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Sample records for waste disposition alternatives

  1. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J. T.; Renfro, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team down-selected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their down-selection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives

  2. Engineering evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of Niagara Falls Storage Site, its residues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The final disposition scenarios selected by DOE for assessment in this document are consistent with those stated in the Notice of Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) (DOE, 1983d) and the modifications to the alternatives resulting from the public scoping process. The scenarios are: take no action beyond interim remedial measures other than maintenance and surveillance of the NFSS; retain and manage the NFSS as a long-term waste management facility for the wastes and residues on the site; decontaminate, certify, and release the NFSS for other use, with long-term management of the wastes and residues at other DOE sites; and partially decontaminate the NFSS by removal and transport off site of only the more radioactive residues, and upgrade containment of the remaining wastes and residues on site. The objective of this document is to present to DOE the conceptual engineering, occupational radiation exposure, construction schedule, maintenance and surveillance requirements, and cost information relevant to design and implementation of each of the four scenarios. The specific alternatives within each scenario used as the basis for discussion in this document were evaluated on the bases of engineering considerations, technical feasibility, and regulatory requirements. Selected alternatives determined to be acceptable for each of the four final disposition scenarios for the NFSS were approved by DOE to be assessed and costed in this document. These alternatives are also the subject of the EIS for the NFSS currently being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). 40 figures, 38 tables

  3. A Little Here, A Little There, A Fairly Big Problem Everywhere: Small Quantity Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Parker, Douglas Wayne; Moss, J.; Monk, Thomas Hugh; Fritz, Lori Lee; Daugherty, B.; Hladek, K.; Kosiewicx, S.

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  4. A little here, a little there, a fairly big problem everywhere: Small-quantity-site transuranic waste disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Luke; D. Parker; J. Moss; T. Monk; L. Fritz; B. Daugherty; K. Hladek; S. Kosiewicx

    2000-01-01

    Small quantities of transuranic (TRU) waste represent a significant challenge to the waste disposition and facility closure plans of several sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the results of a series of evaluations, using a systems engineering approach, to identify the preferred alternative for dispositioning TRU waste from small quantity sites (SQSs). The TRU waste disposition alternatives evaluation used semi-quantitative data provided by the SQSs, potential receiving sites, and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to select and recommend candidate sites for waste receipt, interim storage, processing, and preparation for final disposition of contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste. The evaluations of only four of these SQSs resulted in potential savings to the taxpayer of $33 million to $81 million, depending on whether mobile systems could be used to characterize, package, and certify the waste or whether each site would be required to perform this work. Small quantity shipping sites included in the evaluation included the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL), University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and Mound Laboratory. Candidate receiving sites included the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), the Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge (OR), and Hanford. At least 14 additional DOE sites having TRU waste may be able to save significant money if cost savings are similar to the four evaluated thus far

  5. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; O'Holleran, T.P.; Frank, S.M.; Meyer, M.K.; Hanson, M.; Staples, B.A.; Knecht, D.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  6. Sensitivity Analyses of Alternative Methods for Disposition of High-Level Salt Waste: A Position Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    This position paper provides the approach and detail pertaining to a sensitivity analysis for the Phase II definition of weighted evaluation criteria weights and utility function values on the total utility scores for each Initial List alternative due to uncertainty and bias in engineering judgment

  7. Fernald waste management and disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.L.; Fisher, L.A.; Frost, M.L.; Rast, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Historically waste management within the Department of Energy complex has evolved around the operating principle of packaging waste generated and storing until a later date. In many cases wastes were delivered to onsite waste management organizations with little or no traceability to origin of generation. Sites then stored their waste for later disposition offsite or onsite burial. While the wastes were stored, sites incurred additional labor costs for maintaining, inspecting and repackaging containers and capital costs for storage warehouses. Increased costs, combined with the inherent safety hazards associated with storage of hazardous material make these practices less attractive. This paper will describe the methods used at the Department of Energy's Fernald site by the Waste Programs Management Division to integrate with other site divisions to plan in situ waste characterization prior to removal. This information was utilized to evaluate and select disposal options and then to package and ship removed wastes without storage

  8. An alternative plutonium disposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a feasibility study on vitrification of plutonium with high active waste concentrate, and fabrication of MOX fuel rods for direct final disposal. These are potential alternatives to the direct use of MOX fuel in a reactor. (author)

  9. High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team Final Report, Volumes I, II, and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the process used and results obtained by the High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team to select a primary and backup alternative salt disposition method for the Savannah River Site

  10. Bases, assumptions, and results of the flowsheet calculations for the decision phase salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Taylor, G.A.; Durate, O.E.; Paul, P.K.; Elder, H.H.; Pike, J.A.; Fowler, J.R.; Rutland, P.L.; Gregory, M.V.; Smith III, F.G.; Hang, T.; Subosits, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team was formed on March 13, 1998, under the sponsorship of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High Level Waste (HLW) Vice President and General Manager. The Team is chartered to identify options, evaluate alternatives, and recommend a selected alternative(s) for processing HLW salt to a permitted waste form

  11. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-01

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f 2 , were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f 2 reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f 2 which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP filter. (4

  12. Computational analysis of the SRS Phase III salt disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimenna, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In late 1997, the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP), facility was shut down and an evaluation of alternative methods to process the liquid high-level waste stored in the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste storage tanks was begun. The objective was to determine whether another process might avoid the operational difficulties encountered with ITP for a lower cost than modifying the existing structured approach to evaluating proposed alternatives on a common basis to identify the best one. Results from the computational analysis were a key part of the input used to select a primary and a secondary salt disposition alternative. This paper describes the process by which the computation needs were identified, addressed, and accomplished with a limited staff under stringent schedule constraints

  13. Assessing Technical and Programmatic Viability of Nuclear Waste and Material Stream Disposition Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. S. Hill; B. Griebenow

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) has responsibility for cleanup and disposition of nuclear wastes and excess materials that are a legacy of the nuclear arms race. In fulfilling this responsibility, EM applies a systems engineering approach to identify baseline disposition plans for the wastes and materials (storage, stabilization, treatment, and disposal), assess the path viability, and develop integration opportunities to improve the disposition viability or to combine, eliminate, and/or simplify activities, technologies, and facilities across the DOE Complex, evaluate the baseline and alternatives to make informed decisions, and implement and track selected opportunities. This paper focuses on processes used to assess the disposition path viability - the likelihood that current planning for disposition of nuclear waste and materials can be implemented

  14. Alternatives of Treatment and Final Disposition of the Solid Hospital residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza Monge, K.

    1998-01-01

    The current handling, treatment and final disposition of the hospital solid waste in Costa Rica are considered inadequate or at least insufficient. This situation represents a serious danger for the population's health and the environment, because they are exposed to infectious agents, toxic substances and even radioactive products that are generated among the residuals of the centers of health. This work, alternatives propose for the treatment and adequate final disposition of the solid waste produced in the hospitals of the country. They take into consideration the characteristics that present these residuals, the advantages and disadvantages of each one of the existent techniques and the technical and economic possibilities of the country. For this purpose, in first instance, a revision about the properties, the quality and the quantity of the solid waste produced by the national hospital centers was carried out. Also, a diagnostic of the current situation of the treatment and final disposition of these residuals in some of the most important hospitals of the country, as well as of the possibilities of physical space with that they count on was carried out. Then, the existent different treatment techniques and final disposition for the solid waste that comes from the centers of health are described, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and a comparative analysis of the same ones is carried out. The objective is completed, since alternatives of treatment and final disposition that are considered appropriate for this type of residuals are planned. Nevertheless, in the future, more detailed investigations and studies of feasibility, with the purpose of developing handling programs and elimination of the solid waste for each one of the hospital centers in Costa Rica should be carried out. (Author) [es

  15. Analysis by simulation of the disposition of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A descriptive simulation model is developed which includes all aspects of nuclear waste disposition. The model is comprised of two systems, the second system orchestrated by GASP IV. A spent fuel generation prediction module is interfaced with the AFR Program Management Information System and a repository scheduling information module. The user is permitted a wide range of options with which to tailor the simulation to any desired storage scenario. The model projects storage requirements through the year 2020. The outputs are evaluations of the impact that alternative decision policies and milestone date changes have on the demand for, the availability of, and the utilization of spent fuel storage capacities. Both graphs and detailed listings are available. These outputs give a comprehensive view of the particular scenario under observation, including the tracking, by year, of each discharge from every reactor. Included within the work is a review of the status of spent fuel disposition based on input data accurate as of August 1980. The results indicate that some temporary storage techniques (e.g., transshipment of fuel and/or additional at-reactor storage pools) must be utilized to prevent reactor shutdowns. These techniques will be required until the 1990's when several AFR facilities, and possibly one repository, can become operational

  16. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  17. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m 3 of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% (∼8,000 m 3 ) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  18. Concepts for Waste Retrieval and Alternate Storage of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.J. Bierich

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this technical report is to present concepts for retrieval operations, equipment to be used, scenarios under which waste retrieval operations will take place, methods for responding to potential retrieval problems, and compliance with the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and (b) [DIRS 156605] during the retrieval of waste packages from the subsurface repository. If a decision for retrieval is made for any or all of the waste, the waste to be retrieved would be dispositioned in accordance with the regulations applicable at the time. The secondary purpose is to present concepts for the design, construction, and operation of an alternate storage facility. The alternate storage facility would temporarily house the retrieved waste until final disposition is established. The concept presented is consistent with current practices and regulations for the protection of public health and safety and the environment, it demonstrates the feasibility of such a facility, if required, and it is based on the consideration for keeping radiation exposure as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  19. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative

  20. Alternatives for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1975-10-01

    The safety aspects of waste management alternatives are emphasized. The options for waste management, their safety characteristics, and the methods that might be used to evaluate the options and their safety are outlined

  1. ACCELERATION OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSURANIC WASTE DISPOSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    One of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) most significant risks is the site's inventory of transuranic waste retrievably stored above and below-ground in Technical Area (TA) 54 Area G, particularly the dispersible high-activity waste stored above-ground in deteriorating facilities. The high activity waste represents approximately 50% (by activity) of the total 292,000 PE-Ci inventory remaining to be disposed. The transuramic waste inventory includes contact-handled and remote-handled waste packaged in drums, boxes, and oversized containers which are retrievably stored both above and below-ground. Although currently managed as transuranic waste, some of the inventory is low-level waste that can be disposed onsite or at approved offsite facilities. Dispositioning the transuranic waste inventory requires retrieval of the containers from above and below-ground storage, examination and repackaging or remediation as necessary, characterization, certification and loading for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad New Mexico, all in accordance with well-defined requirements and controls. Although operations are established to process and characterize the lower-activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, LAN L does not currently have the capability to repack high activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers (> 56 PE-Ci) or to process oversized containers with activity levels over 0.52 PE-Ci. Operational issues and compliance requirements have resulted in less than optimal processing capabilities for lower activity contact-handled transuranic waste containers, limiting preparation and reducing dependability of shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Since becoming the Los Alamos National Laboratory contract in June 2006, Los Alamos National Security (LANS) L.L.C. has developed a comprehensive, integrated plan to effectively and efficiently disposition the transuranic waste inventory, working in concert with the Department of

  2. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90 degrees C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials

  3. Mixing Modeling Analysis For SRS Salt Waste Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear waste at Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks consists of three different types of waste forms. They are the lighter salt solutions referred to as supernate, the precipitated salts as salt cake, and heavier fine solids as sludge. The sludge is settled on the tank floor. About half of the residual waste radioactivity is contained in the sludge, which is only about 8 percentage of the total waste volume. Mixing study to be evaluated here for the Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) project focuses on supernate preparations in waste tanks prior to transfer to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The methods to mix and blend the contents of the SRS blend tanks were evalutaed to ensure that the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank such as Tank 50H to the SWPF feed tank. The work consists of two principal objectives to investigate two different pumps. One objective is to identify a suitable pumping arrangement that will adequately blend/mix two miscible liquids to obtain a uniform composition in the tank with a minimum level of sludge solid particulate in suspension. The other is to estimate the elevation in the tank at which the transfer pump inlet should be located where the solid concentration of the entrained fluid remains below the acceptance criterion (0.09 wt% or 1200 mg/liter) during transfer operation to the SWPF. Tank 50H is a Waste Tank that will be used to prepare batches of salt feed for SWPF. The salt feed must be a homogeneous solution satisfying the acceptance criterion of the solids entrainment during transfer operation. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The modeling results will provide quantitative design and operation information during the mixing/blending process and the transfer operation of the blended

  4. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  5. Data Quality Objectives Summary Report for the 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Oaces, L.E.; Baxter, J.; Brown, T.M.; Enoke, D.E.; Carlson, D.; Rugg, J.E.

    1997-08-01

    The 221-U Canyon Disposition Alternatives Data Quality Objective (DQO) Process identifies the sampling and analytical requirements necessary to support future detailed evaluation of alternatives via the CERCLA process, for final disposition of the 221-U Canyon Facility. Viable alternatives for the disposition of the 221-U Facility have been identified in a CERCLA Phase I Feasibility Study (FS) (DOE-RL 1997) for the Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI). The scope of this DQO Process is limited to the 221-U Process Canyon Building and equipment contained within the facility. Associated stacks, filters, solvent handling, vaults, and storage facilities external to the 221-U Building are not addressed in this DQO. This DQO focuses on the 221-U Building because it provides the greatest potential source of contaminant volumes and concentrations and the physical structure poses the greatest challenge for disposition decisions

  6. Integration of health physics, safety and operational processes for management and disposition of recycled uranium wastes at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, James; Buckley, James

    2003-01-01

    Fluor Fernald, Inc. (Fluor Fernald), the contractor for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), recently submitted a new baseline plan for achieving site closure by the end of calendar year 2006. This plan was submitted at DOE's request, as the FEMP was selected as one of the sites for their accelerated closure initiative. In accordance with the accelerated baseline, the FEMP Waste Management Project (WMP) is actively evaluating innovative processes for the management and disposition of low-level uranium, fissile material, and thorium, all of which have been classified as waste. These activities are being conducted by the Low Level Waste (LLW) and Uranium Waste Disposition (UWD) projects. Alternatives associated with operational processing of individual waste streams, each of which poses potentially unique health physics, industrial hygiene and industrial hazards, are being evaluated for determination of the most cost effective and safe met hod for handling and disposition. Low-level Mixed Waste (LLMW) projects are not addressed in this paper. This paper summarizes historical uranium recycling programs and resultant trace quantity contamination of uranium waste streams with radionuclides, other than uranium. The presentation then describes how waste characterization data is reviewed for radiological and/or chemical hazards and exposure mitigation techniques, in conjunction with proposed operations for handling and disposition. The final part of the presentation consists of an overview of recent operations within LLW and UWD project dispositions, which have been safely completed, and a description of several current operations

  7. Systems analysis and simulation of fissile materials disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farish, T.J.; Farmen, R.F.; Boerigter, S.T.; DeMuth, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed process flow model has been developed for use in the Fissile Materials Disposition program. The model calculates fissile material flows and inventories among the various processing and storage facilities over the life of the disposition program. Given existing inventories and schedules for processing, we can estimate the required size of processing and storage facilities, including equipment requirements, plant floorspace, approximate costs, and surge capacities. The model was designed to allow rapid prototyping, parallel and team development of facility and sub-facility models, consistent levels of detail and the use of a library of generic objects representing unit process operations

  8. Waste Disposition Issues and Resolutions at the TRU Waste Processing Center at Oak Ridge TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentry, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper prepared for the Waste Management Conference 2009 provides lessons learned from the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Processing Center (TWPC) associated with development of approaches used to certify and ensure disposition of problematic TRU wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The TWPC is currently processing the inventory of available waste TRU waste at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). During the processing effort several waste characteristics were identified/discovered that did not conform to the normal standards and processes for disposal at WIPP. Therefore, the TWPC and ORNL were challenged with determining a path forward for this problematic, special case TRU wastes to ensure that they can be processed, packaged, and shipped to WIPP. Additionally, unexpected specific waste characteristics have challenged the project to identify and develop processing methods to handle problematic waste. The TWPC has several issues that have challenged the projects ability to process RH Waste. High Neutron Dose Rate resulting from both Californium and Curium in the waste stream challenge the RH-TRU 72-B limit for dose rate measured from the side of the package under normal conditions of transport, as specified in Chapter 5.0 of the RH-TRU 72-B SAR (i.e., ≤10 mrem/hour at 2 meters). Difficult to process waste in the hot cell has introduced processing and handling difficulties included problems associated with the disposition of prohibited items that fall out of the waste stream such as liquids, aerosol cans, etc. Lastly, multiple waste streams require characterization and AK challenge the ability to generate dose-to curie models for the waste. Repackaging is one solution to the high neutron dose rate issue. In parallel, an effort is underway to request a change to the TRAMPAC requirements to allow shielding in the drum or canister to reduce the impact of the high neutron dose rates. Due diligence on supporting AK efforts is important in ensuring adequate

  9. HANFORD CANYON DISPOSITION INITIATIVE (CDI). A BETTER SOLUTION TO AN EXPENSIVE WASTE DISPOSAL PROBLEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.J.; MacFarlan, G.M.; Jacques, I.D.; Goodenough, James D.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental cleanup that is occurring at most U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is going to be long and expensive. How expensive can really only be answered when cleanup paths forward have been identified, agreed to, and planned. In addition, all the major issues must have been identified. This also means being able to answer the question ''What about the waste?'' Where the waste goes and how it will be handled greatly affects the cost. However, within the mandatory safety and legal envelope, ingenuity can play a huge role in keeping the cost down, getting necessary decisions made earlier in the process, and being protective of the worker, public, and the environment. This paper examines how ingenuity addressed a cleanup action that had no agreed to and identified path forward and resulted in a decision made early that has spurred thinking on what to do with the other similar waste cleanup situations. The Canyon Disposition Initiative (CDI) is an example of finding a better way to address a specific problem, getting agreement on a path forward, opening the options for waste disposal, and reducing the time line for final disposition. For the CDI, the challenge was whether an old inactive building designed for reprocessing and used for multiple missions during its lifetime could be economically and sufficiently characterized to satisfy and bring consensus among groups with vastly different view points. The CDI has actively involved members of various DOE offices (i.e., Waste Management, Science and Technology, Environmental Restoration, and Facility Transition), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), Hanford Advisory Board (HAB), and the three affected Tribal Nations. The ability to partner between these diverse groups has allowed the CDI to go from a concept, to a funded priority project, to a complete review of various alternatives, and finally to a proposed plan to demonstrate the wisdom of finding a

  10. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  11. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  12. Alternative Diesel from Waste Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Bezergianni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The long term ambition of energy security and solidarity, coupled with the environmental concerns of problematic waste accumulation, is addressed via the proposed waste-to-fuel technology. Plastic waste is converted into automotive diesel fuel via a two-step thermochemical process based on pyrolysis and hydrotreatment. Plastic waste was pyrolyzed in a South East Asia plant rendering pyrolysis oil, which mostly consisted of middle-distillate (naphtha and diesel hydrocarbons. The diesel fraction (170–370 °C was fractionated, and its further upgrade was assessed in a hydroprocessing pilot plant at the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH in Greece. The final fuel was evaluated with respect to the diesel fuel quality specifications EN 590, which characterized it as a promising alternative diesel pool component with excellent ignition quality characteristics and low back end volatility.

  13. Alternatives for the disposition of PUREX organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This Supporting Document submits options and recommendations for final management of Tank 40 Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant organic solution per Tri-Party Agreement Milestorm Number M-80-00-T03. Hanford is deactivating the PUREX Plant for the US DOE. One the key element of this Deactivation is disposition of approximately 81,300 liters (21,500 gallons) of slightly radioactively contaminated organic solution to reduce risk to the environment, reduce cost of long-term storage, and assure regulatory compliance. An announcement in the Commerce Business Daily (CBD) on October 14, 1994 has resulted in the submission of proposals from two facilities capabLe of receiving and thermally destroying the solution. Total decomposition by thermal destruction is the recommended option for the disposition of the PUREX organic solution and WHC is evaluating the proposals from the two facilities

  14. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-01-01

    The disposition of actinide elements released from high-level waste glasses into a tuff groundwater in laboratory tests at 90 degrees C at various glass surface area/leachant volume ratios (S/V) between dissolved, suspended, and sorbed fractions has been measured. While the maximum release of actinides is controlled by the corrosion rate of the glass matrix, their solubility and sorption behavior affects the amounts present in potentially mobile phases. Actinide solubilities are affected by the solution pH and the presence of complexants released from the glass, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chloride, radiolytic products, such as nitrate and nitrite, and carbonate. Sorption onto inorganic colloids formed during lass corrosion may increase the amounts of actinides in solution, although subsequent sedimentation of these colloids under static conditions leads to a significant reduction in the amount of actinides in solution. The solution chemistry and observed actinide behavior depend on the S/V of the test. Tests at high S/V lead to higher pH values, greater complexant concentrations, and generate colloids more quickly than tests at low S/V. The S/V also affects the rate of glass corrosion

  15. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-01-01

    Studies have shown that the repository long-term radiological risk is from the long-lived transuranics and the fission products Tc-99 and I-129, thermal loading concerns arise mainly form the short-lived fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. In relation to the disposition of nuclear waste, ATW is expected to accomplish the following: (1) destroy over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroy over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separate Sr and Cs (short half-life isotopes); (4) separate uranium; (5) produce electricity. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to a ATW site where the plutonium, other transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their only pass through the facility. This approach contrasts with the present-day reprocessing practices in Europe and Japan, during which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors

  16. Canadian and USA low-level radioactive waste disposition: a comparison for consolidated benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, G.A.; Arrowsmith, B.; Alexander, B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is provided of the history of USA waste disposition relative to changes in both the environment and the waste-management industry marketplace. It details present handling, processing, and disposition technologies, showing current conditions and options, as well as anticipated changes that will respond to market conditions. Challenges facing generators and disposal companies in the USA are identified, and actions are addressed. Finally, lessons learned and current technologies are applied the challenges facing Canadian radioactive waste generators in order to demonstrate benefits to the Canadian waste-management market. (author)

  17. HLW Salt Disposition Alternatives Identification Preconceptual Phase I Summary Report (Including Attachments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the process used by the Team to systematically develop alternative methods or technologies for final disposition of HLW salt. Additionally, this report summarizes the process utilized to reduce the total list of identified alternatives to an ''initial list'' for further evaluation. This report constitutes completion of the team charter major milestone Phase I Deliverable

  18. Multi-attribute evaluation and choice of alternatives for surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition at uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosterev, V.V.; Bolyatko, V.V.; Khajretdinov, S.I.; Averkin, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition is formalized as a multi-attribute problem of a choice of alternatives from a set of possible alternatives under fuzzy conditions. Evaluation and ordering of alternatives for the surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition and sensitivity analysis are carried out at uncertainty [ru

  19. Method for ultimate disposition of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bege, D.; Faust, H.J.; Puthawala, A.; Stunkel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Method for the ultimate disposition of radioactive wastes by vitrification, in which weak to medium radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing radioactive liquids are mixed with added glass-forming materials, maximally in a ratio of 1:3, and the mixture heated to obtain a glass-forming melt

  20. Plutonium-bearing materials feed report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.; Boerigter, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    This report has identified all plutonium currently excess to DOE Defense Programs under current planning assumptions. A number of material categories win clearly fan within the scope of the MD (Materials Disposition) program, but the fate of the other categories are unknown at the present time. MD planning requires that estimates be made of those materials likely to be considered for disposition actions so that bounding cases for the PEIS (Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement) can be determined and so that processing which may be required can be identified in considering the various alternatives. A systematic analysis of the various alternatives in reachmg the preferred alternative requires an understanding of the possible range of values which may be taken by the various categories of feed materials. One table identifies the current total inventories excess to Defense Program planning needs and represents the bounding total of Pu which may become part of the MD disposition effort for all materials, except site return weapons. The other categories, principally irradiated fuel, rich scrap, and lean scrap, are discussed. Another table summarizes the ranges and expected quantities of Pu which could become the responsibility of the MD program. These values are to be used for assessing the impact of the various alternatives and for scaling operations to assess PEIS impact. Determination of the actual materials to be included in the disposition program will be done later

  1. Analysis by simulation of the disposition of nuclear-fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    To achieve the non-proliferation objectives of the United States, the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was discontinued in 1977. Since current at-reactor storage capacity is based upon a nuclear fuel cycle which includes reprocessing, this halt in reprocessing is causing large quantities of non-storable spent fuel. Permanent nuclear waste storage repositories will not be available until the end of the century. Present Department of Energy policy calls for sufficient interim Away-From-Reactor (AFR) Storage capacity to insure that no commercial reactor has to shutdown due to inadequate storage space for discharged spent fuel. A descriptive simulation model is developed which includes all aspects of nuclear waste disposition. The model is comprised of two systems, the second system orchestrated by GASP IV. A spent fuel generation prediction module is interfaced with the AFR Program Management Information System and a repository scheduling information module. The user is permitted a wide range of options with which to tailor the simulation to any desired storage scenario. The model projects storage requirements through the year 2020. The outputs are evaluations of the impact that alternative decision policies and milestone date changes have on the demand for, the availability of, and the utilization of spent fuel storage capacities. Both graphs and detailed listings are available. These outputs give a comprehensive view of the particular scenario under observation, including the tracking, by year, of each discharge from every reactor. Included within the work is a review of the status of spent fuel disposition based on input data accurate as of August 1980

  2. MANAGING HANFORD'S LEGACY NO-PATH-FORWARD WASTES TO DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST LD

    2011-01-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. This vision will protect the Columbia River, reduce the Site footprint, and reduce Site mortgage costs. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W&FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 m{sup 3} of waste was defined as 'no-path-forward waste.' The majority of these wastes are suspect transuranic mixed (TRUM) wastes which are currently stored in the low-level Burial Grounds (LLBG), or stored above ground in the Central Waste Complex (CWC). A portion of the waste will be generated during ongoing and future site cleanup activities. The DOE-RL and CHPRC have collaborated to identify and deliver safe, cost-effective disposition paths for 90% ({approx}8,000 m{sup 3}) of these problematic wastes. These paths include accelerated disposition through expanded use of offsite treatment capabilities. Disposal paths were selected that minimize the need to develop new technologies, minimize the need for new, on-site capabilities, and accelerate shipments of transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico.

  3. Evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.S.; Butler, J.C.; Edmunds, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Department of Energy Record of Decision (ROD) selected alternatives for disposition of surplus, weapons grade plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns addressed included economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The analysis reported here was conducted in parallel with technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses; it uses multiattribute utility theory to combine these considerations in order to facilitate an integrated evaluation of alternatives. This analysis is intended to provide additional insight regarding alternative evaluation and to assist in understanding the rationale for the choice of alternatives recommended in the ROD. Value functions were developed for objectives of disposition, and used to rank alternatives. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the ranking of alternatives for the base case was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions over reasonable ranges. The analyses support the recommendation of the ROD to pursue parallel development of the vitrification immobilization alternative and the use of existing light water reactors alternative. 27 refs., 109 figs., 20 tabs

  4. Disposition of excess plutonium using ''off-spec'' MOX pellets as a sintered ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armantrout, G.A.; Jardine, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The authors describe a potential strategy for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium in a way that minimizes (1) technological risks, (2) implementation costs and completion schedules, and (3) requirements for constructing and operating new or duplicative Pu disposition facilities. This is accomplished by an optimized combination of (1) using existing nuclear power reactors to ''burn'' relatively pure excess Pu inventories as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and (2) using the same MOX fuel fabrication facilities to fabricate contaminated or impure excess Pu inventories into an ''off-spec'' MOX solid ceramic waste form for geologic disposition. Diversion protection for the SCWF to meet the ''spent fuel standard'' introduced by the National Academy of Sciences can be achieved in at least three ways. (1) One can utilize the radiation field from defense high-level nuclear waste by first packaging the SCWF pellets in 2- to 4-L cans that are subsequently encapsulated in radioactive glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass canisters (a ''can-in-canister'' approach). (2) One can add 137 Cs (recovered from defense wastes at Hanford and currently stored as CsCl in capsules) to an encapsulating matrix such as cement for the SCWF pellets in a small hot-cell facility and thus fabricate large monolithic forms. (3) The SCWF can be fabricated into reactor fuel-like pellets and placed in tubes similar to fuel assemblies, which can then be mixed in sealed repository containers with irradiated spent nuclear fuel for geologic disposition

  5. Argentina Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the final disposition gives to radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petraits, E.; Siraky, G.; Novo, R.

    1998-01-01

    This work describes the alignment legislative and regulator in which is carried out the final disposition the radioactive wastes in the Argentina Republic . Timbers the activities are presented the Authority Nuclear Regulator (RNA) and the applied focuses in connection with the inspections to the facilities, the evaluations security the associate systems and the collaboration with the international organizations in this matter

  6. Potential dispositioning flowsheets for ICPP SNF and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.L. [ed.; Anderson, P.A.; Bendixsen, C.L. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1953. This activity resulted mainly in the recovery of uranium and the management of the resulting wastes. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste was routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then calcined to form a dry granular solid. The calcine is stored in stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. In April 1992, the DOE discontinued the practice of reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels. This decision has left a legacy of 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons of heavy metal within unprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) left in inventory at the ICPP. The nation`s radioactive waste policy has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), which requires the final disposal of SNF and radioactive waste in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. In accordance with these regulations and other legal agreements between the State of Idaho and the DOE, the DOE must, among other requirements, (1) complete a final Environmental Impact Statement by April 30, 1995, (2) evaluate and test sodium-bearing waste pre-treatment technologies, (3) select the sodium-bearing and calcine waste pre-treatment technology, if necessary, by June 1, 1995, and (4) select a technology for converting calcined waste into an appropriate disposal form by June 1, 1995.

  7. Potential dispositioning flowsheets for ICPP SNF and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, A.L.; Anderson, P.A.; Bendixsen, C.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1953. This activity resulted mainly in the recovery of uranium and the management of the resulting wastes. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste was routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then calcined to form a dry granular solid. The calcine is stored in stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. In April 1992, the DOE discontinued the practice of reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels. This decision has left a legacy of 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons of heavy metal within unprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) left in inventory at the ICPP. The nation's radioactive waste policy has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), which requires the final disposal of SNF and radioactive waste in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. In accordance with these regulations and other legal agreements between the State of Idaho and the DOE, the DOE must, among other requirements, (1) complete a final Environmental Impact Statement by April 30, 1995, (2) evaluate and test sodium-bearing waste pre-treatment technologies, (3) select the sodium-bearing and calcine waste pre-treatment technology, if necessary, by June 1, 1995, and (4) select a technology for converting calcined waste into an appropriate disposal form by June 1, 1995

  8. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  9. A preliminary analysis of the reactor-based plutonium disposition alternative deployment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurn, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    This paper discusses the preliminary analysis of the implementation schedules of the reactor-based plutonium disposition alternatives. These schedule analyses are a part of a larger process to examine the nine decision criteria used to determine the most appropriate method of disposing of U.S. surplus weapons plutonium. The preliminary analysis indicates that the mission durations for the reactor-based alternatives range from eleven years to eighteen years and the initial mission fuel assemblies containing surplus weapons-usable plutonium could be loaded into the reactors between nine and fourteen years after the Record of Decision

  10. Implementation of safeguards and security for fissile materials disposition reactor alternative facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Tolk, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered and include facilities which provide for long-ten-n and interim storage, convert and stabilize fissile materials for other disposition alternatives, immobilize fissile material in glass and/or ceramic material, fabricate fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and dispose of fissile material using a number of geologic alternatives. Particular attention will be given to the reactor alternatives which include existing, partially completed, advanced or evolutionary LWRs and CANDU reactors. The various reactor alternatives are all very similar and include processing which converts Pu to a usable form for fuel fabrication, a MOX fuel fab facility located in either the US or in Europe, US LWRs or the CANDU reactors and ultimate disposal of spent fuel in a geologic repository. This paper focuses on how the objectives of reducing security risks and strengthening arms reduction and nonproliferation will be accomplished and the possible impacts of meeting these objectives on facility operations and design. Some of the areas in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threat, and (4) potential proliferation risks, the impacts on the facilities, and safeguards and security issues unique to the presence of Category 1 or strategic special nuclear material

  11. Alternative technical summary report for direct disposition in deep boreholes: Direct disposal of plutonium metal/plutonium dioxide in compound canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile Materials Disposition Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This report summarizes and compares the Immobilized and Direct Beep Borehole Disposition Alternatives. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are briefly described, and a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  12. The disposition of nuclear waste: an integrated international approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes the establishment of a new, globally integrated approach for dealing with spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high-level waste, and plutonium supplies. The end product is envisioned to be a new global agency (tentatively called the International Nuclear Waste Authority, or INWA), which would have the authority to establish and enforce all nuclear waste disposal standards and subsequently execute all financial arrangements appropriate for obtaining full-scale global implementation. We suggest the IAEA as the logical existing organization to facilitate generating the structure for the INWA. (author)

  13. Economic analysis of waste management alternatives for reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Clark, L.L.; Daling, P.M.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Swanson, J.L.

    1984-02-01

    This study describes the results of a cost analysis of a broad range of alternatives for management of reprocessing wastes that would require geologic repository disposal. The intent was to identify cost-effective alternatives and the costs of potential repository performance requirements. Four integrated treatment facility alternatives for transuranic (TRU) wastes are described and compared. These include no treatment, compaction, incineration, and hulls melting. The advantages of reducing high-level wastes (HLW) volume are also evaluated as are waste transportation alternatives and several performance-related alternatives for emplacing waste in a basalt repository. Results show (1) that system costs for disposal of reprocessing waste are likely to be higher than those for disposal of spent fuel; (2) that volume reduction is cost-effective for both remote-handled (RH) TRU wastes and HLW, and that rail transport for HLW is more cost-effective than truck transport; (3) that coemplacement of RH-TRU wastes with HLW does not have a large cost advantage in a basalt repository; and (4) that, relative to performance requirements, the cost impact for elimination of combustibles is about 5%, long-lived containers for RH-TRU wastes can increase repository costs 10% to 20%, and immediate backfill compared to delayed backfill (bentonite/basalt) around the HLW canisters would increase repository costs up to 10% or overall system costs up to about 5%. 13 references, 4 figures, 12 tables

  14. Evaluation of Calcine Disposition Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrer, S.A.; Heiser, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes an evaluation of the baseline and two alternative disposition paths for the final disposition of the calcine wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The pathways are evaluated against a prescribed set of criteria and a recommendation is made for the path forward

  15. Non-proliferation issues for the disposition of fissile materials using reactor alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Tolk, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is analyzing long-term storage on options for excess weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of the disposition alternatives are being considered which involve the use of reactors. The various reactor alternatives are all very similar and include front-end processes that could convert plutonium to a usable form for fuel fabrication, a MOX fuel fab facility, reactors to bum the MOX fuel and ultimate disposal of spent fuel in some geologic repository. They include existing, partially completed, advanced or evolutionary light water reactors and Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. In addition to the differences in the type of reactors, other variants on these alternatives are being evaluated to include the location and number of the reactors, the location of the mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility, the ownership of the facilities (private or government) and the colocation and/or separation of these facilities. All of these alternatives and their variants must be evaluated with respect to non-proliferation resistance. Both domestic and international safeguards support are being provided to DOE's Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) and includes such areas as physical protection, nuclear materials accountability and material containment and surveillance. This paper will focus on how the non-proliferation objective of reducing security risks and strengthening arms reduction will be accomplished and what some of the nonproliferation issues are for the reactor alternatives. Proliferation risk has been defined in terms of material form, physical environment, and the level of security and safeguards that is applied to the material. Metrics have been developed for each of these factors. The reactor alternatives will be evaluated with respect to these proliferation risk factors at each of the unit process locations in the alternative

  16. Non-proliferation issues for the disposition of fissile materials using reactor alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Tolk, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is analyzing long-term storage imposition options for excess weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of the disposition alternatives are being considered which involve the use of reactors. The various reactor alternatives are all very similar and include front-end processes that could convert plutonium to a usable form for fuel fabrication, a MOX fuel fab facility, reactors to burn the MOX fuel and ultimate disposal of spent fuel in some geologic repository. They include existing, partially completed, advanced or evolutionary light water reactors and Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. In addition to the differences in the type of reactors, other variants on these alternatives are being evaluated to include the location and number of the reactors, the location of the mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility, the ownership of the facilities (private or government) and the colocation and/or separation of these facilities. All of these alternatives and their variants must be evaluated with respect to non-proliferation resistance. Both domestic and international safeguards support are being provided to DOE's Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) and includes such areas as physical protection, nuclear materials accountability and material containment and surveillance. This paper will focus on how the non-proliferation objective of reducing security risks and strengthening arms reduction will be accomplished and what some of the non-proliferation issues are for the reactor alternatives. Proliferation risk has been defined in terms of material form, physical environment, and the level of security and safeguards that is applied to the material. Metrics have been developed for each of these factors. The reactor alternatives will be evaluated with respect to these proliferation risk factors at each of the unit process locations in the alternative

  17. Alternative policies for solid waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Percoco Marco

    2004-01-01

    Because of the recent dramatic increase in waste production, solid waste management and control have become one of the central issues in environmental policy. In this paper we review alternative fiscal instruments to control the production of residuals by using the benchmark given by the social optimum. Finnally, we apply the model to theoretically evaluate the TARI.

  18. Transportable Vitrification System RCRA Closure Practical Waste Disposition Saves Time And Money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, Angie; Boles, Roger; Byars, Woody

    2003-01-01

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) was a large-scale vitrification system for the treatment of mixed wastes. The wastes contained both hazardous and radioactive materials in the form of sludge, soil, and ash. The TVS was developed to be moved to various United States Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to vitrify mixed waste as needed. The TVS consists of four primary modules: (1) Waste and Additive Materials Processing Module; (2) Melter Module; (3) Emissions Control Module; and (4) Control and Services Module. The TVS was demonstrated at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) during September and October of 1997. During this period, approximately 16,000 pounds of actual mixed waste was processed, producing over 17,000 pounds of glass. After the demonstration was complete it was determined that it was more expensive to use the TVS unit to treat and dispose of mixed waste than to direct bury this waste in Utah permitted facility. Thus, DOE had to perform a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the facility and find a reuse for as much of the equipment as possible. This paper will focus on the following items associated with this successful RCRA closure project: TVS site closure design and implementation; characterization activities focused on waste disposition; pollution prevention through reuse; waste minimization efforts to reduce mixed waste to be disposed; and lessons learned that would be integrated in future projects of this magnitude

  19. Review of technologies and alternatives for dispositioning DOE/INEL spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, C.L.; Olson, A.L.; Christian, J.D.; Thomas, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Following the decision to cease processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) for purposes of uranium recovery, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is evaluating alternatives for management of the 90+ types of SNF now stored thereon. Two major classes of alternatives include direct disposal of SNF with little or minimal repackaging and chemical processing to reduce high-activity waste volumes and to reduce the number and type of waste forms requiring regulatory approval. The disposal alternatives are described and the primary advantages and disadvantages identified

  20. A Methodology for the Analysis and Selection of Alternative for the Disposition of Surplus Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has announced a Record of Decision (ROD) selecting alternatives for disposition of surplus plutonium. A major objective of this decision was to further U.S. efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Other concerns that were addressed include economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. The technical, environmental, and nonproliferation analyses supporting the ROD are documented in three DOE reports (DOE-TSR 96, DOE-PEIS 96, and DOE-NN 97, respectively). At the request of OFMD, a team of analysts from the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) provided an independent evaluation of the alternatives for plutonium that were considered during the evaluation effort. This report outlines the methodology used by the ANRCP team. This methodology, referred to as multiattribute utility theory (MAU), provides a structure for assembling results of detailed technical, economic, schedule, environment, and nonproliferation analyses for OFMD, DOE policy makers, other stakeholders, and the general public in a systematic way. The MAU methodology has been supported for use in similar situations by the National Research Council, an agency of the National Academy of Sciences.1 It is important to emphasize that the MAU process does not lead to a computerized model that actually determines the decision for a complex problem. MAU is a management tool that is one component, albeit a key component, of a decision process. We subscribe to the philosophy that the result of using models should be insights, not numbers. The MAU approach consists of four steps: (1) identification of alternatives, objectives, and performance measures, (2) estimation of the performance of the alternatives with respect to the objectives, (3) development of value functions and weights for the objectives, and (4) evaluation of the alternatives and sensitivity

  1. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-01-01

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power

  2. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-08-23

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition.

  3. Alternative technical summary report for immobilized disposition in deep boreholes: Immobilized disposal of plutonium in coated ceramic pellets in grout without canisters, Version 4.0. Fissile materials disposition program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the immobilized and direct borehole disposition alternatives previously presented in the alternative technical summary. The important design concepts, facility features and operational procedures are first briefly described. This is followed by a discussion of the issues that affect the evaluation of each alternative against the programmatic assessment criteria that have been established for selecting the preferred alternatives for plutonium disposition

  4. Alternative disposal options for transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Three alternative concepts are proposed for the final disposal of stored and retrieved buried transuranic waste. These proposed options answer criticisms of the existing U.S. Department of Energy strategy of directly disposing of stored transuranic waste in deep, geological salt formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The first option involves enhanced stabilization of stored waste by thermal treatment followed by convoy transportation and internment in the existing WIPP facility. This concept could also be extended to retrieved buried waste with proper permitting. The second option involves in-state, in situ internment using an encapsulating lens around the waste. This concept applies only to previously buried transuranic waste. The third option involves sending stored and retrieved waste to the Nevada Test Site and configuring the waste around a thermonuclear device from the U.S. or Russian arsenal in a specially designed underground chamber. The thermonuclear explosion would transmute plutonium and disassociate hazardous materials while entombing the waste in a national sacrifice area

  5. Mixed waste focus area alternative technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Palmer, B.A.; Pendergrass, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA)-sponsored Alternative Technology Workshop held in Salt Lake City, Utah, from January 24--27, 1995. The primary workshop goal was identifying potential applications for emerging technologies within the Options Analysis Team (OAT) ''wise'' configuration. Consistent with the scope of the OAT analysis, the review was limited to the Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) fraction of DOE's mixed waste inventory. The Los Alamos team prepared workshop materials (databases and compilations) to be used as bases for participant review and recommendations. These materials derived from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) data base (May 1994), the Draft Site Treatment Plan (DSTP) data base, and the OAT treatment facility configuration of December 7, 1994. In reviewing workshop results, the reader should note several caveats regarding data limitations. Link-up of the MWIR and DSTP data bases, while representing the most comprehensive array of mixed waste information available at the time of the workshop, requires additional data to completely characterize all waste streams. A number of changes in waste identification (new and redefined streams) occurred during the interval from compilation of the data base to compilation of the DSTP data base with the end result that precise identification of radiological and contaminant characteristics was not possible for these streams. To a degree, these shortcomings compromise the workshop results; however, the preponderance of waste data was linked adequately, and therefore, these analyses should provide useful insight into potential applications of alternative technologies to DOE MLLW treatment facilities

  6. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration

  7. Project Strategy For The Remediation And Disposition Of Legacy Transuranic Waste At The Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  8. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the WP. This

  9. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the

  10. Alternatives for definse waste-salt disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McDonell, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Alternatives for disposal of decontaminated high-level waste salt at Savannah River were reviewed to estimate costs and potential environmental impact for several processes. In this review, the reference process utilizing intermediate-depth burial of salt-concrete (saltcrete) monoliths was compared with alternatives including land application of the decontaminated salt as fertilizer for SRP pine stands, ocean disposal with and without containment, and terminal storage as saltcake in existing SRP waste tanks. Discounted total costs for the reference process and its modifications were in the same range as those for most of the alternative processes; uncontained ocean disposal with truck transport to Savannah River barges and storage as saltcake in SRP tanks had lower costs, but presented other difficulties. Environmental impacts could generally be maintained within acceptable limits for all processes except retention of saltcake in waste tanks, which could result in chemical contamination of surrounding areas on tank collapse. Land application would require additional salt decontamination to meet radioactive waste disposal standards, and ocean disposal without containment is not permitted in existing US practice. The reference process was judged to be the only salt disposal option studied which would meet all current requirements at an acceptable cost

  11. Viability of Sharing Facilities for the Disposition of Spent Fuel and Nuclear Waste. An Assessment of Recent Proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, ideas have been put forward and initiatives launched regarding cooperation in the nuclear fuel cycle, including both regional and multilateral approaches, to dealing with reprocessing, storage of spent fuel or, more recently, disposal of radioactive waste. The rationale behind the multinational disposal concepts ranges from concerns about the capability of some countries to implement safe national nuclear waste management programmes in a timely fashion, to questions about the availability of suitable geological formations; and, of course, the economies of scale in repository implementation are a major driver. In addition to these issues of cost, environmental and safety considerations, other benefits of such approaches for storage and underground disposal are security and non-proliferation advantages, which have become increasingly important after recent terrorist events worldwide. The IAEA has supported, since the 1970s, multilateral initiatives that seek to reduce access to weapons usable nuclear material technologies. Among different cooperation concepts, the sharing of facilities for dealing with radioactive waste management was proposed and developed through conferences and expert group meetings, as well as technical publications. The experience gained in other international frameworks, such as groupings in the European Union, was also reviewed. It was concluded that the scenarios and approaches proposed in earlier IAEA publications require further consideration regarding the conditions for their implementation, their viability, and the benefits and challenges inherent in the alternatives proposed. It is useful to consider the wider issue of spent fuel disposition (reprocessing/encapsulation, storage and disposal) when discussing the option of shared repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and high level waste from reprocessing. This proper account to be taken of new initiatives and technologies in predisposal activities and their impact

  12. In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Stockman; S. LeStrange

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to provide estimates of the amount of fissile material flowing out of the waste package (source term) and the accumulation of fissile elements (U and Pu) in a crushed-tuff invert. These calculations provide input for the analysis of repository impacts of the Pu-ceramic waste forms. In particular, the source term results are used as input to the far-field accumulation calculation reported in Ref. 51, and the in-drift accumulation results are used as inputs for the criticality calculations reported in Ref. 2. The results are also summarized and interpreted in Ref. 52. The scope of this calculation is the waste package (WP) Viability Assessment (VA) design, which consists of an outer corrosion-allowance material (CAM) and an inner corrosion-resistant material (CRM). This design is used in this calculation in order to be consistent with earlier Pu-ceramic degradation calculations (Ref. 15). The impact of the new Enhanced Design Alternative-I1 (EDA-11) design on the results will be addressed in a subsequent report. The design of the invert (a leveling foundation, which creates a level surface of the drift floor and supports the WP mounting structure) is consistent with the EDA-I1 design. The invert will be composed of crushed stone and a steel support structure (Ref. 17). The scope of this calculation is also defined by the nominal degradation scenario, which involves the breach of the WP (Section 10.5.1.2, Ref. 48), followed by the influx of water. Water in the WP may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the ceramic waste forms. Thus, the water in the WP may become laden with dissolved actinides (e.g., Pu and U), and may eventually overflow or leak from the WP. Once the water leaves the WP, it may encounter the invert, in which the actinides may reprecipitate. Several factors could induce reprecipitation; these factors include: the high surface area of the crushed stone, and the presence of

  13. In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W> Stockman; S. LeStrange

    2000-09-28

    The objective of this calculation is to provide estimates of the amount of fissile material flowing out of the waste package (source term) and the accumulation of fissile elements (U and Pu) in a crushed-tuff invert. These calculations provide input for the analysis of repository impacts of the Pu-ceramic waste forms. In particular, the source term results are used as input to the far-field accumulation calculation reported in Ref. 51, and the in-drift accumulation results are used as inputs for the criticality calculations reported in Ref. 2. The results are also summarized and interpreted in Ref. 52. The scope of this calculation is the waste package (WP) Viability Assessment (VA) design, which consists of an outer corrosion-allowance material (CAM) and an inner corrosion-resistant material (CRM). This design is used in this calculation in order to be consistent with earlier Pu-ceramic degradation calculations (Ref. 15). The impact of the new Enhanced Design Alternative-I1 (EDA-11) design on the results will be addressed in a subsequent report. The design of the invert (a leveling foundation, which creates a level surface of the drift floor and supports the WP mounting structure) is consistent with the EDA-I1 design. The invert will be composed of crushed stone and a steel support structure (Ref. 17). The scope of this calculation is also defined by the nominal degradation scenario, which involves the breach of the WP (Section 10.5.1.2, Ref. 48), followed by the influx of water. Water in the WP may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers out of the ceramic waste forms. Thus, the water in the WP may become laden with dissolved actinides (e.g., Pu and U), and may eventually overflow or leak from the WP. Once the water leaves the WP, it may encounter the invert, in which the actinides may reprecipitate. Several factors could induce reprecipitation; these factors include: the high surface area of the crushed stone, and the presence of

  14. Using Modeling and Simulation to Analyze Application and Network Performance at the Radioactive Waste and Nuclear Material Disposition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIFE, ROY A.; MAESTAS, JOSEPH H.; BATEMAN, DENNIS B.

    2003-01-01

    Telecommunication services customers at the Radioactive Waste and Nuclear Material Disposition Facility (RWNMDF) have endured regular service outages that seem to be associated with a custom Microsoft Access Database. In addition, the same customers have noticed periods when application response times are noticeably worse than at others. To the customers, the two events appear to be correlated. Although many network design activities can be accomplished using trial-and-error methods, there are as many, if not more occasions where computerized analysis is necessary to verify the benefits of implementing one design alternative versus another. This is particularly true when network design is performed with application flows and response times in mind. More times than not, it is unclear whether upgrading certain aspects of the network will provide sufficient benefit to justify the corresponding costs, and network modeling tools can be used to help staff make these decisions. This report summarizes our analysis of the situation at the RWNMDF, in which computerized analysis was used to accomplish four objectives: (1) identify the source of the problem; (2) identify areas where improvements make the most sense; (3) evaluate various scenarios ranging from upgrading the network infrastructure, installing an additional fiber trunk as a way to improve local network performance, and re-locating the RWNMDF database onto corporate servers; and (4) demonstrate a methodology for network design using actual application response times to predict, select, and implement the design alternatives that provide the best performance and cost benefits

  15. A methodology for the analysis and selection of alternatives for the disposition of surplus plutonium. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is currently involved in the development of a comprehensive approach to the long-term storage and disposition of fissile materials. A major objective of this effort is to provide a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. This will entail both the elimination of excess highly enriched uranium and plutonium, and the insurance of the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is supporting an Interagency Working Group that has initiated a comprehensive review of alternatives for plutonium disposition which takes into account non-proliferation, economic, technical, institutional, schedule, environmental, and health and safety issues. These alternatives were identified by the development of screening criteria as a guide to the selection of alternatives that best achieve the fissile nuclear material long-term storage and disposition goals of the US Government

  16. Alternatives of Treatment and Final Disposition of the Solid Hospital residuals; Alternativas de Tratamiento y Disposicion Final de los Residuos Solidos Hospitalarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza Monge, K

    1998-07-01

    The current handling, treatment and final disposition of the hospital solid waste in Costa Rica are considered inadequate or at least insufficient. This situation represents a serious danger for the population's health and the environment, because they are exposed to infectious agents, toxic substances and even radioactive products that are generated among the residuals of the centers of health. This work, alternatives propose for the treatment and adequate final disposition of the solid waste produced in the hospitals of the country. They take into consideration the characteristics that present these residuals, the advantages and disadvantages of each one of the existent techniques and the technical and economic possibilities of the country. For this purpose, in first instance, a revision about the properties, the quality and the quantity of the solid waste produced by the national hospital centers was carried out. Also, a diagnostic of the current situation of the treatment and final disposition of these residuals in some of the most important hospitals of the country, as well as of the possibilities of physical space with that they count on was carried out. Then, the existent different treatment techniques and final disposition for the solid waste that comes from the centers of health are described, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and a comparative analysis of the same ones is carried out. The objective is completed, since alternatives of treatment and final disposition that are considered appropriate for this type of residuals are planned. Nevertheless, in the future, more detailed investigations and studies of feasibility, with the purpose of developing handling programs and elimination of the solid waste for each one of the hospital centers in Costa Rica should be carried out. (Author) [Spanish] El actual manejo, tratamiento y disposicion final de los desechos solidos hospitalarios en Costa Rica se considera inadecuado o cuando menos

  17. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This final report (M5NU-12-NY-AU # 0202-0410) summarizes the results of the project titled “Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms,” funded in FY12 by the Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP Project # 12-3809) being led by Alfred University in collaboration with Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The overall focus of the project is to advance fundamental understanding of crystalline ceramic waste forms and to demonstrate their viability as alternative waste forms to borosilicate glasses. We processed single- and multiphase hollandite waste forms based on simulated waste streams compositions provided by SRNL based on the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI) aqueous separation process developed in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D). For multiphase simulated waste forms, oxide and carbonate precursors were mixed together via ball milling with deionized water using zirconia media in a polyethylene jar for 2 h. The slurry was dried overnight and then separated from the media. The blended powders were then subjected to melting or spark plasma sintering (SPS) processes. Microstructural evolution and phase assemblages of these samples were studied using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion analysis of x-rays (EDAX), wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), selective area x-ray diffraction (SAXD), and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). These results showed that the processing methods have significant effect on the microstructure and thus the performance of these waste forms. The Ce substitution into zirconolite and pyrochlore materials was investigated using a combination of experimental (in situ XRD and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES)) and modeling techniques to study these single phases independently. In zirconolite materials, a transition from the 2M to the 4M polymorph was observed with increasing Ce content. The resulting

  18. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  19. The Department of Energy's National Disposition Strategy for the Treatment and Disposal of Low Level and Mixed Low Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.R.; Tonkay, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program is committed to the environmental remediation of DOE sites. This cleanup mission will continue to produce large amounts of Low Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). This paper reports on the development of the DOE LLW/MLLW National Disposition Strategy that maps the Department's long-range strategy to manage LLW and MLLW. Existing corporate LLW and MLLW data proved insufficient to develop this strategy. Therefore, new data requirements were developed in conjunction with waste managers. The paper will report on the results of this data collection effort, which will result in development of DOE LLW/MLLW disposition maps. (authors)

  20. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented

  1. 30 CFR 47.53 - Alternative for hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative for hazardous waste. 47.53 Section... waste. If the mine produces or uses hazardous waste, the operator must provide potentially exposed miners and designated representatives access to available information for the hazardous waste that— (a...

  2. End of FY10 report - used fuel disposition technical bases and lessons learned : legal and regulatory framework for high-level waste disposition in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Blink, James A. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Rechard, Robert Paul; Perry, Frank (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Carter, Joe (Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC); Nutt, Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cotton, Tom (Complex Systems Group, Washington DC)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines the current policy, legal, and regulatory framework pertaining to used nuclear fuel and high level waste management in the United States. The goal is to identify potential changes that if made could add flexibility and possibly improve the chances of successfully implementing technical aspects of a nuclear waste policy. Experience suggests that the regulatory framework should be established prior to initiating future repository development. Concerning specifics of the regulatory framework, reasonable expectation as the standard of proof was successfully implemented and could be retained in the future; yet, the current classification system for radioactive waste, including hazardous constituents, warrants reexamination. Whether or not consideration of multiple sites are considered simultaneously in the future, inclusion of mechanisms such as deliberate use of performance assessment to manage site characterization would be wise. Because of experience gained here and abroad, diversity of geologic media is not particularly necessary as a criterion in site selection guidelines for multiple sites. Stepwise development of the repository program that includes flexibility also warrants serious consideration. Furthermore, integration of the waste management system from storage, transportation, and disposition, should be examined and would be facilitated by integration of the legal and regulatory framework. Finally, in order to enhance acceptability of future repository development, the national policy should be cognizant of those policy and technical attributes that enhance initial acceptance, and those policy and technical attributes that maintain and broaden credibility.

  3. Solid waste and materials systems alternatives study summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J.R.; Smith, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Site is a 560-sq.-mi. area in southeastern Washington State owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Previous weapons program activities and recent environmental cleanup activities at the Hanford Site have resulted in an accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes and materials. Future Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Environmental Remediation activities will generate additional wastes. This paper provides a summary of a recently completed analysis of the Hanford Site Solid Wastes and Materials. The analysis involved development and compilation of waste stream and material information including type, classification. location current and project volumes, and curie content. Current program plans for treatment, storage, and disposal/disposition (TSD) have also been included in this analysis

  4. Radioactive waste on-site storage alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The first, most frequently evaluated approach for the large producer is the construction of a relatively expensive storage building. However, with the likely possibility that at least one disposal site will remain available and the building never used, such expenditures are difficult to justify. A low cost, but effective alternative, is the use of ''On-Site Storage Containers'' (OSSC) when and if required. Radwaste is only stored in the OSSC if a disposal site is not available. A small number of OSSC's would be purchased initially just to assure immediate access to storage. Only in the unlikely event of total disposal sites closure would additional OSSC's have to be obtained and even this is cost effective. With two or three months of storage available on site, production lead time is sufficient for the delivery of additional units at a rate faster than the waste can be produced. The recommended OSSC design would be sized and shielding optimized to meet the needs of the waste generator. Normally, this would duplicate the shipping containers (casks or vans) currently in use. The reinforced concrete design presented is suitable for outside storage, contains a leakproof polyethylene liner and has remote sampling capability. Licensing would be under 10CFR50.59 for interim storage with long-term storage under 10CFR30 not an impossibility. Cost comparisons of this approach vs. building construction show that for a typical reactor plant installation, the OSSC offers direct savings even under the worst case assumption that no disposal sites are available and the time value of money is zero

  5. Potential role of ABC-assisted repositories in U.S. plutonium and high-level waste disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.; Favale, A.; Myers, T. [Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper characterizes the issues involving deep geologic disposal of LWR spent fuel rods, then presents results of an investigation to quantify the potential role of Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) in an integrated national nuclear materials and high level waste disposition strategy. The investigation used the deep geological repository envisioned for Yucca Mt., Nevada as a baseline and considered complementary roles for integrated ABC transmutation systems. The results indicate that although a U.S. geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of plutonium, the minor actinides, and selected long-lived fission products can result in the following substantial benefits: plutonium burndown to near zero levels, a dramatic reduction of the long term hazard associated with geologic repositories, an ability to place several-fold more high level nuclear waste in a single repository, electricity sales to compensate for capital and operating costs.

  6. Repository and deep borehole disposition of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1996-02-01

    Control and disposition of excess weapons plutonium is a growing issue as both the US and Russia retire a large number of nuclear weapons> A variety of options are under consideration to ultimately dispose of this material. Permanent disposition includes tow broad categories: direct Pu disposal where the material is considered waste and disposed of, and Pu utilization, where the potential energy content of the material is exploited via fissioning. The primary alternative to a high-level radioactive waste repository for the ultimate disposal of plutonium is development of a custom geologic facility. A variety of geologic facility types have been considered, but the concept currently being assessed is the deep borehole

  7. Complications Associated with Long-Term Disposition of Newly-Generated Transuranic Waste: A National Laboratory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchard, B.J.; Harvego, L.A.; Carlson, T.L.; Grant, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a multipurpose national laboratory delivering specialized science and engineering solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sponsorship of INL was formally transferred to the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) by Secretary Spencer Abraham in July 2002. The move to NE, and designation as the DOE lead nuclear energy laboratory for reactor technology, supports the nation's expanding nuclear energy initiatives, placing INL at the center of work to develop advanced Generation IV nuclear energy systems; nuclear energy/hydrogen coproduction technology; advanced nuclear energy fuel cycle technologies; and providing national security answers to national infrastructure needs. As a result of the Laboratory's NE mission, INL generates both contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic (TRU) waste from ongoing operations. Generation rates are relatively small and fluctuate based on specific programs and project activities being conducted; however, the Laboratory will continue to generate TRU waste well into the future in association with the NE mission. Currently, plans and capabilities are being established to transfer INL's contact-handled TRU waste to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Plant (AMWTP) for certification and disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Remote-handled TRU waste is currently placed in storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). In an effort to minimize future liabilities associated with the INL NE mission, INL is evaluating and assessing options for the management and disposition of all its TRU waste on a real-time basis at time of generation. This paper summarizes near-term activities to minimize future re handling of INL's TRU waste, as well as, potential complications associated with the long-term disposition of newly-generated TRU waste. Potential complications impacting the disposition of INL newly-generated TRU waste include, but are not limited to: (1

  8. Processes for production of alternative waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Rusin, J.M.; McElroy, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous waste forms and processes have been proposed for solidification of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The number has increased significantly during the past 3 to 4 years. At least five factors must be considered in selecting the waste form and process method: 1) processing flexibility, 2) waste loading, 3) canister size and stability, 4) waste form inertness and stability, and 5) processing complexity. This paper describes various waste form processes and operations, and a simple system is proposed for making comparisons. This system suggests that one goal for processes would be to reduce the number of process steps, thereby providing less complex processing systems

  9. Alternative solidified forms for nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, J.L.; Ross, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive wastes will occur in various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. These wastes have been classified in this paper as high-level waste, intermediate and low-level waste, cladding hulls, and residues. Solidification methods for each type of waste are discussed in a multiple barrier context of primary waste form, applicable coatings or films, matrix encapsulation, canister, engineered structures, and geological storage. The four major primary forms which have been most highly developed are glass for HLW, cement for ILW, organics for LLW, and metals for hulls

  10. Waste management system alternatives for treatment of wastes from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Swanson, J.L.; Daling, P.M.

    1986-09-01

    This study was performed to help identify a preferred TRU waste treatment alternative for reprocessing wastes with respect to waste form performance in a geologic repository, near-term waste management system risks, and minimum waste management system costs. The results were intended for use in developing TRU waste acceptance requirements that may be needed to meet regulatory requirements for disposal of TRU wastes in a geologic repository. The waste management system components included in this analysis are waste treatment and packaging, transportation, and disposal. The major features of the TRU waste treatment alternatives examined here include: (1) packaging (as-produced) without treatment (PWOT); (2) compaction of hulls and other compactable wastes; (3) incineration of combustibles with cementation of the ash plus compaction of hulls and filters; (4) melting of hulls and failed equipment plus incineration of combustibles with vitrification of the ash along with the HLW; (5a) decontamination of hulls and failed equipment to produce LLW plus incineration and incorporation of ash and other inert wastes into HLW glass; and (5b) variation of this fifth treatment alternative in which the incineration ash is incorporated into a separate TRU waste glass. The six alternative processing system concepts provide progressively increasing levels of TRU waste consolidation and TRU waste form integrity. Vitrification of HLW and intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILLW) was assumed in all cases

  11. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Battle, G.C. Jr.

    1981-04-01

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Alternatives Implementation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; James B. Bosley; Clifford W. Olsen

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss issues related to the implementation of each of the five down-selected INEEL/INTEC radioactive liquid waste (sodium-bearing waste - SBW) treatment alternatives and summarize information in three main areas of concern: process/technical, environmental permitting, and schedule. Major implementation options for each treatment alternative are also identified and briefly discussed. This report may touch upon, but purposely does not address in detail, issues that are programmatic in nature. Examples of these include how the SBW will be classified with respect to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) permits and waste storage availability, available funding for implementation, stakeholder issues, and State of Idaho Settlement Agreement milestones. It is assumed in this report that the SBW would be classified as a transuranic (TRU) waste suitable for disposal at WIPP, located in New Mexico, after appropriate treatment to meet transportation requirements and waste acceptance criteria (WAC).

  13. Bases, Assumptions, and Results of the Flowsheet Calculations for the Decision Phase Salt Disposition Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, H.H.

    2001-07-11

    The HLW salt waste (salt cake and supernate) now stored at the SRS must be treated to remove insoluble sludge solids and reduce the soluble concentration of radioactive cesium radioactive strontium and transuranic contaminants (principally Pu and Np). These treatments will enable the salt solution to be processed for disposal as saltstone, a solid low-level waste.

  14. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams

  15. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  16. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  17. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  18. Target-mediated drug disposition with drug-drug interaction, Part I: single drug case in alternative formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gilbert; Jusko, William J; Schropp, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) describes drug binding with high affinity to a target such as a receptor. In application TMDD models are often over-parameterized and quasi-equilibrium (QE) or quasi-steady state (QSS) approximations are essential to reduce the number of parameters. However, implementation of such approximations becomes difficult for TMDD models with drug-drug interaction (DDI) mechanisms. Hence, alternative but equivalent formulations are necessary for QE or QSS approximations. To introduce and develop such formulations, the single drug case is reanalyzed. This work opens the route for straightforward implementation of QE or QSS approximations of DDI TMDD models. The manuscript is the first part to introduce DDI TMDD models with QE or QSS approximations.

  19. Alternative solutions for the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Besides outlining the possibility of dispatching concentrated highly radioactive waste by rockets into space, or of transmuting long-lived isotopes by nuclear reactions into short-lived ones, the author discusses further alternatives for the disposal of radioactive wastes, especially the storage in geologic formations. (HR/LN) [de

  20. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Congress designated Yucca Mountain, NV, as the nation's sole candidate site for a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository in 1987, following years of controversy over the site-selection process...

  1. Alternatives for Future Waste Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Cimpan, Ciprian; Dall, Ole

    The TOPWASTE project has addressed the challenges of planning robust solutions for future waste management. The purpose was to identify economic and environmentally optimal solutions ‐ taking into account different scenarios for the development of the surrounding systems, such as the energy syste......, environmental and resource efficiency of waste management solutions. The following chapters addresses these issues by answering some of the main research questions of the project.......The TOPWASTE project has addressed the challenges of planning robust solutions for future waste management. The purpose was to identify economic and environmentally optimal solutions ‐ taking into account different scenarios for the development of the surrounding systems, such as the energy system....... During the project, four decision support tools were developed:1. Frida ‐ The EPA's tool for forecasting future waste generation 2. OptiWaste ‐ a new tool for economic optimisation of investments and operation of the combined waste and energy system3. KISS ‐ a new lifecycle based model with focus...

  2. Evaluation and review of alternative waste forms for immobilization of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Objective was to review the relative merits and potential of eleven alternative waste forms being considered for the solidification and disposal of radioactive wastes. A numerical rating of the alternative waste forms was arrived at individually by peer review panel members taking into consideration nine scientific and nine engineering parameters affecting the long-term performance and production of waste forms. A group rating for the alternative forms was achieved by averaging the individiual scores and discussing the available data base. Three final ranking lists comparing: (A) Present Scientific Merits or Least Risk for Use Today; (B) Research Priority; and (3) Present and Potential Engineering Practicality were prepared by the Panel. Each waste form in the lists is assigned a value of either (1) Top Rank, (2) Intermediate Rank, or is assigned a value of either (1) Top Rank, (2) Intermediate Rank, or (3) Bottom Rank. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the alternative waste forms and recommendations for future program directions are discussed

  3. Identification and evaluation of alternative radioactive waste categorisation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Smith, G.M.; Stenhouse, M.J.; Watkins, B.M.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of the research described in this report was to consider the options for future UK radioactive waste categorisation, to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each option and, as a result, to identify any which might be viable practical alternatives to the current arrangements. The review process included meetings with large and small waste producers, a wider consultation exercise using a questionnaire, a presentation to RWMAC, and discussion with representatives of the UK regulators. These consultations provided the basis for the formulation and evaluation of a number of alternative waste categorisation schemes. (UK)

  4. Nuclear waste management: the ocean alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are working on sea disposal. This forum related to this problem. Past practices and policies for sea disposal of radioactive wastes are examined in this paper by Robert S. Dyer, Office of Radiation Programs, US Environmental Protection Agency. Mr. Dyer's analysis served as the principal background paper for the Forum. He reviewed the scope of American sea disposal programs between 1946 and 1970; then he discussed the concentrations of radioactive wastes at 35 dump sites used by the United States. The US decision to halt sea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in 1970 and current federal laws are also discussed. International regulations based on the London Dumping Convention and a review of sea disposal practices by other nations are included

  5. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  6. Efficient waste reduction algorithms based on alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative heuristic functions are investigated and applied to the modified Wang ... ∗Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, North-West ... rectangles have types ri (i = 1,...,n), where each type has a demand constraint of.

  7. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-01-01

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost

  8. Alternatives for managing post LWR reactor nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platt, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The two extremes in the LWR fuel cycle are discarding the spent fuel and recycling the U and Pu to the maximum extent possible. The waste volumes from the two alternatives are compared. A preliminary evaluation is made of the technology available for handling wastes from each step of the fuel cycle. The wastes considered are fuel materials, high--level wastes, other liquids, combustible and non-combustible solids, and non--high--level wastes. Evaluation of processing gaseous wastes indicates that technology is available for capture of Kr and I 2 , but further development is needed for T 2 . Technology for interim storage and geological isolation is considered adequate. An outline is given of the steps in the selection of a final storage site

  9. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-12-28

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

  10. Identification and evaluation of alternatives for the disposition of fluoride fuel and flush salts from the molten salt reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an initial identification and evaluation of the alternatives for disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts stored in the drain tanks at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It will serve as a resource for the U.S. Department of Energy contractor preparing the feasibility study for this activity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). This document will also facilitate further discussion on the range of credible alternatives, and the relative merits of alternatives, throughout the time that a final alternative is selected under the CERCLA process

  11. Alternate Strategies for Conversion of Waste Plastic to Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Patni; Pallav Shah; Shruti Agarwal; Piyush Singhal

    2013-01-01

    The present rate of economic growth is unsustainable without saving of fossil energy like crude oil, natural gas, or coal. There are many alternatives to fossil energy such as biomass, hydropower, and wind energy. Also, suitable waste management strategy is another important aspect. Development and modernization have brought about a huge increase in the production of all kinds of commodities, which indirectly generate waste. Plastics have been one of the materials because of their wide range ...

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Disposition of the Standing Legacy Wastes in the 105-B, -D, -H, -KE, and -KW Reactor Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities that support disposition of legacy waste in the Hanford Site's 105-B, 105-D, 105-H,105-KE, 105-KW Reactor buildings. For the purpose of this SAP, legacy waste is identified as any item present in a facility that is not permanently attached to the facility and is easily removed without the aid of equipment larger than a standard forklift

  13. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Disposition of the Standing Legacy Wastes in the 105-B, -D, -H, -KE, and -KW Reactor Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities that support disposition of legacy waste in the Hanford Site's 105-B, 105-D, 105-H, 105-KE, 105-KW Reactor buildings. For the purpose of this SAP, legacy waste is identified as any item present in a facility that is not permanently attached to the facility and is easily removed without the aid of equipment larger than a standard forklift

  14. Planning for the Management and Disposition of Newly Generated TRU Waste from REDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D. E.; Forrester, T. W.; Krause, T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the waste characteristics of newly generated transuranic waste from the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the basic certification structure that will be proposed by the University of Tennessee-Battelle and Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for this waste stream. The characterization approach uses information derived from the active production operations as acceptable knowledge for the Radiochemical Engineering and Development Center transuranic waste. The characterization approach includes smear data taken from processing and waste staging hot cells, as well as analytical data on product and liquid waste streams going to liquid waste disposal. Bechtel Jacobs Company and University of Tennessee-Battelle are currently developing the elements of a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-compliant program with a plan to be certified by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for shipment of newly generated transuranic waste in the next few years. The current activities include developing interface plans, program documents, and waste stream specific procedures

  15. Approach for systematic evaluation of transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Koebnick, B.; Kotek, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for systematic evaluation of management alternatives that are being considered for the treatment, storage, and disposal of transuranic waste (TRUW) at U.S. Department of Energy sites. The approach, which is currently under development, would apply WASTE-MGMT, a database application model developed at Argonne National Laboratory, to estimate projected environmental releases and would evaluate impact measures such as health risk and costs associated with each of the waste management alternatives. The customized application would combine site-specific TRUW inventory and characterization data with treatment and transportation parameters to estimate the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be treated, emissions of hazardous substances from the treatment facilities, and the quantities and characteristics of the wastes to be shipped between sites. These data would then be used to estimate for several TRUW management scenarios the costs and health risks of constructing and operating the required treatment facilities and of transporting TRUW for treatment and final disposal. Treatment, storage, and disposal of TRUW at DOE sites is composed of many variables and options at each stage. The approach described in this paper would provide for efficient consideration of all of these facets when evaluating potentially feasible TRUW management alternatives. By expanding existing databases, this model could eventually be adapted to accommodate the introduction of new treatment technologies, updated TRUW characterization data, and/or revised waste acceptance criteria

  16. Tank waste pretreatment issues, alternatives and strategies for resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.C.; Appel, J.; Barton, W.B.; Orme, R.M.; Holton, L.K. Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the Hanford Site tank waste. The overall strategy for disposing of tank waste is evolving and initial recommendations on a course of action are expected in March, 1993. Pretreatment of these wastes may be required for one or both of the following reasons: (1) resolution of tank safety issues, and (2) preparation of low level and high level waste fractions for disposal. Pretreatment is faced with several issues that must be addressed by the deployment strategies that are being formulated. These issues are identified. There is also a discussion of several pretreatment deployment strategies and how these strategies address the issues. Finally, the technology alternatives that are being considered for the pretreatment function are briefly discussed

  17. Actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in fast reactor systems has been investigated as an approach for reducing the long term hazards and storage requirements of the actinide waste elements and their decay daughters. The actinide recycle studies also included plutonium burnup studies in the event that plutonium is no longer required as a fuel. Particular emphasis was placed upon the timing of the recycle program, the requirements for separability of the waste materials, and the impact of the actinides on the reactor operations and performance. It is concluded that actinide recycle and plutonium burnout are attractive alternative waste management concepts. 25 refs., 14 figs., 34 tabs

  18. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  19. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material; - Direct Burial; - Treatment (Processing); - Burial; - Treatment; - Unconditional Release; - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry; - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. This paper examines the options of controlled recycle of material within the nuclear industry and cites several successful examples. Controlled recycling of LLRW materials within the nuclear industry has been demonstrated to be practical and economical. The reuse of materials within the nuclear industry properly addressed stakeholder concerns for material being used for what they believe to be improper purposes. There are a number of environmental benefits including: - Preservation of resources; - Energy Conservation (in cases where less energy is required to recycle/reuse as compared to mainstream new fuel storages. - Preservation of burial space at disposal sites. In many cases recycling is cost beneficial as compared to other options to disposition the LLRW. In some cases burial costs are comparatively higher. To further the advancement of controlled recycle countries must continue to embrace the concept and create large enough feedstocks of like type material to achieve economies of scale. Additionally, a mechanism to uniformly track material to show where material has been moved and ultimately dispositioned would also contribute to enhancing the endorsement of controlled recycling. There is a large amount of LLRW material that could potentially be recycled. To date, 100 mines, 90 commercial power reactors, over 250 research reactors and a number of fuel cycle facilities, have been retired from operation. Some of these

  20. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun B. Chhetri; K. Chris Watts; M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-01-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was ...

  1. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  2. Management and disposition of off-site laboratory-generated mixed/low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is the first Department of Energy (DOE) site to take back mixed and low level waste generated at commercial laboratories from chemical analyses and treatability studies on samples taken from the site. This paper discusses the steps addressed and the issues resolved in order to initiate the task of taking back mixed/low level waste. Such issues included regulatory, waste management and contractual issues

  3. The disposition of weapon grade plutonium: costs and tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weida, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores some of the economic issues surrounding a major area of expenditures now facing the nuclear powers: the disposition of weapon-grade plutonium either through 'burning' in nuclear reactors for power generation or by other means. Under the current budgeting philosophy in the United States, programs managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) tend to compete with one another for the total funds assigned to that agency. For example, in the FY1995 DOE budget a tradeoff was made between increased funding for nuclear weapons and reduced funding for site cleanup. No matter which disposition alternative is chosen, if disposition funds are controlled by the DOE in the US or by a government agency in any other country, disposition is likely to compete directly or indirectly with other alternatives for energy funding. And if they are subsidized by any government, research into plutonium as reactor fuel or the operations associated with such use are likely to consume funds that might otherwise be available to support sustainable energy alternatives. When all costs are considered, final waste disposal costs will be incurred whatever disposal option is taken. These costs could potentially be offset by doing something profitable with the plutonium prior to final storage, but this paper has shown that finding a profitable use for plutonium is unlikely. Thus, the more probable case is one where the costs of basic waste storage are increased by whatever costs are associated with the disposition option chosen. The factors most likely to significantly increase costs appear to arise from four areas: (1) The level of subsidization in the 'profitable' parts of the disposition program. (2) Those items (such as reprocessing) that increase the volume of waste and thus, the cost of waste disposal. (3) The cost of security and its direct relationship to the number of times plutonium is handled or moved. (4) The cost of research and development of new and unproven methods of

  4. B cell remote-handled waste shipment cask alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIDDELLE, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The decommissioning of the 324 Facility B Cell includes the onsite transport of grouted remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Facility to the 200 Areas for disposal. The grouted waste has been transported in the leased ATG Nuclear Services 3-82B Radioactive Waste Shipping Cask (3-82B cask). Because the 3-82B cask is a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified Type B shipping cask, the lease cost is high, and the cask operations in the onsite environment may not be optimal. An alternatives study has been performed to develop cost and schedule information on alternative waste transportation systems to assist in determining which system should be used in the future. Five alternatives were identified for evaluation. These included continued lease of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, development and fabrication of an onsite cask, modification of the existing U.S. Department of Energy-owned cask (OH-142), and the lease of a different commercially available cask. Each alternative was compared to acceptance criteria for use in the B Cell as an initial screening. Only continued leasing of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, and the development and fabrication of an onsite cask were found to meet all of the B Cell acceptance criteria

  5. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  7. Alternative design concept for the second Glass Waste Storage Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainisch, R.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents an alternative design concept for storing canisters filled with vitrified waste produced at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) has the capacity to store 2,262 canisters and is projected to be completely filled by the year 2000. Current plans for glass waste storage are based on constructing a second Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB2) once the existing Glass Waste Storage Building (GWSB1) is filled to capacity. The GWSB2 project (Project S-2045) is to provide additional storage capacity for 2,262 canisters. This project was initiated with the issue of a basic data report on March 6, 1989. In response to the basic data report Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) prepared a draft conceptual design report (CDR) for the GWSB2 project in April 1991. In May 1991 WSRC Systems Engineering issued a revised Functional Design Criteria (FDC), the Rev. I document has not yet been approved by DOE. This document proposes an alternative design for the conceptual design (CDR) completed in April 1991. In June 1992 Project Management Department authorized Systems Engineering to further develop the proposed alternative design. The proposed facility will have a storage capacity for 2,268 canisters and will meet DWPF interim storage requirements for a five-year period. This document contains: a description of the proposed facility; a cost estimate of the proposed design; a cost comparison between the proposed facility and the design outlined in the FDC/CDR; and an overall assessment of the alternative design as compared with the reference FDC/CDR design

  8. Systems Engineering in the Development and Implementation of the Savannah River Site Transuranic Waste Disposition Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayfich, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of systems engineering facilitated the strategic planning and implementation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) transuranic waste disposal program. This application represented the first SRS use of systems engineering in the pre-program planning stages during the development of a comprehensive strategic plan for the disposal of transuranic waste at the Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The use of systems engineering focused the efforts of the technical experts to devise a three initiative plan for the disposal of transuranic waste where previous efforts failed. Continued application of systems engineering facilitated the further development and implementation of the first initiative outlined in the strategic plan, i.e., set-up the program and process to begin to characterize and ship waste to the WIPP.This application of systems engineering to the transuranic waste program represented the first opportunity at the SRS for a comprehensive usage of systems engineering at all program levels. The application was initiated at the earliest possible point in the program development, i.e., strategic planning, and successively was used in detailed development and implementation of the program. Systems engineering successfully focused efforts to produce a comprehensive plan for the disposal of SRS transuranic waste at the WIPP, and facilitated development of the SRS capability and infrastructure to characterize, certify, and ship waste

  9. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation

  10. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 4. Alternatives for waste isolation and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume IV of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for final storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. Section titles include: basic concepts for geologic isolation; geologic storage alternatives; geologic disposal alternatives; extraterrestrial disposal; and, transmutation. (JGB)

  11. Optimization of Waste and Materials Disposition in France - Policy, Strategies, and Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUTZER, Michel; Rives, Jean Francois

    2014-01-01

    The general legal and regulatory framework for waste management in France is described in the 'Code for the Environment'. A specificity of the French regulation is that it prescribes the implementation within nuclear facilities of a waste zoning to segregate areas where waste cannot be contaminated or activated and areas where waste are or may have an added radioactive content. The first category may be managed in conventional routes; the second category (nuclear waste) requires a dedicated management in licensed facilities with a reinforced traceability. The purpose of this regulation is to prevent a misdirection of waste from the very large French nuclear fleet without a need of an increased control by the regulatory body. Furthermore there is a reluctance of some stakeholders for free release of materials. As a consequence disposal for very low level waste must have an economical relevance in comparison with conventional waste disposal. The regulation includes principles that are provided by the Planning Act of June 2006, 28, related to the sustainable management of radioactive Materials and waste. In particular this act sets a schedule for research into high level waste and intermediate level long-lived waste and confirms the implementation of a national plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste (PNGMDR). This plan, which is chaired by the ministry of energy and the nuclear regulatory body (ASN) involves elected officials, waste generators, the national waste management agency and members of the civil society. It is updated every three years. The plan deals with all types of radioactive waste and materials, with already available management routes and routes under development. It identifies areas to be improved and makes recommendations. It describes the research works to be performed. The follow up is done through periodical meetings, the conclusions of which are used to update the plan. The first version of PNGMDR was published in

  12. Sandia Review of High Bridge Associates Report: Comparison of Plutonium Disposition Alternatives: WIPP Diluted Plutonium Storage and MOX Fuel Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Park, HeeHo Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, Robert P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The subject report from High Bridge Associates (HBA) was issued on March 2, 2016, in reaction to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program decision to pursue down-blending of surplus Pu and geologic disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Sandia National Laboratories was requested by the DOE to review the technical arguments presented in the HBA report. Specifically, this review is organized around three technical topics: criticality safety, radiological release limits, and thermal impacts. Questions raised by the report pertaining to legal and regulatory requirements, safeguards and security, international agreements, and costing of alternatives, are beyond the scope of this review.

  13. Evaluation and review of alternative waste forms for immobilization of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the relative merits and potential of 15 (fifteen) alternative waste forms being considered for the solidification and disposal of radioactive wastes. The relative merits of 4 (four) alternative pre-solidification processing approaches were also assessed in this study. A Peer Review Panel composed of 8 (eight) scientists and engineers representing independent, non-DOE laboratories from industry, government, and universities and the disciplines of materials science, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, and geology conducted the review. A numerical rating of alternative waste forms was arrived at individually by the panel members taking into consideration 9 (nine) scientific and 9 (nine) engineering parameters affecting the long term performance and production of waste forms. At a meeting on May 9, 1980, a group ranking for the alternative forms was achieved by averaging the individual scores and discussing the available data base. Three final ranking lists comparing: (A) Present Scientific Merits or Least Risk for Use Today; and (B) Research Priority; and (C) Present and Potential Engineering Practicality were prepared by the Panel. Each waste form in the lists is assigned a value of either (1) Top Rank, (2) Intermediate Rank, or (3) Bottom Rank. A discussion of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the alternative waste forms and recommendations for future program directions is presented in the body of the accompanying Peer Review Panel report

  14. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  15. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low-activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program

  16. Mixed waste: An alternative solution. The utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seizert, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of mixed waste is one of significant interest to the utility industry. The interest is focused on the current regulatory scheme of dual regulation. A fundamental concern of the commercial nuclear utilities resulting from dual regulation is that there are currently no facilities in the US to dispose of mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste. The lack of available sites renders mixed waste an orphan, requiring generators of such material to store the waste on-site. This in turn causes commercial nuclear power plants to be subjected to the full gamut of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation in addition to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Superimposing dual regulatory schemes will have impacts which extend far beyond the mere management of mixed waste. Certainly the burdens, complexities and costs of complying with the overlapping regulatory schemes will not have a commensurate increase in protection from the real risks being addressed. For these reasons, the commercial nuclear utility industry is working toward an alternative solution which will protect the public health and the environment from all hazards of mixed waste and will minimize the impacts on both the regulators and the regulated community

  17. Microwave Technology for Waste Management Applications Including Disposition of Electronic Circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of waste management and environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of hazardous components into leach resistant forms. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from the undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. One application of special interest is the treatment of discarded electronic circuitry using a new hybrid microwave treatment process and subsequent reclamation of the precious metals within

  18. Final report, Task 2: alternative waste management options, Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Of the alternatives considered for disposal of the high-level waste in tanks 8D2 and 8D4, the following process is recommended: homogenization of the contents of tank 8D2, centrifugation of the sludge and supernate, mixing of the 8D4 acid waste with the centrifuged sludge, and converting the mixture to a borosilicate glass using the Hanford spray calciner/in-can melter

  19. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2013-04-19

    Apr 19, 2013 ... converting solid waste to energy source, ranging from very simple systems of ... defined by modern systems of waste management, notably: -. Municipal Waste; Household Waste,. Commercial Waste and Demolition Waste.

  20. Low-level waste management alternatives and analysis in DOE`s programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstein, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. The PEIS has been divided into an Environmental Restoration section and a Waste Management section. Each section has a unique set of alternatives. This paper will focus on the waste management alternatives and analysis. The set of alternatives for waste management has been divided into waste categories. These categories are: high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, greater-than-class C and low-level waste from commercial sources, hazardous waste, and spent nuclear fuel. This paper will discuss the alternatives and analytical approach that will be used to evaluate these alternatives for the low-level waste section. Although the same alternatives will be considered for all waste types, the analysis will be performed separately for each waste type. In the sections that follow, information will be provided on waste management configurations, the analysis of waste management alternatives, waste types and locations, facility and transportation activities, the facility and transportation impacts assessment, and the compilation of impacts.

  1. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes

  2. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 2. Alternatives for waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-01

    Volume II of the five-volume report is devoted to the description of alternatives for waste treatment. The discussion is presented under the following section titles: fuel reprocessing modifications; high-level liquid waste solidification; treatment and immobilization of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; treatment of noncombustible solid wastes; treatment of combustible wastes; treatment of non-high-level liquid wastes; recovery of transuranics from non-high-level wastes; immobilization of miscellaneous non-high-level wastes; volatile radioisotope recovery and off-gas treatment; immobilization of volatile radioisotopes; retired facilities (decontamination and decommissioning); and, modification and use of selected fuel reprocessing wastes. (JGB)

  3. Dispositional logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Balleur, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived.

  4. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  5. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd, Highfield, SOUTHAMPTON, Hampshire, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cole, C. [Centre for Innovative and Collaborative Construction Engineering, School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Epinal Way, Loughborough, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  6. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, I.D.; Cole, C.

    2013-01-01

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  7. Microwave technology for waste management applications including disposition of electronic circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.; Folz, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave technology is being developed nationally and internationally for a variety of environmental remediation purposes. These efforts include treatment and destruction of a vast array of gaseous, liquid and solid hazardous wastes as well as subsequent immobilization of selected components. Microwave technology provides an important contribution to an arsenal of existing remediation methods that are designed to protect the public and environment from undesirable consequences of hazardous materials. Applications of microwave energy for environmental remediation will be discussed. Emphasized will be a newly developed microwave process designed to treat discarded electronic circuitry and reclaim the precious metals within for reuse

  8. The Legal and Policy Framework for Waste Disposition - Legal and policy framework for low level waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    UK policy and strategy for the management of LLW has changed significantly in recent years, not least through development and implementation of the 'UK Strategy for the Management of Solid Low Level Radioactive Waste from the Nuclear Industry' as part of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's mission. This has influenced all aspects of LLW management in the UK, including metals recycling and VLLW disposal. The paper will outline the legal context for these changes in the UK and highlight how international conventions and legal frameworks have influenced these developments. In particular, the paper will look at the following important influences on choices for recycling and disposal of LLW and VLLW. - The Paris and Brussels Conventions on third party liabilities for nuclear damage; - on-going work to implement the 2004 Protocols to those conventions, including the impact on disposal sites and proposals to exclude VLLW disposal sites from liabilities regimes; - The Revised Waste Framework Directive and Waste Hierarchy; - Relevant European pollution prevention and control legislation and Best Available Techniques. (author)

  9. Summary of International Waste Management Programs (LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Harris R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blink, James A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Halsey, William G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-11

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) within the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) program has been tasked with investigating the disposal of the nation’s spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW) for a range of potential waste forms and geologic environments. This Lessons Learned task is part of a multi-laboratory effort, with this LLNL report providing input to a Level 3 SNL milestone (System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW). The work package number is: FTLL11UF0328; the work package title is: Technical Bases / Lessons Learned; the milestone number is: M41UF032802; and the milestone title is: “LLNL Input to SNL L3 MS: System-Wide Integration and Site Selection Concepts for Future Disposition Options for HLW”. The system-wide integration effort will integrate all aspects of waste management and disposal, integrating the waste generators, interim storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal at a repository site. The review of international experience in these areas is required to support future studies that address all of these components in an integrated manner. Note that this report is a snapshot of nuclear power infrastructure and international waste management programs that is current as of August 2011, with one notable exception. No attempt has been made to discuss the currently evolving world-wide response to the tragic consequences of the earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan on March 11, 2011, leaving more than 15,000 people dead and more than 8,000 people missing, and severely damaging the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power complex. Continuing efforts in FY 2012 will update the data, and summarize it in an Excel spreadsheet for easy comparison and assist in the knowledge management of the study cases.

  10. Alternatives evaluation of high activity radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, N.R.; Petraitis, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Different alternatives considered in the world to be used as barriers to isolate the high level radioactive from the environment wastes produced during the electric energy generation of nuclear origin are presented. Engineering and geologic barriers, are analyzed, considering nuclear fuel cycles with or without plutonium recycling; to that purpose the consideration of elements such as durability and resistance of the various engineering, availability of the fabrication processes, associated radiological impact, geological media apt to be used as geological barrier. Finally, the scopes of the Feasibility Study and Engineering draft are presented for the construction of a repository for high-level radioactive wastes, for the Argentine Nuclear Program needs, which contemplates the construction of six nuclear power plants with a potential installed towards the year 2000 GW( e ), with natural and/or lowly enriched uranium power plants and recycling of plutonium generated in the cycle. (Author) [es

  11. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineered barriers alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Gray, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including long-lived containers and clay and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. This report, one of nine EIS primary references, describes the various alternative designs and materials for engineered barriers that have been considered during the development of the Canadian disposal concept and summarizes engineered barrier concepts being evaluated in other countries. The basis for the selection of a reference engineered barrier system for the EIS is presented. This reference system involves placing used CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in titanium containers, which would then be emplaced in boreholes drilled in the floor of disposal rooms. Clay-based sealing materials would be used to fill both the space between the containers and the rock and the remaining excavations. In the section on waste forms, the properties of both used-fuel bundles and solidified high-level wastes, which would be produced by treating wastes resulting from the reprocessing of used fuel, are discussed. Methods of solidifying the wastes and the chemical durability of the solidified waste under disposal conditions are reviewed. Various alternative container designs are reviewed, ranging from preliminary conceptual designs to designs that have received extensive prototype testing. Results of structural performance, welding and inspection studies are also summarized. The corrosion of

  12. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO 2 emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  13. System study of alternative waste management techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes the important results achieved in conjunction with the Research and Development Priority ''Alternative Waste Management Techniques'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology from 1981 to 1984. The subject of these studies was solely ''direct disposal'' of spent fuel elements. For this purpose a reference concept was selected from a variety of possible processes and engineered in detailed form by firms in the nuclear industry. Those who worked on the engineering concepts consider this waste management method technically feasible. Several disposal casks have been fabricated. The basic licensability of direct disposal can be evaluated on the basis of the documentation developed by the companies. The direct disposal method was compared with the ''integrated waste management concept'' using reference fuel cycles with respect to the following criteria: radiological safety and nuclear material safeguards and, in addition, economic and energy-policy aspects. It was found that with respect to radiological safety, including the long-term safety of the final repository, there are no significant differences between the two fuel cycles with and without reprocessing. With respect to the nuclear material safeguards of a final repository containing spent fuel elements, there are still a number of unanswered questions. From an economic standpoint, direct disposal will be more economical in the foreseeable future than integrated waste management. Quantification of the effects of one or the other waste management method on the national economy is not necessarily possible. Reprocessing is supported primarily by technological and energy-policy considerations. On the basis of the results, the conclusion is reached that reprocessing should be pursued further, but that at the same time direct disposal should be developed to the point of practical maturity

  14. Sustainable waste management: Waste to energy plant as an alternative to landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WTE plant is a reasonable and sustainable alternative technology to landfill. • A 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration for Abruzzo region. • The percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios. • Financial Net Present Value is equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste. • The annual reduction of emissions is equal to 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste. - Abstract: The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been identified as one of the global challenges that must be carefully faced in order to achieve sustainability goals. European Union (EU) has defined as Waste to Energy (WTE) technology is able to create synergies with EU energy and climate policy, without compromising the achievement of higher reuse and recycling rates. The methodology used in this paper is based on two levels. A strategy analysis defines the amount of waste to incinerate with energy recovery considering different approaches based on unsorted waste, landfilled waste and separated collection rate, respectively. Consequently, it is evaluated the sustainability of a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill for a specific area. Two indicators are used: the Reduction of the Emissions of equivalent Carbon Dioxide (ER_C_O_2_e_q) and Financial Net Present Value (FNPV). Furthermore, a social analysis is conducted through interviews to identify the most critical elements determining the aversion toward the WTE realization. The obtained results show the opportunity to realize a 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration. In fact, the cogenerative configuration reaches better environmental performances, but it is not profitable for this size. Profits are equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste and 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste are avoided using a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill. In this way, the percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios and disposal waste is minimised

  15. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Phase 1 High-Level Waste Feed Tanks Selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRAWFORD, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    A recent revision of the US Department of Energy privatization contract for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) at Hanford necessitates the investigation of alternative waste feed sources to meet contractual feed requirements. This analysis identifies wastes to be considered as HLW feeds and develops and conducts alternative analyses to comply with established criteria. A total of 12,426 cases involving 72 waste streams are evaluated and ranked in three cost-based alternative models. Additional programmatic criteria are assessed against leading alternative options to yield an optimum blended waste feed stream

  16. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  17. Alternatives for future land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Shallow land burial incorporating improvements to facilitate stabilization and decommissioning will continue to be the primary method of disposing of low level waste in areas where conditions are suitable for this type of disposal. The existing disposal sites should be closely monitored to assure that continued acceptance of this method of disposal. Plans for the decommissioning of the existing sites should be closely reviewed to assure that the planning is adequate and that adequate resources will be available to implement the decommissioning plan. For these areas where geological conditions are not suitable for shallow land burial and in situations where a higher degree of containment is desired, alternative disposal methods should be considered. Technology exists or is readily attainable to provide engineered disposal facilities which provide a higher degree of containment and can be readily decommissioned. The cost of disposal using these methods can be competitive with shallow land burial when the cost of environmental and hydrogeologic investigations and decommissioning are included. Disposal of radioactive waste having low activity in secure sanitary landfills could significantly reduce the transportation and disposal requirements for low level waste

  18. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm2/sec at 40oC. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21° C was 72 mm2/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164oC, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1oC and pour point was -16oC. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.

  19. Waste cooking oil as an alternate feedstock for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, A. B.; Rafiqul Islam, M. [Civil and Resources Engineering Dalhousie University, Room D510, 1360 Barrington St., Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada); Watts, K. Ch. [Process Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Box 1000, Halifax, N.S. B3J 2X4 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm{sup 2}/sec at 40 {sup o}C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 {sup o}C) was 72 mm{sup 2}/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 {sup o}C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mg KOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 {sup o}C and pour point was -16 {sup o}C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market. (author)

  20. Pathway analysis for alternate low-level waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.R.; Kozak, M.W.; McCord, J.T.; Olague, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a complete set of environmental pathways for disposal options and conditions that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) may analyze for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) license application. The regulations pertaining In the past, shallow-land burial has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. However, with the advent of the State Compact system of LLW disposal, many alternative technologies may be used. The alternative LLW disposal facilities include below- ground vault, tumulus, above-ground vault, shaft, and mine disposal This paper will form the foundation of an update of the previously developed Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/NRC LLW performance assessment methodology. Based on the pathway assessment for alternative disposal methods, a determination will be made about whether the current methodology can satisfactorily analyze the pathways and phenomena likely to be important for the full range of potential disposal options. We have attempted to be conservative in keeping pathways in the lists that may usually be of marginal importance. In this way we can build confidence that we have spanned the range of cases likely to be encountered at a real site. Results of the pathway assessment indicate that disposal methods can be categorized in groupings based on their depth of disposal. For the deep disposal options of shaft and mine disposal, the key pathways are identical. The shallow disposal options, such as tumulus, shallow-land, and below-ground vault disposal also may be grouped together from a pathway analysis perspective. Above-ground vault disposal cannot be grouped with any of the other disposal options. The pathway analysis shows a definite trend concerning depth of disposal. The above-ground option has the largest number of significant pathways. As the waste becomes more isolated, the number of significant pathways is reduced. Similar to shallow-land burial, it was found that for all

  1. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  2. Evaluation of treatment alternatives for wastes from both spent fuel rod consolidation and miscellaneous commercial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-07-01

    Alternative treatments were considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel rod consolidation. Waste treatment was assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage [MRS] facility was used as a reference). Disposal of the waste in a geologic repository was also assumed. The waste form charcteristics, process characteristics, and costs were evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicated that selection of a high volume reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS waste treatment processes. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  3. Foucaults Dispositive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    2016-01-01

    While Foucault’s work has had a crucial impact on organizational research, the analytical potential of the dispositive has not been sufficiently developed. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct the notion of the dispositive as a key conception in Foucault’s thought, particularly in his...

  4. Representing dispositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röhl Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dispositions and tendencies feature significantly in the biomedical domain and therefore in representations of knowledge of that domain. They are not only important for specific applications like an infectious disease ontology, but also as part of a general strategy for modelling knowledge about molecular interactions. But the task of representing dispositions in some formal ontological systems is fraught with several problems, which are partly due to the fact that Description Logics can only deal well with binary relations. The paper will discuss some of the results of the philosophical debate about dispositions, in order to see whether the formal relations needed to represent dispositions can be broken down to binary relations. Finally, we will discuss problems arising from the possibility of the absence of realizations, of multi-track or multi-trigger dispositions and offer suggestions on how to deal with them.

  5. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  6. Alternative comparison, analysis, and evaluation of solid waste and materials system alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the impact of solid waste technical options on values and objectives that are important to the public. It is written in support of the Solid Waste and Materials Systems Alternatives Study (WHC, 1995). Described are the values that were identified, the major programmatic risks, how the impacts were measured, the performance of alternatives, the methodology used for the analysis, and the implications of the results. Decision analysis was used to guide the collection and analysis of data and the logic of the evaluation. Decision analysis is a structured process for the analysis and evaluation of alternatives. It is theoretically grounded in a set of axioms that capture the basic principles of decision making (von Neuman and Morgenstern 1947). Decision analysis objectively specifies what factors are to be considered, how they are to be measured and evaluated, and heir relative importance. The result is an analysis in which the underlying rationale or logic upon which the decision is based is made explicit. This makes possible open discussion of the decision basis in which facts and values are clearly distinguished, resulting in a well- documented decision that can be clearly explained and justified. The strategy of decision analysis is to analyze the various components relevant to the decision separately and then integrate the individual judgments to arrive at an overall decision. This assures that all the relevant factors are identified and their relative importance is considered. The procedure for obtaining the individual judgments, and the decision rules, for combining them and evaluating alternatives, have both theoretical and empirical foundation in mathematics, economics, and psychology

  7. Biogas : Animal Waste That Can be Alternative Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is a renewable energy which can be used as alternative fuel to replace fossil fuel such as oil and natural gas . Recently, diversification on the use of energy has increasingly become an important issue because the oil sources are depleting . Utilization of agricultural wastes for biogas production can minimize the consumption of commercial energy source such as kerosene as well as the use of firewood . Biogas is generated by the process of organic material digestion by certain anaerobe bacteria activity in aerobic digester . Anaerobic digestion process is basically carried out in three steps i.e. hydrolysis, acidogenic and metanogenic . Digestion process needs certain condition such as C : N ratio, temperature, acidity and also digester design . Most anaerobic digestions perform best at 32 - 35°C or at 50 - 55°C, and pH 6 .8 - 8 . At these temperatures, the digestion process essentially converts organic matter in the present of water into gaseous energy . Generally, biogas consists of methane about 60 - 70% and yield about 1,000 British Thermal Unit/ft 3 or 252 Kcal/0.028 m3 when burned . In several developing countries, as well as in Europe and the United States, biogas has been commonly used as a subtitute environmental friendly energy . Meanwhile, potentially Indonesia has abundant potential of biomass waste, however biogas has not been used maximally .

  8. Low-risk alternative waste forms for problematic high-level and long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Moricca, S.; Day, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The highest cost component the nuclear waste clean up challenge centres on high-level waste (HLW) and consequently the greatest opportunity for cost and schedule savings lies with optimising the approach to HLW cleanup. The waste form is the key component of the immobilisation process. To achieve maximum cost savings and optimum performance the selection of the waste form should be driven by the characteristics of the specific nuclear waste to be immobilised, rather than adopting a single baseline approach. This is particularly true for problematic nuclear wastes that are often not amenable to a single baseline approach. The use of tailored, high-performance, alternative waste forms that include ceramics and glass-ceramics, coupled with mature process technologies offer significant performance improvements and efficiency savings for a nuclear waste cleanup program. It is the waste form that determines how well the waste is locked up (chemical durability), and the number of repository disposal canisters required (waste loading efficiency). The use of alternative waste forms for problematic wastes also lowers the overall risk by providing high performance HLW treatment alternatives. The benefits tailored alternative waste forms bring to the HLW cleanup program will be briefly reviewed with reference to work carried out on the following: The HLW calcines at the Idaho National Laboratory; SYNROC ANSTO has developed a process utilising a glass-ceramic combined with mature hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) technology and has demonstrated this at a waste loading of 80 % and at a 30 kg HIP scale. The use of this technology has recently been estimated to result in a 70 % reduction in waste canisters, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass technology; Actinide-rich waste streams, particularly the work being done by SYNROC ANSTO with Nexia Solutions on the Plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield in the UK, which if implemented is forecast to result in substantial

  9. Evaluation of alternatives for a second-generation transportation system for Department of Energy transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) waste storage sites will ship their contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) beginning FY 1989. The CH-TRU waste will be shipped in the Transuranic Package Transported (TRUPACT-I), a new packaging being developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque/Transportation Technology Center. Some of the DOE TRU waste, however, might be unsuitable for shipment in TRUPACT-I, and is designated special-shipped (SS) TRU waste. The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the quantity and characteristics of SS-TRU waste stored and generated at DOE facilities; (2) identify alternatives for managing the SS-TRU waste; and (3) make overall recommendations for managing the SS-TRU waste. Data on quantity and characteristics were gathered through coordinating visits to the sites and extracting information from each site's records. Representatives of DOE organizations and contractors set objectives for managing the SS-TRU waste. Alternative shipping systems were then identified for CH SS-TRU waste and RH SS-TRU waste. Evaluations of these alternatives considered how well they would satisfy each objective, and associated potential problems. The study recommends delaying the decision on how best to transport the CH SS-TRU waste to WIPP until the amount of SS-TRU processed waste in heavy drums is known. These conditions and choices are presented: a relatively small number of processed, heavy drums could be shipped most economically via TRUPACT-I, mixed with lighter drums of unprocessed waste. If a large number of heavy drums is to be shipped, a shorter and narrower version of TRUPACT-I would be preferred alternative. The Defense High-Level Waste cask is the recommended alternative system for shipping RH SS-TRU waste. 12 references, 15 figures, 22 tables

  10. Alternative waste management concept for medium and low level wastes by in-situ solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Since 1976, a German R and D project has been carried out to find an alternative concept for the treatment and disposal of MLW and LLW arising mainly in the planned German reprocessing plant and other nuclear facilities (LWR, fuel fabrication, R and D establishments). The main feature of this concept is an in-situ solidification of preconditioned waste granules in large salt caverns located in the deep geological underground, thus avoiding such non-radioactive ballast as lost concrete shielding and container material. (orig./RW)

  11. 77 FR 58416 - Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins From Commercial Nuclear Power... Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors. DATES: Please submit... Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive Waste Spent Ion Exchange Resins from Commercial...

  12. Study of alternative methods for the management of liquid scintillation counting wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche-Farmer, L.

    1980-02-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Waste Disposal Site in Richland, Washington, is the only radioactive waste disposal facility that will accept liquid scintillation counting wastes (LSCW) for disposal. That site is scheduled to discontinue receiving LSCW by the end of 1982. This document explores alternatives presently available for management of LSCW: evaporation, distillation, solidification, conversion, and combustion

  13. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  14. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 μCi per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact

  15. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract no. 13460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling

  16. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  17. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  18. Waste management R ampersand D Quality Assurance: An alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosseau, D.A.; Harlan, C.P.; Cochrell, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and initial implementation of a Quality Assurance (QA) Program for technical activities associated with assessing compliance of an existing DOE nuclear waste site with applicable environmental regulations. The requirements for establishing the QA program are defined, along with the approach and emphasis used to develop the program. The structure of the program and the various levels of QA plans and procedures are briefly discussed. Initial implementation efforts are summarized. The QA program was developed by and for the project participants and was structured according to the major technical requirements of the project. The QA plans and procedures are written for the convenience and use of the technical staff and not merely to satisfy auditor expectations. Every effort was made to avoid an 18-point approach typical of many QA programs patterned after the dictates of the industry recognized ''national consensus standards.'' Flexibility is emphasized due to the nature of the research and development activities associated with the technical program. Recommendations are provided for using this alternative approach to QA program development for similar technical efforts elsewhere. 10 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Proceedings - Alternate Fuels II: The disposal and productive use of industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings contain 26 papers dealing with the following topics: fuels (biomass, coal, petroleum coke, landfill gas, hazardous and toxic wastes, liquid wastes, and digester gas); combustion systems; plant systems (pollution control, combustion control, and materials handling systems); external factors (public relations, markets, hazardous waste, vitrification for waste management); and case histories of resource recovery facilities, process heating plants, and retrofits to alternative fuels. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  1. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that data are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed

  2. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for long-term management of stored INEL transuranic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    This study identifies, develops, and evaluates, in a preliminary manner, alternatives for long-term management of TRU waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the INEL. The evaluations concern waste currently at the RWMC and waste expected to be received by the beginning of the year 1985. The effects of waste that might be received after that date are addressed in an appendix. The technology required for managing the waste, the environmental effects, the risks to the public, the radiological and nonradiological hazards to workers, and the estimated costs are discussed.

  3. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  4. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  5. The Successful Utilization Of Commercial Treatment Capabilities To Disposition Hanford's No-Path-Forward Suspect Transuranic Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, L.T.; Catlow, R.L.; West, L.D.; Collins, M.S.; Romine, L.D.; Moak, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) has adopted the 2015 Vision for Cleanup of the Hanford Site. The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company's (CHPRC) Waste and Fuels Management Project (W and FMP) and their partners support this mission by providing centralized waste management services for the Hanford Site waste generating organizations. At the time of the CHPRC contract award (August 2008) slightly more than 9,000 cubic meters (m 3 ) of legacy waste was defined as ''no-path-forward waste.'' A significant portion of this waste (7,650 m 3 ) comprised wastes with up to 50 grams of special nuclear materials (SNM) in oversized packages recovered during retrieval operations and large glove boxes removed from Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Through a collaborative effort between the DOE, CHPRC, and Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. (PESI), pathways for these problematic wastes were developed and are currently being implemented.

  6. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) → Burial, - Treatment → Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  7. Alternative approaches for better municipal solid waste management in Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathi, Sarika

    2006-01-01

    Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to an increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Rapid growth of population and industrialization degrades the urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause of degradation of the environment in most cities of the developing world. Municipal corporations of the developing countries are not able to handle increasing quantities of waste, which results in uncollected waste on roads and in other public places. There is a need to work towards a sustainable waste management system, which requires environmental, institutional, financial, economic and social sustainability. This study explores alternative approaches to municipal solid waste (MSW) management and estimates the cost of waste management in Mumbai, India. Two alternatives considered in the paper are community participation and public private partnership in waste management. Data for the present study are from various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and from the private sector involved in waste management in Mumbai. Mathematical models are used to estimate the cost per ton of waste management for both of the alternatives, which are compared with the cost of waste management by Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM). It is found that the cost per ton of waste management is Rs. 1518 (US$35) with community participation; Rs. 1797 (US$41) with public private partnership (PPP); and Rs. 1908 (US$44) when only MCGM handles the waste. Hence, community participation in waste management is the least cost option and there is a strong case for comprehensively involving community participation in waste management

  8. INEEL special case waste storage and disposal alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, L.A.; Bishop, C.W.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1997-07-01

    Special case waste is historically defined as radioactive waste that does not have a path forward or fit into current Department of Energy management plans for final treatment or disposal. The objectives of this report, relative to special case waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, are to (a) identify its current storage locations, conditions, and configuration; (b) review and verify the currently reported inventory; (c) segregate the inventory into manageable categories; (d) identify the portion that has a path forward or is managed under other major programs/projects; (e) identify options for reconfiguring and separating the disposable portions; (f) determine if the special case waste needs to be consolidated into a single storage location; and (g) identify a preferred facility for storage. This report also provides an inventory of stored sealed sources that are potentially greater than Class C or special case waste based on Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Site-Specific Waste Acceptance Criteria

  9. AX Tank Farm waste retrieval alternatives cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the estimated costs associated with retrieval of the wastes from the four tanks in AX Tank Farm. The engineering cost estimates developed for this report are based on previous cost data prepared for Project W-320 and the HTI 241-C-106 Heel Retrieval System. The costs presented in this report address only the retrieval of the wastes from the four AX Farm tanks. This includes costs for equipment procurement, fabrication, installation, and operation to retrieve the wastes. The costs to modify the existing plant equipment and systems to support the retrieval equipment are also included. The estimates do not include operational costs associated with pumping the waste out of the waste receiver tank (241-AY-102) between AX Farm retrieval campaigns or transportation, processing, and disposal of the retrieved waste

  10. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  11. Evaluation of process alternatives for solidification of the West Valley high-level liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project (WVSP) in 1980. The project purpose is to demonstrate removal and solidification of the high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) presently stored in tanks at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC), West Valley, New York. As part of this effort, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to evaluate process alternatives for solidifcation of the WNYNSC wastes. Two process approaches for waste handling before solidification, together with solidification processes for four terminal and four interim waste forms, were considered. The first waste-handling approach, designated the salt/sludge separation process, involves separating the bulk of the nonradioactive nuclear waste constituents from the radioactive waste constituents, and the second waste-handling approach, designated the combined-waste process, involves no waste segregation prior to solidification. The processes were evaluated on the bases of their (1) readiness for plant startup by 1987, (2) relative technical merits, and (3) process cost. The study has shown that, based on these criteria, the salt/sludge separation process with a borosilicate glass waste form is preferred when producing a terminal waste form. It was also concluded that if an interim waste form is to be used, the preferred approach would be the combined waste process with a fused-salt waste form

  12. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 3. Alternatives for interim storage and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume III of the five-volume report contains information on alternatives for interim storage and transportation. Section titles are: interim storage of spent fuel elements; interim storage of chop-leach fuel bundle residues; tank storage of high-level liquid waste; interim storage of solid non-high-level wastes; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; and, transportation alternatives

  13. Nuclear waste disposal: alternatives to solidification in glass proposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    More than a quarter-million cubic meters of liquid radioactive wastes are now being held at government installations awaiting final disposal. During the past 20 years, the disposal plan of choice has been to incorporate the 40 to 50 radioactive elements dissolved in liquid wastes into blocks of glass, seal the glass in metal canisters, and insert the canisters into deep, geologically stable salt beds. Over the last few years, some geologists and materials scientists have become concerned that perhaps not enough is known yet about the interaction of waste, container, and salt (or any rock) to have a reasonable assurance that the hazardous wastes will be contained successfully. The biggest advantage of glass at present is the demonstrated practicality of producing large, highly radioactive blocks of it. The frontrunner as a successor to glass is ceramics, which are nonmetallic crystalline materials formed at high temperature, such as chinaware or natural minerals. An apparent advantage of ceramics is that they already have an ordered atomic structure, whose properties can be tailored to a particular waste element and to conditions of a specific disposal site. A ceramic tailored for waste disposal called supercalcine-ceramic has been developed. It was emphasized that the best minerals for waste solidification may be those that have proved most stable under natural conditions over geologic time. Disadvantage to ceramics are radiation damage and transmutation. However, it is now obvious that some ceramics are more stable than glass under certain conditions. Metal-encapsulated ceramic, called cermet, is being developed as a waste form. Cermets are considerably more resistant at 100 0 C than a borosilicate waste glass. Researchers are now testing prospective waste forms under the most extreme conditions that might prevail in a waste disposal site

  14. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  15. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

  16. Identification and development of waste management alternatives for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmond, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive (2001/42/EC) requires the assessment of likely significant effects on the environment of implementing plans or programmes and reasonable alternatives. While SEA regulations and guidelines emphasize rigour and objectivity in the assessment of alternatives they have little to say on their actual identification. Therefore, criteria should be developed which would aid decision makers in the identification of alternatives appropriate to the tier of decision-making and which meet the objectives of SEA. A methodology is set out in this paper for identifying SEA alternatives for a proposed waste management plan/programme. Specifically, the methodology describes a set of alternatives identification criteria, which will meet the requirements and objectives of SEA and waste management legislation. The outputs from the methodology will help focus on the identification of more sustainable alternatives for waste management planning in Ireland

  17. Utilization of Wastes as an Alternative Energy Source for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To meet the rising demand for energy and to address environmental concerns, a conversion from conventional energy systems to renewable resources is essential. For the sustainability of human civilization, an environmentally techno – economically feasible waste treatment method is very important to treat waste. Several ...

  18. Geotechnical reduction of void ratio in low-level radioactive waste burial sites: treatment alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.; McGuire, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have proven to be unstable. Some surface feature manifestations such as large cracks, basins, and cave-ins are caused by voids filling and physico-chemical degradation and solubilization of the buried wastes which could result in the release of contamination. The surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. As a guideline, a reduction of the voids within the waste to 80% or more of maximum relative dry density (a measure of in situ voids within the waste) is proposed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass and pile driving engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  19. Value Chain Development as Alternative Method For Mapping Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saiful Hakim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid Waste management begin at the household as waste of consumption and ended as a new form of waste product or recycling. Based on its value chain the subsequent process will have distict differences with manufacturing product. Value chain of manufacturing product will characterize as value added chain along the chain, where every side of the chain will generate positive chain. In the other hand, some parties of waste management value chain will negative value existed. Some parties in this chain will generate negative value solely because they must establish some cost for wipe the waste. Dissimilarities between value chain on product and waste will contribute to discrepancy between parties. Main purpose of this research is to identify value chain from solid waste management using value chain development. Another purpose to accomplished is to resolve discrepancy in value chain.  Research results shown that household is the parties that experiences negative value. To minimize the discrepancies there should be an action towards household

  20. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  1. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of offgas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option

  2. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas, systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of off gas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  3. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward

  4. 10 CFR 61.58 - Alternative requirements for waste classification and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... characteristics. 61.58 Section 61.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR... Alternative requirements for waste classification and characteristics. The Commission may, upon request or on its own initiative, authorize other provisions for the classification and characteristics of waste on...

  5. Solid waste as an alternative energy source and a means of solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents practical ways of generating energy from solid waste as a means of solving the problem of solid waste disposal which is confronting the major cities in Nigeria and also providing alternative energy source to supplement the high cost and fast depleting conventional sources of energy. It also discussed the ...

  6. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs

  7. Alternative repository criticality-control strategies for fissile uranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Methods to prevent long term, disposal site nuclear criticality from fissile uranium isotopes in wastes were investigated. Long term refers to the time period after waste package (WP) failure and the subsequent loss of geometry and chemistry control within the WP. The preferred method of control was found to be the addition of sufficient depleted uranium to each WP so that the uranium enrichment is reduced to 235 U and 233 U in 238 U

  8. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  9. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program's (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant's melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy

  10. FUNDING ALTERNATIVES FOR LOW-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Bruce D.; Carilli, Jhon

    2003-01-01

    For 13 years, low-level waste (LLW) generator fees and disposal volumes for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) had been on a veritable roller coaster ride. As forecast volumes and disposal volumes fluctuated wildly, generator fees were difficult to determine and implement. Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 forecast projections were so low, the very existence of disposal operations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were threatened. Providing the DOE Complex with a viable, cost-effective disposal option, while assuring the disposal site a stable source of funding, became the driving force behind the development of the Waste Generator Access Fee at the NTS. On September 26, 2000, NNSA/NV (after seeking input from DOE/Headquarters [HQ]), granted permission to Bechtel Nevada (BN) to implement the Access Fee for FY 2001 as a two-year Pilot Program. In FY 2001 (the first year the Access Fee was implemented), the NTS Disposal Operations experienced a 90 percent increase in waste receipts from the previous year and a 33 percent reduction in disposal fee charged to the waste generators. Waste receipts for FY 2002 were projected to be 63 percent higher than FY 2001 and 15 percent lower in cost. Forecast data for the outyears are just as promising. This paper describes the development, implementation, and ultimate success of this fee strategy

  11. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 1, Report text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste`s origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  12. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of alternative methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.; Wehmann, G.; Thamer, B.J.; Card, D.H.

    1979-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the most viable alternatives for disposal of solid low-level radioactive wastes is presented to aid in evaluating national waste management options. Four basic alternative methods are analyzed and compared to the present practice of shallow land burial. These include deeper burial, disposal in mined cavities, disposal in engineered structures, and disposal in the oceans. Some variations in the basic methods are also presented. Technical, socio-political, and economic factors are assigened relative importances (weights) and evaluated for the various alternatives. Based on disposal of a constant volume of waste with given nuclear characteristics, the most desirable alternatives to shallow land burial in descending order of desirability appear to be: improving present practices, deeper burial, use of acceptable abandoned mines, new mines, ocean dumping, and structural disposal concepts. It must be emphasized that the evaluations reported here are generic, and use of other weights or different values for specific sites could change the conclusions and ordering of alternatives determined in this study. Impacts and costs associated with transportation over long distances predominate over differences among alternatives, indicating the desireability of establishing regional waste disposal locations. The impacts presented are for generic comparisons among alternatives, and are not intended to be predictive of the performance of any actual waste disposal facility

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  15. Feasibility of Target Material Recycling as Waste Management Alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of waste management has been studied simultaneously along with the development of the ARIES heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Options for waste management include disposal in repositories, recycling, or clearance from regulatory control, following a reasonable cooling period. This paper concerns the feasibility of recycling the heavy-ion-beam targets, in particular the hohlraum wall materials that include, for example, Au/Gd, Au, W, Pb, Hg, Ta, Pb/Ta/Cs, Hg/W/Cs, Pb/Hf, Hf, solid Kr, and solid Xe. The choice between target material disposal and recycling depends on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling problem, and the impact of the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process on the overall machine. A detailed flow diagram for the elements of the recycling process was developed to analyze two extreme activation cases: (a) one-shot use and then disposal in a repository and (b) recycling continuously during plant life without removal of transmutation products. Metrics for comparing the two scenarios included waste level, dose to recycling equipment, additional cost, and design complexity. Comparing the two approaches indicated a preference for the one-shot scenario as it generates 1 m 3 /yr of extremely low-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste stream by a factor of 10 or more but introduces additional issues. It may produce high-level waste, requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage facilities, and increases the cost and complexity of the plant. The inventory analysis indicated that the heavy-ion-beam (HIB) target materials represent a very small waste stream compared to that of the nuclear island (<1% of the total waste). This means recycling is not a 'must' requirement for IFE-HIB power plants unless the target materials have cost and/or resource problems (e.g., Au and Gd). In this

  16. Alternative processes for managing existing commercial high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    A number of alternatives are discussed for managing high-level radioactive waste presently stored at the West Valley, New York, plant owned by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. These alternatives (liquid storage, conversion to cement, shale fracturing, shale cement, calcination, aqueous silicate, conversion to glass, and salt cake) are limited to concepts presently under active investigation by ERDA. Each waste management option is described and examined regarding the status of the technology; its applications to managing NFS waste; its advantages and disadvantages; the research and development needed to implement the option; safety considerations; and estimated costs and time to implement the process

  17. Evaluation and review of alternative waste forms for immobilization of high level radioactive wastes. Report number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A discussion of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the alternative forms and recommendations for future program directions are presented in the body of this report. In addition to the relative ranking, the Peer Review Panel makes the following observations and recommendations: (1) Differences in overall performance of most of the uncoated waste forms are relatively small when compared under approximately equivalent conditions. (2) The increased scientific basis for this class of waste forms has not yet been sufficient to achieve reliably large improvements in waste form performance over the best borosilicate glasses. (3) The increased leach rates at elevated temperatures and the uncertainty regarding mechanisms of leaching under repository conditions continue to indicate that surface temperatures of waste canisters and especially any waste form-water interfaces should be restricted to less than 100 0 C, until more data is available to indicate otherwise. (4) Improvements are noteworthy, but there is still a need for adopting additional standardized tests, standard reference materials, common units and standardized methods of data presentation in the nuclear waste program. (5) Comparative data on leach rates in waters equilibrated with candidate rocks and potential geologic environments are almost non-existent and are essential to establish relevant long term extrapolation of waste form performance.(6) Understanding radiation damage effects on the microstructure and leaching mechanisms of polycrystalline ceramics is still insufficient to judge long term reliability of this class of waste forms. (7) More extensive data on rates and mechanisms of leaching of all waste forms under radiation and repository conditions are needed. (8) Additional studies of fundamental mechanisms controlling long term reliability of glass and alternative waste forms are strongly encouraged

  18. Progress and Lessons Learned in Transuranic Waste Disposition at The Department of Energy's Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Mousseau; S.C. Raish; F.M. Russo

    2006-05-18

    This paper provides an overview of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC(BBWI) It describes the results to date in meeting the 6,000-cubic-meter Idaho Settlement Agreement milestone that was due December 31, 2005. The paper further describes lessons that have been learned from the project in the area of transuranic (TRU) waste processing and waste certification. Information contained within this paper would be beneficial to others who manage TRU waste for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  19. Benefit-cost-risk analysis of alternatives for greater-confinement disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Peterson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Seven alternatives are included in the analysis: near-surface disposal; improved waste form; below-ground engineered structure; augered shaft; shale fracturing; shallow geologic repository; and high-level waste repository. These alternatives are representative generic facilities that span the range from low-level waste disposal practice to high-level waste disposal practice, tentatively ordered according to an expected increasing cost and/or effectiveness of confinement. They have been chosen to enable an assessment of the degree of confinement that represents an appropriate balance between public health and safety requirements and costs rather than identification of a specific preferred facility design. The objective of the analysis is to provide a comparative ranking of the alternatives on the basis of benefit-cost-risk considerations

  20. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, L.F.; Savage, G.M.; Eggerth, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented

  1. Food waste and the food-energy-water nexus: A review of food waste management alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Kelly M; Reinhart, Debra; Hawkins, Christopher; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Wright, James

    2018-04-01

    Throughout the world, much food produced is wasted. The resource impact of producing wasted food is substantial; however, little is known about the energy and water consumed in managing food waste after it has been disposed. Herein, we characterize food waste within the Food-Energy-Water (FEW) nexus and parse the differential FEW effects of producing uneaten food and managing food loss and waste. We find that various food waste management options, such as waste prevention, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, present variable pathways for FEW impacts and opportunities. Furthermore, comprehensive sustainable management of food waste will involve varied mechanisms and actors at multiple levels of governance and at the level of individual consumers. To address the complex food waste problem, we therefore propose a "food-waste-systems" approach to optimize resources within the FEW nexus. Such a framework may be applied to devise strategies that, for instance, minimize the amount of edible food that is wasted, foster efficient use of energy and water in the food production process, and simultaneously reduce pollution externalities and create opportunities from recycled energy and nutrients. Characterization of FEW nexus impacts of wasted food, including descriptions of dynamic feedback behaviors, presents a significant research gap and a priority for future work. Large-scale decision making requires more complete understanding of food waste and its management within the FEW nexus, particularly regarding post-disposal impacts related to water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of alternative waste management schemes for LWR hulls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudon, L.; Cecille, L.; Klein, M.; Kowa, S.; Mehling, O.; Thiels, G.

    1990-01-01

    LWR hulls and caps represent one of the major sources of α bearing solid waste generated in the nuclear fuel cycle. For this reason, the CEC launched a theoretical study to evaluate alternative schemes for the overall management of this waste. Both volume reduction techniques and α decontamination of the hulls were assessed. The study demonstrated that the transport and disposal of the conditioned waste in deep geological formations play a dominant part in the total management costs. Important cost savings can be achieved through the implementation of efficient volume reduction techniques, i.e. melting or compaction. As an alternative approach, exhaustive α decontamination of the hulls appears promising, provided that the conditioned waste can be made to comply with the disposal criteria of mines. Finally, prolongation of the interim storage period for the waste packages from 1 to 30 years may prove beneficial on the transport costs

  3. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results

  4. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  5. State of the art review of alternatives to shallow land burial of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review of alternatives to shallow land burial for disposal of low level radioactive waste was conducted to assist ORNL in developing a program for the evaluation, selection, and demonstration of the most acceptable alternatives. The alternatives were categorized as follows: (1) near term isolation concepts, (2) far term isolation concepts, (3) dispersion concepts, and (4) conversion concepts. Detailed descriptions of near term isolation concepts are provided. The descriptions include: (1) method of isolation, (2) waste forms that can be accommodated, (3) advantages and disadvantages, (4) facility and equipment requirements, (5) unusual operational or maintenance requirements, (6) information/technology development requirements, and (7) related investigations of the concept

  6. Alternative solid forms for Savannah River Plant defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T.; Smith, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Solid forms and processes were evaluated for immobilization of SRP high-level radioactive waste, which contains bulk chemicals such as hydrous iron and aluminium oxides. Borosilicate glass currently is the best overall choice. High-silica glass, tailored ceramics, and coated ceramics are potentially superior products, but require more difficult processes

  7. Early screening of nuclear waste retrieval and processing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Cox, N.D.

    1979-01-01

    The retrieval and processing of the buried transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was studied by two task force teams. A linear additive scoring model was used for the evaluation. The figures of merit for the retrieval systems showed that one of the systems was superior to the others

  8. Choosing among waste management alternatives: relevant criteria and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharefkin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Two broad goals of nuclear waste management are cost effectiveness (economic efficiency) and intratemporal/intertemporal fairness or equity (not imposing unreasonable burdens on future generations). These two goals are conflicting, and their trade-off is the subject of this paper

  9. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume I: report text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This report provides data for use in evaluating the proven technologies and combinations of technologies that might be considered for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). It covers five major methods for MSW management in common use today: Landfilling; Mass combustion for energy recovery; Production of refuse-derived fuel (RDF); Collection/separation of recyclables; and Composting. It also provides information on three MSW management technologies that are not widely used at present: Anaerobic digestion; Cofiring of MSW with coal; and Gasification/pyrolysis. To the extent possible with available reliable data, the report presents information for each proven MSW technology on: Net energy balances; Environmental releases; and Economics. In addition to data about individual operations, the report presents net energy balances and inventories of environmental releases from selected combined MSW management strategies that use two or more separate operations. The scope of the report extends from the waste's origin (defined as the point at which the waste is set out for collection), through transportation and processing operations, to its final disposition (e.g., recycling and remanufacturing, combustion, or landfilling operations). Data for all operations are presented on a consistent basis: one (1) ton of municipal (i.e., residential, commercial, and institutional) waste at the collection point. Selection of an MSW management plan may be influenced by many factors, in addition to the technical performance and economics of each option.

  10. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  11. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  12. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Beary, M.M.; Gallagher, S.A.; Higley, B.A.; Johnston, R.G.; Jungfleisch, F.M.; Kupfer, M.J.; Palmer, R.A.; Watrous, R.A.; Wolf, G.A.

    1980-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of solid waste forms for immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive defense wastes is presented. Nineteen different waste forms were evaluated and compared to determine their applicability and suitability for immobilization of Hanford salt cake, sludge, and residual liquid. This assessment was structured to address waste forms/processes for several different leave-retrieve long-term Hanford waste management alternatives which give rise to four different generic fractions: (1) sludge plus long-lived radionuclide concentrate from salt cake and residual liquid; (2) blended wastes (salt cake plus sludge plus residual liquid); (3) residual liquid; and (4) radionuclide concentrate from residual liquid. Waste forms were evaluated and ranked on the basis of weighted ratings of seven waste form and seven process characteristics. Borosilicate Glass waste forms, as marbles or monoliths, rank among the first three choices for fixation of all Hanford high-level wastes (HLW). Supergrout Concrete (akin to Oak Ridge National Laboratory Hydrofracture Process concrete) and Bitumen, low-temperature waste forms, rate high for bulk disposal immobilization of high-sodium blended wastes and residual liquid. Certain multi-barrier (e.g., Coated Ceramic) and ceramic (SYNROC Ceramic, Tailored Ceramics, and Supercalcine Ceramic) waste forms, along with Borosilicate Glass, are rated as the most satisfactory forms in which to incorporate sludges and associated radionuclide concentrates. The Sol-Gel process appears superior to other processes for manufacture of a generic ceramic waste form for fixation of Hanford sludge. Appropriate recommendations for further research and development work on top ranking waste forms are made

  14. DOE evaluates nine alternative thermal technologies for treatment of mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In June 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development commissioned a study to evaluate 19 thermal technologies for treating DOE's mixed waste. The study was divided into two phases: Phase I evaluated ten conventional incineration techniques (primarily rotary kiln), and Phase II looked at nine innovative, alternative thermal treatment technologies. The treatment processes were evaluated as part of an integrated waste treatment system, which would include all of the facilities, equipment, and methods required to treat and dispose DOE mixed waste. The relative merits and life-cycle costs were then developed for each of the 19 waste treatment systems evaluated. The study also identified the additional research and development, demonstration, and testing/evaluation steps that would be necessary for the waste treatment systems to successfully treat DOE mixed waste. 3 tabs., 2 refs

  15. A comparative assessment of alternative waste management procedures for selected reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickford, G.E.; Plews, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    This report, which has been prepared by Associated Nuclear Services for the Department of the Environment, presents the results of a study and comparative assessment of management procedures for low and intermediate level solid waste streams arising from current and future fuel reprocessing operations on the Sellafield site. The characteristics and origins of the wastes under study are discussed and a reference waste inventory is presented, based on published information. Waste management strategy in the UK and its implications for waste conditioning, packaging and disposal are discussed. Wastes currently arising which are not suitable for Drigg burial or sea dumping are stored in an untreated form. Work is in hand to provide additional and improved disposal facilities which will accommodate all the waste streams under study. For each waste stream viable procedures are identified for further assessment. The procedures comprise a series of on-site operations-recovery from storage, pre-treatment, treatment, encapsulation, and packaging, prior to storage or disposal of the conditioned waste form. Assessments and comparisons of each procedure for each waste are presented. These address various process, operational, economic, radiological and general safety factors. The results are presented in a series of tables with supporting text. For the majority of wastes direct encapsulation with minimal treatment appears to be a viable procedure. Occupational exposure and general safety are not identified as significant factors governing the choice of procedures. The conditioned wastes meet the general requirements for safe handling during storage and transportation. The less active wastes suitable for disposal by currently available routes meet the appropriate disposal criteria. It is not possible to consider in detail the suitability for disposal of the more active wastes for which disposal facilities are not yet available. (Author)

  16. Disposal of Industrial and Domestic Wastes: Land and Sea Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    evaporation from the soil surface and uptake and release of water by vegetation. Some assumptions in predicting the fate of wastes in groundwaters are...scientists many years to under- stand the relationship between DDT and eggshell thinning and the subsequent population decline of some marine birds...consequence were unable to maintain their population levels. Eggshell thinning and subsequent reproductive failures implicated the DDT from the outfall. This

  17. The logging waste as inexhaustible resource for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryazkin Anatoliy V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that during the production and consumption of fuel wood for bioenergy projects in the organization of the Northwest and other regions of Russia there is the problem of lack of raw materials. It is established that the waste timber, during cutting on average, about 20% of the stock of standing timber. This value varies according to region, type forest resources and the skills, and technical equipment performer. Therefore, the main purpose of the article is a system evaluation of the use of forest residues in Russia. The authors present data on volumes of raw materials for production of wood chips and pellets on example, the Northwest region of Russia. Only about 30% of wood chips are now received from wood waste, bulk wood chips, and pellets produced from the wood of stems. Small volume of use of bark, twigs, branches, tops, stumps, and roots is due imperfection of processing technologies. Another important issue addressed in the article – the lack of standards and guides taxation inventory valuation and structure of the waste in many regions of Russia. This primarily relates to the hardwood. Research has shown that, depending on tree species, the structure and volume of waste are significantly different. Expert evaluation conducted by the authors shows that the proportion of forest residues from 5 to 20% of the stock of wood. It is found that in different forest types share twigs, branches, stumps, and roots vary considerably according to species of tree. But even within the forest reserves such as twigs, branches, and underground parts of the same species depend strongly on the age of stands and their completeness, and the differences may reach 2 to 5 times the size.

  18. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to group and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT&E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT&E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the remaining

  19. Evaluation of final waste forms and recommendations for baseline alternatives to grout and glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleier, A.

    1997-09-01

    An assessment of final waste forms was made as part of the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement/Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (FFCA/DDT ampersand E) Program because supplemental waste-form technologies are needed for the hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes of concern to the Department of Energy and the problematic wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal objective was to identify a primary waste-form candidate as an alternative to grout (cement) and glass. The effort principally comprised a literature search, the goal of which was to establish a knowledge base regarding four areas: (1) the waste-form technologies based on grout and glass, (2) candidate alternatives, (3) the wastes that need to be immobilized, and (4) the technical and regulatory constraints on the waste-from technologies. This report serves, in part, to meet this goal. Six families of materials emerged as relevant; inorganic, organic, vitrified, devitrified, ceramic, and metallic matrices. Multiple members of each family were assessed, emphasizing the materials-oriented factors and accounting for the fact that the two most prevalent types of wastes for the FFCA/DDT ampersand E Program are aqueous liquids and inorganic sludges and solids. Presently, no individual matrix is sufficiently developed to permit its immediate implementation as a baseline alternative. Three thermoplastic materials, sulfur-polymer cement (inorganic), bitumen (organic), and polyethylene (organic), are the most technologically developed candidates. Each warrants further study, emphasizing the engineering and economic factors, but each also has limitations that regulate it to a status of short-term alternative. The crystallinity and flexible processing of sulfur provide sulfur-polymer cement with the highest potential for short-term success via encapsulation. Long-term immobilization demands chemical stabilization, which the thermoplastic matrices do not offer. Among the properties of the

  20. Alternatives to High-Level Waste Vitrification: The Need for Common Sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Jimmy T.

    2000-01-01

    The competition for government funding for remediation of defense wastes (and for other legitimate government functions) is intensifying as the United States moves toward a balanced national budget. Determining waste remediation priorities for the use of available tax dollars will likely depend on established international agreements and on the real risks posed to human health.Remediation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive tank wastes has been described as the most important priority in the DOE system. The proposed tank waste remediation at three DOE sites will include retrieval of the wastes from the aging storage tanks, immobilization of the wastes, and safe disposal of the processed waste. Vitrification, the current immobilization technology chosen by DOE, is very costly. The U.S. Congress and the American people may not be aware that the present cost of preparing just 1 m 3 of processed waste product at the Savannah River Site is ∼$2 million! In a smaller waste remediation project at the West Valley Site, similar waste treatment is costing >$2 million/m 3 of waste product. Privatization efforts at the Hanford Site are now estimated to cost >$4 million/m 3 of waste product. Even at the lowest current cost of $2 million/m 3 of HLW glass product, the total estimated costs for remediating the tank wastes at the three DOE sites of Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls is $75 billion.Whether our nation can afford treatment costs of this magnitude and whether Congress will be willing to appropriate these huge sums for waste vitrification when alternative technologies can provide safe disposal at considerably lower cost are questions that need to be addressed. The hazard levels posed by the DOE tank wastes do not warrant high priority in comparison to the hazards of other defense wastes. Unless DOE selects a lower-cost technology for tank waste remediation, such efforts are likely to continue in a holding pattern, with little actually

  1. Alternatives to high-level waste vitrification: The need for common sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    The competition for government funding for remediation of defense wastes (and for other legitimate government functions) is intensifying as the United states moves toward a balanced national budget. Determining waste remediation priorities for the use of available tax dollars will likely depend on established international agreements and on the real risks posed to human health. Remediation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive tank wastes has been described as the most important priority in the DOE system. The proposed tank waste remediation at three DOE sites will include retrieval of the wastes from the aging storage tanks, immobilization of the wastes, and safe disposal of the processed waste. Vitrification, the current immobilization technology chosen by DOE, is very costly. The US Congress and the American people may not be aware that the present cost of preparing just 1 m 3 of processed waste product at the Savannah River Site is approximately$2 million. In a smaller waste remediation project at the West Valley Site, similar waste treatment is costing $2 million/m 3 of waste product. Privatization efforts at the Hanford Site are now estimated to cost $4 million/m 3 of waste product. Even at the lowest current cost of $2 million/m 3 of HLW glass product, the total estimated costs for remediating the tank wastes at the three DOE sites of Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls is $75 billion. Whether the nation can afford treatment costs of this magnitude and whether Congress will be willing to appropriate these huge sums for waste vitrification when alternative technologies can provide safe disposal at considerably lower cost are questions that need to be addressed. The hazard levels posed by the DOE tank wastes do not warrant high priority in comparison to the hazards of other defense wastes. Unless DOE selects a lower-cost technology for tank waste remediation, such efforts are likely to continue in a holding pattern, with little

  2. Environmental assessment of waste incineration and alternatives; Miljoevurdering af affaldsforbraending og alternativer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.; Fruergaard, T.; Riber, C.; Astrup, T.; Hoejlund Christensen, T.

    2008-06-15

    Life cycle environmental assessment of waste combustion and alternatives were made using the LCA model EASEWASTE. Possible environmental effects for nine effect categories and the resource consumption of fossil fuels through treating 1 ton combustible waste were defined for several waste systems, including waste-only incineration, co-combustion in a fossil-fueled cogeneration plant, and combined biogas and compost production from household waste. The main conclusions of the analyses are: 1) with an optimum location, i.e. in the vicinity to a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration, co-combustion , and combined biogas and compost production are all equal environmentally viable alternatives . 2) Regarding potential toxic impacts in the area of a coal-fueled cogeneration plant, waste-only incineration and combined biogas and compost production will result in slightly less net emissions compared to co-combustion because of better flue gas cleaning of heavy metals in incinerators than in power plants. 3) Siting the incinerator in a decentralized natural gas cogeneration area, co-combustion in a cogeneration plant is a better solution. 4) Combined biogas and compost production and waste-only combustion are environmentally equal treatments in all power plant areas. (ln)

  3. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S.K.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-01-01

    In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol

  4. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY2010 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef; McCloy, John S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-08-01

    In FY2009, PNNL performed scoping studies to qualify two waste form candidates, tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and halide minerals, for the electrochemical waste stream for further investigation. Both candidates showed promise with acceptable PCT release rates and effective incorporation of the 10% fission product waste stream. Both candidates received reprisal for FY2010 and were further investigated. At the beginning of FY2010, an in-depth literature review kicked off the tellurite glasses study. The review was aimed at ascertaining the state-of-the-art for chemical durability testing and mixed chloride incorporation for tellurite glasses. The literature review led the authors to 4 unique binary and 1 unique ternary systems for further investigation which include TeO2 plus the following: PbO, Al2O3-B2O3, WO3, P2O5, and ZnO. Each system was studied with and without a mixed chloride simulated electrochemical waste stream and the literature review provided the starting points for the baseline compositions as well as starting points for melting temperature, compatible crucible types, etc. The most promising glasses in each system were scaled up in production and were analyzed with the Product Consistency Test, a chemical durability test. Baseline and PCT glasses were analyzed to determine their state, i.e., amorphous, crystalline, phase separated, had undissolved material within the bulk, etc. Conclusions were made as well as the proposed direction for FY2011 plans. Sodalite was successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method. The vast majority of the dried sol-gel consisted of sodalite with small amounts of alumino-silicates and unreacted salt. Upon firing the powders made by sol-gel, the primary phase observed was sodalite with the addition of varying amounts of nepheline, carnegieite, lithium silicate, and lanthanide oxide. The amount of sodalite, nepheline, and carnegieite as well as the bulk density of the fired pellets varied with firing temperature, sol

  5. Alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, and container processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for high-level waste forms, containers, container processing systems, and onsite interim storage. Glass waste forms considered are cullet, marbles, gems, and monolithic glass. Small and large containers configured with several combinations of overpack confinement and shield casks are evaluated for these waste forms. Onsite interim storage concepts including canister storage building, bore holes, and storage pad were configured with various glass forms and canister alternatives. All favorable options include the monolithic glass production process as the waste form. Of the favorable options the unshielded 4- and 7-canister overpack options have the greatest technical assurance associated with their design concepts due to their process packaging and storage methods. These canisters are 0.68 m and 0.54 m in diameter respectively and 4.57 m tall. Life-cycle costs are not a discriminating factor in most cases, varying typically less than 15 percent

  6. Waste management in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, Russia: An environmental assessment of alternative development scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksen, Marie K; Christensen, Thomas H

    2018-04-01

    The current waste management system, handling around 500,000 t of household, commercial, and institutional waste annually in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, is based on landfilling in an old landfill with no controls of leachate and gas. Life-cycle assessment modelling of the current system shows that it is a major load on the environment, while the simulation of seven alternative systems results in large savings in many impact categories. With respect to climate change, it is estimated that a saving of about 1200 kg CO 2 equivalents is possible per year, per inhabitant, which is a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The best alternatives involve efficient energy recovery from waste and recycling by source separation for commercial and institutional waste, the major waste type in the Irkutsk region. Recycling of household waste seems less attractive, and it is therefore recommended only to consider this option after experience has been gained with the commercial and institutional waste. Sensitivity analysis shows that recovery of energy - in particular electricity, heat, and steam - from waste is crucial to the environmental performance of the waste management system. This relates to the efficiencies of energy recovery as well as what the recovered energy substitutes, that is, the 'dirtier' the off-set energy, the higher the environmental savings for the waste management system. Since recovered energy may be utilised by only a few energy grids or industrial users, it is recommended to perform additional local assessments of the integration of the waste energy into existing systems and facilities.

  7. Alternatives to control subsidence at low-level radioactive waste burial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Carlson, R.A.

    1981-09-01

    A substantial quantity of low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes has been interred in shallow land burial structures throughout the United States. Many of these structures (trenches, pits, and landfills) have experienced geotechnical subsidence problems and may require stabilization. Ground surface manifestations of subsidence include: large cracks, basins, and cave-ins. Subsidence is primarily caused by void filling, and physicochemical degradation and solubilization of buried wastes. These surface features represent a potential for increased contamination transport to the biosphere via water, air, biologic, and direct pathways. Engineering alternatives for the reduction of buried waste and matrix materials voids are identified and discussed. The advantages, disadvantages, and costs of each alternative are evaluated. Falling mass, pile driving and in situ incineration engineering alternatives were selected for further development

  8. Degradation modes of nickel-base alternate waste package overpack materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitman, S.G.

    1988-07-01

    The suitability of Ti Grade 12 for waste package overpacks has been questioned because of its observed susceptibility to crevice corrosion and hydrogen-assisted crack growth. For this reason, materials have been selected for evaluation as alternatives to Ti Grade 12 for use as waste package overpacks. These alternative materials, which are based on the nickel-chromium-molybdenum (Ni-Cr-Mo) alloy system, are Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, and Hastelloy C-22. The degradation modes of the Ni-base alternate materials have been examined at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine the suitability of these materials for waste package overpack applications in a salt repository. Degradation modes investigated included general corrosion, crevice corrosion, pitting, stress-corrosion cracking, and hydrogen embrittlement

  9. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997)

  10. Alternatives generation and analysis for the phase 1 high-level waste pretreatment process selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1997-10-02

    This report evaluates the effects of enhanced sludge washing and sludge washing without caustic leaching during the preparation of the Phase 1 high-level waste feeds. The pretreatment processing alternatives are evaluated against their ability to satisfy contractual, cost minimization, and other criteria. The information contained in this report is consistent with, and supplemental to, the Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (Kirkbride et al. 1997).

  11. Alternatives for the disposal of NORM [naturally occurring radioactive materials] wastes in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Pollard, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the Texas wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been disposed of in a uranium mill tailings impoundment. There is currently no operating disposal facility in Texas to accept these wastes. As a result, some wastes containing extremely small amounts of radioactivity are sent to elaborate disposal sites at extremely high costs. The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has sponsored a study to investigate lower cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents the results of a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of NORM in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse wastes (coal fly ash, phosphogypsum). The purpose of the safety analysis is to define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM that will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios

  12. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  13. Waste association in mass for coating formulations: a viable alternative to dispose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.A.C.; Soares Filho, J.E.; Souza, F.J.P.; Almeida, V.S. de; Oliveira, T.M. de

    2016-01-01

    The ceramic coatings industries are able to use in their formulations whose waste Eco disposal make the costly disposal, being able to reduce production costs by replacing traditional inputs for mining and industrial waste. Their raw materials are classified as plasticizers, fluxes and structural according to their physicochemical characteristics. Since waste falls within these classifications, their use in formulations becomes a viable and attractive alternative from an ecological point of view and marketing. Several studies have attested to waste incorporating viability porcelains formulations, however, is not common to find studies evaluating the addition of more than one simultaneously in formulations. It is the objective of the study, to examine whether fine waste rock and kaolin together with traditional raw materials are able to produce porcelain wet as technological properties defined by the NBR-13818. (author)

  14. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Nurul; Syafrudin

    2018-02-01

    Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  15. Evaluation of alternatives to shallow land burial at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerven, F.

    1988-01-01

    Alternative waste disposal technologies were reviewed relative to Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 10 CFR 61 low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria and the emerging DOE 5820.2 Chapter 3 criteria. The intent of the review was to select a technology which would meet or improve upon the disposal practices set forth in these regulations and orders. The evaluation of the disposal technologies yielded a disposal design which incorporates three elements: an all earth cover, earth vaults for the Class A (1) bottom discharge cask inserts, and a concrete vault for the Class B and C (2 and 3) bulk waste

  16. Assessment of processes, facilities, and costs for alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunson, J.B. Jr.; Eisenberg, A.M.; Schuyler, R.L. III; Haight, H.G. Jr.; Mello, V.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Butler, J.L.; Pickett, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    A quantitative merit evaluation which assesses the relative difficulty of remote processing of Savannah River Plant high-level wastes for seven alternative waste forms is presented. The reference borosilicate glass process is rated as the simplest, followed by FUETAP concrete. The other processes evaluated in order of increasing complexity were: glass marbles in a lead matrix, high-silica glass, crystalline ceramic (Synroc-D and tailored ceramic), and coated ceramic particles. Cost appraisals are summarized for the borosilicate glass, high-silica glass, and ceramic waste form processing facilities

  17. Alternative configurations for the waste-handling building at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    Two alternative configurations of the waste-handling building have been developed for the proposed nuclear waste repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One configuration is based on criteria and assumptions used in Case 2 (no monitored retrievable storage facility, no consolidation), and the other configuration is based on criteria and assumptions used in Case 5 (consolidation at the monitored retrievable storage facility) of the Monitored Retrievable Storage System Study for the Repository. Desirable waste-handling design concepts have been selected and are included in these configurations. For each configuration, general arrangement drawings, plot plans, block flow diagrams, and timeline diagrams are prepared

  18. Features, Events and Processes for the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.; Greenberg, H.R.; Caporuscio, F.A.; Houseworth, J.E.; Freeze, G.A.; Mariner, P.; Cunnane, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within DOE-NE is evaluating storage and disposal options for a range of waste forms and a range of geologic environments. To assess the potential performance of conceptual repository designs for the combinations of waste form and geologic environment, a master set of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) has been developed and evaluated. These FEPs are based on prior lists developed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) and the international repository community. The objective of the UFD FEPs activity is to identify and categorize FEPs that are important to disposal system performance for a variety of disposal alternatives (i.e., combinations of waste forms, disposal concepts, and geologic environments). FEP analysis provides guidance for the identification of (1) important considerations in disposal system design, and (2) gaps in the technical bases. The UFD FEPs also support the development of performance assessment (PA) models to evaluate the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of candidate disposal system alternatives. For the UFD FEP development, five waste form groups and seven geologic settings are being considered. A total of 208 FEPs have been identified, categorized by the physical components of the waste disposal system as well as cross-cutting physical phenomena. The combination of 35 waste-form/geologic environments and 208 FEPs is large; however, some FEP evaluations can cut across multiple waste/environment combinations, and other FEPs can be categorized as not-applicable for some waste/environment combinations, making the task of FEP evaluation more tractable. A FEP status tool has been developed to document progress. The tool emphasizes three major areas that can be statused numerically. FEP Applicability documents whether the FEP is pertinent to a waste/environment combination. FEP Completion Status documents the progress of the evaluation for the FEP/waste

  19. Evaluation of two different alternatives of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Jimenez, Ana Carolina; Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios Bereche, Milagros Cecilia; Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities. A total of two configurations were evaluated: (i) waste incineration with energy recovery and electricity production in a steam cycle; and (ii) waste gasification, where the syngas produced is used as fuel in a boiler of a steam cycle for electricity production. Simulations were performed assuming the same amount of available waste for both configurations, with a composition corresponding to the MSW from Santo André, Brazil. The thermal efficiencies of the gasification and incineration configurations were 19.3% and 25.1%, respectively. The difference in the efficiencies was caused by the irreversibilities associated with the gasification process, and the additional electricity consumption in the waste treatment step. The economic analysis presented a cost of electrical energy produced of 0.113 (US$ kWh -1 ) and 0.139 (US$ kWh -1 ) for the incineration and gasification plants respectively.

  20. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied. The terminal waste form processes considered were: borosilicate glass, low-alkali glass, marbles-in-lead matrix, and crystallinolecular potential and molecular dynamics calculations of the effect are yet to be completed. Cous oxide was also investigated. The reaction is first order in nitrite ion, second order in hydrogen ion, and between zero and first order in hydroxylamine monosulfonate, depending on the concentration

  1. Comparative LCA of Alternative Scenarios for Waste Treatment: The Case of Food Waste Production by the Mass-Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mondello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is one of the most important issues taken into account by the European Union due to its negative environmental, economic and social impacts. The treatment of food waste through recycling processes represents a solution for food waste minimisation. Concerning, in particular, the retail sector, it is necessary to define strategies for retail-oriented sustainable food waste management. The aim of this study is to compare the potential environmental impacts related to five scenarios (landfill, incineration, composting, anaerobic digestion and bioconversion through insects for the disposal/treatment of food waste produced by a mass retail company operating in Messina (Italy through the application of the Life Cycle Assessment method, in order to find the best treatment solution. Results based on the treatment of a functional unit of 1 tonne of food waste show that the bioconversion scenario represents the most preferable solution considering all of the impact categories analysed through the CML 2 baseline 2000 method, except for Global Warming, for which higher environmental performances are connected to the anaerobic digestion scenario. The incineration and the bioconversion scenarios show the highest environmental benefits when the production of alternative energy sources and valuable materials is evaluated through the inclusion of the avoided productions in the analysis.

  2. Waste management project’s alternatives: A risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Sotirchos, Anastasios; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the evaluation of a waste management project’s alternatives. ► We present a novel risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach. ► In the RBMCA the evaluation criteria are based on the quantitative risk analysis of the project’s alternatives. ► Correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers’ risk preferences is examined. ► Preference to the multi-criteria against the one-criterion evaluation process is discussed. - Abstract: This paper examines the evaluation of a waste management project’s alternatives through a quantitative risk analysis. Cost benefit analysis is a widely used method, in which the investments are mainly assessed through the calculation of their evaluation indicators, namely benefit/cost (B/C) ratios, as well as the quantification of their financial, technical, environmental and social risks. Herein, a novel approach in the form of risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) is introduced, which can be used by decision makers, in order to select the optimum alternative of a waste management project. Specifically, decision makers use multiple criteria, which are based on the cumulative probability distribution functions of the alternatives’ B/C ratios. The RBMCA system is used for the evaluation of a waste incineration project’s alternatives, where the correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers’ risk preferences is analyzed and useful conclusions are discussed.

  3. The irradiation as alternative treatment for laboratory wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda; Silva, Giovana Pasqualini da; Castro, Daniela Marques

    2005-01-01

    The irradiation of effluents may be done by electron accelerator or gamma radiation source (cobalt-60). This technology has been developed as an alternative for several contaminants from different processes and sources. This paper shows the results of electron beam applied to liquid laboratories residues (effluents and standard solutions). Radiation doses were determined for the improvement of laboratories residues measured by detoxification of them. New technologies for residues treatment as well as decreasing contaminants generation is essential part of laboratories activities for environmental management for industry, universities and research institutions. (author)

  4. Alternative-waste-form evaluation for Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.H. Jr.; Crandall, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Results of the waste form evaluation are summarized as: risks of human exposure are comparable and extremely small for either borosilicate glass or Synroc ceramic. Waste form properties are more than adequate for either form. The waste form decision can therefore be made on the basis of practicality and cost effectiveness. Synroc offers lower costs for transportation and emplacement. The borosilicate glass form offers the lowest total disposal cost, much simpler and less costly production, an established and proven process, lower future development costs, and an earlier startup of the DWPF

  5. Alternative PMB produced from recycling waste PMMA/ATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With development of production processes in refineries production of bitumen is decreasing, as well as the quality of produced bitumen. On the market this brings increased demand for bitumen accompanied by the demand for additives to improve such low quality bitumen. Many different types of additives are used, but most commonly SBS is added. Usage of additives bring additional direct costs, due to market price of additives and indirect cost due to adjustments in the technological process as such as additional mixing device in bitumen tanks, elevated temperature of asphalt or prolongation in mixing time. A topic of our research was development low price asphalt additive from waste poly-methyl methacrylate filled with a fine dispersion aluminium trihydrate (PMMA/ATH. Additionally with paraffin wax it was used as modifying agents for 70/100 paving grade bitumen. With regard to performance of modified asphalt mixtures, it was found that both additives considerably reduce moisture susceptibility and formation of ruts. With laboratory tests and field trial we found that combined technology PMA (polymer modified asphalt and WMA (warm mix asphalt technologies resulted in optimized production and excellent performance of pavement material.

  6. Biomass Briquette Investigation from Pterocarpus Indicus Leaves Waste as an Alternative Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggono, Willyanto; Sutrisno; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Evander, Jovian

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has a lot of variety of plant species which are very useful for life. Pterocarpus indicus are commonly used as greening and easily found everywhere in Surabaya city because of its characteristics that they have dense leaves and rapid growth. Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be a problem for residents of Surabaya and disturbing the cleanliness of the Surabaya city. Therefore, the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be used as biomass briquettes. This research investigated the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the effect of tapioca as an adhesive material to the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the optimum composition for Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste biomass briquette as an alternative renewable fuel and the property of the optimum resulted biomass briquette using ultimate analysis and proximate analysis based on the ASTM standard. The calorific value biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste were performed using an oxygen bomb calorimeter at various composition of Pterocarpus indicus from 50% to 90% rising by 10% for each experiment. The experimental results showed that the 90% raw materials (Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste)-10% adhesive materials (tapioca) mixtures is the optimum composition for biomass briquette Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste. The lower the percentage of the mass of tapioca in the biomass briquettes, the higher calorific value generated.

  7. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-01

    Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO(2)-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling of a sedimentary rock alternative for the siting of the radioactive waste disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2007-01-01

    Here are described the main concepts, the approximations, and all those simulation aspects that characterize the modeling performed using the unsaturated saturated approach for porous media. The objective of this work is to obtain a generic description of a sedimentary rock soil as an alternative site for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system. (author) [es

  10. B cell remote-handled waste shipment cask alternatives study; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIDDELLE, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The decommissioning of the 324 Facility B Cell includes the onsite transport of grouted remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Facility to the 200 Areas for disposal. The grouted waste has been transported in the leased ATG Nuclear Services 3-82B Radioactive Waste Shipping Cask (3-82B cask). Because the 3-82B cask is a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified Type B shipping cask, the lease cost is high, and the cask operations in the onsite environment may not be optimal. An alternatives study has been performed to develop cost and schedule information on alternative waste transportation systems to assist in determining which system should be used in the future. Five alternatives were identified for evaluation. These included continued lease of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, development and fabrication of an onsite cask, modification of the existing U.S. Department of Energy-owned cask (OH-142), and the lease of a different commercially available cask. Each alternative was compared to acceptance criteria for use in the B Cell as an initial screening. Only continued leasing of the 3-82B cask, fabrication of a new 3-82B cask, and the development and fabrication of an onsite cask were found to meet all of the B Cell acceptance criteria

  11. Seabed disposal of high-level nuclear wastes: an alternative viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Various comments on a published article on subseabed disposal of nuclear wastes are presented. These include the scale of the proposed operation, the technical problems of canister retrievability, the feasibility of the free-fall penetrometer disposal method, canister lifetime, the possible contravention of the 1972 London Dumping Convention and land-based geological repositories as an alternative method of disposal. (author)

  12. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 11, Alphabetically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the alphabetically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal waste management alternatives. The references are listed for each of the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized-bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting, and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  13. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 12, Numerically indexed bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains the numerically indexed bibliography for the complete group of reports on municipal solid waste management alternatives. The list references information on the following topics: mass burn technologies, RDF technologies, fluidized bed combustion, pyrolysis and gasification of MSW, materials recovery- recycling technologies, sanitary landfills, composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW.

  14. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 4, Appendix B: RDF technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix contains background information, technical descriptions, economic data, mass and energy balances, and information on environmental releases for the refuse derived fuels (RDF) option in municipal solid waste management alternatives. Demonstration programs at St. Louis, Missouri; Franklin, Ohio; and Delaware are discussed. Information on pellet production and cofiring with coal is also presented.

  15. Dispositional greed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuntjens, Terri G; Zeelenberg, Marcel; van de Ven, Niels; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2015-06-01

    Greed is an important motive: it is seen as both productive (a source of ambition; the motor of the economy) and destructive (undermining social relationships; the cause of the late 2000s financial crisis). However, relatively little is known about what greed is and does. This article reports on 5 studies that develop and test the 7-item Dispositional Greed Scale (DGS). Study 1 (including 4 separate samples from 2 different countries, total N = 6092) provides evidence for the construct and discriminant validity of the DGS in terms of positive correlations with maximization, self-interest, envy, materialism, and impulsiveness, and negative correlations with self-control and life satisfaction. Study 2 (N = 290) presents further evidence for discriminant validity, finding that the DGS predicts greedy behavioral tendencies over and above materialism. Furthermore, the DGS predicts economic behavior: greedy people allocate more money to themselves in dictator games (Study 3, N = 300) and ultimatum games (Study 4, N = 603), and take more in a resource dilemma (Study 5, N = 305). These findings shed light on what greed is and does, how people differ in greed, and how greed can be measured. In addition, they show the importance of greed in economic behavior and provide directions for future studies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Disposition of nonflammable low-level radioactive wastes using supercritical water with ruthenium(IV) oxide catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the distribution behavior of iron, cobalt, cesium, iodine and strontium attached to nonflammable organic materials, in solid, liquid and gas phases during the decomposition of these materials using supercritical water with ruthenium(IV) oxide (RuO 2 ) catalyst. The distributions of these elements under various conditions (initial amounts, with/without precipitation reagent) were determined by using their radioisotopes as simulated low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) in order to ease the detection of trace amounts of elements even in solid and gas phases. Iron and cobalt were found only in the solid phase when iron hydroxide was added as a precipitation reagent before the supercritical water reaction. Cesium, iodine and strontium were found in the liquid phase after the reaction. Therefore, by adding precipitation reagents such as sodium tetraphenylborate, and sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ) (or sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO 3 )) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) aqueous solutions to each resultant liquid phase containing cesium, strontium and iodine, respectively, these elements can be successfully recovered only in the solid phase. The gases produced during the decomposition of the organic material contain no radioactivity under all conditions in this study. These results indicate that all of the elements investigated in this study (iron, cobalt, cesium, iodine and strontium) can be recovered successfully by this supercritical water process using RuO 2 Consequently, this process is suggested as a predominant candidate for the treatment of nonflammable organic materials in LLW. (author)

  17. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-11-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  18. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amutha Rani, D.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Deegan, D.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable

  19. Screening of alternative methods for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, P.J.; Thamer, B.J.; Christensen, D.E.; Wehmann, G.

    1978-10-01

    A systematic method for categorizing these disposal alternatives which provides assurance that no viable alternatives are overlooked is reported. Alternatives are categorized by (1) the general media in which disposal occurs, (2) by whether the disposal method can be considered as dispersal, containment or elimination of the wastes, and (3) by the applicability of the disposal method to the possible physical waste forms. A literature survey was performed and pertinent references listed for the various alternatives discussed. A bibliography is given which provides coverage of published information on low-level radioactive waste management options. The extensive list of disposal alternatives identified was screened and the most viable choices were selected for further evaluation. A Technical Advisory Panel met and reviewed the results. Suggestions from that meeting and other comments are discussed. The most viable options selected for further evaluation are: (1) improving present shallow land burial practices; (2) deeper depth burial; (3) disposal in cavities; (4) disposal in exposed or buried structures; and (5) ocean disposal. 42 references

  20. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, K.R. (ed.)

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites. (DLC)

  1. Hanford site as it relates to an alternative site for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: an environmental description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-12-01

    The use of basalt at Hanford as an alternative for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would require that the present Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) at Hanford be expanded to incorporate the planned WIPP functions, namely the permanent storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes. This report discusses: program costs, demography, ecology, climatology, physiography, hydrology, geology, seismology, and historical and archeological sites

  2. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. ► CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. ► N 2 O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. ► Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. ► Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO 2 -eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  3. Design analysis of engineered alternatives for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Djordjevic, S.; Adams, M.; Spangler, L.; Valdez, J.; Vetter, D.; Drez, P.

    1991-01-01

    The effectiveness of several engineered alternatives, designed to enhance the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), were evaluated relative to the performance of the baseline design. This evaluation was performed using a computer program referred to as the Design Analysis Model which couples salt creep closure, brine inflow, gas generation and dissipation to realistically simulate these interrelated processes over a 10,000 year period following the decommissioning of the repository. Analyses of the baseline design and nine alternative designs were performed for the undisturbed repository conditions, as well as three human intrusion events. Improvements in repository performance of up to four orders of magnitude were predicted for various engineered alternative waste forms. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  5. De minimis applications for alternative disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, C.

    1986-01-01

    Existing NRC regulations provide no minimum level of radioactivity in waste from a licensee's facility that may be disposed of in a manner other than as radioactive waste. With one exception, in 10CFRsection20.306, licensees may dispose of certain levels of tritium and carbon-14 in liquid-scintillation and animal-carcass waste without regard to its radioactivity. In the interim, before specific or generic provisions for disposing of very low level radioactive wastes are adopted through rule making, licensees have another alternative for obtaining approval to dispose of large volumes of materials contaminated with very low levels of radioactivity under provision 10CFRsection20.302(a) ''Method for obtaining approval of proposed disposal procedures.'' This paper provides the experiences of obtaining both NRC and states (North Carolina and South Carolina) approval for disposing of very low-level radioactive wastes from Duke Power Company's nuclear stations. The approved disposal procedures include landfarming of water treatment residues, on-site disposal (burial) of sand and feedwater heaters, and include offsite release for treatment and disposal of sanitary sewage sludge. In summary, users of radioactive materials should not exclude this approach in their quest to reduce the volume of radioactive waste. It is expected that such submittals could provide a data base for further development of generic limits for radioactive wastes

  6. Evaluation of alternative spent fuel waste package concepts for a repository in Basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.V.B.; Nair, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    The United States government has established a program for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 requires the first nuclear waste repository to begin receiving high-level radioactive waste in 1998. One of the potentially acceptable sites currently being evaluated is the Hanford Site in the Pasco Basin in the state of Washington where the host rock is basalt. Under the direction of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rockwell International's Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) has initiated the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). The BWIP must design waste packages for emplacement in the repository. As part of the BWIP waste package development program, several alternative designs were considered for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes the concepts that were evaluated, the criteria that was developed for judging their relative merits, and the methodology that was employed. The results of the evaluation show that a Pipe-In-Tunnel design, which uses a long carbon steel pipe for the containment barrier for multiple packages of consolidated spent fuel, has the highest rating. Other designs which had high ratings are also discussed

  7. Minimally processed beetroot waste as an alternative source to obtain functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anne Porto Dalla; Hermes, Vanessa Stahl; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of waste are generated by the minimally processed vegetables industry, such as those from beetroot processing. The aim of this study was to determine the best method to obtain flour from minimally processed beetroot waste dried at different temperatures, besides producing a colorant from such waste and assessing its stability along 45 days. Beetroot waste dried at 70 °C originates flour with significant antioxidant activity and higher betalain content than flour produced from waste dried at 60 and 80 °C, while chlorination had no impact on the process since microbiological results were consistent for its application. The colorant obtained from beetroot waste showed color stability for 20 days and potential antioxidant activity over the analysis period, thus it can be used as a functional additive to improve nutritional characteristics and appearance of food products. These results are promising since minimally processed beetroot waste can be used as an alternative source of natural and functional ingredients with high antioxidant activity and betalain content.

  8. Regional LLRW [low-level radioactive waste] processing alternatives applying the DOE REGINALT systems analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The DOE Low-Level Waste Management Progam has developed a computer-based decision support system of models that may be used by nonprogrammers to evaluate a comprehensive approach to commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management. REGINALT (Regional Waste Management Alternatives Analysis Model) implementation will be described as the model is applied to a hypothetical regional compact for the purpose of examining the technical and economic potential of two waste processing alternaties. Using waste from a typical regional compact, two specific regional waste processing centers will be compared for feasibility. Example 1 will assume will assume that a regional supercompaction facility is being developed for the region. Example 2 will assume that a regional facility with both supercompation and incineration is specified. Both examples will include identical disposal facilities, except that capacity may differ due to variation in volume reduction achieved. The two examples will be compared with regard to volume reduction achieved, estimated occupational exposure for the processing facilities, and life cylcle costs per generated unit waste. A base case will also illustrate current disposal practices. The results of the comparisons will be evaluated, and other steps, if necessary, for additional decision support will be identified

  9. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  10. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Musgrave, B.C. [BC Musgrave, Inc. (United States); Drake, R.N. [Drake Engineering, Inc. (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX{sup SM}, Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis.

  11. Irradiation as an alternative for disinfection of domestic waste in the Canadian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of various methods for disinfecting wastewater in the Canadian Arctic with specific reference to gamma radiation. More conventional disinfection practices, such as chlorination, chlorination-dechlorination, and ozonation were compared to gamma radiation along with ultraviolet irradiation and lime disinfection. The quality of lagoon effluent, highly diluted (weak) sewage, holding tank wastes and honey-bag wastes, which are the typical waste types found in northern communities, was established from data available in the literature. Further literature reviews were undertaken to establish a data base for design and effectiveness of disinfection systems operated in cold climates. Capital and operating costs for all technically feasible disinfection process alternates were estimated based on historical cost data adjusted to 1977 for the construction and instalation of similar systems in the north. The costs of equipment, chemicals, fuel and electrical power were obtained from suppliers. The environmental impact of each of the disinfection processes was reviewed with emphasis on gamma irradiation. Safety and health aspects were also considered. The study concluded that gamma irradiation was capable of providing safe, reliable disinfection for concentrated honey-bag and holding wastes. Pilot-scale testing was recommended prior to construction of full-scale disinfection facilities. For lagoon effluents and weak sewage, gamma irradiation was not cost competitive with other alternates; rather chlorination-dechlorination was found to be the most cost-effective and environmentally acceptable alternative

  12. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  13. Evaluation of alternative nonflame technologies for destruction of hazardous organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Musgrave, B.C.; Drake, R.N.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy's Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) commissioned an evaluation of mixed waste treatment technologies that are alternatives to incineration for destruction of hazardous organic wastes. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate technologies that are alternatives to open-flame, free-oxygen combustion (as exemplified by incinerators), and recommend to the Waste Type Managers and the MWFA which technologies should be considered for further development. Alternative technologies were defined as those that have the potential to: destroy organic material without use of open-flame reactions with free gas-phase oxygen as the reaction mechanism; reduce the offgas volume and associated contaminants (metals, radionuclides, and particulates) emitted under normal operating conditions; eliminate or reduce the production of dioxins and furans; and reduce the potential for excursions in the process that can lead to accidental release of harmful levels of chemical or radioactive materials. Twenty-three technologies were identified that have the potential for meeting these requirements. These technologies were rated against the categories of performance, readiness for deployment, and environment safety, and health. The top ten technologies that resulted from this evaluation are Steam Reforming, Electron Beam, UV Photo-Oxidation, Ultrasonics, Eco Logic reduction process, Supercritical Water oxidation, Cerium Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation, DETOX SM , Direct Chemical Oxidation (peroxydisulfate), and Neutralization/Hydrolysis

  14. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  15. Potential Use Of Carbide Lime Waste As An Alternative Material To Conventional Hydrated Lime Of Cement-Lime Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khaja, Waheeb A.

    1992-01-01

    The present study aimed at the possibility of using the carbide lime waste as an alternative material to the conventional lime used for cement-lime mortar. The waste is a by-product obtained in the generation of acetylene from calcium carbide. Physical and chemical properties of the wastes were studied. Two cement-lime-sand mix proportions containing carbide lime waste were compared with the same mix proportions containing conventional lime along with a control mix without lime. Specimens wer...

  16. Capping as an alternative for remediating radioactive and mixed waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and technical issues concerning the use of capping as a containment strategy for radioactive and hazardous waste. Capping alternatives for closure of landfills is not just an engineering problem, but rather involves complex physical, biological, and chemical processes requiring a multidisciplinary approach to develop designs that will work over the long haul and are cost-effective. Much of the information has been distilled from regulatory and guidance documents and a compilation of research activities on waste disposal, contaminant transport processes, and technology development for landfills that has been conducted over the last 21 years

  17. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasper, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions

  18. Multiple criteria decision making of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in southeast region of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Goran S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper multiple criteria decision making approach of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles in southeast region of Serbia was presented. Eight alternative fuels and advanced vehicle technologies were ranked according to thirteen criteria, including financial, socio-technical, and environmental. Assessment of alternatives was performed by using the weighted aggregated sum product assessment method and results were verified using multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis method. Considered criteria were obtained from previous researches and by assessment of professional experts from manufacturing industries, public utility companies, and academics institutions. The analysis showed that both biodiesel fuels - derived from used cooking oil or from vegetable oils are the best alternative fuels for Serbian waste collection vehicles in this point of time. Compressed natural gas-powered vehicles were also ranked high in this analysis, but due to the lack of financial capability for their purchase (especially in southeast region of Serbia, their gradual introduction into the waste collection fleet was proposed.

  19. Accident analysis for transuranic waste management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabelssi, B.; Mueller, C.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Folga, S.; Tompkins, M.; Jackson, R.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary accident analyses and radiological source term evaluations have been conducted for transuranic waste (TRUW) as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) effort to manage storage, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes at its various sites. The approach to assessing radiological releases from facility accidents was developed in support of the Office of Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EM PEIS). The methodology developed in this work is in accordance with the latest DOE guidelines, which consider the spectrum of possible accident scenarios in the implementation of various actions evaluated in an EIS. The radiological releases from potential risk-dominant accidents in storage and treatment facilities considered in the EM PEIS TRUW alternatives are described in this paper. The results show that significant releases can be predicted for only the most severe and extremely improbable accidents sequences

  20. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY11-FY12 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mccloy, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lepry, William C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Windisch, Charles F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rieck, Bennett T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olszta, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-17

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, is currently investigating alternative waste forms for wastes generated from nuclear fuel processing. One such waste results from an electrochemical separations process, called the “Echem” process. The Echem process utilizes a molten KCl-LiCl salt to dissolve the fuel. This process results in a spent salt containing alkali, alkaline earth, lanthanide halides and small quantities of actinide halides, where the primary halide is chloride with a minor iodide fraction. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is concurrently investigating two candidate waste forms for the Echem spent-salt: high-halide minerals (i.e., sodalite and cancrinite) and tellurite (TeO2)-based glasses. Both of these candidates showed promise in fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY2010 with a simplified nonradioactive simulant of the Echem waste. Further testing was performed on these waste forms in FY2011 and FY2012 to assess the possibility of their use in a sustainable fuel cycle. This report summarizes the combined results from FY2011 and FY2012 efforts.

  1. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  2. Clean option: An alternative strategy for Hanford Tank Waste Remediation. Volume 2, Detailed description of first example flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Disposal of high-level tank wastes at the Hanford Site is currently envisioned to divide the waste between two principal waste forms: glass for the high-level waste (HLW) and grout for the low-level waste (LLW). The draft flow diagram shown in Figure 1.1 was developed as part of the current planning process for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), which is evaluating options for tank cleanup. The TWRS has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to safely manage the Hanford tank wastes. It includes tank safety and waste disposal issues, as well as the waste pretreatment and waste minimization issues that are involved in the ``clean option`` discussed in this report. This report describes the results of a study led by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to determine if a more aggressive separations scheme could be devised which could mitigate concerns over the quantity of the HLW and the toxicity of the LLW produced by the reference system. This aggressive scheme, which would meet NRC Class A restrictions (10 CFR 61), would fit within the overall concept depicted in Figure 1.1; it would perform additional and/or modified operations in the areas identified as interim storage, pretreatment, and LLW concentration. Additional benefits of this scheme might result from using HLW and LLW disposal forms other than glass and grout, but such departures from the reference case are not included at this time. The evaluation of this aggressive separations scheme addressed institutional issues such as: radioactivity remaining in the Hanford Site LLW grout, volume of HLW glass that must be shipped offsite, and disposition of appropriate waste constituents to nonwaste forms.

  3. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  4. Commercial processing and disposal alternatives for very low levels of radioactive waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The United States has several options available in the commercial processing and disposal of very low levels of radioactive waste. These range from NRC licensed low level radioactive sites for Class A, B and C waste to conditional disposal or free release of very low concentrations of material. Throughout the development of disposal alternatives, the US promoted a graded disposal approach based on risk of the material hazards. The US still promotes this approach and is renewing the emphasis on risk based disposal for very low levels of radioactive waste. One state in the US, Tennessee, has had a long and successful history of disposal of very low levels of radioactive material. This paper describes that approach and the continuing commercial options for safe, long term processing and disposal. (author)

  5. Combustion quality analysis of briquettes from variety of agricultural waste as source of alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Mulyana, C.

    2017-05-01

    The increasing in world population and the industrial sector led to increased demand for energy sources. To do this by utilizing the agricultural waste as a fuel source of alternative energy in the form of bio briquette. The aim at this study was to obtain data onto the characteristics of a wide variety of biomass briquettes from waste agricultural industry. The basic ingredients used are biomass waste from coconut husks, sawdust, rice husks and coffee husks. Each of these biomass residues are dried, crushed, then mixed with starch adhesives. This mixture is molded and dried using sunlight. Each type of briquettes was characterized and analyzed the physical-chemical properties, including calorific value, water content, fixed carbon content and the results were compared with charcoal and coal that was used as fuel in public. The results showed that bio briquettes from coconut husks get the highest calorific value of 4,451 cal/g.

  6. Radiation doses in alternative commercial high-level waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Pelto, P.J.; Lavender, J.C.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the commercial high-level waste management system, potential changes are being considered that will augment the benefits of an integral monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized that alternative options could be implemented in the authorized waste management system (i.e., without an integral MRS facility) to potentially achieve some of the same beneficial effects of the integral MRS system. This paper summarizes those DOE-sponsored analyses related to radiation doses resulting from changes in the waste management system. This report presents generic analyses of aggregated radiation dose impacts to the public and occupational workers, of nine postulated changes in the operation of a spent-fuel management system without an MRS facility

  7. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  8. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  9. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  10. The Dispositions Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robin D.; Lindquist, Cynthia; Altemueller, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Globally, teacher dispositions along with knowledge and skills continue to be the focal point of teacher education programs. Teachers influence children's development and therefore dispositions are a universal concern. For the past 20 years in the United States, teacher education programs have assessed dispositions. We, however, must now also use…

  11. Immobilization as a route to surplus fissile materials disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.

    1995-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, DOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of plutonium (Pu) in keeping with the national policy that Pu must be subjected to the highest standards of safety, security, and accountability. One alternative being considered is immobilization. To arrive at a suitable immobilization form, the authors first reviewed published information on high-level waste (HLW) immobilization technologies in order to identify 72 possible Pu immobilization forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multiattribute analysis to determine the most promising technologies. Promising immobilization families were further evaluated to identify chemical, engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems that remain to be solved prior to making technical decisions as to the viability of using the form for long-term disposition of plutonium. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Project Office to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in the fourth quarter of FY96

  12. Microbial fuel cells: a promising alternative for power generation and waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Larios, A. L.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    The current energy crisis has launched a renewed interest on alternative energy sources and non-fossil fuels. One promising technology is the direct production of electricity from organic matter or wastes in microbial fuel cells (MFC). A MFC can be envisioned as an bio-electrochemical reactor that converts the chemical energy stored in chemical bonds into electrical energy via the catalytic activity of microorganisms under anoxic conditions. (Author)

  13. Feasibility studies of actinide recycle in LMFBRs as a waste management alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaman, S.L.; Aitken, E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A strategy of actinide burnup in LMFBRs is being investigated as a waste management alternative to long term storage of high level nuclear waste. This strategy is being evaluated because many of the actinides in the waste from spent-fuel reprocessing have half-lives of thousands of years and an alternative to geological storage may be desired. From a radiological viewpoint, the actinides and their daughters dominate the waste hazard for decay times beyond about 400 years. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs may be an attractive alternative to geological storage because the actinides can be effectively transmuted to fission products which have significantly shorter half-lives. Actinide burnup in LMFBRs rather than LWRs is preferred because the ratio of fission reaction rate to capture reaction rate for the actinides is higher in an LMFBR, and an LMFBR is not so sensitive to the addition of the actinide isotopes. An actinide target assembly recycle scheme is evaluated to determine the effects of the actinides on the LMFBR performance, including local power peaking, breeding ratio, and fissile material requirements. Several schemes are evaluated to identify any major problems associated with reprocessing and fabrication of recycle actinide-containing assemblies. The overall efficiency of actinide burnout in LMFBRs is evaluated, and equilibrium cycle conditions are determined. It is concluded that actinide recycle in LMFBRs offers an attractive alternative to long term storage of the actinides, and does not significantly affect the performance of the host LMFBR. Assuming a 0.1 percent or less actinide loss during reprocessing, a 0.1 percent loss of less during fabrication, and proper recycle schemes, virtually all of the actinides produced by a fission reactor economy could be transmuted in fast reactors

  14. Treatment of clinical solid waste using a steam autoclave as a possible alternative technology to incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-03-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management.

  15. Treatment of Clinical Solid Waste Using a Steam Autoclave as a Possible Alternative Technology to Incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Sohrab; Balakrishnan, Venugopal; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Sarker, Md. Zaidul Islam; Kadir, Mohd Omar Ab

    2012-01-01

    A steam autoclave was used to sterilize bacteria in clinical solid waste in order to determine an alternative to incineration technology in clinical solid waste management. The influence of contact time (0, 5, 15, 30 and 60 min) and temperature (111 °C, 121 °C and 131 °C) at automated saturated steam pressure was investigated. Results showed that with increasing contact time and temperature, the number of surviving bacteria decreased. The optimum experimental conditions as measured by degree of inactivation of bacteria were 121 °C for 15 minutes (min) for Gram negative bacteria, 121 °C and 131 °C for 60 and 30 min for Gram positive bacteria, respectively. The re-growth of bacteria in sterilized waste was also evaluated in the present study. It was found that bacterial re-growth started two days after the inactivation. The present study recommends that the steam autoclave cannot be considered as an alternative technology to incineration in clinical solid waste management. PMID:22690168

  16. Replacement of the cross-site transfer system liquid waste transport alternatives evaluation, Project W-058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.V.; Epperson, E.M.

    1995-05-01

    This document examines high-/low-level radioactive liquid waste transport alternatives. Radioactive liquid waste will be transported from the 200 West Area to the 200 East Area and within the 200 East Areas for safe storage and disposal. The radioactive waste transport alternatives are the Aboveground Transport System (French LR-56 Cask System [3,800 L (1,000 gal)]), 19,000-L (5,000-gal) trailer tanker system, 75,700-L (20,000-gal) rail tanker system and Underground Transport System (buried pipe [unlimited transfer volume capability]). The evaluation focused on the following areas: initial project cost, operational cost, secondary waste generation, radiation exposure, and final decommissioning. The evaluation was based on the near term (1995 to 2005) estimated volume of 49.509 million L (13.063 million gal) and long term (1995 to 2028) estimated volume of 757.1 million L (200 million gal). The conclusion showed that the buried pipe (Underground Transport System) resulted in the lowest overall total cost for near and long term, the trailer container resulted in the highest total cost for near and long term, and the French truck was operationally impractical and cost prohibitive

  17. A proposed alternative approach for protection of inadvertent human intruders from buried Department of Energy low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The burial of radioactive wastes creates a legacy. To limit the impact of this legacy on future generations, we establish and comply with performance objectives. This paper reviews performance objectives for the long-term isolation of buried radioactive wastes; identifies regulatorly-defined performance objectives for protecting the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) from buried low-level radioactive waste (LLW); (3) discusses a shortcoming of the current approach; and (4) offers an alternative approach for protecting the IHI. This alternative approach is written specifically for the burial of US Department of Energy (DOE) wastes at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), although the approach might be applied at other DOE burial sites

  18. Low-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy waste management programmatic environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyette, M.L.; Dolak, D.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides technical support information for use in analyzing environmental impacts associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management alternatives in the Waste-Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Waste loads treated and disposed of for each of the LLW alternatives considered in the DOE WM PEIS are presented. Waste loads are presented for DOE Waste Management (WM) wastes, which are generated from routine operations. Radioactivity concentrations and waste quantities for treatment and disposal under the different LLW alternatives are described for WM waste. 76 refs., 14 figs., 42 tabs.

  19. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  20. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.; DiSabatino, A.; Mitchell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  1. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  2. Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1979-11-01

    Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes 232 U and 233 U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions

  3. Comparison of costs for three hypothetical alternative kitchen waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiettecatte, Wim; Tize, Ronald; De Wever, Heleen

    2014-11-01

    Urban water and waste management continues to be a major challenge, with the Earth's population projected to rise to 9 billion by 2050, with 70% of this population expected to live in cities. A combined treatment of wastewater and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste offers opportunities for improved environmental protection and energy recovery, but the collection and transport of organic wastes must be cost effective. This study compares three alternative kitchen waste collection and transportation systems for a virtual modern urban area with 300,000 residents and a population density of 10,000 persons per square kilometre. Door-to-door collection, being the standard practice in modern urban centres, remains the most economically advantageous at a cost of 263 euros per tonne of kitchen waste. Important drawbacks are the difficult logistics, increased city traffic, air and noise pollution. The quieter, cleaner and more hygienic vacuum transport of kitchen waste comes with a higher cost of 367 euros per tonne, mainly resulting from a higher initial investment cost for the system installation. The third option includes the well-known use of under-sink food waste disposers (often called garbage grinders) that are connected to the kitchen's wastewater piping system, with a total yearly cost of 392 euros per tonne. Important advantages with this system are the clean operation and the current availability of a city-wide sewage conveyance pipeline system. Further research is recommended, for instance the application of a life cycle assessment approach, to more fully compare the advantages and disadvantages of each option. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  5. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  6. Evaluation of the effectiveness and feasibility of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant engineered alternatives: Final report of the Engineered Alternatives Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The Engineered Alternatives Task Force (EATF) was established by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) WIPP Project Office (WPO) in September 1989 (Hunt, A., 1990), to evaluate the relative effectiveness and feasibility of implementation of selected design enhancements (referred to as ''engineered alternatives'') for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These enhancements consist of modifications of existing waste forms and/or the WIPP facility, and other design variations such as passive marker systems. The purpose of this report is to summarize the methodologies and results of evaluation of the effectiveness of selected engineered alternatives relative to the existing repository design, and to discuss the feasibility of implementing these alternatives with respect to availability of technology, cost, schedule, and regulatory concerns. The EATF has concluded that a number of engineered alternatives could be implemented to improve repository performance if WIPP performance assessment determines that either gas generation or human intrusion presents a problem in demonstrating compliance. Within waste treatment, Level 3 treatments are the most effective in addressing multiple performance parameters, but tend to be the most expensive, the most difficult and time-consuming to implement, and have the greatest regulatory requirements. Level 2 treatments are less expensive, faster, require less extensive permitting, and utilize off- the-shelf technology, but are less effective in addressing multiple performance parameters. Depending upon the performance parameter, Level 1 alternatives such as alternative backfills, alternative waste containers, or modified repository design should be thoroughly evaluated and eliminated before any decision is made to treat the waste. The present uncertainty in the degree to which the baseline WIPP design complies with 40 CFR Part 191 and 40 CFR Part 268 precludes specific recommendations at this time. 130 refs., 21 figs., 37 tabs

  7. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  8. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María, E-mail: amplata@ugr.es; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis, E-mail: jlzafra@ugr.es; Pérez-López, Gemma, E-mail: gemmapl@ugr.es; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel, E-mail: alopezh@ugr.es

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services.

  9. Alternative management structures for municipal waste collection services: The influence of economic and political factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata-Díaz, Ana María; Zafra-Gómez, José Luis; Pérez-López, Gemma; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors that influence on the restructuring of MSW services. • We evaluated five different alternatives for public and private service. • Our analysis covers a broad time horizon, 2002–2010. • We used a conditional fixed-effects logistic regression as the evaluation method. • Municipalities tend to contract out the MSW service in the presence of high costs and fiscal stress. - Abstract: Identifying and characterising the factors that determine why a local authority opts for a particular way of managing its waste collection service is an important issue, warranting research interest in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. This paper presents empirical evidence spanning a broad time horizon (2002–2010) showing that economic and political factors impact in different ways on the provision of waste management services. We examine five alternatives in this area, including public and private service delivery formulas and, within each field, individual and joint options. Our findings highlight the importance of the service cost and that of the various indicators of fiscal stress as determinant factors of management decisions regarding the provision of MSW management services

  10. Neutron activation analysis of alternative waste forms at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A remotely controlled system for neutron activation of candidate high-level waste (HLW) isolation forms was built by the Savannah River Laboratory at a Savannah River Plant reactor. With this system, samples can be irradiated for up to 24 hours and transferred through pneumatic tubing to a shielded repository unitl their activity is low enough for them to be handled in a radiobench. The principal use of the system is to support the Alternative Waste Forms Leach Testing (AWFLT) Program in which the comparative leachability of the various waste forms will be determined. The experimental method used in this work is based on neutron activation analysis techniques. Neutron irradiation of the solid waste form containing simulated HLW sludge activates elements in the sample. After suitable leaching of the solid matrix in standard solutions, the leachate and solid are assayed for gamma-emitting nuclides. From these measurements, the fraction of a specific element leached can be determined al half-lives with experimental ones, over a range of 24 orders of magnitude was obtained. This is a strong argument that the alpha decay could be considered a fission process with very high mass asymmetry and charge density asymmetry

  11. Postclosure risks of alternative SRP nuclear waste forms in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, H.; Edwards, L.; Harvey, T.; Revelli, M.

    1982-05-01

    The postclosure risk of REFERENCE and ALTERNATIVE waste forms for the defense high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were compared by analyses with a computer code, MISER, written to study the effects of repository features in a probabilistic framework. MISER traces radionuclide flows through a network of stream tubes from the repository to risk-sensitive points. Uncertainties in waste form, package properties, and geotechnical data are accounted for with Monte Carlo techniques. Our results show: (1) for generic layered-salt and basalt repositories, the difference in performance between the two waste forms is insignificant; (2) where the doses are sensitive to uncertainties in leaching rates, the doses are orders of magnitude below background; (3) disruptive events contribute only slightly to the risk of a layered-salt repository; (4) simple design alterations have strong effects on near field doses; (5) great care should be exercised in selecting the location at which repository risks are to be measured, calculated, or regulated

  12. Nuclear waste. Which alternatives for method and siting should be accounted for?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    At a seminar in february 2006, KASAM discussed the Swedish legislation concerning how the alternatives for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes should be treated in the application for constructing a repository. Such an application is due in 2008 by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. Some of the important conclusions from the seminar are: The EIS must include a thorough description of the reasoning behind the decisions not to continue investigating alternative methods and sites, and the motives for the decisions for the choices made. The considerations that will be made by the environmental court of law and the regulatory authorities will be marked by a 'court of law perspective' and an 'government authority perspective' resp. The government, on the other hand, has the possibility, and obligation, to look from other points of view, e.g. employment policy and energy policy in its decision to approve a certain type of repository or not. The term 'best possible site' is devoid of meaning without clear definitions and descriptions under what circumstances the terms should be applied. Further clarification is needed on the interaction between stipulations on reports of alternatives in the environmental code and in the legislation in 'Act on nuclear activities'

  13. Evaluation of alternatives for high-level and transuranic radioactive- waste disposal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.

    1992-12-01

    The remand of the US Environmental Protection Agency's long-term performance standards for radioactive-waste disposal provides an opportunity to suggest modifications that would make the regulation more defensible and remove inconsistencies yet retain the basic structure of the original rule. Proposed modifications are in three specific areas: release and dose limits, probabilistic containment requirements, and transuranic-waste disposal criteria. Examination of the modifications includes discussion of the alternatives, demonstration of methods of development and implementation, comparison of the characteristics, attributes, and deficiencies of possible options within each area, and analysis of the implications for performance assessments. An additional consideration is the impact on the entire regulation when developing or modifying the individual components of the radiological standards

  14. Biomass pyrolysis: use of some agricultural wastes for alternative fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Lygia Maestri; Santos, Larissa Cardoso; Vieira, Paula Fraga; Parreira, Priciane Martins; Henrique, Humberto Molinar

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy generation has aroused great attention and interest because of the global climate changes, environmental pollution and reduction of availability of fossil energy. This study deals with pyrolysis of four agricultural wastes (sawdust, sugarcane straw, chicken litter and cashew nut shell) in a fixed bed pyrolytic reactor. The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 deg C and the temperature and pressure effects were investigated. Pyrolytic liquids produced were separated into aqueous and oil phases. XRF spectroscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of the liquids and solids produced at whole temperature range. Calorific value analysis of liquids and solids were also performed for energy content evaluation. Experimental results showed sawdust, sugarcane straw and cashew nut waste have very good potential for using in pyrolysis process for alternative fuel production. (author)

  15. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  16. Subgroup report on alternative technology strategies for the isolation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to support programmatic approaches to the disposal of high-level and transuranic-contaminated (TRU) wastes. For this purpose the report describes, in Appendices A through F, the state of knowledge relevant to selected nuclear waste disposal technologies. Within the main report a number of alternative technological strategies that could lead to a disposal facility are specified for illustrative and analytical purposes. These strategies span a wide range of variations of technological emphasis and programmatic diversity. Selected implications of these strategies are analyzed. In addition, subjects such as technical conservatism, retrievability, and intermediate scale facilities, that apply to any strategy, are examined and implications of each are discussed

  17. New alternative processes for the treatment of the alkaline solvent wash waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecille, L.; Cumming, I.W.; Gasparini, G.; Dozol, J.F.

    1986-09-01

    The separate treatment of the solvent wash alkaline waste (ASWW) from the other low and medium level liquid wastes generated during reprocessing operations has been investigated through the development of three alternative processes dealing with solvent extraction, chemical precipitation combined with ultrafiltration and inorganic ion exchange. On the basis of lab-scale experiments performed on the same genuine ASWW sample, a comparison has been made between the respective performances of each of these processes in terms of selectivity, decontamination and volume reduction factors. From this assessment, it evolved that solvent extraction and chemical precipitation combined with utrafiltration processes are good competitors for implementing such kind of treatment although for the alpha DF, solvent extraction appears more flexible. To be really attractive, inorganic ion exchange should exhibit better VRF and DF possibly by pretreating the ASWW. 10 refs

  18. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  19. Data quality objectives summary report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, sediments that have accumulated on basin surfaces will be vacuumed, collected in the North Cask Pit of the basin complex, and eventually removed. The environmental assessment for the deactivation of the N Reactor Facilities describes two potential disposition paths for the 105-N Basin sediment: transfer in slurry form to a double-shell tank if determined to be a transuranic waste, or disposal in solid form as a low-level waste. Interim storage of the sediments may be required if a transfer to the Tank Waste Remediation System cannot meet scheduled milestones. Selection of a particular alternative depends on the final characterization of the accumulated sediment, regulatory requirements, cost/benefit analyses, and 105-N Stabilization Project schedule requirements. The 105-N Basin Sediment Process is being conducted in two phases. The scope of the first phase includes identification of the sampling requirements, and the specific analyses required to support evaluation of the sediment disposition options. The objectives of the first phase of the 105-N Basin Sediment DQO Process include the following: identify the relevant acceptance criteria for each of the disposition options; and develop a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) sufficiently through to allow evaluation of sediment analysis results against each set of acceptance criteria

  20. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, A.; Buckner, M.R.; Radder, J.A.; Angelos, J.G.; Inhaber, H.

    1993-02-01

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance

  1. Municipal solid waste processing and separation employing wet torrefaction for alternative fuel production and aluminum reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'min, Gea Fardias; Prawisudha, Pandji; Zaini, Ilman Nuran; Aziz, Muhammad; Pasek, Ari Darmawan

    2017-09-01

    This study employs wet torrefaction process (also known as hydrothermal) at low temperature. This process simultaneously acts as waste processing and separation of mixed waste, for subsequent utilization as an alternative fuel. The process is also applied for the delamination and separation of non-recyclable laminated aluminum waste into separable aluminum and plastic. A 2.5-L reactor was used to examine the wet torrefaction process at temperatures below 200°C. It was observed that the processed mixed waste was converted into two different products: a mushy organic part and a bulky plastic part. Using mechanical separation, the two products can be separated into a granular organic product and a plastic bulk for further treatment. TGA analysis showed that no changes in the plastic composition and no intrusion from plastic fraction to the organic fraction. It can be proclaimed that both fractions have been completely separated by wet torrefaction. The separated plastic fraction product obtained from the wet torrefaction treatment also contained relatively high calorific value (approximately 44MJ/kg), therefore, justifying its use as an alternative fuel. The non-recyclable plastic fraction of laminated aluminum was observed to be delaminated and separated from its aluminum counterpart at a temperature of 170°C using an additional acetic acid concentration of 3%, leaving less than 25% of the plastic content in the aluminum part. Plastic products from both samples had high calorific values of more than 30MJ/kg, which is sufficient to be converted and used as a fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project, Waste Management Area #3 -- Closure Alternative I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschke, Stephen F. [Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2000-06-30

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the completion of the West Valley Demonstration Project and closure and/or long-term management of facilities at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center divided the site into Waste Management Areas (WMAs), and for each WMA, presented the impacts associated with five potential closure alternatives. This report focuses on WMA 3 (the High-Level Waste (HLW) Storage Area (Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2), the Vitrification Facility and other facilities) and closure Alternative I (the complete removal of all structures, systems and components and the release of the area for unrestricted use), and reestimates the impacts associated with the complete removal of the HLW tanks, and surrounding facilities. A 32-step approach was developed for the complete removal of Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2, the Supernatant Treatment System Support Building, and the Transfer Trench. First, a shielded Confinement Structure would be constructed to reduce the shine dose rate and to control radioactivity releases. Similarly, the tank heels would be stabilized to reduce potential radiation exposures. Next, the tank removal methodology would include: 1) excavation of the vault cover soil, 2) removal of the vault roof, 3) cutting off the tank’s top, 4) removal of the stabilized heel remaining inside the tank, 5) cutting up the tank’s walls and floor, 6) removal of the vault’s walls, the perlite blocks, and vault floor, and 7) radiation surveying and backfilling the resulting hole. After the tanks are removed, the Confinement Structure would be decontaminated and dismantled, and the site backfilled and landscaped. The impacts (including waste disposal quantities, emissions, work-effort, radiation exposures, injuries and fatalities, consumable materials used, and costs) were estimated based on this 32 step removal methodology, and added to the previously estimated impacts for closure of the other facilities within WMA 3 to obtain the total impacts from

  4. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.; Goforth, S.T. Jr.; Smith, P.K.

    1979-12-01

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study

  5. Industrial Wastes as Alternative Mineral Addition in Portland Cement and as Aggregate in Coating Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Kamilla Almeida; Nazário, Bruna Inácio; Oliveira, Antonio Pedro Novaes de; Hotza, Dachamir; Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation study of wastes from pulp and paper as well as construction and demolition industries for application in cement-based materials. The alternative raw materials were used as a source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and as pozzolanic material (water-reactive SiO2) in partial replacement of Portland cement. In addition to the hydraulic binder, coating mortars were composed by combining the pulp and paper fluidized bed sand residue with construction and demolition wa...

  6. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW [low-level waste] disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Disposition of surplus highly enriched uranium: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document assesses the environmental impacts at four potential sites that may result from alternatives for the disposition of United States-origin weapons-usable highly enriched uranium (HEU) that has been or may be declared surplus to national defense or defense-related program needs. In addition to the no action alternative, it assesses four alternatives that would eliminate the weapons-usability of HEU by blending it with depleted uranium, natural uranium, or low-enriched uranium (LEU) to create low-enriched uranium, either as commercial reactor fuel feedstock or as low-level radioactive waste. The potential blending sites are DOE's Y-12 Plant at Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; DOE's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina; the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Naval Nuclear Fuel Division Facility in Lynchburg, Virginia; and the Nuclear Fuel Services Fuel Fabrication Plant in Erwin, Tennessee. Evaluations of impacts on site infrastructure, water resources, air quality and noise, socioeconomic resources, waste management, public and occupational health, and environmental justice for the potential blending sites are included in the assessment. The intersite transportation of nuclear and hazardous materials is also assessed. The preferred alternative is to blend down surplus HEU to LEU for maximum commercial use as reactor fuel feed which would likely be done at a combination of DOE and commercial sites

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness and feasibility of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant engineered alternatives: Final report of the Engineered Alternatives Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, is an underground repository designed for the geologic disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The performance of nuclear waste repositories is governed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The study conducted to demonstrate compliance with this regulation is called performance assessment. The EPA standard requires that DOE provide a reasonable assurance, based on performance assessment, that cumulative releases of radioactivity to the accessible environment will not exceed the standard's criteria. Preliminary performance assessment performed by SNL has indicated that the current design of the WIPP repository, together with the waste forms at the DOE storage and generating sites, may not demonstrate compliance with the EPA Standard. In view of this concern, and prompted by recommendations from external review groups, the DOE established the Engineered Alternatives Task Force (EATF) in September, 1989. The objective of the EATF is to identify potential engineering modifications (referred to as engineered alternatives) to the existing WIPP design and/or to the transuranic (TRU) waste forms, an to evaluate their effectiveness and feasibility in facilitating compliance with the EPA Standard. These alternatives would be designed to completely eliminate or reduce any problems which might cause non-compliance with the EPA Standard. 139 refs., 39 figs., 124 tabs

  9. Estimates of relative areas for the disposal in bedded salt of LWR wastes from alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, R.C.; Larson, D.W.; Sisson, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    The relative mine-level areas (land use requirements) which would be required for the disposal of light-water reactor (LWR) radioactive wastes in a hypothetical bedded-salt formation have been estimated. Five waste types from alternative fuel cycles have been considered. The relative thermal response of each of five different site conditions to each waste type has been determined. The fuel cycles considered are the once-through (no recycle), the uranium-only recycle, and the uranium and plutonium recycle. The waste types which were considered include (1) unreprocessed spent reactor fuel, (2) solidified waste derived from reprocessing uranium oxide fuel, (3) plutonium recovered from reprocessing spent reactor fuel and doped with 1.5% of the accompanying waste from reprocessing uranium oxide fuel, (4) waste derived from reprocessing mixed uranium/plutonium oxide fuel in the third recycle, and (5) unreprocessed spent fuel after three recycles of mixed uranium/plutonium oxide fuels. The relative waste-disposal areas were determined from a calculated value of maximum thermal energy (MTE) content of the geologic formations. Results are presented for each geologic site condition in terms of area ratios. Disposal area requirements for each waste type are expressed as ratios relative to the smallest area requirement (for waste type No. 2 above). For the reference geologic site condition, the estimated mine-level disposal area ratios are 4.9 for waste type No. 1, 4.3 for No. 3, 2.6 for No. 4, and 11 for No. 5

  10. Distribution and Solubility of Radionuclides and Neutron Absorbers in Waste Forms for Disposition of Plutonium Ash and Scraps, Excess Plutonium, and Miscellaneous Spent Nuclear Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Denis M. Strachan; Dr. David K. Shuh; Dr. Rodney C. Ewing; Dr. Eric R. Vance

    2002-01-01

    The initial goal of this project was to investigate the solubility of radionuclides in glass and other potential waste forms for the purpose of increasing the waste loading in glass and ceramic waste forms. About one year into the project, the project decided to focus on two potential waste forms - glass at PNNL and initiate ceramics at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)

  11. Use of alternative waste materials in producing ultra-high performance concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shamsad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a corrosive environment similar to that of the Arabian Gulf, use of high-performance concrete is one of the options to ensure a target service life of concrete structures. However, in absence of good quality coarse aggregates, it is a challenging task to produce high-performance concrete. Recently, the possibility of producing ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC has been widely reported in the literature. UHPC is produced without coarse aggregates at very low water to cementitious materials ratio, high amounts of cement, mineral admixtures, and superplasticizer along with fine quartz sand as aggregate, quartz powder as micro-filler, a nd steel fibres for fracture toughness. In the present work, an effort was made to utilize local waste materials as alternative mineral admixtures and local dune sand as aggregate in producing different UHPC mixtures without addition of quartz powder. The mechanical properties, shrinkage, and durability characteristics of the UHPC mixtures were studied. Test results indicate that it is possible to produce UHPC mixtures using alternative waste materials, which would have targeted flow, strength, toughness, and resistance against reinforcement corrosion. The information presented in the paper would help in optimum selection of a mixture of UHPC considering the availability of local materials, exposure conditions and structural requirements.

  12. Bioethanol production from renewable sources as alternative valorization of waste of starting dates in south Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehani, Insaf; Bouchekima, Bachir

    2018-05-01

    The necessary reduction and progressive consumption of fossil fuels, whose scarcity is inevitable, involves mobilizing a set of alternatives. Renewable energy, including bio energy is an alternative to the depletion of fossil fuels and a way to fight against the harmful effects of pollution that undergoes the environment. In Algeria, the conditioning units of dates generate significant quantities of waste arising from sorting deviations. This biomass, until then considered as a waste with high impact on the environment can be transformed into high value added product. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane. The objective of the present work is to study the feasibility and productivity of generating bio ethanol in laboratory from the transformation of common date using anaerobic fermentation and distillation processes. After an alcoholic fermentation of the substrate of the date using bakery yeast at 30°C for 72 h, the distilled and rectified date juice generated the highest ethanol 88° with acceptable productions.

  13. Management and storage of commercial power reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    In May 1976, a technical document, ERDA--76-43, entitled ''Alternatives for Managing Wastes from Reactors and Post-Fission Operations in the LWR Fuel Cycle'' was published by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. This 1500-page document describes technical alternatives for managing wastes from the commercial light-water-reactor fuel cycle. It does not select preferred waste management technologies or make comparative assessments. This report, ERDA--76-162, is a brief summary of the salient points in the 1500-page document and should provide an appreciation of the present technology and methods for handling the various forms of radioactive waste. In a major expansion of ERDA's waste management program, the U.S. has initiated efforts to identify acceptable geologic formations within the continental U.S. for ultimate disposition of reactor wastes. This technique represents the most advanced alternative presently available for the long-term management of these wastes

  14. Alternative Fillers for the Production of Bituminous Mixtures: A Screening Investigation on Waste Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Sangiorgi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant increase in the demand for using recycled materials in construction because of the lack and limitation of available natural resources. A number of industrial and domestic waste products are being used in the replacement of traditional materials for road construction, and many studies have been carried out in recent years on the use of different recycled materials in substitution of conventional fillers in Asphalt Concretes (AC. The aim of this laboratory research is to analyze the physical characteristics of three different recycled fillers and compare them with those of a traditional limestone filler. The alternative fillers presented in this paper are: a waste bleaching clay that comes from two consecutive stages in the industrial process for decolouring vegetable oils and producing biogas (Ud filler, a dried mud waste from a tungsten mine (MW filler and a recycled glass powder (Gl filler. Results show significant differences between the fillers, and, in particular, Rigden Voids (RV seem to have the largest potential influence on the rheology of ACs.

  15. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Surplus Highly Enriched Uranium Disposition Program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide upper level guidance for the program that will downblend surplus highly enriched uranium for use as commercial nuclear reactor fuel or low-level radioactive waste. The intent of this document is to outline the overall mission and program objectives. The document is also intended to provide a general basis for integration of disposition efforts among all applicable sites. This plan provides background information, establishes the scope of disposition activities, provides an approach to the mission and objectives, identifies programmatic assumptions, defines major roles, provides summary level schedules and milestones, and addresses budget requirements

  17. Characterizing Surplus US Plutonium for Disposition - 13199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allender, Jeffrey S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Edwin N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems. (authors)

  18. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Hillis, Z.K.; Roehlig, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5 th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  19. Alternatives for long-term management of defense high-level radioactive waste, Hanford Reservations, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The objective of this document is to provide information or alternatives that are being considered for the long-term management of defense high-level radioactive waste stored at Hanford in underground tanks and in stainless steel-lined concrete basins. For purposes of basic programmatic decision making, four major alternatives based on disposal location are considered. The steps leading to placement of the waste in the following locations are illustrated: existing waste tanks; onsite engineered surface facilities; onsite geologic repository; and offsite geologic repository. The four major disposal alternatives are expanded into 27 alternative plans by considering: (1) variations in the final form of the high-level fraction (with radionuclide removal) to include glass, concrete, and powder; (2) variations in the final form of the dehydrated waste product to include glass, calcined clay, and powder; and (3) variations in the treatment and handling of encapsulated waste to include packaging of capsules in canisters and conversion of the strontium fluoride and cesium chloride to glass; canisters stored in sealed casks on the surface are disposed of in a surface vault after the radionuclides have decayed sufficiently to avoid a heat-transfer problem. A description of the technology, a preliminary risk assessment, and preliminary cost estimates for each of these 27 plans are presented. The technology required to implement any of the 27 alternative plans has not been developed to the point where any plan can be considered completely technically sound and feasible

  20. Alternative bioenergy through the utilization of Kappaphycus alvarezii waste as a substitution of substrate for biogas products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulita, R.; Agustono; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Alamsjah, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Biogas is one of the renewable energy resources which are able to be developed by providing some sufficient renewable substances and manufactured from the fermentation process of organic substances metabolized by anaerobic bacteria. In this research, Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed waste from carrageenan processing and contents of rumen were used. This research aims to comprehend the carrageenan processing waste of macroalga K. alvarezii can be used as alternative source generating biogas. The research method is P0 (100 % of the contents of rumen), P1 (75 % of the contents of rumen and 25 % of seaweed waste), P2 (50 % of the contents of rumen and 50 % of seaweed waste), and P3 (25 % of the contents of rumen and 75 % of seaweed waste), and P4 (100 % of seaweed waste). The result showed that according to the quality determination of biogas based on SNI (Indonesia National Standard) 8019:2014, the K. alvarezii seaweed waste from carrageenan processing can be utilized as the alternative source of manufacturing biogas and got the methane gas resulted from the comparison method is P2 (50 % of the contents of rumen and 50 % of seaweed waste), with value of 58.61 %.

  1. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  2. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  3. A sensitivity study of an evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesener, W.S.; Smith, T.H.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents insights gained from an informal sensitivity study of an evaluation of disposal alternatives for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level waste and low-level mixed waste. The insights relate to the sensitivity of the alternative rankings to changes in assumptions identified as open-quotes key uncertaintiesclose quotes. The result of the sensitivity study is that significant changes occur in the rankings when selected open-quotes key uncertaintiesclose quotes are varied over reasonable ranges. Three alternatives involving the use of (a) shallow land burial and boreholes or (b) greater-depth burial and boreholes rank high for all cases investigated. The other alternatives rank low in some or all cases

  4. System for decision analysis support on complex waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    A software system called the Waste Flow Analysis has been developed and applied to complex environmental management processes for the United States Department of Energy (US DOE). The system can evaluate proposed methods of waste retrieval, treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal. Analysts can evaluate various scenarios to see the impacts to waste slows and schedules, costs, and health and safety risks. Decision analysis capabilities have been integrated into the system to help identify preferred alternatives based on a specific objectives may be to maximize the waste moved to final disposition during a given time period, minimize health risks, minimize costs, or combinations of objectives. The decision analysis capabilities can support evaluation of large and complex problems rapidly, and under conditions of variable uncertainty. The system is being used to evaluate environmental management strategies to safely disposition wastes in the next ten years and reduce the environmental legacy resulting from nuclear material production over the past forty years

  5. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  6. Alternatives for managing wastes from reactors and post-fission operations in the LWR fuel cycle. Volume 1. Summary: alternatives for the back of the LWR fuel cycle types and properties of LWR fuel cycle wastes projections of waste quantities; selected glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I of the five-volume report contains executive and technical summaries of the entire report, background information of the LWR fuel cycle alternatives, descriptions of waste types, and projections of waste quantities. Overview characterizations of alternative LWR fuel cycle modes are also included

  7. Feasibility Study for Preparation and Use of Glass Grains as an Alternative to Glass Nodules for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonavane, M S; Mishra, P.K., E-mail: maheshss@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mandal, S; Barik, S; Roy Chowdhury, A; Sen, R [Central Glass and Ceramic Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2012-10-15

    High level nuclear liquid waste (HLW) is immobilized using borosilicate glass matrix. Presently joule heated ceramic melter is being employed for vitrification of HLW in India. Preformed nodules of base glass are fed to melter along with liquid waste in predetermined ratio. In order to reduce the cost incurred for production of glass nodules of base glass, an alternative option of using glass grains was evaluated for its preparation and its suitability for the melter operation. (author)

  8. Feasibility Study for Preparation and Use of Glass Grains as an Alternative to Glass Nodules for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavane, M.S.; Mishra, P.K.; Mandal, S.; Barik, S.; Roy Chowdhury, A.; Sen, R.

    2012-01-01

    High level nuclear liquid waste (HLW) is immobilized using borosilicate glass matrix. Presently joule heated ceramic melter is being employed for vitrification of HLW in India. Preformed nodules of base glass are fed to melter along with liquid waste in predetermined ratio. In order to reduce the cost incurred for production of glass nodules of base glass, an alternative option of using glass grains was evaluated for its preparation and its suitability for the melter operation. (author)

  9. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  10. Incineration as a low-level radioactive waste disposal alternative for the very low level (approx. 200 mCi/yr) institutional waste generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    As a result of increased shipping costs and decreased land availability, serious questions have arisen regarding the continued use of shallow land burial for disposal of institutional radioactive wastes. These factors are of special significance to very low-level waste generators such as Arizona State University whose most recent waste shipment averaged approximately 2 mCi per shipped barrel at an effective cost of over $100 per mCi disposed - a total cost of over $14,000. Recent studies have shown incineration to be an attractive waste disposal alternative both in terms of volume reduction of waste, and in its expected insignificant radiological and environmental impact. Arizona State University has purchased an incinerator and has initiated a program to incinerate radioactive wastes. Licensing restrictions involving stack monitoring for a variety of possibly hazardous effluents and 10CFR20 restrictions affecting incineration of certain isotopes could render the change to incineration completely inefficient unless accompanied by a rigorous program of waste segregation designed to ease licensing restrictions. This paper reviews incinerator technology as it applies to radioactive waste management and presents the analysis performed during the licensing phase, along with some of the difficulties inherent in the development process

  11. Targeted Health Assessment for Wastes Contained at the Niagara Falls Storage Site to Guide Planning for Remedial Action Alternatives - 13428

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, John; Keil, Karen; Staten, Jane; Miller, Neil; Barker, Michelle [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY (United States); MacDonell, Margaret; Peterson, John; Chang, Young-Soo; Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is evaluating potential remedial alternatives at the 191-acre Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) in Lewiston, New York, under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) brought radioactive wastes to the site during the 1940's and 1950's, and the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) consolidated these wastes into a 10-acre interim waste containment structure (IWCS) in the southwest portion of the site during the 1980's. The USACE is evaluating remedial alternatives for radioactive waste contained within the IWCS at the NFSS under the Feasibility Study phase of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process. A preliminary evaluation of the IWCS has been conducted to assess potential airborne releases associated with uncovered wastes, particularly during waste excavation, as well as direct exposures to uncovered wastes. Key technical issues for this assessment include: (1) limitations in waste characterization data; (2) representative receptors and exposure routes; (3) estimates of contaminant emissions at an early stage of the evaluation process; (4) consideration of candidate meteorological data and air dispersion modeling approaches; and (5) estimates of health effects from potential exposures to both radionuclides and chemicals that account for recent updates of exposure and toxicity factors. Results of this preliminary health risk assessment indicate if the wastes were uncovered and someone stayed at the IWCS for a number of days to weeks, substantial doses and serious health effects could be incurred. Current controls prevent such exposures, and the controls that would be applied to protect onsite workers during remedial action at the IWCS would also effectively protect the public nearby. This evaluation provides framing context for the upcoming development and detailed

  12. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  13. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-01-01

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein

  14. Application of structured flowsheets to global evaluation of tank waste processing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, G.; Knutson, B.J.; Niccoli, L.G.; Frank, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    Remediation of the Hanford waste tanks requires integration of chemical technologies and evaluation of alternatives from the perspective of the overall Hanford cleanup purpose. The use of Design/IDEF (R) logic to connect chemical process functions to the overall cleanup mission in the Hanford Strategic Analysis (HSA) and to Aspen Plus (R) process models can show the effect of each process step on global performance measures such as safety, cost, and public perception. This hybrid of chemical process analysis and systems engineering produces structured material balance flowsheets at any level of process aggregation within the HSA. Connectivity and consistent process and stream nomenclature are automatically transferred between detailed process models, the HSA top purpose, and the global material balance flowsheet evaluation. Applications to separation processes is demonstrated for a generic Truex-Sludge Wash flowsheet with many process options and for the aggregation of a Clean Option flowsheet from a detailed chemical process level to a global evaluation level

  15. What is a Dispositive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe, Sverre; Gudmand-Høyer, Marius T.; Thaning, Morten Sørensen

    perspective – indeed it forms a lesser known intermediary between these. Foucault’s dispositional analysis articulates a history of connected social technologies that we have constructed to relate to each other. Expounding these points, the article distinguishes various dispositional prototypes and develops...... key ‘socio-ontological’ implications of the analy-sis. Reinstating the proper analytical status of the dispositive contributes to the reception of the important notion; the interpretation of Foucault’s entire oeuvre; and a resourceful approach to the study of contemporary societal problems....

  16. History of the US weapons-usable plutonium disposition program leading to DOE's record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, D.J.; Thomas, J.F.; Bugos, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report highlights important events and studies concerning surplus weapons-usable plutonium disposition in the United States. Included are major events that led to the creation of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition in 1994 and to that DOE office issuing the January 1997 Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Useable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. Emphasis has been given to reactor-based plutonium disposition alternatives

  17. Alternative disposal technologies for new low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Waste Management Activities for groundwater protection has been prepared for the Savannah River Plant. Support documentation for the DEIS included an Environmental Information Document on new radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities in which possible alternative disposal technologies were examined in depth. Six technologies that would meet the needs of the Savannah River Plant that selected for description and analysis include near surface disposal, near surface disposal with exceptions, engineered storage, engineered disposal, vault disposal of untreated waste, and a combination of near surface disposal, engineered disposal, and engineered storage. 2 refs

  18. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H 2 ) and ammonia (NH 3 ) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H 2 and NH 3 could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H 2 and NH 3 (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed

  19. Mixed Waste Focus Area alternative oxidation technologies development and demonstration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.; Gombert, D.; Priebe, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. The impetus for this support derives from regulatory and political hurdles frequently encountered by traditional thermal techniques, primarily incinerators. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. Whether thermal or nonthermal, the processes have the potential advantages of relatively low-volume gaseous emissions, generation of few or no dioxin/furan compounds, and operation at low enough temperatures that metals (except mercury) and most radionuclides are not volatilized. Technology development and demonstration are needed to confirm and realize the potential of AOTs and to compare them on an equal basis with their fully demonstrated thermal counterparts. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site, and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and team reforming, a commercial process being supported by Department of Energy. Related technologies include two low-flow, secondary oxidation processes (Phoenix and Thermatrix units) that have been tested at MSE, Inc., in Butte, Montana. Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each

  20. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  1. CDM Potential in Palm Solid Waste Cogeneration as an Alternative Energy in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahidin Mahidin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as a solid waste in Crude Palm Oil (CPO industry does not utilized yet as an alternative energy source to generate electricity. It is well known that use of solid wate (biomass as an energy source is part of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM scheme due to direct reduction of Green House Gases (GHGs emission and provide a direct contribution to sustainable development. Utilization of EFB as a source of energy is very potential to be implemented in Aceh since this province has 25 CPO Mills at the moment which actively produce about 870,000 ton EFB per year. This study is subjected to evaluate the potency of electricity  from EFB theoretically by using primary data (survey data and secondary data. Potency of EFB and number of electricity produced from that EFB are estimated using primary data and direct combustion scenario, respectively. Calculation methods for emission reduction acieved are done by AMS-I.D: Renewable electricity generation to the grid and AMS-III.E: Methane emissions avoided from dumping at a solid waste disposal site. The result of this investigation shows that energy consumption in 25 CPO Mills is 45 GW(eh per year. Evidently, the number of energy/electricity which is potential to be produced by using 75% EFB is 1,047 GWh per year; so that the GHGs emission reduction up to 171,232.21 tCO2e per year.

  2. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  3. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Judith Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2 and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  4. New biofuel alternatives: integrating waste management and single cell oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-04-24

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO₂ emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H₂) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process.

  5. Boundaries matter: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from alternative waste treatment strategies for California’s municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergara, Sintana E.; Damgaard, Anders; Horvathc, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    How waste is managed – whether as a nuisance to be disposed of, or as a resource to be reused – directly affects local and global environmental quality. This analysis explores the GHG benefits of five treatment options for residual municipal solid waste (MSW) in California: Business As Usual...... landfills. Using two different waste LCA models, EASEWASTE (a Danish model) and WARM (a U.S. model), we find that improved biogenic waste management through anaerobic digestion and waste reduction can lead to life-cycle GHG savings when compared to Business As Usual. The magnitude of the benefits depends...... strongly on a number of model assumptions: the type of electricity displaced by waste-derived energy, how biogenic carbon is counted as a contributor to atmospheric carbon stocks, and the landfill gas collection rate. Assuming that natural gas is displaced by waste-derived energy, that 64% of landfill gas...

  6. Alternatives to land disposal of solid radioactive mixed wastes on the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, P.H.

    1992-03-01

    This report is a detailed description of the generation and management of land disposal restricted mixed waste generated, treated, and stored at the Hanford Site. This report discusses the land disposal restricted waste (mixed waste) managed at the Hanford Site by point of generation and current storage locations. The waste is separated into groups on the future treatment of the waste before disposal. This grouping resulted in the definition of 16 groups or streams of land disposal restricted waste

  7. Peroxidase of Brazilian Cerrado grass as an alternative for agro industrial waste treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pinheiro Reis Souza Ramalho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Decontamination of wastewater continues to be a challenge for society and the scientific community. Despite the availability of various materials for study, enzymes stand out due to their specificity for decomposition and biodegradability for disposal. New sources of enzymes may represent efficient and low-cost alternatives compared to routinely used techniques. In this survey, the peroxidase profile from Echinolaena inflexa fruits was studied for possible applications in the treatment of wastewater. The protein content was found to be 5.33 mg g-1. The optimum reaction conditions were: 50°C, pH 7.5 at 0.1 mol L-1 of phosphate buffer for 15 min. The enzyme was inactivated after 5 min at 94°C and was inhibited when incubated with ascorbic acid at 10 mmol L-1. In tests using phenols and agro industrial waste, the peroxidase was able to oxidase 87.5% of catechol, 67.8% of pyrogallol, 39.1% of resorcinol and still presented 29.1% of the degradation capacity of raw wastewater phenolic compounds. The results showed that the Echinolaena inflexa peroxidase, a new source of enzymes, is a potential alternative to wastewater treatment.

  8. Comparative life-cycle cost analysis for low-level mixed waste remediation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.A.; White, T.P.; Kloeber, J.M.; Toland, R.J.; Cain, J.P.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to develop a generic, life-cycle cost model for evaluating low-level, mixed waste remediation alternatives, and (2) to apply the model specifically, to estimate remediation costs for a site similar to the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, OH. Life-cycle costs for vitrification, cementation, and dry removal process technologies are estimated. Since vitrification is in a conceptual phase, computer simulation is used to help characterize the support infrastructure of a large scale vitrification plant. Cost estimating relationships obtained from the simulation data, previous cost estimates, available process data, engineering judgment, and expert opinion all provide input to an Excel based spreadsheet for generating cash flow streams. Crystal Ball, an Excel add-on, was used for discounting cash flows for net present value analysis. The resulting LCC data was then analyzed using multi-attribute decision analysis techniques with cost and remediation time as criteria. The analytical framework presented allows alternatives to be evaluated in the context of budgetary, social, and political considerations. In general, the longer the remediation takes, the lower the net present value of the process. This is true because of the time value of money and large percentage of the costs attributed to storage or disposal

  9. On the Utilization of Pozzolanic Wastes as an Alternative Resource of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as a supplement of cement, the utilization of pozzolanic materials in cement and concrete manufacturing has increased significantly. This study investigates the scope to use pozzolanic wastes (slag, palm oil fuel ash and rice husk ash as an alkali activated binder (AAB that can be used as an alternative to cement. To activate these materials, sodium hydroxide solution was used at 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 molar concentration added into the mortar, separately. The required solution was used to maintain the flow of mortar at 110% ± 5%. The consistency and setting time of the AAB-paste were determined. Mortar was tested for its flow, compressive strength, porosity, water absorption and thermal resistance (heating at 700 °C and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results reveal that AAB-mortar exhibits less flow than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. Surprisingly, AAB-mortars (with 2.5 molar solution achieved a compressive strength of 34.3 MPa at 28 days, while OPC shows that of 43.9 MPa under the same conditions. Although water absorption and porosity of the AAB-mortar are slightly high, it shows excellent thermal resistance compared to OPC. Therefore, based on the test results, it can be concluded that in the presence of a chemical activator, the aforementioned pozzolans can be used as an alternative material for cement.

  10. Multicriteria decision methodology for selecting technical alternatives in the Mixed Waste Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Berry, J.B.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) has as one of its tasks the identification of a decision methodology and key decision criteria for the selection methodology. The aim of a multicriteria analysis is to provide an instrument for a systematic evaluation of distinct alternative projects. Determination of this methodology will clarify (1) the factors used to evaluate these alternatives, (2) the evaluator's view of the importance of the factors, and (3) the relative value of each alternative. The selected methodology must consider the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) decision-making criteria for application to the analysis technology subsystems developed by the DOE Office of Technology Development. This report contains a compilation of several decision methodologies developed in various national laboratories, institutions, and universities. The purpose of these methodologies may vary, but the core of the decision attributes are very similar. Six approaches were briefly analyzed; from these six, in addition to recommendations made by the MWIP technical support group leaders and CERCLA, the final decision methodology was extracted. Slight variations are observed in the many methodologies developed by different groups, but most of the analyzed methodologies address similar aspects for the most part. These common aspects were the core of the methodology suggested in this report for use within MWIP for the selection of technologies. The set of criteria compiled and developed for this report have been grouped in five categories: (1) process effectiveness, (2) developmental status, (3) life-cycle cost, (4) implementability, and (5) regulatory compliance

  11. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RT Hallen; SA Bryan; FV Hoopes

    2000-08-04

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a).

  12. Development of an Alternative Treatment Scheme for Sr/TRU Removal: Permanganate Treatment of AN-107 Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallen, R.T.; Bryan, S.A.; Hoopes, F.V.

    2000-01-01

    A number of Hanford tanks received waste containing organic complexants, which increase the volubility of Sr-90 and transuranic (TRU) elements. Wastes from these tanks require additional pretreatment to remove Sr-90 and TRU for immobilization as low activity waste (Waste Envelope C). The baseline pretreatment process for Sr/TRU removal was isotopic exchange and precipitation with added strontium and iron. However, studies at both Battelle and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have shown that the Sr/Fe precipitates were very difficult to filter. This was a result of the formation of poor filtering iron solids. An alternate treatment technology was needed for Sr/TRU removal. Battelle had demonstrated that permanganate treatment was effective for decontaminating waste samples from Hanford Tank SY-101 and proposed that permanganate be examined as an alternative Sr/TRU removal scheme for complexant-containing tank wastes such as AW107. Battelle conducted preliminary small-scale experiments to determine the effectiveness of permanganate treatment with AN-107 waste samples that had been archived at Battelle from earlier studies. Three series of experiments were performed to evaluate conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination using permanganate treatment. The final series included experiments with actual AN-107 diluted feed that had been obtained specifically for BNFL process testing. Conditions that provided adequate Sr/TRU decontamination were identified. A free hydroxide concentration of 0.5M provided adequate decontamination with added Sr of 0.05M and permanganate of 0.03M for archived AN-107. The best results were obtained when reagents were added in the sequence Sr followed by permanganate with the waste at ambient temperature. The reaction conditions for Sr/TRU removal will be further evaluated with a 1-L batch of archived AN-107, which will provide a large enough volume of waste to conduct crossflow filtration studies (Hallen et al. 2000a)

  13. Historical summary of the fuel and waste handling and disposition activities of the TMI-2 Information and Examination Program (1980-1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reno, H.W.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    This report is a historical summary of the major activities conducted by the TMI-2 Information and Examination Program in managing fuel and special radioactive wastes resulting from the accident at the Unit 2 reactor of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2). The activities often required the development and use of advanced handling, processing, and/or disposal technologies for those wastes

  14. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 3. Description of German scenarios for PWR and BWR wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santraille, S.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on German practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for PWR and BWR wastes based on economical and radiological criteria

  15. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 4. Description of a Belgian scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crustin, J.; Glibert, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on Belgian practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  16. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 2. Description of a French scenario for PWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulieu, E. de; Chary, C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the description of a management route for PWR waste relying to a certain extent on French practices in this particular area. This description, which aims at providing input data for subsequent cost evaluation, includes all management steps which are usually implemented for solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from their production up to the interim storage of the final waste products. This study is part of an overall theoretical exercise aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR waste based on economical and radiological criteria

  17. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  18. Immobilized High-Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report - second Generation Implementing Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document

  19. Evaluation of fruit vegetable wastes (FV) from a market place as a alternative deed stuffs in dairy cattle diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, J.; Yepes, S. A.; Yepes, A. M.; Bustamante, G.; Mahecha, L.

    2009-01-01

    Solid food residues from market places represent about 10% to 20% of the total wastes of a city. A big proportion comes from the overproduction of fruits and vegetables in some production steps, its low price and abundance, turning them into potential contaminants, particularly since not always there is an appropriate knowledge and experience in its alternative use. (Author)

  20. Solid-state fermentation and composting as alternatives to treat hair waste: A life-cycle assessment comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Eva; Komilis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    One of the wastes associated with leather production in tannery industries is the hair residue generated during the dehairing process. Hair wastes are mainly dumped or managed through composting but recent studies propose the treatment of hair wastes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) to obtain proteases and compost. These enzymes are suitable for its use in an enzymatic dehairing process, as an alternative to the current chemical dehairing process. In the present work, two different scenarios for the valorization of the hair waste are proposed and assessed by means of life-cycle assessment: composting and SSF for protease production. Detailed data on hair waste composting and on SSF protease production are gathered from previous studies performed by our research group and from a literature survey. Background inventory data are mainly based on Ecoinvent version 3 from software SimaPro® 8. The main aim of this study was to identify which process results in the highest environmental impact. The SSF process was found to have lower environmental impacts than composting, due to the fact that the enzyme use in the dehairing process prevents the use of chemicals traditionally used in the dehairing process. This permits to reformulate an industrial process from the classical approach of waste management to a novel alternative based on circular economy.

  1. Preliminary assessment of radiological doses in alternative waste management systems without an MRS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Pelto, P.J.; Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.; Fecht, B.A.

    1986-06-01

    This report presents generic analyses of radiological dose impacts of nine hypothetical changes in the operation of a waste management system without a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The waste management activities examined in this study include those for handling commercial spent fuel at nuclear power reactors and at the surface facilities of a deep geologic repository, and the transportation of spent fuel by rail and truck between the reactors and the repository. In the reference study system, the radiological doses to the public and to the occupational workers are low, about 170 person-rem/1000 metric ton of uranium (MTU) handled with 70% of the fuel transported by rail and 30% by truck. The radiological doses to the public are almost entirely from transportation, whereas the doses to the occupational workers are highest at the reactors and the repository. Operating alternatives examined included using larger transportation casks, marshaling rail cars into multicar dedicated trains, consolidating spent fuel at the reactors, and wet or dry transfer options of spent fuel from dry storage casks. The largest contribution to radiological doses per unit of spent fuel for both the public and occupational workers would result from use of truck transportation casks, which are smaller than rail casks. Thus, reducing the number of shipments by increasing cask sizes and capacities (which also would reduce the number of casks to be handled at the terminals) would reduce the radiological doses in all cases. Consolidating spent fuel at the reactors would reduce the radiological doses to the public but would increase the doses to the occupational workers at the reactors

  2. Feed Materials Production Center Waste Management: Annual report for fiscal year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.E.; Kottner, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    During FY-1986, the Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio (WMCO) and the Department of Energy focused on safe storage and disposition of all wastes at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in compliance with federal and state regulations concerning waste management and worker health and safety. The Waste Management Annual Report identifies the comprehensive programs developed to achieve WMCO goals at the FMPC. The programs address waste issues which concern worker and public health and safety. Among those programs discussed are the decontamination, safe storage, and disposition of low-level and mixed hazardous radioactive waste. Principal attention and resources were allocated to programs which identify the largest waste streams (both currently generated and inventory backlogged). The most voluminous waste streams include low-level waste approved for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (MgF 2 slag, slag leach filter cake, and neutralized raffinate); remedial action wastes (K-65, stormwater runoff/effluent, and waste pits); thorium; and contaminated construction rubble and soil. Goals were established and met for the Waste Management Section in the form of completed milestones. The completed milestones involved such activities as characterization studies for the waste pits, K-65 Silos and adjacent areas; issuance of the Waste Management Plan required by DOE; analysis of decontamination alternatives for copper scrap; and analysis of silo structural integrity and remedial action alternatives

  3. Outline of a multiattribute utility approach to development of a waste management strategy at Sillamaee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmo, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The article briefly discusses a framework for analysis of the waste disposition and management problem at Sillamaee. It is a response to the need to develop a strategic waste management plan for the Sillamaee site. A hypothetical objectives hierarchy is presented, along with two possible methods for aggregating scores for designated alternatives. Waste management and disposal problems, particularly nuclear waste disposal problems, have been addressed by many decision analysts. The latter citations are examples of Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Analysis, a decision analysis technique that is most appropriate for evaluation of waste management strategies at Sillamaee

  4. Evaluating environmental impacts of alternative construction waste management approaches using supply-chain-linked life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukvar, Murat; Egilmez, Gokhan; Tatari, Omer

    2014-06-01

    Waste management in construction is critical for the sustainable treatment of building-related construction and demolition (C&D) waste materials, and recycling of these wastes has been considered as one of the best strategies in minimization of C&D debris. However, recycling of C&D materials may not always be a feasible strategy for every waste type and therefore recycling and other waste treatment strategies should be supported by robust decision-making models. With the aim of assessing the net carbon, energy, and water footprints of C&D recycling and other waste management alternatives, a comprehensive economic input-output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is developed by tracing all of the economy-wide supply-chain impacts of three waste management strategies: recycling, landfilling, and incineration. Analysis results showed that only the recycling of construction materials provided positive environmental footprint savings in terms of carbon, energy, and water footprints. Incineration is a better option as a secondary strategy after recycling for water and energy footprint categories, whereas landfilling is found to be as slightly better strategy when carbon footprint is considered as the main focus of comparison. In terms of construction materials' environmental footprint, nonferrous metals are found to have a significant environmental footprint reduction potential if recycled. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. An evaluation of alternative technologies for the management of industrial wastes at Nalluk Base, Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, A.R.

    1993-05-01

    A study was carried out to identify and evaluate alternative waste treatment and/or disposal technologies that would be effective in improving the management of slops, used glycol and industrial solid wastes at Nalluk Base, Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories. This site was used as a base for an offshore oil and gas drilling program between 1983 and 1992. Background research was conducted to review the biophysical, regulatory and socioeconomic conditions which have had an influence on Nalluk Base waste management operations. Concerns in relation to management of industrial wastes at the base include: extreme climate, permafrost geology, remote location, excessive government regulations but no specific legislation, and distrust of white man by local Inuvialuit. The five major waste streams handled at the base (used glycol, oily slops, scrap metal, used containers and ash) were characterized in terms of physical and chemical characteristics, anticipated volumes, and potential contaminants. Eighty-six waste treatment and disposal processes were reviewed for their applicability in treating each of the five waste streams. Short-listed options were subjected to full-cost environmental accounting. Preferred options identified were: used glycol, one site reuse using vacuum distillation; unseparated slops and used oil/fuel, off-site cement kiln incineration; oily wastewater, on-site evaporation; sludge, offsite landfill; scrap metal and used containers, Hamlet landfill (current practise); and ash, off-site landfill. 178 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs.

  6. Licensing of alternative methods of disposal of low-level radioactive waste: Branch technical position, Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, L.B.; Dragonette, K.S.; Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    This branch technical position statement identifies and describes specific methods of disposal currently being considered as alternatives to shallow land burial, provides general guidance on these methods of disposal, and recommends procedures that will improve and simplify the licensing process. The statement provides answers to certain questions that have arisen regarding the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to near-surface disposal of waste, using methods that incorporate engineered barriers or structures, and other alternatives to conventional shallow land burial disposal practices. This position also identifies a recently published NRC contractor report that addresses the applicability of 10 CFR 61 to a range of generic disposal concepts and which provides technical guidance that the staff intends to use for these concepts. This position statement combined with the above-mentioned NRC contractor report fulfills the requirements of Section 8(a) of Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985

  7. Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

    1991-12-01

    In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing

  8. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  9. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  10. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  11. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  12. Informal processing of electronic waste at Agbogbloshie, Ghana: workers' knowledge about associated health hazards and alternative livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Emily A; Akormedi, Matthew; Asampong, Emmanuel; Meyer, Christian G; Fobil, Julius N

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the electronic waste workers' knowledge about the potential health hazards associated with their work as well as the livelihood alternatives that they would prefer if they were given the opportunity. A qualitative cross-sectional study was conducted to gather empirical information on e-waste workers' knowledge about the potential hazards associated with their work and the livelihood alternatives to e-waste recycling with a sample consisting of twenty all-male electronic waste workers at the Agbogbloshie scrap metal yard in Accra, Ghana. Electronic waste workers at Agbogbloshie were found to be exposed to a variety of injuries and illnesses. The workers' knowledge of the association between their health status and their work was generally poor. Apart from the physical injuries, they did not believe their work played any negative role in their health conditions. They preferred occupations such as farming or professional driving located in the northern region of Ghana to be closer to their families. The study concludes that the low knowledge level of the workers on the hazards that are associated with their work has implications for them accepting technologies to protect them and the natural environment from contamination. It is therefore imperative for any intervention to consider the current low level of knowledge and actively educate the workers to raise their awareness level, taking into account the provision of opportunities for workers to acquire applicable skills for future employment in other fields.

  13. Alternative methods for dispoal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 1. Description of methods and assessment of criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.D.; Miller, W.O.; Warriner, J.B.; Malone, P.G.; McAneny, C.C.

    1984-04-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 1 of a four-task study entitled Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Agreement States. The alternative methods considered are belowground vaults, aboveground vaults, earth mounded concrete bunkers, mined cavities, and augered holes. Each of these alternatives is either being used by other countries for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal or is being considered by other countries or US agencies. In this report the performance requirements are listed, each alternative is described, the experience gained with its use is discussed, and the performance capabilities of each method are addressed. Next, the existing 10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D criteria with respect to paragraphs 61.50 through 61.53, pertaining to site suitability, design, operations and closure, and monitoring are assessed for applicability to evaluation of each alternative. Preliminary conclusions and recommendations are offered on each method's suitability as an LLW disposal alternative, the applicability of the criteria, and the need for supplemental or modified criteria

  14. Sol-gel technology applied to alternative high-level waste forms development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Stinton, D.P.; Vavruska, J.S.; Caputo, A.J.; Lackey, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Sol-gel technology appears applicable to waste solidification. It is attractive for remote operation, and a variety of waste compositions and forms can be produced. Spheres and pellets of gel-derived Synroc waste forms were produced. Spheres of the Synroc-B type were coated with pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Partitioning of actinides in Synroc-B was experimentally determined

  15. Data quality objectives summary report for 105-N Basin sediment disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarcik, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    During stabilization of the 105-N Basin, sediments that have accumulated on 105-N Basin surfaces will be vacuumed, collected in the North Cask Pit of the basin complex, and eventually removed. The Environmental Assessment for the Deactivation of the N Reactor Facilities describes two potential disposition paths for the 105-N Basin sediment: transfer in slurry form to a double-shell tank if determined to be a transuranic waste, or disposal in solid form as a low-level waste. Interim storage of the sediments may be required if a transfer to the Tank Waste Remediation System cannot meet schedule milestones. Selection of a particular alternative depends on the final characterization of the accumulated sediment, regulatory requirements, cost/benefit analyses, and 105-N Stabilization Project schedule requirements. Revision 0 of this Data Quality Objectives (DQO) report was issued to describe a formal DQO process that was performed according to BHI-EE-01, Environmental Investigations Procedures, EIP 1.2, Data Quality Objectives, Revision 1. Since publication of Revision 0 of this report, important changes to the disposition strategy for 100-N Deactivation sediment material have been proposed, evaluated, discussed with the US Department of Energy and State of Washington Department of Ecology, and implemented. Revision 1 of this report documents these changes

  16. Alternate form and placement of short lived reactor waste and associated fuel hardware for decommissioning of EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planchon, H.P.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Upon the termination of EBR-II operation in 1994, the mission has progressed to decommissioning and waste cleanup of the facility. The simplest method to achieve this goal is to bury the raw fuel and activated steel in an approved burial ground or deep geologic repository. While this might be simple, it could be very expensive, consume much needed burial space for other materials, and leave large amounts of fissile easily available to future generations. Also, as with any operation, an associated risk to personnel and the public from the buried waste exists. To try and reduce these costs and risks, alternatives to burial are sought. One alternative explored here for EBR-II is to condition the fuel and store the fission products and steel either permanently or temporarily in the sealed primary boundary of the decommissioned reactor. The first problem is to identify which subassemblies are going to be conditioned and their current composition and decay time. The next problem is to identify the conditioning process and determine the composition and form of the waste streams. The volume, mass, heat, and curie load of the waste streams needs to be determined so a waste-assembly can be designed. The reactor vessel and internals need to be analyzed to determine if they can handle these loads. If permanent storage is the goal, then mechanisms for placing the waste-assembly in the reactor vessel and sealing the vessel are needed. If temporary storage is the goal, then mechanisms for waste-assembly placement and retrieval are needed. This paper answers the technical questions of volume, mass, heat, and curie loads while just addressing the other questions found in a safety analysis. The final conclusion will compare estimated risks from the burial option and this option.

  17. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  18. Alternatives for packaging and transport of greater-than-class C low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.

    1990-06-01

    Viable methods for packaging greater-than-class C (GTCC) low-level wastes and for transporting those wastes from the waste generator sites or from an eastern interim storage site to the Yucca Mountain repository site have been identified and evaluated. Estimated costs for packaging and transporting the population of GTCC wastes expected to be accumulated through the year 2040 have been developed for three waste volume scenarios, for two preferred packaging methods for activated metals from reactor operations and from reactor decommissioning, and for two packaging density assumptions for the activated metals from reactor decommissioning. 7 refs. 7 tabs

  19. 324 Building Compliance Project: Selection and evaluation of alternatives for the removal of solid remote-handled mixed wastes from the 324 Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.

    1995-06-01

    Six alternatives for the interim storage of remote-handled mixed wastes from the 324 Building on the Hanford Site have been identified and evaluated. The alternatives focus on the interim storage facility and include use of existing facilities in the 200 Area, the construction of new facilities, and the vitrification of the wastes within the 324 Building to remove the majority of the wastes from under RCRA regulations. The six alternatives are summarized in Table S.1, which identifies the primary facilities to be utilized, the anticipated schedule for removal of the wastes, the costs of the transfer from 324 Building to the interim storage facility (including any capital costs), and an initial risk comparison of the alternatives. A recently negotiated Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) change requires the last of the mixed wastes to be removed by May 1999. The ability to use an existing facility reduces the costs since it eliminates the need for new capital construction. The basic regulatory approvals for the storage of mixed wastes are in place for the PUREX facility, but the Form HI permit will need some minor modifications since the 324 Building wastes have some additional characteristic waste codes and the current permit limits storage of wastes to those from the facility itself. Regulatory reviews have indicated that it will be best to use the tunnels to store the wastes. The PUREX alternatives will only provide storage for about 65% of the wastes. This results from the current schedule of the B-Cell Clean Out Project, which projects that dispersible debris will continue to be collected in small quantities until the year 2000. The remaining fraction of the wastes will then be stored in another facility. Central Waste Complex (CWC) is currently proposed for that residual waste storage; however, other options may also be available

  20. SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF CAMEROON FORESTS RESOURCES: PROVIDING TIMBER WASTE TO THE POOR POPULATIONS AS ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Benjamin Noumo Foko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon is covered by about 20 million hectares of forests. Timber exploitation is the second source of external income after petroleum. Besides, Cameroon’s forest has several other functions. Yet the threat to the very existence and survival of this forest is rapidly increasing due to overexploitation by logging companies and for firewood. Despite its usefulness, a substantial volume of the wood felled by timber exploiters is abandoned as waste to rot. This waste can be used as firewood by households even for building and making of furniture by small-scale users like carpenters if they had access to it. This paper encourages the use of timber waste as an alternative to kerosene, which has become very expensive and unaffordable due to the general rise in the price of petroleum products in recent years. The overexploitation of forests can therefore be limited by putting the waste timber into use. It will go along to reduce freshly cut wood which is usually cut illegally and uncontrollably and which is a major source of depletion of forest resources. This project, once achieved will forever last because it will always generate revenue to the groups involve in the collection and the distribution of forest waste which will make money from sales even if they were to sell cheaper since the major cost is transportation and the waste wood is also cheap to obtain from the logging companies or even costless since they have less interest in it.

  1. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  2. Alternatives - talk about energy differently. Radioactive waste a societal issue; Alternatives - parler autrement de l'energie. Dechets radioactifs un enjeu de societe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    ''Alternatives'' is an information magazine proposed by the Areva Group, a world nuclear energy leader. It is devoted to the public information on topics of the Group activities. This issue deals with the fusion technology, the strengths and weaknesses of interconnected networks, the undersea tidal power farms, the danish paradox which has the highest levels of CO{sub 2} emissions despite the use of wind energy, the international community renewed commitment to renewable energy, the hydrogen, the low speed wind turbines and the future miniature fuel cells. A special interest is given to the radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  3. Office of River Protection, plan for Developing Hanford Tank Waste Processing Alternatives, Revision 1, December 15, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    In August 2000, The Department of Energy (DOE) must decide whether to authorize BNFL Inc. (BNFL) to construct and operate tank waste processing facilities as proposed or to take another path. This will be a multi-billion dollar commitment, requiring that the best path forward be chosen. The plan for reaching this decision is described in reference 1. The alternative evaluations in this plan are directed toward acquiring information needed for the August 2000 decision and for preparing an alternate path plan, should an acceptable agreement with BNFL not be reached. Many of the alternatives considered may still be applicable for failures that could occur after the year 2000, however, depending on the cause of later failures, others alternatives may need to be developed

  4. Measuring Teacher Dispositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.; Stoloff, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Teacher quality has become a top priority of our national agenda. There is empirical evidence that suggests that teacher inputs have impact on student outcomes. It is also believed that teacher dispositions are as crucial for student achievement as a teacher's pedagogical and content knowledge/skills. The National Council for Accreditation of…

  5. Properties of a biosurfactant produced by Bacillus pumilus using vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Guerra de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are chemical molecules produced by the microorganisms with potential for application in various industrial and environmental sectors. The production parameters and the physicochemical properties of a biosurfactant synthesized by Bacillus pumilus using different concentrations of vinasse and waste frying oil as alternative carbon sources were analyzed. The microorganism was able to grow and produce a biosurfactant using both the residues. The surface tension was reduced up to 45 mN/m and the maximum production of crude biosurfactant was 27.7 and 5.7 g/l for vinasse and waste frying oil, respectively, in concentration of 5%. The critical micelle concentration (CMC results of 1.5 and 0.2 g/l showed the efficiency of the biosurfactant produced on both the substrates. The results showed that the alternative substrates could be used for the production of an efficient biosurfactant by B. pumilus. These properties have potential for industrial and environmental applications.

  6. Survey of university students' knowledge and views on nuclear waste disposal and the alternative dispute resolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Deffner, L.; Fiorini, S.

    1996-01-01

    The management of the high level radioactive waste is an issue which generates multifaceted conflicts. These conflicts are multi-determined, but are nonetheless, based on a myriad of associated concerns including but not exclusive to: effects of radiation on public health and safety, uncertainty associated with long-term assessments and effects, confidence in technology and in government and industry to protect public health and safety, and concerns regarding concurrent and intergenerational equity. These concerns are likely to be deeply felt by the many potential actors and stakeholders who will be impacted during the process of site selection for a nuclear waste disposal facility. Because this site selection is sure to be a controversial undertaking, it is in the interests of those who wish to promote the use of the high-level radioactive waste disposal concept, to understand fully the potential for conflict and consider alternative means of proactively preventing and/or resolving conflicts

  7. Disposition of excess weapons plutonium from dismantled weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War and the implementation of various nuclear arms reduction agreements, US and Russia have been actively dismantling tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. As a result,large quantities of fissile materials, including more than 100 (tonnes?) of weapons-grade Pu, have become excess to both countries' military needs. To meet nonproliferation goals and to ensure the irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions, this excess weapons Pu must be placed in secure storage and then, in timely manner, either used in nuclear reactors as fuel or discarded in geologic repositories as solid waste. This disposition in US and Russia must be accomplished in a safe, secure manner and as quickly as practical. Storage of this Pu is a prerequisite to any disposition process, but the length of storage time is unknown. Whether by use as fuel or discard as solid waste, disposition of that amount of Pu will require decades--and perhaps longer, if disposition operations encounter delays. Neither US nor Russia believes that long-term secure storage is a substitute for timely disposition of excess Pu, but long-term, safe, secure storage is a critical element of all excess Pu disposition activities

  8. DISPOSITION PATHS FOR ROCKY FLATS GLOVEBOXES: EVALUATING OPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobdell, D.; Geimer, R.; Larsen, P.; Loveland, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC has the responsibility for closure activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). One of the challenges faced for closure is the disposition of radiologically contaminated gloveboxes. Evaluation of the disposition options for gloveboxes included a detailed analysis of available treatment capabilities, disposal facilities, and lifecycle costs. The Kaiser-Hill Company, LLC followed several processes in determining how the gloveboxes would be managed for disposition. Currently, multiple disposition paths have been chosen to accommodate the needs of the varying styles and conditions of the gloveboxes, meet the needs of the decommissioning team, and to best manage lifecycle costs. Several challenges associated with developing a disposition path that addresses both the radiological and RCRA concerns as well as offering the most cost-effective solution were encountered. These challenges included meeting the radiological waste acceptance criteria of available disposal facilities, making a RCRA determination, evaluating treatment options and costs, addressing void requirements associated with disposal, and identifying packaging and transportation options. The varying disposal facility requirements affected disposition choices. Facility conditions that impacted decisions included radiological and chemical waste acceptance criteria, physical requirements, and measurement for payment options. The facility requirements also impacted onsite activities including management strategies, decontamination activities, and life-cycle cost

  9. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  10. Jatropha waste meal as an alternative energy source via pressurized pyrolysis: A study on temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongkasawan, Jinjuta; Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative energy source, Jatropha is a promising biomass resource due to its high content of oil contained in the seed. However, after the oil extraction process, more than 50% of initial weight remained as residue. This Jatropha de-oiled cake was considered a valuable feedstock for thermochemical conversion process due to its high volatile matter (73%) and energy content (20.5 MJ/kg). Pyrolysis turned biomass into solid product of biochar, liquid product (bio-oil and aqueous phase), and pyrolysis gas. The effects of pyrolysis temperature under the pressure of 0.69 MPa on the product yields and characteristics were investigated using a bench-scale batch reactor. The gross calorific value of pyrolytic oil was measured to be 35 MJ/kg with high carbon content (71%) and low oxygen content (10%). Phenols and hydrocarbons were the main compounds present in the pyrolytic oil. The heating value of the biochar was also high (28 MJ/kg), which was comparable to the fuel coke. More combustible gases were released at high pyrolysis temperature with methane as a main constituent. Pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, was determined to be an optimum condition for the mass and energy conversions with 89% of the mass and 77% of the energy recovered. - Highlights: • Pressurized pyrolysis of Jatropha wastes at different temperatures was studied. • Full analysis of biochar, bio-oil and pyro gas at different temperatures were done. • Highest aromatics (32%) and HHV (35 MJ/kg) found in bio-oil at 500 °C. • Large amount of paraffins (C 13 –C 16 range) was found in bio-oil.

  11. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Bio production of Alcohols as Alternative Fuels From Some Agricultural Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd ElTawab, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    With the inevitable depletion of the world’s energy supply, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in alternative sources of energy. It’s now understood that it is important to use biomass energy as a means of providing modern energy to the billions who lack it. Bi oethanol continues to be offered as a viable solution for complex problems ranging from global warming and national energy security to local economic development. Fuel bi oethanol burns cleaner than gasoline, is derived from renewable agricultural products. The aim of the current study is the isolation of local yeast isolate has the ability to produce bi oethanol from molasses. The local isolate of yeast E10 from sugar cane waste (bagasse) which identified as(Candida tropicalis strain JH8 26S ribosomal RNA gen) was employed for ethanol production in submerged fermentation conditions compared with standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae EMCC number 71"T. The production of bi oethanol is influenced to a great extent by a variety of physical factors (incubation time, temperature, ph, agitation speed) also; bi oethanol production by yeast depends upon the nature and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources. The optimization of these factors is prerequisite for the development of commercial process. The use of seed culture inocula (24 h) age at rate of (8% v/v) also enhances the production. The results showed that, the maximum ethanol production in local strain Candida tropicalis was 30.28 g/l achieved at incubation temperature 30 °C, with ph 5, incubation time 48 hr, agitation rate 150 rpm. Also, the best ethanol production in standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae was 42.57 g/l at the same conditions. . Low doses of gamma radiation (0.2 kGy) stimulate bi oethanol production and microbial growth by the local Candida isolate. Batch fermentation was also investigated

  12. Effect of alternative conceptual models in a preliminary performance assessment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Beyeler, W.; Garner, J.W.; Iuzzolino, H.J.; Marietta, M.G.; Rudeen, D.K.; Schreiber, J.D.; Swift, P.N.; Tierney, M.S.; Vaughn, P.

    1995-01-01

    The most appropriate conceptual model for performance assessment (PA) at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is believed to include gas generation resulting from corrosion and microbial action in the repository, and a dual-porosity (matrix and fracture porosity) representation for the solute transport in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. Under these assumptions, complementary cummulative distribution functions (CCDFs) which summarize the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment, resulting from both cutting removal and groundwater transport, fall substantially below the release limits promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the releases being dominated by cuttings removal. To provide additional views, the following alternative conceptual models were considered as part of a preliminary PA for the WIPP: no gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity (fracture porosity) transport model in the Culebra; no gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra, without chemical retardation; gas generation in the repository, chemical retardation in the Culebra, and extremes of climatic variation. These variations relate to groundwater transport, so do not affect the releases resulting from cuttings removal. Several of these variations substantially increase the importance of releases resulting from groundwater transport relative to releases resulting from cuttings removal. However, the total amount of releases generally remained small, with the CCDFs which summarize the releases to the accessible environment falling below the EPA release limits

  13. Characteristics of Waste Plastics Pyrolytic Oil and Its Applications as Alternative Fuel on Four Cylinder Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal Nugroho Pratama

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastics recycling using pyrolysis method is not only able to decrease a number of environment pollutant but also able to produce economical and high quality hydrocarbon products. Two experiments were conducted to completely study Waste Plastic Pyrolytic Oil (WPPO characteristics and its applications.  First experiment investigated oil characteristics derived from pyrolysis process in two stages batch reactors: pyrolysis and catalytic reforming reactor, at maximum temperature 500oC and 450oC respectively. Waste Polyethylene (PE, Polypropylene (PP, Polystyrene (PS, Polyethylene Terepthalate (PET and others were used as raw material. Nitrogen flow rate at 0.8 l/minutes was used to increase oil weight percentage. Indonesian natural zeolite was used as catalyst. Then, second experiment was carried out on Diesel Engine Test Bed (DETB used blending of WPPO and Biodiesel fuel with a volume ratio of 1:9. This experiment was specifically conducted to study how much potency of blending of WPPO and biodiesel in diesel engine. The result of first experiment showed that the highest weight percentage of WPPO derived from mixture of PE waste (50%wt, PP waste (40%wt and PS waste (10%wt is 45.13%wt. The more weight percentage of PE in feedstock effected on the less weight percentage of WPPO, the more percentage of C12-C20 content in WPPO and the higher calorific value of WPPO. Characteristics of WPPO such as, Specific Gravity, Flash point, Pour Point, Kinematic Viscosity, Calorific value and percentage of C12-C20 showed interesting result that WPPO could be developed as alternative fuel on diesel fuel blending due to the proximity of their characteristics. Performance of diesel engine using blending of WPPO and biodiesel on second experiment gave good result so the WPPO will have great potency to be valuable alternative liquid fuel in future, especially on stationary diesel engine and transportation engine application.

  14. The Ypresian clays as alternative host rock for radioactive waste disposal in Belgium. A transferability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baelen, Herve; Wouters, Laurent; Brassinnes, Stephane; Van Geet, Maarten; Vandenberghe, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. For the long-term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste, ONDRAF/NIRAS advises deep geological repository in a plastic clay host rock. Since the seventies, Oligocene Boom Clay has been extensively studied for this purpose and is, in the Belgian context, considered as the reference host rock with Mol as the reference site for the RD and D. The alternative host rock, the Ypresian clays, has been studied for their basic properties, from the late nineties onwards, with Doel as reference site. This study aims at determining to which extent methodologies, knowledge and know-how can be transferred from Boom Clay to the Ypresian clays, in order to enhance the knowledge of this alternative without excessive research efforts. It evaluates the present knowledge of the Ypresian clays and figures out which elements are sufficiently known and understood, which elements of the Boom Clay can be reused and which need additional research. The Ypresian clays refer to a nearly continuous sequence of non-indurated, clayey layers, deposited early in the Eocene, in an open marine basin. It has a total thickness of 100 m or more and, in the area of interest, it occurs at a few hundreds of meters depth. Apart from a very slight tilt to the north, no major structures are known to affect the Ypresian clays in the investigated area. The lateral continuity inside the Ypresian clays might, however, be compromised by the potential occurrence of small-scale intra-formational faults. Two drilling campaigns, carried out in the framework of potential radioactive waste disposal, allowed to collect new data and describe and compare the Ypresian clays relative to Boom Clay. The grain size distribution of both clays is comparable. Although the minerals they are composed of are the same, the relative proportions within the clay fraction are significantly different, the Ypresian clays containing more smectite and swelling mixed

  15. Co-management of domestic wastewater and food waste: A life cycle comparison of alternative food waste diversion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Adilson M; Yu, Kevin; Stadler, Lauren B; Smith, Adam L

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is increasingly viewed as a resource that should be diverted from landfills. This study used life cycle assessment to compare co-management of food waste and domestic wastewater using anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) against conventional activated sludge (CAS) and high rate activated sludge (HRAS) with three disposal options for food waste: landfilling (LF), anaerobic digestion (AD), and composting (CP). Based on the net energy balance (NEB), AnMBR and HRAS/AD were the most attractive scenarios due to cogeneration of produced biogas. However, cogeneration negatively impacted carcinogenics, non-carcinogenics, and ozone depletion, illustrating unavoidable tradeoffs between energy recovery from biogas and environmental impacts. Fugitive emissions of methane severely increased global warming impacts of all scenarios except HRAS/AD with AnMBR particularly affected by effluent dissolved methane emissions. AnMBR was also most sensitive to food waste diversion participation, with 40% diversion necessary to achieve a positive NEB at the current state of development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disposing of nuclear waste: an economic analysis of two alternative concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dippold, D.G.; Tzemos, S.

    1987-01-01

    WADCOM II is a nuclear waste disposal cost model intended to provide its users with relatively quick, although macro, insight into the economics of hypothetical nuclear waste disposal scenarios. The nuclear waste management system represented by the model, the philosophy underlying the model's design, and the logic of the model itself are described. The model is used to analyze the economics of two nuclear waste disposal concepts, the borehold package concept and the generic package concept. Results indicate the generic package concept leads to the higher costs under all the assumed conditions

  17. Treatment alternatives of liquid radioactive waste containing uranium in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante Escobedo, Mauricio

    2003-01-01

    The UGDR, receives annually 100 [l] of liquid radioactive waste containing, highly acid (pH=0) uranium in phosphoric acid from the Laboratory of Chemical Analysis. This waste must be chemically and radiologically decontaminated before it can be discharged in accordance with local environmental standards. Chemical precipitation and evaporation test were carried out to define the operating conditions for the radiological decontamination of this radioactive waste and to obtain a solid waste that can be conditioned in a cement matrix. The evaporation process generates excellent rates of volume reduction, over 80%, but generates a pulp that is hard handle when submitted to a drying process. Chemical precipitation generates good results for decontaminating these solutions and reducing volume (above 50%) to obtain a uranium free effluent. The treatment with calcium carbonate generated an effluent with a low concentration of polluting agents. A preliminary test was carried out condition these solids in a cement matrix, using ratios of 0.45 waste/cement and 2 of water/cement. The mix prepared with waste from the sodium hydroxide treatment had low mechanical resistance resulting from the saline incrustations. The waste from the calcium carbonate treatment was very porous due to the water evaporation from the highly exothermic reaction between the waste and the cement. The mix of the calcium carbonate generated waste and the cement matrix needs to be optimized, since it generates favorable conditions for adhering with the cement matrix (au)

  18. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  19. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  20. Disposition of surplus fissile materials via immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Sutcliffe, W.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Danker, W.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cold War aftermath, the US and Russia have agreed to large reductions in nuclear weapons. To aid in the selection of long-term management options, the USDOE has undertaken a multifaceted study to select options for storage and disposition of surplus plutonium (Pu). One disposition alternative being considered is immobilization. Immobilization is a process in which surplus Pu would be embedded in a suitable material to produce an appropriate form for ultimate disposal. To arrive at an appropriate form, we first reviewed published information on HLW immobilization technologies to identify forms to be prescreened. Surviving forms were screened using multi-attribute utility analysis to determine promising technologies for Pu immobilization. We further evaluated the most promising immobilization families to identify and seek solutions for chemical, chemical engineering, environmental, safety, and health problems; these problems remain to be solved before we can make technical decisions about the viability of using the forms for long-term disposition of Pu. All data, analyses, and reports are being provided to the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition to support the Record of Decision that is anticipated in Summer of 1996

  1. Alternatives for long-term management of transuranic waste at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A. Jr.; Molen, G.F.

    1981-01-01

    The six alternatives proposed consider the effects of making no decision (Alternative 1), delaying a decision for up to 100 years (Alternatives 2 and 3), or taking significant action (Alternatives 4, 5, or 6). Alternative 4 exhibits intermediate cost and risk values, and indicates good agreement with ideal disposal characteristics. Alternative 6, which is comparable to Alternative 4 in risk and disposal characteristics, would require a large single outlay of capital funds, whereas funds for Alternative 4 could be staged. The cases described, excluding the no-action case, represent the better alternatives of the 34 that have been studied. Their costs range from 80 to 270 million dollars, while the sum of the population risk and worker dose ranges from 95 to 13,800 man-rem. The naturally occurring dose from cosmic rays and terrestrial activity to the same population over the same period is many times larger

  2. Treatment alternatives of slaughterhouse wastes, and their effect on the inactivation of different pathogens: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Insam, Heribert

    2013-05-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes are a potential reservoir of bacterial, viral, prion and parasitic pathogens, capable of infecting both animals and humans. A quick, cost effective and safe disposal method is thus essential in order to reduce the risk of disease following animal slaughter. Different methods for the disposal of such wastes exist, including composting, anaerobic digestion (AD), alkaline hydrolysis (AH), rendering, incineration and burning. Composting is a disposal method that allows a recycling of the slaughterhouse waste nutrients back into the earth. The high fat and protein content of slaughterhouse wastes mean however, that such wastes are an excellent substrate for AD processes, resulting in both the disposal of wastes, a recycling of nutrients (soil amendment with sludge), and in methane production. Concerns exist as to whether AD and composting processes can inactivate pathogens. In contrast, AH is capable of the inactivation of almost all known microorganisms. This review was conducted in order to compare three different methods of slaughterhouse waste disposal, as regards to their ability to inactivate various microbial pathogens. The intention was to investigate whether AD could be used for waste disposal (either alone, or in combination with another process) such that both energy can be obtained and potentially hazardous materials be disposed of.

  3. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-12-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  4. Alternative Electrochemical Salt Waste Forms, Summary of FY/CY2011 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Brian J.; McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Windisch, Charles F.; Lepry, William C.; Matyas, Josef; Westman, Matthew P.; Rieck, Bennett T.; Lang, Jesse B.; Pierce, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 fiscal+calendar year efforts for developing waste forms for a spent salt generated in reprocessing nuclear fuel with an electrochemical separations process. The two waste forms are tellurite (TeO2-based) glasses and sol-gel-derived high-halide mineral analogs to stable minerals found in nature.

  5. Waste management in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, Russia: An environmental assessment of alternative development scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2018-01-01

    The current waste management system, handling around 500,000 t of household, commercial, and institutional waste annually in the Irkutsk region, Siberia, is based on landfilling in an old landfill with no controls of leachate and gas. Life-cycle assessment modelling of the current system shows th...

  6. Evaluation of alternatives for radium recovery of phosphogysum waste from chemical treatment of phosphatic ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A. dos.

    1986-12-01

    The results from the research work undertaken to evaluate the economic recovery of the Itataia, Ceara phosphogypsum waste, obtained during the treatment of uranium bearing phosphatic ore are present. The implications involved in the waste storage taking into account different aspects of environmental safety, are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  7. Testing and evaluation of alternative process systems for immobilizing radioactive mixed particulate waste in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingardt, K.M.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Radioactive and Hazardous Mixed Wastes have accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Ongoing operations and planned facilities at Hanford will also contribute to this waste stream. To meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions most of this waste will need to be treated to permit disposal. In general this treatment will need to include stabilization/solidification either as a sole method or as part of a treatment train. A planned DOE facility, the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 2A, is scoped to provide this required treatment for containerized contact-handled (CH), mixed low-level waste (MLLW) at Hanford. An engineering development program has been conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to select the best system for utilizing a cement based process in WRAP Module 2A. Three mixing processes were developed for analysis and testing; in-drum mixing, continuous mixing, and batch mixing. Some full scale tests were conducted and 55 gallon drums of solidified product were produced. These drums were core sampled and examined to evaluate mixing effectiveness. Total solids loading and the order of addition of waste and binder constituents were also varied. The highest confidence approach to meet the WRAP Module 2A waste immobilization system needs appears to be the out-of-drum batch mixing concept. This system is believed to offer the most flexibility and efficiency, given the highly variable and troublesome waste streams feeding the facility

  8. Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasinghe, G.Y.; Tokashiki, Y.; Kitou, M.; Kinjo, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). United Graduate School of Agricultural Science

    2008-12-15

    A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice.

  9. Disposal alternatives and recommendations for waste salt management for repository excavation in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation of five alternatives for the disposal of waste salt that would be generated by the construction of a repository for radioactive waste in underground salt deposits at either of two sites in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The alternatives include commercial disposal, offsite deep-well injection, disposal in abandoned mines, ocean disposal, and land surface disposal on or off the site. For each alternative a reference case was rated - positive, neutral, or negative - in terms of environmental and dependability factors developed specifically for Texas sites. The factors constituting the environmental checklist relate to water quality impact, water- and land-use conflicts, ecological compatibility, conformity with air quality standards, and aesthetic impact. Factors on the dependability check-list relate to public acceptance, the adequacy of site characterization, permit and licensing requirements, technological requirements, and operational availability. A comparison of the ratings yielded the following viable alternatives, in order of preference: (1) land surface disposal, specifically disposal on tailings piles associated with abandoned potash mines; (2) disposal in abandoned mines, specifically potash mines; and (3) commercial disposal. Approaches to the further study of these three salt management techniques are recommended

  10. Emulsification of waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels: An attractive alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Ahmed Melo Espinosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to analyze the possibility and feasibility of the use of emulsification method applied to waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates as diesel engine fuels, compared with other commonly used methods. These waste products are obtained from the refining oil industry, food industry and service sector, mainly. They are rarely used as feedstock to produce biofuels and other things, in spite of constitute a potential source of environmental contamination. From the review of the state of arts, significant decreases in exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, cylinder pressure as well as increases of the ignition delay, brake specific fuel consumption, hydrocarbon, smoke opacity, carbon monoxide, particulate matters to emulsified waste cooking oils and fatty acid distillates compared with diesel fuel are reported. In some experiments the emulsified waste cooking oils achieved better performance than neat fatty acid distillates, neat waste cooking oils and their derivatives methyl esters.

  11. Comparative assessment of alternative cycles for waste heat recovery and upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Adrienne B.; Garimella, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    Thermally activated systems based on sorption cycles, as well as mechanical systems based on vapor compression/expansion are assessed in this study for waste heat recovery applications. In particular, ammonia-water sorption cycles for cooling and mechanical work recovery, a heat transformer using lithium bromide-water as the working fluid pair to yield high temperature heat, and organic Rankine cycles using refrigerant R245fa for work recovery as well as versions directly coupled to a vapor compression cycle to yield cooling are analyzed with overall heat transfer conductances for heat exchangers that use similar approach temperature differences for each cycle. Two representative cases are considered, one for smaller-scale and lower temperature applications using waste heat at 60 o C, and the other for larger-scale and higher temperature waste heat at 120 o C. Comparative assessments of these cycles on the basis of efficiencies and system footprints guide the selection of waste heat recovery and upgrade systems for different applications and waste heat availabilities. Furthermore, these considerations are used to investigate four case studies for waste heat recovery for data centers, vehicles, and process plants, illustrating the utility and limitations of such solutions. The increased implementation of such waste heat recovery systems in a variety of applications will lead to decreased primary source inputs and sustainable energy utilization. -- Highlights: → Sorption and mechanical pathways for the conversion of waste heat streams to work, cooling, and temperature boosting were investigated. → Waste heat sources including 300 W of energy at 60 o C and 1 kW of energy at 120 o C were analyzed. → Up to about seventy percent of the input waste heat can be converted to cooling. → Up to about ten percent can be converted to work. → Up to about 47 percent can be upgraded to a higher temperature.

  12. Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Gordon; Weber, Peter; Evans, Ann; Venezia, Richard

    1998-05-01

    The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure cultures of each microorganism were divided among 3 dialysis bags made from narrow diameter dialysis tubing, and each of these bags was placed inside another dialysis bag made from larger diameter dialysis tubing. Each double-bagged sample was suspended from the cover of the carcass basket of the tissue digestor so that it was completely covered by hot alkaline digestion solution during the carcass digestion process. The following organisms were required by the New York State Department of Health as representative pathogens for testing sterilization capabilities of the procedure: Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, MS-2 bacteriophage, and Giardia muris. Animal carcasses included pigs, sheep, rabbits, dogs, rats, mice, and guinea pigs. The tissue digestor was operated at 110 to 120 C and approximately 15 lb/in2 (gauge) for 18 h before the system was allowed to cool to 50 C and dialysis bags were retrieved and submitted for microbial culture. None of the samples obtained from the dialysis bags after the digestion process yielded indicator bacteria or yeast. Giardia cysts were completely destroyed; only small fragments of what appeared to be cyst wall could be recognized with light microscopic examination. No plaque-forming units were detected with MS-2 bacteriophage after digestion. Samples of the hydrolyzate also did not yield growth on culture media. Animal carcasses were completely solubilized and digested, with only the inorganic components of the bones

  13. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  14. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.E.

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  15. Character, attitude and disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation...

  16. Alternative concepts for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs

  17. The effect of alternative constraints in radioactive waste disposal on minimum cost scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, R.S.; James, A.R.; Groom, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the results of a set of assessments of the optimum waste assignment and disposal schedule for intermediate and low level radioactive wastes using the DISPOSALS Linear Programming Model developed by CAP Scientific. The main purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the applicability of the DISPOSALS model to the field of radioactive waste management. The results presented provide a good indication of the practicability and usefulness of the model and also provide a number of detailed conclusions regarding specific cases. (author)

  18. Canister disposition plan for the DWPF Startup Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Payne, C.H.

    1990-01-01

    This report details the disposition of canisters and the canistered waste forms produced during the DWPF Startup Test Program. The six melter campaigns (DWPF Startup Tests FA-13, WP-14, WP-15, WP-16, WP-17, and FA-18) will produce 126 canistered waste forms. In addition, up to 20 additional canistered waste forms may be produced from glass poured during the transition between campaigns. In particular, this canister disposition plan (1) assigns (by alpha-numeric code) a specific canister to each location in the six campaign sequences, (2) describes the method of access for glass sampling on each canistered waste form, (3) describes the nature of the specific tests which will be carried out, (4) details which tests will be carried out on each canistered waste form, (5) provides the sequence of these tests for each canistered waste form, and (6) assigns a storage location for each canistered waste form. The tests are designed to provide evidence, as detailed in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP 1 ), that the DWPF product will comply with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS 2 ). The WAPS must be met before the canistered waste form is accepted by DOE for ultimate disposal at the Federal Repository. The results of these tests will be included in the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR)

  19. Effluent Management Facility Evaporator Bottom-Waste Streams Formulation and Waste Form Qualification Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslow, Sarah A.; Um, Wooyong; Russell, Renee L.

    2017-08-02

    This report describes the results from grout formulation and cementitious waste form qualification testing performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS). These results are part of a screening test that investigates three grout formulations proposed for wide-range treatment of different waste stream compositions expected for the Hanford Effluent Management Facility (EMF) evaporator bottom waste. This work supports the technical development need for alternative disposition paths for the EMF evaporator bottom wastes and future direct feed low-activity waste (DFLAW) operations at the Hanford Site. High-priority activities included simulant production, grout formulation, and cementitious waste form qualification testing. The work contained within this report relates to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA). However, this work contains valuable information for use in PA maintenance past FY 2017 and future waste form development efforts. The provided results and data should be used by (1) cementitious waste form scientists to further the understanding of cementitious leach behavior of contaminants of concern (COCs), (2) decision makers interested in off-site waste form disposal, and (3) the U.S. Department of Energy, their Hanford Site contractors and stakeholders as they assess the IDF PA program at the Hanford Site. The results reported help fill existing data gaps, support final selection of a cementitious waste form for the EMF evaporator bottom waste, and improve the technical defensibility of long-term waste form risk estimates.

  20. Utilization of sites of final disposition of municipal wastes for electrical power generation; Aprovechamiento de sitios de disposicion final de residuos municipales para generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Sanchez, Felipe; Sarmiento Bleicher, Conrado [Departamento del Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    Mexico confronts very comprehensive environmental problems, and the solid wastes and their control are not the minor of the preoccupations on the matter. The present work tries to demonstrate the usefulness or the economic advantages and the use of a sanitary land fill as a power source, outlining the necessity and convenience of planning and of designing the future sanitary land fills, specially those of the important urban centers, thinking of its usefulness beyond a confinement of the materials that lack use or commercial value. [Spanish] Mexico afronta una problematica ambiental muy amplia, y los residuos solidos y su control no son la menor de las preocupaciones al respecto. El presente trabajo trata de demostrar la utilidad o rentabilidad del aprovechamiento de un relleno sanitario como fuente energetica, perfilando la necesidad y conveniencia de planear y disenar los futuros rellenos sanitarios, especialmente los de los centros urbanos importantes, pensando en su utilidad mas alla de un confinamiento de los materiales que carecen de uso o valor comercial.

  1. Waste-based alternative adsorbents for the remediation of pharmaceutical contaminated waters: Has a step forward already been taken?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla Patrícia; Jaria, Guilaine; Otero, Marta; Esteves, Valdemar I; Calisto, Vânia

    2018-02-01

    When adsorption is considered for water treatment, commercial activated carbon is usually the chosen adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from the aqueous phase, particularly pharmaceuticals. In order to decrease costs and save natural resources, attempts have been made to use wastes as raw materials for the production of alternative carbon adsorbents. This approach intends to increase efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and also to propose an alternative and sustainable way for the valorization/management of residues. This review aims to provide an overview on waste-based adsorbents used on pharmaceuticals' adsorption. Experimental facts related to the adsorption behaviour of each adsorbent/pharmaceutical pair and some key factors were addressed. Also, research gaps that subsist in this research area, as well as future needs, were identified. Simultaneously, this review aims to clarify the current status of the research on pharmaceuticals' adsorption by waste-based adsorbents in order to recognize if the right direction is being taken. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Construction and Demolition Debris 2014 US Final Disposition Estimates Using the CDDPath Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of the final amount and final disposition of materials generated in the Construction and Demolition waste stream measured in total mass of each material....

  3. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  4. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D and D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low

  5. Alternative containers for low-level wastes containing large amounts of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gause, E.P.; Lee, B.S.; MacKenzie, D.R.; Wiswall, R. Jr.

    1984-11-01

    High-activity tritiated waste generated in the United States is mainly composed of tritium gas and tritium-contaminated organic solvents sorbed onto Speedi-Dri which are packaged in small glass bulbs. Low-activity waste consists of solidified and adsorbed liquids. In this report, current packages for high-activity gaseous and low-activity adsorbed liquid wastes are emphasized with regard to containment potential. Containers for low-level radioactive waste containing large amounts of tritium need to be developed. An integrity may be threatened by: physical degradation due to soil corrosion, gas pressure build-up (due to radiolysis and/or biodegradation), rapid permeation of tritium through the container, and corrosion from container contents. Literature available on these points is summarized in this report. 136 references, 20 figures, 40 tables

  6. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  7. Alternative method of solidification for low-level class a radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    New solidification media have been developed that exhibit excellent spatial efficiency over the entire range of virtually all Class A liquid wastes. These new media are being used to incorporate from 41 to 48 gallons of liquid radioactive waste in a 55-gallon drum. To date, wastes processing at nuclear power plants and facilities include oils, evaporator bottoms, sludges, and ion-exchanges resins as well as combinations of these waste streams. This paper comparatively discusses the performance of solidification agents known as AQUASET TM and PETROSET TM with other currently available agents. It presents key advantages of using the AQUASET and PETROSET media over other media. These advantages include improvements in packaging efficiency, leachability, and repeatability

  8. Towards Sustainable Clothing Disposition: Exploring the Consumer Choice to Use Trash as a Disposal Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Norum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The textile and apparel supply chain plays an integral role in providing consumers with a continuous supply of apparel that must ultimately be discarded. Viewing the consumer as a player in the process between the supply chain and the post-consumer textile waste stream, this study was designed to explore the consumer apparel disposition process with an eye towards understanding how both supply chain members and post-consumer waste entities can interact with consumers to reduce the amount of apparel discarded in landfills. Hanson’s Consumer Product Disposition Process framework was used to help guide the research. Using a qualitative research approach, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-four female consumers in the United States to address three main research questions. The findings revealed several themes: use of both “compensatory” and “non-compensatory” choice heuristics in decision making; a “usable life” and the “personal nature” of garments as barriers to non-trash disposal options; and the need to “create awareness” and “provide assurance” to encourage alternative disposal modes. Implications for apparel producers and retailers, secondhand stores and textile recyclers are discussed.

  9. Alkali activated slag cements using waste glass as alternative activators. Rheological behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Torres-Carrasco

    2015-03-01

    The findings show that AAS paste behaviour of rheology when the activator was a commercial waterglass solution or NaOH/Na2CO3 with waste glass was similar, fit the Herschel-Bulkley model. The formation of primary C-S-H gel in both cases were confirmed. However, the rheological behaviour in standard cements fit the Bingham model. The use of the waste glass may be feasible from a rheological point of view in pastes can be used.

  10. High level waste containing granules coated and embedded in metal as an alternative to HLW glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, W.

    1980-01-01

    Simulated high level waste containing granules were overcoated with pyrocarbon or nickel respectively. The coatings were performed by the use of chemical vapour deposition in a fluidized bed. The coated granules were embedded in an aluminium-silicon-alloy to improve the dissipation of radiation induced heat. The metal-granules-composites obtained were of improved product stability related to the high level waste containing glasses. (orig.) [de

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility: Documentation of impact analysis for design alternatives presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct and operate a new Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The proposed DWTF would replace the existing Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities at LLNL. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to assess the environmental consequences of the proposed DWTF and its alternatives. This report presents the assumptions, methodologies, and analyses used to estimate the waste flows, air emissions, ambient air quality impacts, and public health risks that are presented in the DEIS. Two DWTF design alternatives (Level I and Level II) have been designated as reasonable design alternatives considering available technologies, environmental regulations, and current and future LLNL waste generation. Both design alternatives would include new, separate radioactive and nonradioactive liquid waste treatment systems, a solidification unit, a new decontamination facility, storage and treatment facilities for reactive materials, a radioactive waste storage area, receiving and classification areas, and a uranium burn pan. The Level I design alternative would include a controlled-air incinerator system, while the Level II design alternative would include a rotary kiln incinerator system. 43 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  12. Update to the Fissile Materials Disposition program SST/SGT transportation estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Didlake

    1999-01-01

    This report is an update to ''Fissile Materials Disposition Program SST/SGT Transportation Estimation,'' SAND98-8244, June 1998. The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition requested this update as a basis for providing the public with an updated estimation of the number of transportation loads, load miles, and costs associated with the preferred alternative in the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  13. The effect of alternative cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies on radioactive waste disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, R.S.; James, A.R.; Groom, M.S.; Dalrymple, G.J.

    1985-06-01

    The study reported here investigates the effects of different cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies for a single waste disposal scenario. Four disposal options are considered. The study examines the environmental impacts from waste storage and transport and the disposal impacts in terms of collective dose, maximum individual dose and individual dose from intrusion. The total cost of disposing of waste takes account of storage, transport and disposal costs to each of the four facilities. Two minimum cost scenarios and seven minimum impact assessments were performed. The results showed clearly that a trade-off has to be made between the environmental impacts from transport and storage of waste. A low objective risk of transport is achieved by directing waste to the engineered trench, assumed to have a central location. This waste is stored until the facility is available in 1995 thus increasing the potential impact from storage. The results also show a trade-off has to be made between minimising the maximum individual dose from disposal and collective dose. The study shows that for relatively little cost large reductions in the impacts can be obtained particularly in short and long-term collective dose and the individual dose from intrusion. (author)

  14. Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Usage of Oil Industry Products and Wastes as Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek BOLAT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for oil industry products has been increasing in parallel to the rapid population growth and industrialization. Physical and chemical properties of these products change after usage based on the media and operating conditions. Then, these products lose the eligibility and turn into the form of waste. The most commonly used method for the disposal of waste oils is combustion due to its high calorific value. In this study, the possible effects on the environment and human health of combustion of oil industry products and wastes are evaluated. Poor combustion conditions lead emissions from the process depending on the ingredients of wastes in addition to incomplete combustion products such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, volatile organic chemicals polyaromatic hydrocarbons, metals etc. that may occur according to the type of waste. These emissions are released into the environment and partition between soil, water and air media related to their physicochemical characteristics. In addition to environmental problems, these emissions are a risk factor for human health in terms of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Regulations and control measures should be put into practice in order to get rid of the effects of non-standard diesel like product named number 10 lube on human health and environment. In this context, emission measurements should be done simultaneously to determine the effects of combustion of these wastes and products of oil industry.

  15. Liquid fuels from food waste: An alternative process to co-digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yoke-Leng; Ch'ng, Boon-Juok; Mok, Yau-Cheng; Goh, Sok-Yee; Hilaire, Dickens Saint; Pinnock, Travis; Adams, Shemlyn; Cassis, Islande; Ibrahim, Zainab; Johnson, Camille; Johnson, Chantel; Khatim, Fatima; McCormack, Andrece; Okotiuero, Mary; Owens, Charity; Place, Meoak; Remy, Cristine; Strothers, Joel; Waithe, Shannon; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher; Pratt, Lawrence M.

    2017-04-01

    Waste from uneaten, spoiled, or otherwise unusable food is an untapped source of material for biofuels. A process is described to recover the oil from mixed food waste, together with a solid residue. This process includes grinding the food waste to an aqueous slurry, skimming off the oil, a combined steam treatment of the remaining solids concurrent with extrusion through a porous cylinder to release the remaining oil, a second oil skimming step, and centrifuging the solids to obtain a moist solid cake for fermentation. The water, together with any resulting oil from the centrifuging step, is recycled back to the grinding step, and the cycle is repeated. The efficiency of oil extraction increases with the oil content of the waste, and greater than 90% of the oil was collected from waste containing at least 3% oil based on the wet mass. Fermentation was performed on the solid cake to obtain ethanol, and the dried solid fermentation residue was a nearly odorless material with potential uses of biochar, gasification, or compost production. This technology has the potential to enable large producers of food waste to comply with new laws which require this material to be diverted from landfills.

  16. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  17. Analysis the potential gas production of old municipal solid waste landfill as an alternative energy source: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, A. P.; Emalya, N.; Munawar, E.; Schwarzböck, T.; Lederer, J.; Fellner, J.

    2018-03-01

    The MSW landfill produces gas which is represent the energy resource that lost and polluted the ambient air. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential gas production of old landfill as an alternative energy source. The study was conducted by using 10 years old waste in landfill simulator reactor (LSR). Four Landfills Simulator Reactors (LSR) were constructed for evaluate the gas production of old MSW landfilled. The LSR was made of high density poly ethylene (HDPE) has 50 cm outside diameter and 150 cm of high. The 10 years old waste was excavated from closed landfill and subsequently separated from inorganic fraction and sieved to maximum 50 mm size particle prior emplaced into the LSR. Although quite small compare to the LSR containing fresh waste has been reported, the LRS containing 10 years old waste still produce much landfill gas. The landfill gas produced of LSR operated with and without leachate recirculation were about 29 and 21 litter. The composition of landfill gas produced was dominated by CO2 with the composition of CH4 and O2 were around 12.5% and 0.2 %, respectively.

  18. Alternative concepts for treatment and disposal of Hanford site high-level waste in tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Powell, W.J.

    1994-12-01

    Some innovative approaches have recently been proposed that may have significant schedule, cost, or environmental advantages which could improve the current HLW program strategy. Three general categories of alternative concepts are now under consideration: (1) process/product alternatives, (2) facility layout options, and (3) contracting strategies. This report compares the alternate approaches to the current program baseline to illustrate their potential significance and to identify the risks associated with each approach.

  19. Alternative concepts for treatment and disposal of Hanford site high-level waste in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claghorn, R.D.; Powell, W.J.

    1994-12-01

    Some innovative approaches have recently been proposed that may have significant schedule, cost, or environmental advantages which could improve the current HLW program strategy. Three general categories of alternative concepts are now under consideration: (1) process/product alternatives, (2) facility layout options, and (3) contracting strategies. This report compares the alternate approaches to the current program baseline to illustrate their potential significance and to identify the risks associated with each approach

  20. VERMICOMPOSTING AS AN ALTERNATIVE WAY OF BIODEGRADABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT FOR SMALL MUNICIPALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sosnecka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of vermicomposting as a method of bioconversion of organic wastes, inter alia sewage sludge, biodegradable fraction of municipal solid wastes and green wastes. Vermicomposting is a biological process in which earthworms are employed to cooperate with microorganisms in order to convert organic wastes into a valuable product. It is considered as a relatively low cost and environmentally-friendly method of waste treatment. Nevertheless, as each biotechnology, the process is limited to some physical, chemical and biological parameters. In this study, sewage sludge coming from medium-sized wastewater treatment plant was mixed with mown grass, sawdust and organic fraction of municipal wastes and vermicomposted for 5 weeks with Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei as main actors. The scope of the research was to 1 assess the influence of E. fetida and E.andrei composting earthworms on the physical and chemical properties of the product; 2 changes of concentration of selected heavy metals and their available forms in compost during the process, 3 the effects of substrates on earthworms survival and reproduction. Selected earthworm species had shown a high tolerance to the contaminants present in sewage sludge and a positive impact on the quality of the product was noted. Vermicomposting enhances decomposition of organic matter, leads to decrease in C/N ratio and pH, and changes the availability of some heavy metals and its total content in substratum. Experimental medium led earthworms to increase body weight due to the presence of large amount of organic matter, while the reproduction was importantly reduced. Vermicomposting can be considered as a method of treatment of solid wastes, mainly in the case of small municipalities.

  1. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 3, Appendix A: Mass burn technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix on Mass Burn Technologies is the first in a series designed to identify, describe and assess the suitability of several currently or potentially available generic technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). These appendices, which cover eight core thermoconversion, bioconversion and recycling technologies, reflect public domain information gathered from many sources. Representative sources include: professional journal articles, conference proceedings, selected municipality solid waste management plans and subscription technology data bases. The information presented is intended to serve as background information that will facilitate the preparation of the technoeconomic and life cycle mass, energy and environmental analyses that are being developed for each of the technologies. Mass burn has been and continues to be the predominant technology in Europe for the management of MSW. In the United States, the majority of the existing waste-to-energy projects utilize this technology and nearly 90 percent of all currently planned facilities have selected mass burn systems. Mass burning generally refers to the direct feeding and combustion of municipal solid waste in a furnace without any significant waste preprocessing. The only materials typically removed from the waste stream prior to combustion are large bulky objects and potentially hazardous or undesirable wastes. The technology has evolved over the last 100 or so years from simple incineration to the most highly developed and commercially proven process available for both reducing the volume of MSW and for recovering energy in the forms of steam and electricity. In general, mass burn plants are considered to operate reliably with high availability.

  2. Develop of a model to minimize and to treat waste coming from the chemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Hernandez, M.

    2000-01-01

    They were investigated and proposed alternative of minimization and treatment of waste organic type coming from chemical laboratories, considering as alternative the disposition for the drainage, the chemical treatment of the waste, the disposition in sanitary fillers, the creation of a cellar to recycle material, the incineration, the distillation and the possibility to establish an agreement with the company Cements INCSA to discard the materials in the oven to cements of this enterprise. the methodology had as first stage the summary of information about the production of residuals for Investigation Center or Academic Unit. For this they were considered the laboratories of investigation of the CICA, CELEQ, CIPRONA, LAYAFA, and the laboratories of teaching of the sections of Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physicochemical, Pharmacognosy, Drugs Analysis, Physicopharmacy, Histology and Physiology. Additionally, you considers the office of purveyor of the Microbiology School. Subsequently one carries out an analysis of costs to determine which waste constituted most of the waste generated by the University, as for cost and volume. Then, they were carried out classifications of the materials according to chemical approaches, classification of the NFPA and for data of combustion heats. Once carried out this classification and established the current situation of the laboratories considered as for handling and treatment of waste, they proceeded to evaluate and select treatment options and disposition of waste considering advantages and disadvantages as for implementation possibility and cost stops this way a minimization model and treatment that it can be implemented in the University to settle down [es

  3. Used fuel disposition in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hadgu, Teklu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jerden, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cruse, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ebert, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buck, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eittman, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tinnacher, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tournassat, Christophe. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Viswanathan, H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Office of Fuel Cycle Technology established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) in fiscal year 2010 (FY10) to conduct the research and development (R&D) activities related to storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high level nuclear waste. The objective of the Crystalline Disposal R&D Work Package is to advance our understanding of long-term disposal of used fuel in crystalline rocks and to develop necessary experimental and computational capabilities to evaluate various disposal concepts in such media.

  4. KEWB facilities decontamination and disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureda, B.F.

    1976-01-01

    The decontamination and disposition of the KEWB facilities, Buildings 073, 643, 123, and 793, are complete. All of the facility equipment, including reactor enclosure, reactor vessel, fuel handling systems, controls, radioactive waste systems, exhaust systems, electrical services, and protective systems were removed from the site. Buildings 643, 123, and 793 were completely removed, including foundations. The floor and portions of the walls of Building 073 were covered over by final grading. Results of the radiological monitoring and the final survey are presented. 9 tables, 19 figures

  5. The role of the national low level waste repository operator in delivering new solutions for the management of low level wastes in the UK - 16217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkingshaw, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The UK National Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is located near to the village of Drigg in West Cumbria. It is the principal site for disposal of solid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) in the United Kingdom. This paper describes the program of work currently being undertaken by the site's operators, (LLW Repository Ltd and its newly appointed Parent Body Organisation), to extend the life of the LLWR and reduce the overall cost of LLW management to the UK taxpayer. The current focus of this program is to prevent disposal capacity being taken up at LLWR by waste types which lend themselves to alternative treatment and/or disposition routes. The chosen approach enables consignors to segregate LLW at source into formats which allow further treatment for volume reduction or, (for wastes with lower levels of activity), consignment in the future to alternative disposal facilities. Segregated waste services are incorporated into LLW Disposal commercial agreements between the LLWR operator and waste consignors. (author)

  6. The use of the Kelor Seeds (Moringa oleifera) as alternative coagulant in waste delivery process of textile industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambe, AM; Pandia, S.; Ginting, MHS; Tambun, R.; Haryanto, B.

    2018-02-01

    This research is to know the influence of moringa seed as coagulant, pH of liquid waste textile industry (jeans wash), size of moringa seed particles to decrease of turbidity percentage. Measurements were made to Total Suspended Solid, Color Rate and Chemical Oxygen Demand for wastewater textile industry by coagulation - flocculation method. Variables of this study were conducted on dosage of moringa, with particle size 212 mesh. The results showed that moringa seeds as coagulant dose optimum is 1250 mg/L for the textile industry wastewater at pH 7.8. Moringa seed powder is about 212 mesh with a dose of 1250 mg/L can lower the turbidity of 77.77%, Total Suspended Solid amounted to 83.69% and Chemical Oxygen Demand amounted to 75.86%.

  7. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  8. Classification of solid industrial waste based on ecotoxicology tests using Daphnia magna: an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gerson Matias

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The adequate treatment and final disposal of solid industrial wastes depends on their classification into class I or II. This classification is proposed by NBR 10.004; however, it is complex and time-consuming. With a view to facilitating this classification, the use of assays with Daphnia magna is proposed. These assays make possible the identification of toxic chemicals in the leach, which denotes the presence of one of the characteristics described by NBR 10.004, the toxicity, which is a sufficient argument to put the waste into class I. Ecotoxicological tests were carried out with ten samples of solid wastes of frequent production and, on the basis of the results from EC(I50/48h of those samples in comparison with the official classification of NBR 10.004, limits were established for the classification of wastes into class I or II. A coincidence in the classification of 50% of the analyzed samples was observed. In cases in which there is no coherence between the methods, the method proposed in this work classifies the waste into class I. These data are preliminary, but they reveal that the classification system proposed here is promising because of its quickness and economic viability.

  9. Management of tritium-contaminated wastes a survey of alternative options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1990-01-01

    The European Tritium Handling Experimental Laboratory (ETHEL) under construction on the site of Ispra Joint Research Centre of the Commission of European Communities has been commissioned to experimentally develop operational and environmental safety aspects related to the tritium technology in fusion, i.e. dealing with the behaviour and reliability of materials, equipment and containment systems under tritium impact. For this reason a part of the experimental activities to be performed in ETHEL will be devoted to laboratory research on tritiated waste management. However, since all experimental activities planned for the execution in ETHEL will by itselves generate tritiated wastes, current strategies and practices to be applied for the routine management of these wastes need also to be defined. To attain this target an adequate background information must be provided, which is the intent of this report. Through an exhaustive literature survey tritiated waste management options till now investigated or currently applied in several countries have been assessed. A particular importance has been attached to the tritium leach test programmes, whose results enable to assess the tritium retention efficiency of the various waste immobilization options. The conclusions resulting from the overall assessment are presented

  10. Evaluation of alternative flow sheets for upgrade of the Process Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.

    1991-04-01

    Improved chemical precipitation and/or ion-exchange (IX) methods are being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in an effort to reduce waste generation at the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP). A wide variety of screening tests were performed on potential precipitation techniques and IX materials on a laboratory scale. Two of the more promising flow sheets have been tested on pilot and full scales. The data were modeled to determine the operating conditions and waste generation at plant-scale and used to develop potential flow sheets for use at the PWTP. Each flow sheet was evaluated using future-valve economic analysis and performance ratings (where numerical values were assigned to costs, process flexibility and simplicity, stage of development, waste reduction, environmental and occupational safety, post-processing requirements, and final waste form). The results of this study indicated that several potential flow sheets should be considered for further development, and more detailed cost estimates should be made before a final selection is made for upgrade of the PWTP. 19 refs., 52 figs., 22 tabs

  11. Summary of EPA's risk assessment results from the analysis of alternative methods of low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandrowski, M.S.; Hung, C.Y.; Meyer, G.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential health risk and individual exposure from a broad number of disposal alternatives is an important part of EPA's program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). The Agency has completed an analysis of the potential population health risks and maximum individual exposures from ten disposal methods under three different hydrogeological and climatic settings. This paper briefly describes the general input and analysis procedures used in the risk assessment for LLW disposal and presents their preliminary results. Some important lessons learned from simulating LLW disposal under a large variety of methods and conditions are identified

  12. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present an overview of the most common strategies and policy instruments (that is, regulatory and economic) used in developed and developing countries to achieve pollution control and waste management objectives. Although this topic has been at the center of theoretical controversy both within and outside the World Bank, the paper is not intended to contribute to this debate. Rather, its purpose is to explore how regulatory and economic instruments are used to control air and water pollution, protect ground water, and manage solid and hazardous wastes. The paper is directed to policy makers at the national, state, and local levels of government, as well as to other parties responsible for pollution control and waste management programs

  13. Assessment of management alternatives for LWR wastes. Volume 1. Main achievements of the joint study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glibert, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the main achievements of a joint theoretical study aimed at evaluating a selection of management routes for LWR wastes, relying to a certain extent on national practices in this particular area, on the basis of economical and radiological criteria. All individual intermediate steps entering a management route, from radioactive-wastes production up to their disposal in near-surface sites or in a deep repository, have been identified, described and cost-evaluated throughout the study. The radiological impact assessment comprises estimates of both individual and collective doses resulting from normal discharges of radioactive effluents and from disposal of radioactive waste products in near-surfaces sites. All specific data concerning the description of the different management routes considered as well as the methodology applied to evaluate cost and radiological impact are detailed in the subsequent volumes of the series (Volumes 2 to 8)

  14. Alternative fuel produced from thermal pyrolysis of waste tires and its use in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Bai, Chi-Jeng; Lin, Chi-Tung; Prakash, Samay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The liquid, solid and gas yields from pyrolysis of waste tires were investigated. • For energy and economic consideration, pre-treatments of TPO were avoided. • Various proportions of TPO-diesel mixture were tested in a DI diesel engine. • TPOs derived from various pyrolysis temperatures were also tested in engine. • Fuel con