utilisation of the Drigg site capacity and a cost-effective disposal concept which meets both national and international standards. (author). 7 figs

  8. Reverse osmosis: experience of cold commissioning trials in waste immobilisation plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, G.; Bose, Aditi; Verma, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Industrial scale reverse osmosis plant for low level radioactive waste put up in Waste Immobilisation Plant (WIP), Trombay is the first of its kind in India. The performance test with inactive simulated waste is meeting the desired performance. The preliminary treatment of LLW stream at W.I.P., Trombay is proposed to be carried out with reverse osmosis membrane separation process. The design, recovery and rejection ratio of LLW is described

  9. Special features of nuclear waste repository ventilation system VIS-A-VIS experiences at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis and discussion of the underground ventilation system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Particular emphasis is placed on specific repository-related requirements and the gradual evolution of engineering designs relative to the WIPP Project scope. The ventilation system for a nuclear waste facility similar to WIPP is designed to provide a suitable environment for personnel and equipment during normal activities. It is also designed to provide confinement and channeling of potential airborne radioactive material in the event of an accidental release. It is desirable to identify and design all parallel activities and the required process equipment prior to completion of the repository mine final design. Such factors as ventilation requirements, drift sizes, bulkhead sizes, and placement are dependent on these items. Mine creep closure properties must be factored into the mine and ventilation equipment design considerations. Effects of natural ventilation pressures deserve due consideration in the design. Mine ventilation requirements are dominated by the diesel equipment to be operated in the underground horizon. WIPP engineers have also found it extremely desirable to have automated real-time monitoring and control for the underground ventilation air. Final testing and balancing of the ventilation system is an extremely important startup requirement. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Characterizing food waste substrates for co-digestion through biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Maria Sol; Lansing, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Co-digestion of food waste with dairy manure is increasingly utilized to increase energy production and make anaerobic digestion more affordable; however, there is a lack of information on appropriate co-digestion substrates. In this study, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the suitability of four food waste substrates (meatball, chicken, cranberry and ice cream processing wastes) for co-digestion with flushed dairy manure at a ratio of 3.2% food waste and 96.8% manure (by volume), which equated to 14.7% (ice-cream) to 80.7% (chicken) of the VS being attributed to the food waste. All treatments led to increases in methane production, ranging from a 67.0% increase (ice cream waste) to a 2940% increase (chicken processing waste) compared to digesting manure alone, demonstrating the large potential methane production of food waste additions compared to relatively low methane production potential of the flushed dairy manure, even if the overall quantity of food waste added was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  12. Design/build/mockup of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant gas generation experiment glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, K.E.; Benjamin, W.W.; Knight, C.J.; Michelbacher, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A glovebox was designed, fabricated, and mocked-up for the WIPP Gas Generation Experiments (GGE) being conducted at ANL-W. GGE will determine the gas generation rates from materials in contact handled transuranic waste at likely long term repository temperature and pressure conditions. Since the customer's schedule did not permit time for performing R ampersand D of the support systems, designing the glovebox, and fabricating the glovebox in a serial fashion, a parallel approach was undertaken. As R ampersand D of the sampling system and other support systems was initiated, a specification was written concurrently for contracting a manufacturer to design and build the glovebox and support equipment. The contractor understood that the R ampersand D being performed at ANL-W would add additional functional requirements to the glovebox design. Initially, the contractor had sufficient information to design the glovebox shell. Once the shell design was approved, ANL-W built a full scale mockup of the shell out of plywood and metal framing; support systems were mocked up and resultant information was forwarded to the glovebox contractor to incorporate into the design. This approach resulted in a glovebox being delivered to ANL-W on schedule and within budget

  13. Design of experiment (DOE) based screening of factors affecting municipal solid waste (MSW) composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Khoshrooz; Zhang, Baiyu; Lye, Leonard M; Cai, Qinghong; Cao, Tong

    2016-12-01

    A design of experiment (DOE) based methodology was adopted in this study to investigate the effects of multiple factors and their interactions on the performance of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting process. The impact of four factors, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N), moisture content (MC), type of bulking agent (BA) and aeration rate (AR) on the maturity, stability and toxicity of compost product was investigated. The statistically significant factors were identified using final C/N, germination index (GI) and especially the enzyme activities as responses. Experimental results validated the use of enzyme activities as proper indices during the course of composting. Maximum enzyme activities occurred during the active phase of decomposition. MC has a significant effect on dehydrogenase activity (DGH), β-glucosidase activity (BGH), phosphodiesterase activity (PDE) and the final moisture content of the compost. C/N is statistically significant for final C/N, DGH, BGH, and GI. The results provided guidance to optimize a MSW composting system that will lead to increased decomposition rate and the production of more stable and mature compost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  15. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  16. Investigating factors influencing construction waste management efforts in developing countries: an experience from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowong, Ektewan

    2012-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and urbanization in developing countries lead to extensive construction activities that generate a large amount of waste. A challenge is how to manage construction waste in the most sustainable way. In the developing world, research on construction waste management is scarce and such academic knowledge needs to be responsive to actual practices in the industry in order to be implemented. As construction projects involve a number of participants and stakeholders, their participation and commitment can have a major influence on the goals of green and sustainable construction for urban development. This study provides a significant step in conducting a very first research of this kind in Thailand by aiming to investigate the level of construction stakeholders' commitment as well as the achievement of construction waste management in order to improve short-term practices and to establish a long-term strategic construction waste management plan. In this study, a structural equation model was employed to investigate the influence of factors that are related to environmental aspects, social aspects, and economic aspect of construction waste management. Concern about health and safety was found to be the most significant and dominant influence on the achievement of sustainable construction waste management. Other factors affecting the successful management of construction waste in Thai construction projects were also identified. It is perceived that this study has potential to contribute useful guidelines for practitioners both in Thailand and other developing countries with similar contexts.

  17. Low-Level Legacy Waste Processing Experience at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, P.J.; Rowell, L.E.; Kurasch, D.H.; Moore, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents detailed results and lessons learned from the very challenging and highly successful 2005 low level radioactive waste sorting, packaging, and shipping campaign that removed over 95% of the available inventory of 350,000 ft 3 of legacy low level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project near West Valley, New York. First some programmatic perspective and site history is provided to provide pertinent context for DOE's waste disposal mandates at the site. This is followed by a detailed description of the waste types, the storage locations, the containers, and the varied sorting and packaging facilities used to accomplish the campaign. The overall sorting and packaging protocols for this inventory of wastes are defined. This is followed by detailed sorting data and results concluding with lessons learned. (authors)

  18. Operational experience from SFR - Final repository for low- and intermediate level waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skogsberg, Marie; Ingvarsson, Roger

    2006-01-01

    SFR, the Swedish Final Repository for Radioactive Waste, has been in operation since April 1988. It was designed for short lived LLW/ILW from the operation and maintenance of all Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. The first stage was constructed for 63 000 m 3 which was assumed to give a margin and flexibility for the preliminary operational period. Today this volume represents the whole prediction of operational waste. Until the end of 2005 SFR has received 30 930 m 3 waste. In average it has been 2-3 derivations per year at the repository. The most derivations happened in the years 1993-1995, and that was also the years when the repository received the most volume of waste. The most of the derivations those years was related to the waste packages. The dose rate to the personal has always been very low in the latest years the collective dose has been under 0,1 mmanSv/year. (author)

  19. Simulation of the ACE L2 and ACE L5 MCCI experiment under dry surface conditions with ASTEC MEDICIS using an effective heat transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agethen, Kathrin; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2013-07-01

    In a postulated severe accident the loss of cooling can lead to a melting of the core and to a failure of the vessel. The molten core material discharges to the containment cavity and interacts with the concrete basemat. The heat up of the concrete leads to the release of sparing gases (H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SiO), which stir the pool und causes chemical reactions. Especially the metals (Zr, Fe, Ni, Cr) in the corium are oxidized und the exothermic energy is released to the melt, which raises the melt temperature further. The release of combustible gases (H{sub 2}, CO) and fission products to the containment atmosphere occurs as a result. In the long time (>10 h) containment failure and basemat penetration may occur, which can lead to fission product release to the environment. For further development and validation, simulations of experiments in which molten core concrete interaction (MCCI) is investigated, are necessary. In this work the new available effective heat transfer model in MEDICIS is used to calculate experiments of the ACE program, in which generic corium material is heated up and interacts with the concrete basemat. Here, especially the ACE L2 experiment with siliceous concrete and the ACE L5 experiment with limestone common sand (LCS) concrete will be presented. These experiments enable to analyze the heat transfer from the interior of the melt to the upper surface under dry conditions. Secondary the modeling in ASTEC version 2.p2 with the effective heat transfer module in MEDICIS is described. Results of MEDICIS simulations will be discussed by means of phenomena like ablation behavior and erosions depth, layer temperature and surface heat loss. Finally the issue of an effective heat transfer coefficient for the surface under dry conditions without top flooding is figured out. (orig.)

  20. EXPERIMENTS ON CAKE DEVELOPMENT IN CROSSFLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2011-04-14

    Crossflow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self cleaning through the action of wall shear stress, which is created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduces permeability. Low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Salt Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site and the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford Site. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date, increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the crossflow filter axial flowrate, which is limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, which is limited by space and increases the required pump load. In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing crossflow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on startup techniques and filter cake development. This paper discusses those filter studies. SRNL set up both dead-end and crossflow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, and filter cleaning. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, which were both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed several tests to demonstrate increases in filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions filter flow rates can be increased

  1. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  2. Dynamics of Soil Water Evaporation during Soil Drying in the Presence of a Shallow Water Table: Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Lin, J.; Liu, P.; Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    Evaporation from a porous medium plays a key role in hydrological, agricultural, environmental, and engineering applications. Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68 cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71 cm during stage 3. Although the magnitude of condensation zone was much smaller than that for the evaporation zone, the importance of the contribution of condensation zone to soil water dynamics should not be underestimated. Results from our experiment and numerical simulation show that this condensation process resulted in an unexpected and apparent water content increase in the middle of vadose zone profile.

  3. In situ experiments on the performance of near-field for nuclear waste repository at KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won-Jin, E-mail: wjcho@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Sub; Lee, Changsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sangki [Inha University, Department of Energy Resources Engineering, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of in situ experiments on the near-field of a repository are summarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In BHT, the rock temperatures at 0.3 m from heater showed 40-50 Degree-Sign C increase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDZ size measured from the in situ test was in the range of 0.6-1.8 m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum errors in estimating the location of AE source were 0.6-1.0 m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permeability in the EDZ increased up to 2 orders compared with the intact rock. - Abstract: To obtain the information on the design and performance assessment of a geological repository for nuclear waste, several in situ experiments on the performance of the near-field have been conducted for 5 years in the small-scale underground research laboratory, KURT. This paper summarizes the results from the in situ experiments. In the borehole heater test, the rock temperature at 0.3 m distance from the heater hole with 90 Degree-Sign C showed a 40 Degree-Sign C increase over initial temperature. After heating with 120 Degree-Sign C, the rock temperature at 0.3 m distance from the heater hole increased up to 50 Degree-Sign C over initial temperature. The EDZ size measured from the in situ test was in the range of 0.6-1.8 m, and was higher than that from the laboratory tests, which was estimated to be around 1.1-1.5 m. The maximum errors in estimating the location of acoustic emission source were 1.0 m in EDZ and 0.6 m in an intact rock zone, respectively. The damping ratios of the EDZ and intact rock were 0.091 and 0.005, respectively. The permeability of rock increased with decreasing distance from the tunnel wall because of the EDZ. The permeability in the EDZ seems to be increased up to 2 orders compared with that in the intact rock.

  4. Development, implementation, and experiences of the Swedish spent fuel and waste sea transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Dybeck, P.; Pettersson, S.

    1989-01-01

    In Sweden, electrical production from the first commercial nuclear plant commenced in 1972, i.e. 17 years ago. There are now 12 nuclear reactors in operation, the last two were connected to the grid in fall 1985. These 12 reactors produced about 50% of the present electrical demand in Sweden. The remaining 50% are mainly covered by hydro power stations. The operating record for the Swedish reactors has generally been very good. Nevertheles, the Swedish parliament has taken a decision, that nuclear power shall be phased out from the Swedish system not later than the year 2010. Many of them - to use a mild expression-question the wisdom of this decision. The efforts in the waste management area will, however, be given a continued high priority. The primary responsibility for the management of nuclear waste lies with the waste producer. In order to achieve a good coordination and an effective management the four Swedish nuclear power utilities have delegated these responsibilities to the jointly owned Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB. This means that SKB is responsible for measures required for the implementation of the national nuclear waste management program such as planning, design, construction and operation of waste facilities including the necessary R and D work. The responsibility of the nuclear power utilities also includes the financing of the waste management program. A special funding system, controlled by the authorities, has been established for this purpose

  5. Occupational radiation protection experience in radioactive waste management at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramchandran, V.; Jauhri, G.S.

    2000-01-01

    Waste Management Facilities, Trombay (WMFT) comprises Radioactive Solid waste Management Site (RSMS), an Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), and a Decontamination Centre (DC). Radioactive wastes from the plants and laboratories in Mumbai are handled here. The wastes are categorized and classified as per International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) guidelines. RSMS is a near surface disposal facility, where assorted beta gamma solid waste is disposed off in appropriate disposal facilities. ETP is a centralized low level liquid waste treatment facility, where liquid effluent is chemically treated to remove the radionuclides present in it, monitored for radioactivity, and discharged into the Mumbai Harbour Bay. In DC, plant and laboratory used clothings and personnel protective wears are decontaminated, monitored and sent for reuse. A comprehensive radiation monitoring programme is in place in these facilities from the beginning of radioactive waste management operations at BARC. The per capita radiation dose of the occupational workers and individual maximum dose has been low. Radioactivity release through liquid effluent from ETP has been kept well below Authorized Limits (AL). There has been no safety related unusual occurrences during the facility operation, that had any significant radiological impact. (author)

  6. Effect of dry density and temperature on the hydraulic conductivity of domestic compacted bentonite as a buffer material in the high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik; Lee, Jae Owan

    1999-02-01

    This study is intended to investigate the effect of dry density and temperature on the hydraulic conductivity of domestic calcium bentonite. The dry densities of bentonite are 1.4 Mg/m 3 , 1.6 Mg/m 3 and 1.6 Mg/m, and the temperatures are in the range of 20 dg C to 150 dg C. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted bentonite with dry densities higher than 1.4 Mg/m 3 are lower than 10 -1 1 m/s, and are low enough to inhibit the radionuclide release by advection through the buffer. The hydraulic conductivities at the temperature of 150 dg C increase up to about 1 order higher than those at 20 dg C. (author). 28 refs., 5 tabs., 20 figs

  7. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  8. Installation of a radioactive waste disposal facility. The necessity of building up durable links between the general public and radioactive waste. Feedback from experience in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, Annabelle; Farin, Sebastien [Andra, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2015-07-01

    2013 has been a banner year for Andra with widespread discussions on the question of long-term management of radioactive waste: a nationwide public discussion about the planned Cigeo deep disposal facility has been organized and national discussions on the energy source transition had inevitably brought up the question of what to do with future radioactive waste to be produced under the various scenarios put forward. In spite of an open institutional framework, with numerous legal provisions for citizen participation, 2013 showed that creation of a radioactive waste disposal facility is not, and cannot be, a question dealt with like breaking news, within a given temporal or spatial perimeter. Any attempts to bring up the subject under the spotlight of public scrutiny inevitably shift the discussions away from their central theme and abandon the underlying question - what should be done with the existing radioactive waste and the waste that is bound to be produced? - to move on to the other major question: ''Should we stop using nuclear power or not?'', which takes us away from our responsibilities towards future generations. Daring to face the question, anchor it in citizen discussions, and create awareness of our duties towards coming generations: this is the challenge that Andra had already set itself several years ago. Our position is a strong one; rather than seeking to mask the problem of radioactive waste, we must face up to our responsibilities: the waste is already there, and we have to do something with it. It will take time to be successful here. Long-term management of radioactive waste is clearly a really long-term matter. All the experience in the field has shown that it involves patience and careful listening, and requires building up a basis for solid trust among the potential neighboring population, who are the most directly concerned. Durable proximity human investment is one of the key factors of success. For over 20 years now

  9. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed

  10. Experiences in development, qualification, and use of concrete high-integrity containers in commercial disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Disposal of EPICOR prefilters as commercial radioactive wastes is being accomplished by using a first-of-a-kind, reinforced concrete, high-integrity container (HIC) in lieu of prior in situ solidification of resins before disposal of prefilters. Experiences in developing, testing, certifying, and using high-integrity containers are an untold story worthy of review for the benefit of the nuclear industry at large. The lessons learned in gaining regulatory acceptance of the concrete HIC are discussed. 6 refs., 1 tab

  11. In situ one-year burial experiments with simulated nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hench, L.L.; Spilman, D.; Buonaquisti, T.; Werme, L.

    1985-01-01

    Two simulated nuclear waste glasses were corroded in an in-situ experiment in the Stripa mine up to one year at 90 degree C and ambient temperature. Changes in compositional in-depth profiles were measured using Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy, SIMS and Rutherford back-scattering. For glass/glass interfaces, both glasses showed depletion of Na, Cs and B, but for the more corrosion resistant glass, the lower depletion is ascribed to the formation of a thin (0.2 nm) coherent and dense outer layer enriched in Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn-Al and Si, which impedes both ion exchange and network attack of the bulk underneath. For the bentonite interfaces, cation exchange of Ca, Mg, Al and Fe from the bentonite for primarily Na and B is found to produce a glass surface that has three silicate-rich layers. The larger concentrations of M/super2+/ and M/super3+/ cation and the high silica content of the reaction layers result in a considerably retarded rate of ion exchange after the formation of these layers during the first three months of burial. The granite interfaces showed the lowest rate of attack. This appears to be due to a large increase of Fe and Al within the glass surfaces exposed to granite. The results obtained using Rutheford back-scattering confirm the results obtained using the other techniques for surface analysis. Analysis of burial samples cast in steel mini-canisters show no significant effects associated with the steel canister-glass interface. (author)

  12. Experiment Analysis of Concrete’s Mechanical Property Deterioration Suffered Sulfate Attack and Drying-Wetting Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of concrete deterioration in sodium sulfate solution is investigated. The macroperformance was characterized via its apparent properties, mass loss, and compressive strength. Changes in ions in the solution at different sulfate attack periods were tested by inductively coupled plasma (ICP. The damage evolution law, as well as analysis of the concrete’s meso- and microstructure, was revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and computed tomography (CT scanning equipment. The results show that the characteristics of concrete differed at each sulfate attack period; the drying-wetting cycles generally accelerated the deterioration process of concrete. In the early sulfate attack period, the pore structure of the concrete was filled with sulfate attack products (e.g., ettringite and gypsum, and its mass and strength increased. The pore size and porosity decreased while the CT number increased. As deterioration progressed, the swelling/expansion force of products and the salt crystallization pressure of sulfate crystals acted on the inner wall of the concrete to accumulate damage and accelerate deterioration. The mass and strength of concrete sharply decreased. The number and volume of pores increased, and the pore grew more quickly resulting in initiation and expansion of microcracks while the CT number decreased.

  13. Transporting spent fuel and reactor waste in Sweden experience from 5 years of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybeck, P.; Gustafsson, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that since the Final Repository for Reactor Waste, SFR, was taken into operation in 1988, the SKB sea transportation system is operating at full capacity by transporting spent fuel and now also reactor waste from the 12 Swedish reactors to CLAB and SFR. Transports from the National Research Center, Studsvik to the repository has recently also been integrated in the system. CLAB, the central intermediate storage for spent fuel, has been in operation since 1985. The SKB Sea Transportation System consists today of the purpose built ship M/s Sigyn, 10 transport casks for spent fuel, 2 casks for spent core components, 27 IP-2 shielded steel containers for reactor waste and 5 terminal vehicles. During an average year about 250 tonnes of spent fuel and 3 -- 4000 m 3 of reactor waste are transported to CLAB and SFR respectively, corresponding to around 30 sea voyages

  14. Six-year experiences in the operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.-J.; Hwang, S.-L.; Tsai, C.-M.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant is described. The plant is designed for the disposal of liquid waste produced primarily by a 40 MW Taiwan Research Reactor as well as a fuel fabrication plant for the CANDU type reactor and a radioisotopes production laboratory. The monthly volume treated is about 600-2500 ton of low level liquid waste. The activity levels are in the range of 10 -5 -10 -3 μCi/cm 3 . The continuous treatment system of the low level liquid waste treatment plant and the treatment data collected since 1973 are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of continuous and batch processes are compared. In the continuous process, the efficiency of sludge treatment, vermiculite ion exchange and the adsorption of peat are investigated for further improvement. (H.K.)

  15. Experience from developed and licensing an underground repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, K.; Richter, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic an abandoned salt mine was selected and reconstructed to serve as a central repository for low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants and radioisotope production and application from all over the country. The decision to establish such a repository was based on safety and technical-economic studies performed in the 1960s. The repository is owned by the main waste producer, the nuclear plant utility. It was designed, constructed and commissioned during 1972-1978. The licensing steps included a site licence (1972), a construction licence (1974), a comissioning licence and a continuous operation licence (1979). The paper reviews the overall choice of the disposal option, the responsibilities in radioactive waste management, the licensing and surveillance activities, the methods for transport and disposal, and the waste acceptance criteria established for the repository. (author)

  16. Environmental system analysis of waste management. Experiences from applications of the ORWARE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, Anna

    2000-11-01

    Waste management has gone through a history of shifting problems, demands, and strategies over the years. In contrast to the long prevailing view that the problem could be solved by hiding or moving it, waste is now viewed as a problem ranging from local to global concern, and as being an integral part of several sectors in society. Decisive for this view has been society's increasing complexity and thus the increasing complexity of waste, together with a general development of environmental consciousness, moving from local focus on point emission sources, to regional and global issues of more complex nature. This thesis is about the development and application ORWARE; a model for computer aided environmental systems analysis of municipal waste management. Its origin is the hypothesis that widened perspectives are needed in waste management decision-making to avoid severe sub-optimisation of environmental performance. With a strong foundation in life cycle assessment (LCA), ORWARE aims to cover the environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of waste management. It also performs substance flow analysis (SFA) calculations at a rather detailed level of the system. Applying ORWARE has confirmed the importance of applying systems perspective and of taking into account site specific differences in analysis and planning of waste management, rather than relying on overly simplified solutions. Some findings can be generalised and used as guidelines to reduce environmental impact of waste management. Recovery of material and energy resources from waste generally leads to net reductions in energy use and environmental impact, because of the savings this brings about in other sectors. Waste treatment with low rate of energy and materials recovery should therefore be avoided. The exact choice of technology however depends on what products can be recovered and how they are used. Despite the complexity of the model and a certain degree of user unfriendliness, involved

  17. Development of the BWR Dry Core Initial and Boundary Conditions for the SNL XR2 Experiments; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Boiling Water Reactor Experimental Analysis and Model Development for Severe Accidents (BEAMD) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are: (1) the development of a sound quantitative understanding of boiling water reactor (BWR) core melt progression; this includes control blade and channel box effects, metallic melt relocation and possible blockage formation under severe accident conditions, and (2) provision of BWR melt progression modeling capabilities in SCDAP/RELAP5 (consistent with the BWR experimental data base). This requires the assessment of current modeling of BWR core melt progression against the expanding BWR data base. Emphasis is placed upon data from the BWR tests in the German CORA test facility and from the ex-reactor experiments[Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation in BWRs, as well as upon in-reactor data from the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) DF-4 BWR test (conducted in 1986 at SNL). The BEAMD Program is a derivative of the BWR Severe Accident Technology Programs at ORNL. The ORNL BWR programs have studied postulated severe accidents in BWRs and have developed a set of models specific to boiling water reactor response under severe accident conditions. These models, in an experiment-specific format, have been successfully applied to both pretest and posttest analyses of the DF-4 experiment, and the BWR severe fuel damage (SFD) experiments performed in the CORA facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany, resulting in excellent agreement between model prediction and experiment. The ORNL BWR models have provided for more precise predictions of the conditions in the BWR experiments than were previously available. This has provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena for which the experiments are performed. The experiment-specific models, as used in the ORNL DF-4 and CORA BWR experimental analyses, also provide a basis

  18. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.I.; Machado, J.B.; Linhares, C.A.; Mazarino, P.R. [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1993-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Experience with disposal of low-level radioactive waste: building confidence for and against the regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lowenthal, M.D. [University of California, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Following the controversy regarding the potential use of the Ward Valley site in California as a low level radioactive waste facility, an Advisory Group and a Scientific Panel were formed to recommend alternatives to the Governor. During the course of the Group and Panel deliberations, the arguments for and against near surface burial and waste classification were crystallized. In this paper we discuss the bases upon which the arguments were formed and what we can learn from them. (author)

  20. Experience with disposal of low-level radioactive waste: building confidence for and against the regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Lowenthal, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Following the controversy regarding the potential use of the Ward Valley site in California as a low level radioactive waste facility, an Advisory Group and a Scientific Panel were formed to recommend alternatives to the Governor. During the course of the Group and Panel deliberations, the arguments for and against near surface burial and waste classification were crystallized. In this paper we discuss the bases upon which the arguments were formed and what we can learn from them. (author)

  1. Management of waste generation in the oil refining industry. The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lage Refinery experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J I; Machado, J B; Linhares, C A; Mazarino, P R [PETROBRAS, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). REVAP. Refinaria Henrique Lage

    1994-12-31

    The PETROBRAS - Henrique Lages Refinery - located in Sao Paulo State (Southeast Brazil), has been developing for many years a systematic program for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generation reduction. The waste minimization management program success has been built due to the structure behavioural modifications due to the new environment protection and quality politics; the training and equipment investments, and operational procedures changes. (author). 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Environmental center for integrated waste management: an experience in the Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo V, Jairo; Banalcazar, Fernando L.; Noboa Garcia, Gabriel [EnCanEcuador S.A., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The creation of a large amount of both solid and liquid waste within the petroleum industry should be the reason for providing a facility that makes it possible to apply proper treatment to the waste matter, depending on the degree of complexity, especially if these operations are taking place within or in the area of influence of a national park or a biosphere reserve. EnCanEcuador has invested $1 200,000 in the construction of facilities and equipment for an integrated environmental management center, which will allow us to create in-house resources for the management of waste control. Organic waste is grinded, homogenized with sawdust and placed in a dynamic sanitary fill to form fertilizer. The leachates material will be used as foliage fertilizer. Inorganic waste is classified, grinded, compacted, packed and sent to different recycling companies or in some cases incinerated in a low emission incinerator. Drilling waste: Drilling mud water based potassium nitrate is treated through a de-nitrification process using bioremediation methods. Liquid waste: from well completion, washing vehicles, drains from production stations, is passed through an API separator system into two physical-chemical treatment pits for its later re-injection. Contaminated soil: that may be caused by petroleum activity is treated in a pit where the greatest possible amount of hydrocarbon is recovered by means of hot hydro-washing and is then treated with native bacteria in two land farming centers. Dangerous solid waste is transported to a secure fill for its confinement. Laboratory and Meteorological Station: For the control and monitoring of petroleum activities and to determine climatic variations. Plant nursery: it will have a capacity to produce 300,000 plants a year. Community Cooperatives will manage the center, enforcing our Social responsibility in our daily activities. (author)

  3. Canadian experiences in characterizing two low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1984-02-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level reactor waste (ILW) arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the generation of electricity and from the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development as well as for the production of separated radioisotopes. The majority of this waste is currently being safely managed at two sites in the Province of Ontario: (1) Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and (2) Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Power Development Radioactive Waste Operations Site 2. Although these storage facilities can safely manage the waste for a long period of time, there are advantages in disposal of the LLW and ILW. The design of the disposal facilities and the assessment of long-term performance will require that the hydrologic and geologic data be gathered for a potential disposal site. Past site characterization programs at the two aforementioned waste storage sites have produced information which will be useful to future disposal studies in similar geologic materials. The assessment of long-term performance will require that predictions be made regarding the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides. However there still remain many uncertainties regarding the chemical and physical processes which affect radionuclide mobility and concentrations, in particular hydrodynamic dispersion, geochemical reactions, and transport through fractured media. These uncertainties have to be borne in mind when conducting the performance assessments and adequate conservatism must be included to account for the uncertainties. (author)

  4. French experience in design and construction of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousselin, D.; Medal, G.; Augustin, X.; Wavrechin, B. de

    1993-01-01

    France disposes of all radioactive waste produced on its territory. Short-lived waste (with a half-life shorter than 30 years) are disposed of, since 1969 on the 'La Manche' disposal facility (CSM 'Centre de La Manche'). As this center will be saturated in 1994, ANDRA (French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management) has undertaken in 1984 the studies and works necessary to the realization of a new disposal facility. TECHNICATOME was associated, since the beginning of those studies and was chosen by ANDRA as Prime Contractor for the new Radwaste Disposal Center. French conception was chosen by Spanish Authorities in 1987, ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA) selected the Cabril Site in the South of Spain as disposal of low and medium activity radwaste. TECHNICATOME was associated with this project, through a joint French-Spanish engineering team. Authority of North Carolina State (USA) decided in 1989 to build a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and the contract has been awarded to CNSI (Chem Nuclear System Inc.) with a proposal based on the French experience. A french team ANDRA/TECHNICATOME/SGN is in charge of the design of the disposal facility

  5. Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed

  6. Learning and adapting to societal requirements for radioactive waste management. Key findings and experience of the forum on stakeholder confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) is an ongoing initiative of the Nea Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC). The FSC is composed of nominees from Nea member countries and consists mostly of representatives of national organisations (implementers, regulators, policy makers, research and development personnel) with responsibility for, and experience of, interacting with stakeholders. The FSC mandate includes the following: to define, oversee and carry out work programme activities in the strategic area of public perception and stakeholder confidence, as assigned by the RWMC; to advise the RWMC on major and emerging issues in the area of public perception and stakeholder confidence related to waste management; to act as a forum to share experience in achieving stakeholder confidence and, in particular, in how to obtain the confidence of local communities and their representatives and intermediaries with the technical decision makers; to analyse today processes for embedding waste management programmes into a socio-political, decision-making context; to identify opportunities for harmonized views of member countries regarding successful and unsuccessful experiences in interacting with stakeholders, technical concerns of stakeholders, effective means of communicating with technical and nontechnical audiences. This report presents the key FSC findings based on the substantial documentation and experience developed by the Forum during its first four years of activity (2000-2004). The historical context within which the FSC was established is also described and provides a perspective to those findings. An appendix recounts the collective experience of the FSC members, including their views of the impact of FSC activities on participating organisations. The FSC will build upon the present findings during its next phase of work. (author)

  7. Measured and Modeled Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiances in Very Dry Environments and Calibration Requirements for Future Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    Downwelling radiances measured by the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument in an environment with integrated precipitable water as low as 0.03 cm are compared with calculated spectra in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed to 5.38 km on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October 2009. There FIRST took part in the Radiative Heating in Unexplored Bands Campaign Part 2. Water vapor and temperature profiles from an optimal-estimation-based physical retrieval algorithm (using simultaneous radiosonde and multichannel 183 GHz microwave radiometer measurements) are input to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to compute radiances for comparison with FIRST. The AER v3.4 line parameter database is used. The low water vapor amounts and relatively cold atmosphere result in extremely small far-IR radiances (1.5 mW/m2/sr/cm-1) with corresponding brightness temperatures of 120 K. The residual LBLRTM minus FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in the comparison. A goal of the deployment and subsequent analysis is the assessment of water vapor spectroscopy in the far-infrared and mid-infrared. While agreement is found between measured and modeled radiances within the combined uncertainties across all spectra, uncertainties in the measured water vapor profiles and from the laboratory calibration exceed those associated with water vapor spectroscopy in this very low radiance environment. Consequently, no improvement in water vapor spectroscopy is afforded by these measurements. However, we use these results to place requirements on instrument calibration accuracy and water vapor profile accuracy for future campaigns to similarly dry environments. Instrument calibration uncertainty needs to be at 2% (1-sigma) of measured radiance

  8. Small-scale medical waste incinerators - experiences and trials in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, David E.C.; Brent, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised the first phase of four, which defined the comprehensive trials of three incineration units. The trials showed that all of the units could be used to render medical waste non-infectious, and to destroy syringes or render needles unsuitable for reuse. Emission loads from the incinerators are higher than large-scale commercial incinerators, but a panel of experts considered the incinerators to be more acceptable compared to the other waste treatment and disposal options available in under-serviced rural areas. However, the incinerators must be used within a safe waste management programme that provides the necessary resources in the form of collection containers, maintenance support, acceptable energy sources, and understandable operational instructions for the incinerators, whilst minimising the exposure risks to emissions through the correct placement of the units in relation to the clinic and the surrounding communities. On-going training and awareness building are essential in order to ensure that the incinerators are correctly used as a sustainable waste treatment option

  9. Experience gained and future activities in radioactive waste management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.

    1996-01-01

    The origin and the characteristics of the radioactive waste produced in the Nuclear Research Center are described, as well as those resulting from the application of radioisotopes in different external institutions. The methods utilized in the waste management, and the future actions that will be performed, in order to solve the specific problems of the management are also explained. The Nuclear Research Center is a university institution that has many research opportunities in different applications of radioisotopes: in medicine, biology, industry, agronomy and radiochemistry, and beside that, was here where the 10 km research reactor, that nowadays is being decommissioned, was in operation. Due to the infrastructure of this center, it has been usually responsible for the waste management produced in other institutions, but at present the capacity was exceeded, so that a program was carried out in order to confront this problem. The program for the radioactive waste management qualifies the personnel in formation courses and receives the support of specialists of the IAEA. It also records the sealed radiation sources using a data base by means of a computer to exhausted sources, developed by the same organization. The country regulating organization is carrying out a study to establish a national policy related to the treatment and disposal of wastes. (authors). 4 refs. 1 tab

  10. Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes. Proceedings of a Symposium on Operating and Developmental Experience in the Treatment of Airborne Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium convened by the IAEA in co-operation with the USAEC and Harvard University and held in New York 26-30 August 1968. The meeting was attended by 150 participants and 80 observers from 17 countries and five international organizations. Contents: Monitoring air contaminants (3 papers), Characteristics of air contaminants from nuclear reactors (8 papers), Filtration design development cost (7 papers), Testing high efficiency filters (4 papers), Removal of noble gases (3 papers), Special problems related to heat and moisture (6 papers), Developments in the removal of iodine and its compounds (4 papers), Recent developments in spray technology (5 papers), Airborne wastes from incineration (4 papers), Operational experience in the treatment of airborne wastes (8 papers), Panel discussions, List of participants, Author index. Each paper is in its original language (44 English, 7 French and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  11. Experience in industrial operation of the plant for immobilizing radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Romestain, P.; Bruant, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed, at the Grenoble Centre for Nuclear Studies, a procedure for immobilizing low- and intermediate-level wastes in thermosetting resins of the polyester or epoxy types. To demonstrate feasibility on an industrial scale, a pilot plant has been set up at the effluent treatment station of the Ardennes Franco-Belgium Nuclear Power Station (SENA), which is a 305 MW(e) PWR type. Assembly work began in January 1979. After a period devoted to final adjustments and operation with inactive products, conditioning of active products began in January 1981. In the paper, the methods of conditioning the three types of waste (evaporation concentrates, ion exchange resins and filter cartridges) are described, experience of the start-up and operation of the plant is reported and the principal results of coating characterization tests are given. The results of tests on active and inactive products show that the characteristics of the materials obtained on an industrial scale match those of laboratory products and confirm their high quality with regard to mechanical behaviour, fire resistance, homogeneity and low-leachability. Industrial experience and economic comparisons show that the process of immobilizing waste from nuclear power stations in thermosetting resins offers an extremely interesting alternative to classical methods of conditioning. (author)

  12. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  13. Analysis of Weld Fabrication Flaws in High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Containers: Experiences from the US Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, Daniel; Apted, Mick

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine key issues regarding the fabrication, closure and defect detection in canisters for radioactive waste disposal in a deep geological repository. As a preliminary step, a review is made of the closure-weld design and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of the closure seal for the US high-level waste repository programme. This includes statistical analysis of the data obtained by NDE and identification of key areas of investigation where additional data are required. Information from other industrial experiences on closure and flaw detection of metal containers is also reviewed. The canister material and closure methods for the US programme and industrial activities reviewed here differ from those of SKB's KBS-3 reference design. The issues and approaches to issue resolution identified from the US programme and industrial analogues, however, can provide an initial basis for preparing for independent review of SKB's canister closure plans and encapsulation facility

  14. Melting experiment on concrete waste using a hollow type plasma torch mounted on furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Y. P.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, S. U.; Lee, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    A furnace coupled with a hollow type plasma torch was manufactured and installed in order to develop a volume reduction technology for non-combustible radioactive waste using plasma. A melting test with 10kg of concrete waste was carried out for the evaluation of melting characteristics in the non-transferred operation mode for 20 minutes with the melter. Feeded concrete was completely melted. However, the molten bath was not easily discharged because of its high viscosity. It was found that some molten slag spat from the molten bath was coated on the surface of torch which was mounted vertically inside furnace

  15. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  16. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  18. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  19. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office: Thirty Years of Experience in Canada - 13308

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Liliana; Gardiner, Mark J.; Zelmer, Robert L. [Natural Resources Canada, 580 Booth Street, Ottawa On. (Canada); Gardiner, Mark J.; Zelmer, Robert L. [Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reviews thirty years of progress by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office (LLRWMO) in developing and implementing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) remediation projects and environmentally safe co-existence strategies. It reports on the present status and the future of the national historic waste program in Canada. There are over two million cubic metres of historic LLRW in Canada. Historic LLRW is broadly defined as LLRW that was managed in the past in a manner that is no longer considered acceptable and for which the original owner cannot reasonably be held accountable. In many cases, the original owner can not be identified or no longer exists. The LLRWMO was established in 1982 as Canada's agent to carry out the responsibilities of the federal government for the management of historic LLRW. The LLRWMO is operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) through a cost-recovery agreement with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), the federal department that provides the funding and establishes national policy for radioactive waste management in Canada. The LLRWMO expertise includes project managers, environmental remediation specialists, radiation surveyors, communications staff and administrative support staff. The LLRWMO in providing all aspects of project oversight and implementation contracts additional resources supplementing core staff capacity as project/program demands require. (authors)

  20. Small-scale medical waste incinerators: experiences and trials in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rogers, DEC

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available incineration units. The trials showed that all of the units could be used to render medical waste non-infectious, and to destroy syringes or render needles unsuitable for reuse. Emission loads from the incinerators are higher than large-scale commercial...

  1. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  2. Authorization of radioactive waste disposal under RSA93: regulatory experience and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    The Environment Agency was formed in 1996 and is responsible for regulating radioactive waste disposal in England and Wales. In determining applications for disposal authorizations, it consults other statutory bodies including the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and the Health and Safety Executive. The Agency has published updated guidance on the principles and requirements for authorization of geological disposal of low and intermediate level waste. It will apply a risk target of 10 -6 per year in determining authorizations for waste disposal. Further work is required to elaborate the concept of 'critical group' to which the risk target should be applied. The Agency has also considered amending the methodology it uses for regulation of radioactive waste discharges from nuclear installations. Concerns expressed by the nuclear industry about the lack of operational flexibility in discharge authorizations, led the Agency to develop an alternative method of regulation. Responses to this initiative were mixed. In the future, the Department of the Environment will be reviewing the principles underpinning regulation of discharges, with the intention of setting out guidance on the objectives to be achieved and factors to be taken into account. (author)

  3. Strategies for high-level radioactive waste management: the U.S. experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Technology exists or is under development for the safe, retrievable storage of spent fuel from commercial nuclear reactors and high-level waste from reprocessing that fuel, for many decades, and no insuperable scientific obstacles to permanent disposal of spent fuel or high-level waste in geologic repositories have been identified. However, there are significant institutional obstacles to developing such repositories: strong local opposition to siting and the requirement for a sustained commitment of money and skilled manpower over a period of decades. These create strong incentives to defer the political and economic costs of developing disposal facilities by using less expensive interim storage; yet continued deferral may affect the acceptability of nuclear power. Thus the principal strategic policy issue in high-level waste management is how rapidly to develop disposal facilities. Some countries plan decades of storage before choosing a repository site or a disposal technology, while the United States has enacted a law requiring operation of a geologic repository by 1998. This paper discusses waste management strategic issues and major provisions of the U.S. law, emphasizing those measures dealing with the institutional obstacles to developing geologic repositories. (author)

  4. Low-temperature hydrothermal pretreatment followed by dry anaerobic digestion: A sustainable strategy for manure waste management regarding energy recovery and nutrients availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Zhao, Ziwen; Yuan, Tian; Huang, Wenli; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of low-temperature hydrothermal (HT) pretreatment for improving dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of swine manure (SM) and nutrient elements reclamation, with specific goals to minimize the drawbacks of conventional HT process including high energy consumption, inhibitory compounds formation and unfavorable pH/alkalinity decrease. Pretreatment at 110-130°C for holding 30min increased the soluble organic carbon (SOC) concentration in SM by 13-26%. After being mixed with inocula, the pretreated SM was applied for dry AD tests successfully without initial pH adjustment, achieving a CH 4 yield of 280.18-328.93ml/g-VS fed (14-34% increase compared to that from raw SM). Energy assessment indicated a positive net gain of 0.95kJ/g-VS by adopting HT pretreatment at 130°C. Except for increment in CH 4 yield, low-temperature HT pretreatment also promoted organic-N mineralization, increasing N fractions in the digestate available for plants. After 70days' dry AD, a high ammonia-N to total nitrogen (TN) ratio of 71% was obtained for the SM sample pretreated at 130°C, in sharp contrast to that of 38% in raw SM. P bioavailability in the final digestate was not greatly affected by the HT pretreatment since the labile organics were mostly degraded after AD, in which P existing forms were influenced by the multivalent metals content in SM. Overall, 23-27% of the total P was potentially bioavailable in all digestates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrosion behavior of the aluminum under the simulated environmental condition of low-level waste. Part 1. Effect of dry storage on the corrosion behavior of pre-filmed specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Tani, Junichi; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum alloy remains in the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) generated at nuclear facilities. It is well known that aluminum reactors to the alkaline component of cement, or water, generating hydrogen gas. For the saft management of radioactive waste disposal facilities, it is necessary to evaluate the corrosion behavior of aluminum and the hydrogen generation behavior in consideration with transition of the burial environment. In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of aluminum in the alkaline solutions at 15degC were evaluated. Pure aluminium was used as specimen. The test solutions used in this study were water in equilibrium with the cement paste grain produced from ordinary portland cement (OPC). The temperature and pH of solutions were 15degC and 11.5-12.5, respectively. In order to make a corrosion product on the surface, the specimens were immersed in the solution for about 3000 hours as pretreatment. The corrosion behaviors of pre-filmed specimen were evaluated after drying. The test results shows that the maximum in a corrosion rate appeared in early stages and it decrease to less than 1x10 -3 mm/y. The maximum did not appear when the corrosion products were formed in the OPC grain as conditions similar to actual environment. (author)

  6. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm 2 -sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface

  7. Planning and consultation procedures for low-level radioactive waste disposal: a comparative analysis of overseas experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1989-03-01

    The results are presented of a study the purpose of which was to learn from experience in countries other than the UK, of planning and public consultation procedures associated with the establishment of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. Information on LLW developments in the United States, Canada, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, and West Germany was sought. Particular regard was given to the efficacy of public consultation and negotiation procedures; the key aspects bearing on the public acceptability of LLW proposals; and the form and effect of any compensation mechanisms in operation. The main findings include: (i) Public acceptability of radioactive waste proposals depends upon a combination of basic understanding, trust, consultation and negotiation. (ii) There is no overall correct approach. (iii) The greatest success overseas appears to be linked to some combination of the following elements: authority and clarity in the exposition of radioactive waste management policy; the early involvement of local authority organisations in site selection; careful attention to the potential contribution of authoritative independent advisory groups; the development and nurturing of local liaison committees to establish good communications at the local level; careful consideration of means of devolving some power to local authority level for safety reassurance; and the development of an incremental, openly negotiated approach to compensation. (author)

  8. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Linder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  9. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households-Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  10. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals. PMID:29623056

  11. Hanford Waste Vitrification Program process development: Melt testing subtask, pilot-scale ceramic melter experiment, run summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.K.; Bates, S.O.; Elmore, M.R.; Goles, R.W.; Perez, J.M.; Scott, P.A.; Westsik, J.H.

    1996-03-01

    Hanford Waste Vitrification Program (HWVP) activities for FY 1985 have included engineering and pilot-scale melter experiments HWVP-11/HBCM-85-1 and HWVP-12/PSCM-22. Major objectives designated by HWVP fo these tests were to evaluate the processing characteristics of the current HWVP melter feed during actual melter operation and establish the product quality of HW-39 borosilicate glass. The current melter feed, defined during FY 85, consists of reference feed (HWVP-RF) and glass-forming chemicals added as frit

  12. Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in Opalinus clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, J. C.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.; Alonso, E.; Alheid, H. J.; Blumbling, P.

    2005-01-01

    The EB project aims at demonstrating the technical feasibility and studying the behaviour of near field components of a high level radioactive waste repository in clay rock. The project consists of an in situ test, a series of complementary laboratory tests as well as modelling work. The project is coordinated by ENRESA (Spain) and the work is being executed by the following organizations: AITEMIN and UPC-DIT (Spain) NAGRA (Switzerland) BGR (Germany) The project is co-funded by the European Commission (contract FIKW-CT-2000-00017) and by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science. This report includes a synthesized description of the project from its conception until approximately one and a half years after completion of the installation of the large-scale test (October 2000 to November 30, 2003). The project is described in detail in a series of specific reports. Chapter 9, References, includes the titles of these reports. Although each participating group wrote the sections on their particular work, this report is the result of the technical review, and editing carried out by M. Velasco and J. Farias (Technical Secretariat, ST) under the direction of J.C. Mayor (Project Director, ENRESA). In addition to this preface, and the following executive summary, the report is structured on the basis of nine chapters, the general contents of which are indicated below. Chapter 1 describes, in general terms, the different parts of the project, as well as the justification, objectives, expected results, and anticipated uncertainties. This chapter has been written by the ST, but the ideas are those of all the participating groups. Chapter 2 refers to the in situ test, describing the different test components and systems. Exception is made of the Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), which is described in Chapter 3, and of the geophysical systems for the seismic and electric characterization of near field of the clay rock, which are described in Chapter 4. Chapter 3 is

  13. Engineered barrier emplacement experiment in opalinus clay for the disposal of radioactive waste in underground repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayor, J. C.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.; Alonso, E.; Alheid, H. J.; Blumbling, P.

    2005-01-01

    The EB project aims at demonstrating the technical feasibility and studying the behaviour of near field components of a high level radioactive waste repository in clay rock. The project consists of an in situ test, a series of complementary laboratory tests as well as modelling work. The project is coordinated by ENRESA (Spain) and the work is being executed by the following organizations:AITEMIN and UPC-DIT (Spain) NAGRA (Switzerland) BGR (Germany) The project is co-funded by the European Commission (contract FIKW-CT-2000-00017) and by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science. This report includes a synthesized description of the project from its conception until approximately one and a half years after completion of the installation of the large-scale test (October 2000 to November 30, 2003). The project is described in detail in a series of specific reports. Chapter 9, References, includes the titles of these reports. Although each participating group wrote the sections on their particular work, this report is the result of the technical review, and editing carried out by M. Velasco and J. Farias (Technical Secretariat, ST) under the direction of J.C. Mayor (Project Director, ENRESA). In addition to this preface, and the following executive summary, the report is structured on the basis of nine chapters, the general contents of which are indicated below. Chapter 1 describes, in general terms, the different parts of the project, as well as the justification, objectives, expected results, and anticipated uncertainties. This chapter has been written by the ST, but the ideas are those of all the participating groups. Chapter 2 refers to the in situ test, describing the different test components and systems. Exception is made of the Granular Bentonite Material (GBM), which is described in Chapter 3, and of the geophysical systems for the seismic and electric characterization of near field of the clay rock, which are described in Chapter 4. Chapter 3 is

  14. Experience in presenting short courses in waste management technologies for secondary science and mathematics teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, W.J.; Smith, T.H.; Garcia, M.M.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing educational programs that will help avert projected shortages in scientific and engineering manpower. One approach to this end is to help teachers become better prepared to teach topics that enthuse more students. INEL developed and offered a Short Course in Waste Management Technologies for Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers. Short Course has two purposes: (1) to provide secondary-level science and mathematics teachers with training and information that will be useful to them in the classroom, and (2) to provide information on a topic of widespread interest in today's society, i.e., the management of hazardous and radioactive wastes and the restoration and preservation of the environment. This paper describes the development of the Short Course and summarizes some of the lessons learned in the preparation and presentation of such courses. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Cold-cap reactions in vitrification of nuclear waste glass: experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Jaehun; Pierce, David A.; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-cap reactions are multiple overlapping reactions that occur in the waste-glass melter during the vitrification process when the melter feed is being converted to molten glass. In this study, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate cold-cap reactions in a high-alumina high-level waste melter feed. To separate the reaction heat from both sensible heat and experimental instability, we employed the run/rerun method, which enabled us to define the degree of conversion based on the reaction heat and to estimate the heat capacity of the reacting feed. Assuming that the reactions are nearly independent and can be approximated by the nth order kinetics, we obtained the kinetic parameters using the Kissinger method combined with least squares analysis. The resulting mathematical simulation of the cold-cap reactions provides a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model

  16. Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yver Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebègue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. These methods, chamber measurements and tracer release, rely on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. We show that the tracer release method is suitable for quantifying facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the chamber measurements provide insight into individual process emissions. Uncertainties for the two methods are described and discussed. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions of the WWTP, we confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP (about 10 % of the total emissions), but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters. Overall, the waste water treatment plant is representative of an average French WWTP.

  17. Crystallization in high level waste (HLW) glass melters: Savannah River Site operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, David K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This paper provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed for design input to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with prototype melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. A review of the crystallization observed with the prototype melters and the full-scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2) is included. Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for a waste treatment and immobilization plant.

  18. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Experiences of storage of radioactive waste packages in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K.; Ruokola, E.; Ramsoey, T.

    2001-04-01

    The present report includes results from a study on intermediate storage of radioactive waste packages in the Nordic countries. Principles for intermediate storage in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are presented. Recommendations are given regarding different intermediate storage options and also regarding control and supervision. The disposal of drums at Kjeller in Norway has also been included in the report. This is an example of an intended (and correctly licensed) disposal facility turned into what in practice has become a storage system. (au)

  20. Experiments on container materials for Swiss high-level waste disposal projects. Part IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.P.

    1989-12-01

    One concept for final disposal of high-level waste in switzerland consists of a repository at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m in the crystalline bedrock of Northern Switzerland. The waste will be placed in a container which will be required to function as a high integrity barrier for at least 100 years. This report is the fourth and last in the current series dealing with the evaluation of potential materials for such containers. Four materials were identified for further evaluation in the first of these reports: cast steel, nodular cast iron, copper and Ti-Code 12. This report deals with the problem of demonstrating that cast steel containers will not fail by stress corrosion cracking and with the problem of hydrogen produced by the reduction of water. The experimental results on pre-cracked specimens revealed no susceptibility of cast steel to stress corrosion cracking under model repository conditions. No crack growth was detected on compact DCB specimens exposed in aerobic and anaerobic groundwaters at 80 and 140 o C for 16-24 months. Cast steel remains a candidate material for high-level waste containers. As expected from thermodynamic considerations no hydrogen could be detected from copper immersed in model groundwaters at 50 o C. Hydrogen is evolved from corroding steel under anaerobic conditions. Hydrogen evolution due to corrosion of iron or steel in waste repositories has to be considered in any safety analysis; the amounts produced can be significant. Evidence todate suggests that both cast steel and copper are suitable container materials. Because the corrosion behaviour of both materials is sensitive to service conditions, in particular length of the aerobic phase, groundwater chemistry and temperature, further testing should be undertaken when a specific site has been identified. (author) 9 tabs., 11 figs., 25 refs

  1. Experiment on the treatment of waste extraction solvent from the molybdenum-99 process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsien-Ming Hsiao; Chang-Liang Hu; Kuang-Li Chien; Wen-Cheng Lee; Tsong-Yang Wei [Division of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-7, Longtan 32546 Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    In the Mo-99 (Molybdenum-99) isotope extraction test process for radiopharmaceutical applications, organic solvent is used to extract Mo-99 from an irradiated UO{sub 2} dissolution. The extraction solvent was stored when the test work was stopped. A total of about 120 liters of waste solvent was stored at INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan). The extraction solvent consisted of 5% di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and kerosene. The radionuclides found in the waste solvent include Cs-137, Am-241, Tc-99, and Sr-90, which give off gross alpha and beta radioactivity of 1898 and 471 Bq/ml, respectively. This study aims to remove radionuclides from the waste solvent using sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions in different concentrations. After mixing the waste solvent with the alkaline solution followed by settling, a third phase other than organic and aqueous phase appeared which is expected due to the saponification reaction. The experimental results showed that increasing the number of washing and the alkaline solution concentration could enhance the radionuclides removal rate. An optimal removal method was proposed using 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution twice followed by 1 M NaOH solution one time for the third phase generated early in the mixing stages. The remaining gross alpha and beta radioactivity of the treated organic solvent was 2 and 3 Bq/ml, respectively. The treated solvent could be stabilized by ashing at 500 deg. C and then immobilized. The alkaline solution would be neutralized by hydrochloric or nitric acid and then treated using a variety of adsorbents or bone char via adsorption to remove nuclides to meet the wastewater discharge limitation. (authors)

  2. Performance evaluation and experiment system for waste heat recovery of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzhi, Gao; Junmeng, Zhai; Guanghua, Li; Qiang, Bian; Liming, Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a waste heat recovery system is proposed where a high speed turbocharged diesel engine acts as the topper of a combined cycle with exhaust gases used for a bottoming Rankine cycle. The paper describes a mathematical model to evaluate the performance of Rankine cycle system with a reciprocating piston expander. The paper focuses on the performance evaluation and parameter selection of the heat exchanger and reciprocating piston expander that are suitable to waste heat recovery of ICE (internal combustion engine). The paper also describes the experimental setup and the preliminary results. The simulation results show that a proper intake pressure should be 4–5 MPa at its given mass flow rate of 0.015–0.021 kg/s depending on the waste heat recovery of a turbocharged diesel engine (80 kW/2590 rpm). The net power and net power rise rate at various ICE rotation speeds are calculated. The result shows that introducing heat recovery system can increase the engine power output by 12%, when diesel engine operates at 80 kW/2590 rpm. The preliminary experimental results indirectly prove the simulation model by two negative work loops in the P–V curve, under a low intake pressure and steam flow rate condition. - Highlights: • We investigate waste heat recovery through secondary fluid power cycle. • We establish a thermodynamic model of reciprocating steam engine. • We conduct the performance evaluation and experimental system development. • Primary parameters of the heat exchangers and expander are determined

  3. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balia, R.; Littarru, B.

    2010-03-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970-80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places.

  4. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balia, R; Littarru, B

    2010-01-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970–80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places

  5. Research experiences on the reuse of industrial waste for concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbà Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of concrete production using different kinds of industrial wastes as “recycled aggregate”. The wastes studied in this work were: fly ashes and slags from Electric Arc Furnace (EAF steel plant; foundry sands produced from foundry dies; slags from lead processing; Waelz slags; solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI plant (with mass-burning kiln and fluidized bed reactor; sludge from industrial wastewater treatment plants. Good compressive strength (similar to natural concrete was achieved after 28 days of curing by concrete mixtures obtained with the partial replacement (from 7% to 40% by weight of natural aggregates with slags from lead processing, foundry sands, Waelz slags and bottom ashes from MSW incineration. The worst mechanical and leaching behaviours were shown by concrete samples containing EAF fly ashes and sludge from industrial wastewater treatment. For the residues with the best performance, concrete products (kerbs and flat tiles were casted. Their mechanical and leaching characterization has shown that the reuse of these residues for concrete product is feasible.

  6. Behaviour of power and research reactor fuel in wet and dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Canosa, J [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Canada has developed extensive experience in both wet and dry storage of CANDU fuel. Fuel has been stored in water pools at CANDU reactor sites for approximately 45 years, and in dry storage facilities for a large part of the past decade. Currently, Canada has 38 450 t U of spent fuel in storage, of which 8850 t U are in dry storage. In June 2007, the Government of Canada selected the Adaptive Phased Management (APM) approach, recommended by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), for the long-term management of Canada's nuclear-fuel waste. The Canadian utilities and AECL are conducting development work in extended storage systems as well as research on fuel behaviour under storage conditions. Both activities have as ultimate objective to establish a technical basis for assuring the safety of long-term fuel storage.

  7. Radiation safety experience in upgrading 2-5% heavy water wastes at Heavy Water Plant, Nangal (Preprint No. SA-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhukhan, H.K.; Behl, D.; Ramraj; Iyengar, T.S.; Sadarangani, S.H.; Vaze, P.K.; Soman, S.D.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes the radiological safety experience in upgrading 2-5% heavy water wastes at Heavy Water Plant at Nangal at the third stage electrolysers. The feed water concentrations at the third stage electrolyer was determined after a safety analysis study and pilot plant experiment, which gave the optimal concentrations of 1 to 1.5 mCi (3.7 to 5.5 x 10 7 Bq) per litre per minute feed from a submerged SS tank containing 2-5% heavy water wastes. This process not only yielded an efficient recovery of reactor grade heavy water but contained the tritium activity in the third stage electrolysers and in the final product viz., heavy water. The tritium concentrations were continuously monitore d by liquid scintillation counting method at all the three stages of electrolysis plant, the distillation plant, the heavy water filling rooms, the drains, the ambient air, the product fertilizer (calcium ammonia nitrate) and the Sutlej River and found to be well within the safety limits set for general public at large. The HD and D 2 process streams in the palnt were monitored using fill-in type of ionization chambers designed for the purpose, which served a D 2 inventory check as well. There was no internal exposure to any personnel during the entire period of programme. (author). 2 tabs

  8. Stepwise approach to decision making for long-term radioactive waste management. Experience, issues and guiding principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste exists as a result of both past and current practices. One of the most challenging tasks is the management of long-lived waste that must be isolated from the human environment for many thousands, or even hundreds of thousands, of years. Although significant technical progress has been made in developing management schemes that, according to technical experts, would ensure long-term safety (e.g. engineered geologic disposal), the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected. The contrast between expected and observed rates may be partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism. More significant, however, are the setbacks, which have arisen mainly from an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. In long-term radioactive waste management, consideration is increasingly being given to concepts such as stepwise decision making and adaptive staging in which the public, and especially the local public, are to be meaningfully involved in the review and planning of developments. The key feature of these concepts is development by steps or stages that are reversible, within the limits of practicability. This is designed to provide reassurance that decisions can be reversed if experience shows them to have adverse or unwanted effects. A stepwise approach to decision making has thus come to the fore as being of value in advancing long-term radioactive waste management solutions in a societally acceptable manner. Despite its early identification within the radioactive waste management community as an important means for reaching solutions and decisions in which there is broad-based confidence, the bases for and application of stepwise decision making has not been widely reviewed. Guiding principles of any such process are still being formulated, its roots in empirical social science research have not been fully reviewed, nor the difficulties of its implementation analysed. The report reviews current

  9. Dry run 1: an initial examination of a procedure for the post-closure radiological risk assessment of an underground disposal facility for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Broyd, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    A probabilistic risk analysis is demonstrated for a single groundwater release scenario from a repository for intermediate level wastes at a depth of about 150 metres under Harwell. This is the first stage development of an overall methodology which will eventually treat combinations of risks due to multiple release scenarios with parameter values whose uncertainty varies with time. It is shown that upper bound estimates of risk are unlikely to be useful and that the approach to radiological risk assessment based upon 'best estimates' is difficult to justify. Consequently, a full probabilistic risk analysis is necessary although further development of statistical sampling and data acquisition techniques and also of methods for the generation and analysis of site evolution scenarios, is necessary. (author)

  10. Main outcomes from in situ thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments programme to demonstrate feasibility of radioactive high-level waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Armand

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of radioactive waste disposal, an underground research laboratory (URL is a facility in which experiments are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing and operating a radioactive waste disposal facility within a geological formation. The Meuse/Haute-Marne URL is a site-specific facility planned to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx claystone. The thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM behaviour of the host rock is significant for the design of the underground nuclear waste disposal facility and for its long-term safety. The French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra has begun a research programme aiming to demonstrate the relevancy of the French high-level waste (HLW concept. This paper presents the programme implemented from small-scale (small diameter boreholes to full-scale demonstration experiments to study the THM effects of the thermal transient on the COx claystone and the strategy implemented in this new programme to demonstrate and optimise current disposal facility components for HLW. It shows that the French high-level waste concept is feasible and working in the COx claystone. It also exhibits that, as for other plastic clay or claystone, heating-induced pore pressure increases and that the THM behaviour is anisotropic.

  11. Experiments on container materials for Swiss high-level waste disposal projects. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.P.

    1984-12-01

    The present concept for final disposal of high-level waste in Switzerland consists of a repository at a depth of 1000 to 1500 m in the crystalline bedrock of northern Switzerland. The waste will be placed in a container which is required to function as a high integrity barrier for at least 1000 years. This report is the second of a set of two dealing with the evaluation of potential materials for such containers. Four materials were identified for further evaluation in the first of these reports; they were cast steel, nodular cast iron, copper and Ti-Code 12. It was concluded that some testing was needed, in particular with respect to corrosion, in order to confirm these materials as candidate container materials. The experimental programme included: 1) corrosion tests on copper under gamma radiation; 2) immersion corrosion tests on the four candidate materials including welded specimens; 3) corrosion testing of the four materials in saturated bentonite; 4) constant strain rate testing of Ti-Code 12 and copper at 80 degrees C; 5) the behaviour of copper, Ti-Code 12 and Zircaloy-2 when immersed in liquid lead; 6) corrosion potential and galvanic current measurements on several material pairs. The standard test medium was natural mineral water from the Bad Saeckingen source. This water has a total dissolved solids content of approx. 3200 mg/l, about 1600 mg/l as chloride. The oxygen level was defined as 0.1 μg/g. In certain cases this medium was modified in order to test under more severe conditions. The results of the corrosion tests confirm in general the evaluation in the first part of the report. All of the materials are suitable for high-level waste containers: cast steel, nodular cast iron and copper as single layer containers, and Ti-Code 12 as an outer corrosion resistant layer. Copper could also be used under an outer steel layer, where it could arrest local penetration

  12. Experiments on the Recovery of Waste Heat in Cooling Ducts, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Abe

    1939-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel to investigate the partial recovery of the heat energy which is apparently wasted in the cooling of aircraft engines. The results indicate that if the radiator is located in an expanded duct, a part of the energy lost in cooling is recovered; however, the energy recovery is not of practical importance up to airplane speeds of 400 miles per hour. Throttling of the duct flow occurs with heated radiators and must be considered in designing the duct outlets from data obtained with cold radiators in the ducts.

  13. Waste to Energy in Urban Infrastructure. Experiences from Indo-Swedish collaboration 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    This report provides an illustration of the progress that has been made in Indo-Swedish biogas collaboration since the delegation Biogas for Urban Infrastructure initiated action in 2009. A number of Swedish government organisations and private sector organisations have worked together with Indian counterparts to develop the Indo-Swedish Waste-to-Energy cooperation. A mere two years later, we can now state that this has been a very fruitful venture. The Swedish-Indian cooperation that was formed in conjunction with the biogas delegation has already resulted in new knowledge, new methods, opportunities for new strategies and new business models.

  14. Modeling long-term aspects of nuclear waste disposal: the AEGIS experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    Modeling the long-term aspects of nuclear waste disposal has its roots in risk analysis of man-made systems like nuclear reactors. Analytical problems can be introduced into the performance assessment of a site-specific repository if an appreciation for the behavior of a natural earth system is not maintained. However, this should not preclude the application of historically useful analytical techniques like bounding strategies in favor of emerging, data-intensive techniques. The technical challenge is to apply existing technology and available data to a complex problem and produce a useful result

  15. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  16. Electronic engagement on radioactive waste management: the experience of the Scottish executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.

    2006-01-01

    The International Tele-democracy Centre (Napier University) carried out research between February and June 2004 to develop and test appropriate online tools and mechanisms to engage young people in dialogue on Radioactive Waste Management. The study found interest and enthusiasm in using information and communication technology (ICT) e-engagement tools, to take part in the debate on Radioactive Waste Management (RWM) through groups that also meet face-to-face, i.e. school classes or youth groups. The main barriers to young people's effective use of such tools are likely to be organisational: coordinating the provision and use of the tools and their content. The tools themselves should be designed with an emphasis on ease-of-use and accessibility. The active support of the education and community sectors is recommended. RWM specialists and decision-makers should be directly involved in the e-engagement. There is a need for non-government stakeholders including environmental organisations to provide their input

  17. Experimenting with Different Bulking Agents in an Aerobic Food Waste Composter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chann, S.

    2016-12-01

    With one third of Hong Kong's solid wastage being food scraps, reducing food waste has become crucial. The ISF Academy, a Hong Kong private school, had an A900 Rocket Food Composter installed in 2013, hoping to reduce its carbon footprint. The 27 metric tons of food wastage produced annually by the school is put through an aerobic process and the wastage is converted into humus. The composter has a capacity of 1750 litres of food and it produces humus every 14 days. The base of the humus consists of a bulking agent and food waste (2:1). A bulking agent is a carbon based material used to absorb moisture and odors, add structure and air and eliminate bugs from humus. This study contains comparative data on a few of the listed bulking agents: Hemp, Kenaf, rapeseed oil straw, miscanthus and shredded cardboard. The aim of this study is to determine an alternative reliable, affordable and suitable bulking agent to wood shavings: the current agent used. The humus produced must pass regulations for "general agricultural use" as it is used for experiential learning and gardening with primary school students. Over 500 children are participating in the school's plantation project, producing legumes for the school cafeteria. ISF pioneers and sets an example for other Hong Kong schools, showing that a composting and plantation scheme, not only proves to have environmental benefits but also educational uses.

  18. Relocation of cryopreserved umbilical cord blood samples using a high-capacity dry shipper to a new laboratory: a cord blood banking experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Kalaivani; Wong, Chee-Yin; Vijayan, Vickneswary Veera; Ooi, Ghee-Chien; Ng, Mei-Theng; Cheong, Soon-Keng; Then, Kong-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Processed umbilical cord blood (UCB) must be stored at cryogenic temperature at all times to maintain the quality and viability of the cells. However, a challenge is presented in the form of moving a large number of cryopreserved UCB samples to a new location. In this report, we share our experience on relocating more than 100,000 units of cryopreserved UCB samples stored in 12 liquid nitrogen freezers (LNFs) to our new laboratory. For quality control purposes, 2 weeks before relocation, donor UCB samples were processed, cryopreserved, and stored in each LNF. On relocation day, half of the samples were retrieved to determine total nucleated cell count, percentage of CD34+ cells, and cell viability as controls for later comparison. UCB samples were transferred into dry shippers before being relocated to the new laboratory. Upon arrival, LNFs were serviced before transferring UCB samples back into its original location within the LNF. The remaining donor UCB samples were retrieved and analyzed for the same tests mentioned. We found no significant differences in pre- and postrelocation values of the tests performed. All UCB samples were successfully relocated into the new laboratory without affecting the quality. © 2014 AABB.

  19. Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W.; Pickering, Susan Y.; Swift, Peter N.

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review and expert judgment? Other

  20. Succession change of microorganisms on plant waste decomposition in simulation modelling field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Julia; Perminova, Evgenia; Khabibullina, Fluza; Kovaleva, Vera; Lapteva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Plant waste decomposition processes are closely associated with living activity of soil microbiota in aboveground ecosystems. Functional activity of microorganisms and soil invertebrates determines plant material transformation rate whereby changes in plant material chemical composition during destruction - succession change of soil biota. The purpose of the work was revealing the mechanism of microorganisms succession change during plant waste decomposition in middle-taiga green-moss spruce forests and coniferous-deciduous secondary stands formed after earlier cut bilberry spruce forests. The study materials were undisturbed bilberry spruce forest (Sample Plot 1 - SP1) and coniferous-deciduous secondary stands which were formed after tree cutting activities of 2001-2002 (SP2) and 1969 and 1970 (SP3). Plant material decomposition intensity was determined in microcosms isolated into kapron bags with cell size of 1 mm. At SP1 and SP2, test material was living mosses and at SP3 - fallen birch and aspen leaves. Every test material was exposed for 2 years. Destruction rate was calculated as a weight loss for a particular time period. Composition of micromycetes which participated in plant material decomposition was assessed by the method of inoculation of soil extract to Getchinson's medium and acidified Czapek's medium (pH=4.5). Microbe number and biomass was analyzed by the method of luminescent microscopy. Chemical analysis of plant material was done in the certified Ecoanalytical Laboratory of the Institute of Biology Komi SC UrD RAS. Finally, plant material destruction intensity was similar for study plots and comprised 40-44 % weight loss for 2 years. The strongest differences in plant material decomposition rate between undisturbed spruce forests and secondary after-cut stands were observed at first stages of destruction process. In the first exposition year, mineralizing processes were most active in undisturbed spruce forest. Decomposition rate in cuts at that

  1. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment - A Swedish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstad, Anna; Cour Jansen, Jes la; Aspegren, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  2. Recovery of Proteins and Chromium Complexes from Chromium – Containing Leather Waste (CCLW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium – Containing Leather Waste (CCLW constitutes an environmental pollution problem to leather industries disposing the waste by landfill. The waste mainly consists of collagen and chromium III complexes. This work is a design of reactors to recover gelatin, polypeptides and chromium from CCLW. The results of the experiment shows that 68% of protein, based on dry weight of leather scraps, could be recovered. Three reactors with a total volume of 18 m3 was designed to handle 10,431 kg of waste generated from the tanning industries.

  3. Novel experiments for understanding the shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Abeele, W.V.; Hakonson, T.E.; Burton, B.W.; Perkins, B.A.

    1982-01-01

    Three field experiments that will provide data on water movement in SLB facilities are described. The experiments are designed to measure water movement, to quantify techniques to control water movement and to determine the effects of surface moisture content fluctuations on liquid and vapor movement back to the surface

  4. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.G.; Elliott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  5. The experience of burning the high-moistured waste of biomass conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincker, F.Z.; Zysin, L.V.; Kubyshkin, I.B. [MGVP Polytechenergo, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1993-12-31

    Industrially developed countries have a large stock of operating boiler plants to utilize timber industry waste materials (bagasse, bark, wood chips, hydrolytic lignine, sawdust, etc.) for biogenesis of energy. Standard combustion methods employing a bed or flare process cannot guarantee a reliable and economic boiler plant operation with abruptly changing biomass characteristic features. The moisture content in bark or lignin can vary from 50 to 75% during an hour. Particle sizes can vary from powdered to very large, and can have a hundred thousand times size difference. Large metal and mineral inclusions into the starting fuel also complicate the process. The low-temperature whirling combustion technology developed in Russia was taken as a basic. An economical and stable operation of boilers has been achieved by means of up-to-date vortex chamber aerial dynamics, the use of unique devices of fuel feed and preparation with screening the waste materials into sizes. The firing chamber is equipped with a multi-chamber device where screening and fuel particles preparation with the removal of noncombustible inclusions take place. At presenting the firing chamber with multi-step process of burning is in operation with 20 boilers. The firm {open_quotes}POLYTECHENERGO,{close_quotes} a developer and producer of such equipment, carries out the modernization of the boiler plant without changes in the its thermal circuit. In most of cases no replacement of draught means is needed. Competitive with the proposed low-temperature whirling technological process can be only a fluidized bed process, but due to the complexity in service, low reliability, high energy expenditures, such chambers at present are very few. The capital expenses one existing boilers updating for a fluidized bed process exceed the expenses on a low-temperature whirling process by 15--20 fold.

  6. Nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on male quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Primadhani, M. S.; Swastike, W.; Sutrisno, J.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the nutrient digestibility of vegetables waste flour on of male quail. Four hundred male quails were divided into four groups with five replications. The experiment is Completely Randomized Design and the data were analyzed by analyses of variants. The experimental diets were P0 = basal diet, P1 = 97% basal diet + 3% vegetables waste flour, P2 = 94% basal diet + 6% vegetables waste flour, and P3 = 91% basal diet + 9% vegetables waste flour. The observed variables were the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and extract ether. Result showed that of the addition of vegetable waste flour in the diet had no effect on crude protein digestibility (P>0.05), however shown significant effect on dry matter (P digestibility.

  7. Simulation Study on Freeze-drying Characteristics of Mashed Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Armansyah H; Solahudin, M; Rahajeng, Estri

    2000-01-01

    Drying characteristic of a particular product is important in analyzing the appropriateness of the drying method for the product. This is especially important for freeze drying, which is known as the most expensive drying method, asideji-om its good drying quality. The objectives of this experiment are to develop a computer simulation program using a retreating drying-frontmodel for predicting freeze drying characteristics of mashed nteat, especially for the influence of sublimation temperatu...

  8. Experience and related research and development in applying corrective measures at the major low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, R.R.; Mahathy, J.M.; Epler, J.S.; Boing, L.E.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1983-07-01

    A review was conducted of experience in responding to problems encountered in shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste and in research and development related to these problems. The operating histories of eleven major disposal facilities were examined. Based on the review, it was apparent that the most effective corrective measures administered were those developed from an understanding of the site conditions which caused the problems. Accordingly, the information in this document has been organized around the major conditions which have caused problems at existing sites. These include: (1) unstable trench cover, (2) permeable trench cover, (3) subsidence, (4) ground water entering trenches, (5) intrusion by deep-rooted plants, (6) intrusion by burrowing animals, and (7) chemical and physical conditions in trench. Because the burial sites are located in regions that differ in climatologic, geologic, hydrologic, and biologic characteristics, there is variation in the severity of problems among the sites and in the nature of information concerning corrective efforts. Conditions associated with water-related problems have received a great deal of attention. For these, corrective measures have ranged from the creation of diversion systems for reducing the contact of surface water with the trench cover to the installation of seals designed to prevent infiltration from reaching the buried waste. On the other hand, corrective measures for conditions of subsidence or of intrusion by burrowing animals have had limited application and are currently under evaluation or are subjects of research and development activities. 50 references, 20 figures, 10 tables

  9. Modeling long-term leaching experiments of full scale cemented wastes: effect of solution composition on diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkel, C.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    The code PHREECQ V3.1 has been used to simulate leaching experiments performed with cemented simulated waste products in tap water for more than 30 years. In this work the main focus is related with the leaching of Cs explained by diffusion processes. A simplifying model using the code PHREECQ V3.1 was used to investigate the influence of different parameters on the release of Cs from the cement solid to the leaching solution. The model setup bases on four main assumptions: a) the solid as well as the distribution of Cs is homogeneous and of isotropic texture, b) there is no preferential direction regarding cement degradation or water intrusion into the solid, c) the pore space is entirely connected and d) Cs adsorption to the cement or container is negligible. In the modeling the constraint of charge balance was stressed. Effective diffusion coefficients (D e ) were obtained analytically and from modeling the diffusive release of Cs from cemented waste simulates. The obtained values D e for Cs leaching are in perfect agreement with the values published in literature. Contradictory results to diffusive release were obtained from XRD analysis of the solids, suggesting that water may not have penetrated the cement monoliths entirely, but only to some centimeters depth. XRD analysis have been done to determine the solid phases present in cement and are used to help outlining strength and weaknesses of the different models

  10. Solubility and speciation of actinides in salt solutions and migration experiments of intermediate level waste in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study into the solubility of the actinides americium and plutonium in concentrated salt solutions, the release of radionuclides from various forms of conditioned ILW and the migration behaviour of these nuclides through geological material specific to the Gorleben site in Lower Saxony is described. A detailed investigation into the characterization of four highly concentrated salt solutions in terms of their pH, Eh, inorganic carbon contents and their densities is given and a series of experiments investigating the solubility of standard americium(III) and plutonium(IV) hydroxides in these solutions is described. Transuranic mobility studies for solutions derived from the standard hydroxides through salt and sand have shown the presence of at least two types of species present of widely differing mobility; one migrating with approximately the same velocity as the solvent front and the other strongly retarded. Actinide mobility data are presented and discussed for leachates derived from the simulated ILW in cement and data are also presented for the migration of the fission products in leachates derived from real waste solidified in cement and bitumen. Relatively high plutonium mobilities were observed in the case of the former and in the case of the real waste leachates, cesium was found to be the least retarded. The sorption of ruthenium was found to be largely associated with the insoluble residues of the natural rock salt rather than the halite itself. (orig./RB)

  11. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E.

    2014-01-01

    The storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. In Germany dual purpose casks for SF or HLW are used for safe transportation and interim storage. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the storage licensing process including sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields (authors)

  12. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  13. The partnership experience on the disposal of low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Cool, W.; Hooft, E.; Waffelaert, A.; Blommaert, J.; Draulans, J.

    2008-01-01

    discussions, both near-surface and deep disposal were considered as relevant options. The partnerships of both Dessel and Mol expressed in their final report a no preference for one of the two options. This paper focusses on the STOLA-Dessel experience, but the main observations and conclusion have a broader validity. We try to identify the main factors that led to local stakeholders having confidence in the safety and feasibility of the developed disposal systems, as expressed in their decisions to accept, under certain conditions, the disposal of category A waste in their municipality. (authors)

  14. Developing groundwater flow and transport models for radioactive waste disposal - six years of experience from the INTRAVAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; Andersson, J.; Bogorinski, P.; Carrera, J.; Hadermann, J.; Hodgkinson, D.; Jackson, P.; Neretnieks, I.; Neuman, S.; Skagius, K.; Nicholson, T.; Chin-Fu Tsang; Voss, C.

    1995-01-01

    The validity of informations and the models used to make predictions is central to the credibility of a performance assessment for a radioactive waste repository. The INTRAVAL project has been set up to bring together users of models and regulatory agencies from many countries to share experience, to carry out comparison exercises, and to build an internationally accepted approach to develop and apply both the models and the approach to prediction. This paper outlines the methodology adopted to evaluate the 18 different test cases of phases 1 and 2 of the project and which concern hard fractured rocks, plastic clays, mixed sedimentary and unsaturated geological environments at many scales, with observations and interpretations on a very wide range of space and time scales. Modelling has been tested by multiple groups against real data and the project integrated exercise,s both in the field and at the laboratory, for various spatial scales. (J.S.). 7 refs., 1 tab

  15. Managing nuclear projects: a design agency experience in the design-build of waste management facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, R.; Calzolari, L.

    2006-01-01

    Quality Assurance guarantees the quality of a product; it does not guarantee that it is a quality product. As procedures develop to satisfy QA programs and regulatory needs it is necessary to find ways to ensure that procedural management reinforces project management and does not detract from it. CANATOM NPM's experience in bidding for and executing the design or design and construction of nuclear waste management facilities demonstrates how design excellence and innovation can still be achieved while successfully managing the challenge of technical administration. The sourcing of expertise, the intricacies of design definition and the coordinating efforts required in the execution of the projects (one fully completed, the other into its engineering phase) will provide a valuable insight into the role and activities of an engineering company engaged in a 'Design Agency' (DA) role. (author)

  16. Dry refabrication technology development of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Song, K. C.

    2012-04-01

    Key technologies highly applicable to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle for the spent fuel recycling were developed using spent fuel and simulated spent fuel (SIMFUEL). In the frame work of dry process oxide products fabrication and the property characteristics of dry process products, hot cell experimental data for decladding, powdering and oxide product fabrication from low and high burnup spent fuel have been produced, basic technology for fabrication of spent fuel standard material has been developed, and remotely modulated welding equipment has been designed and fabricated. Also, fabrication technology of simulated dry process products was established and property models were developed based on reproducible property measurement data. In the development of head-end technology for dry refabrication of spent nuclear fuel and key technologies for volume reduction of head-end process waste which are essential in back-end fuel cycle field including pyro-processing, advanced head-end unit process technology development includes the establishment of experimental conditions for synthesis of porous fuel particles using a granulating furnace and for preparation of UO2 pellets, and fabrication and performance demonstration of engineering scale equipment for off-gas treatment of semi-volatile nuclides, and development of phosphate ceramic technology for immobilization of used filters. Radioactivation characterization and treatment equipment design of metal wastes from pretreatment process was conducted, and preliminary experiments of chlorination/electrorefining techniques for the treatment of hull wastes were performed. Based on the verification of the key technologies for head-end process via the hot-cell tests using spent nuclear fuel, pre-conceptual design for the head-end equipments was performed

  17. Dry refabrication technology development of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun Il; Lee, J. W.; Song, K. C.; and others

    2012-04-15

    Key technologies highly applicable to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycle for the spent fuel recycling were developed using spent fuel and simulated spent fuel (SIMFUEL). In the frame work of dry process oxide products fabrication and the property characteristics of dry process products, hot cell experimental data for decladding, powdering and oxide product fabrication from low and high burnup spent fuel have been produced, basic technology for fabrication of spent fuel standard material has been developed, and remotely modulated welding equipment has been designed and fabricated. Also, fabrication technology of simulated dry process products was established and property models were developed based on reproducible property measurement data. In the development of head-end technology for dry refabrication of spent nuclear fuel and key technologies for volume reduction of head-end process waste which are essential in back-end fuel cycle field including pyro-processing, advanced head-end unit process technology development includes the establishment of experimental conditions for synthesis of porous fuel particles using a granulating furnace and for preparation of UO2 pellets, and fabrication and performance demonstration of engineering scale equipment for off-gas treatment of semi-volatile nuclides, and development of phosphate ceramic technology for immobilization of used filters. Radioactivation characterization and treatment equipment design of metal wastes from pretreatment process was conducted, and preliminary experiments of chlorination/electrorefining techniques for the treatment of hull wastes were performed. Based on the verification of the key technologies for head-end process via the hot-cell tests using spent nuclear fuel, pre-conceptual design for the head-end equipments was performed.

  18. Remaining uncertainties in predicting long-term performance of nuclear waste glass from experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1994-01-01

    The current knowledge on the glass dissolution mechanism and the representation of glass dissolution concepts within overall repository performance assessment models are briefly summarized and uncertainties related to mechanism, radionuclide chemistry and parameters are discussed. Understanding of the major glass dissolution processes has been significantly increased in recent years. Long-term glass stability is related to the long-term maintenance of silica saturated conditions. The behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass has not been sufficiently and results do no yet allow meaningful predictions. Conserving long-term predictions of glass matrix dissolution as upper limit for radionuclide release can be made with sufficient confidence, however these estimations generally result in a situation where the barrier function of the glass is masked by the efficiency of the geologic barrier. Realistic long-term predictions may show that the borosilicate waste glass contributes to overall repository safety to a much larger extent than indicated by overconservatism. Today realistic predictions remain highly uncertain and much more research work is necessary. In particular, the long-term rate under silica saturated conditions needs to be understood and the behavior of individual radionuclides in the presence of a dissolving glass deserves more systematic investigations

  19. Biogas production from solid pineapple waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanticharoen, M.; Bhumiratana, S.; Tientanacom, S.; Pengsobha, L.

    1984-01-01

    Solid pineapple waste composed of shell and core was used as substrate in anaerobic fermentation producing CH4. The experiments were carried out using four 30-L vessels and no mixing, a 200-L plug-flow reactor, and a 5-cubic m stirred tank. Because of high acidity of the substrate, the loading rate is as low as 2.5 g dry solid added/L-day. The average gas yield is 0.3-0.5 L/g dry substrate. A pretreatment of wet solid with sludge effluent prior loading to the digester resulted in better stability of the biodigester than without pretreatment. These studies showed that loading rate can be much higher than those previously used. The 2-stage process was tested to determine a conversion efficiency of high loading and at much shorter reactor retention times. The results of the entire program indicated that biogas production from cannery pineapple waste is technically feasible.

  20. Seven years of experience in storage of solid radioactive wastes of low and medium activity on the surface or in concrete ditches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardet, G.

    This experience in the transport and storage of radioactive waste leads to several reflections pertinent to large-scale nuclear installations throughout the world. The experience demonstrates that products of this kind can be centralized and confined by relatively simple processes which are safe and of reasonable cost. The necessary liaison between the producer of radioactive wastes and the group which takes charge of storage is emphasized for the choice of the waste conditioning procedure. It is a consistent part of the experience that the initial conditioning determines in large measure the handling and storage techniques. It is certain that the absence of a solution for long-term storage of radioactive wastes will lead the producers to consider and carry out conditioning which, although valuable, does not have all the same advantages for final disposition of the product. In the field of transport, the volumes and weights are important. It is desirable that a permanent storage center be near a railroad. It is stated that storage can be ensured under safe conditions and with acceptable costs of all solid wastes of low and average activity except those having more than a certain amount of alpha activity. For the latter products a solution can be found which is safe

  1. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl 2 , HF, HCN, PH 3 , H 2 S, SO 2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN 3 and selenium oxide SeO 2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO 2 . Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H 2 S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H 2 S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7

  2. Energy-saving drying and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  5. Research advances in dry anaerobic digestion process of solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry anaerobic digestion process is an innovative waste-recycling method to treat high-solidcontent bio-wastes. This can be done without dilution with water by microbial consortia in an oxygenfree environment to recover potential renewable energy and nutrient-rich fertilizer for sustainable solid waste management.

  6. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  7. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  8. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  9. Phase formation during corrosion experiments with two simulated borosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, R.F.

    1985-10-01

    Corrosion products resulting from the reaction of simulated high-level radioactive waste glasses with various solutions have been identified. At 200degC, in saturated NaCl, a degree of reaction of 10 g C31-3 glass or 2.6 g SON 68 glass per liter of solution was obtained. Analcime, vermiculite (a phyllosilicate) and a 2:1 zinc silicate are the major silica containing alteration products for the C31-3 glass. Analcime was the only silicate alteration product which could be identified for SON 68 glass. C31-3 glass appeared to be less reactive with a quinary brine containing Mg ++ than with NaCl. With the quinary brine, montmorillonite (a phyllosilicate) was the predominant silica containing alteration product. Hydrotalcite (a Mg-Al hydroxysulfate) and montmorillonite were the major Al-containing phases. A phyllosilicate, probably montmorillonite, was observed to form during the reaction of SON 68 glass with quinary brine. With either glass, modified NaCl brines which contained small amounts of MgCl 2 seem to have the effect of decreasing the amount of analcime and increasing the amount of phyllosilicate which is formed. In the case of C31-3 glass, there is approximately enough Mg, Al and Zn to precipitate most of the leached Si; measured Si concentrations remain well below that expected for amorphous silica. SON 68 glass has less Zn, Al and Mg than C31-3 glass and much higher Si concentrations of the leachates. (orig./RB)

  10. Experience in the United States with a secondary resource curriculum on ''Science, society and America's nuclear waste''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power and nuclear waste situation in the Usa, is first reviewed. In order to enhance information concerning these topics among pupils and teachers, a resource curriculum, 'Science, society, and America's Nuclear Waste', was developed by teachers for teachers; it consists of four units: nuclear waste, ionizing radiation, the nuclear waste policy act, and the waste management system. It has been well received by teachers. Within nine months after its national introduction, 350000 teacher and student curriculum documents were requested by teachers from all 50 states. Requests have been also received from 250 foreign colleges and universities

  11. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F.

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice

  12. Integrated radioactive waste management from NPP, research reactor and back end of nuclear fuel cycle - an Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.; Ali, S.S.; Chander, M.; Bansal, N.K.; Balu, K.

    2001-01-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating waste management facilities for entire nuclear fuel cycle for the last three decades. Over the years, the low and intermediate level (LIL) liquid waste streams arising from reactors and fuel reprocessing facilities have been well characterised and different processes for treatment,