WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste disposal sites

  1. 36 CFR 6.5 - Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.5 Solid waste disposal sites in operation on September 1, 1984. (a) The operator of a solid waste disposal site...

  2. Impact of a waste disposal site on children physical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Ocampo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of health problems among population living close to landfills. We evaluated the impact of a municipal solid waste disposal site on children’s growth between 0-3 years of age. Methods: Children were selected in sites likely to receive dispersion of air compounds from the waste disposal site and also in a control area, in Cali, Colombia, in 2005. Anthropometric measures were obtained at enrollment and in two follow-up visits at 3 months intervals to obtain standardized z scores of weight for height (WHZ and height for age (HAZ. In addition, questionnaires including information of socio-economical conditions and morbidity were applied at enrolment and during follow-up visits. Results: Children exposed had on average 0.16 less standard deviations (SD in WHZ scores when compared to control group (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -0.34, 0.01. Among those who have lived >50% of their life in the study area, a significantly lower HAZ score was observed (-0.12 associated with exposure. Our data also suggest a larger effect of exposure to the waste disposal site in WHZ among children with symptoms of respiratory disease than among asymptomatic children (p=0.08. Conclusions: Exposure to this waste disposal site was found associated with lower children’s growth indexes.

  3. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Locations for Disposal, Storage and Handling of Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_DISPOSAL_STORAGE_HANDLING_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains waste site locations for the disposal, storage, and handling of solid and hazardous waste...

  4. Impact of a waste disposal site on children physical growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Ocampo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of health problems among population living close to landfills. We evaluated the impact of a municipal solid waste disposal site on children’s growth between 0-3 years of age.Methods: Children were selected in sites likely to receive dispersion of air compounds from the waste disposal site and also in a control area, in Cali, Colombia, in 2005. Anthropometric measures were obtained at enrollment and in two follow-up visits at 3 months intervals to obtain standardized z scores of weight for height (WHZ and height for age (HAZ. In addition, questionnaires including information of socio-economical conditions and morbidity were applied at enrolment and during follow-up visits.Results: Children exposed had on average 0.16 less standard deviations (SD in WHZ scores when compared to control group (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -0.34, 0.01. Among those who have lived >50% of their life in the study area, a significantly lower HAZ score was observed (-0.12 associated with exposure. Our data also suggest a larger effect of exposure to the waste disposal site in WHZ among children with symptoms of respiratory disease than among asymptomatic children (p=0.08.

  5. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  6. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  8. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-09-14

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the &apos

  9. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  10. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  11. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/Navarro

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  12. Overview of Nevada Test Site Radioactive and Mixed Waste Disposal Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Carilli; S.K. Krenzien; R.G. Geisinger; S.J. Gordon; B. Quinn

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is responsible for carrying out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and low-level radioactive mixed waste (MW) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Core elements of this mission are ensuring safe and cost-effective disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on the impacts of new policies, processes, and opportunities at the NTS related to LLW and MW. Covered topics include: the first year of direct funding for NTS waste disposal operations; zero tolerance policy for non-compliant packages; the suspension of mixed waste disposal; waste acceptance changes; DOE Consolidated Audit Program (DOECAP) auditing; the 92-Acre Area closure plan; new eligibility requirements for generators; and operational successes with unusual waste streams.

  13. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, Giovanni; De Gisi, Sabino

    2014-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a "land use map of potentially suitable areas" for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the "Priority Scale") in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  14. Application for Permit to Operate a Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-03-31

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The site will be used for the disposal of refuse, rubbish, garbage, sewage sludge, pathological waste, Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM), industrial solid waste, hydrocarbon-burdened soil, hydrocarbon-burdened demolition and construction waste, and other inert waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids or regulated under Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA), excluding Polychlorinated Biphenyl [PCB], Bulk Product Waste (see Section 6.2.5) and ACM (see Section 6.2.2.2) will not be accepted for disposal at the site. The disposal site will be used as the sole depository of permissible waste which is: (1) Generated by entities covered under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (2) Generated at sites identified in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO); (3) Sensitive records and media, including documents, vugraphs, computer disks, typewriter ribbons, magnetic tapes, etc., generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors; (4) ACM generated by NNSA/NSO or its contractors according to Section 6.2.2.2, as necessary; (5) Hydrocarbon-burdened soil and solid waste from areas covered under the EPA Hazardous Waste Generator Identification Number for the NTS; (6) Other waste on a case-by-case concurrence by

  15. Using MCDA and GIS for hazardous waste landfill siting considering land scarcity for waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, Giovanni De, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Gisi, Sabino De [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, ENEA, Water Resource Management Lab., via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Wasting land for the siting of hazardous waste landfills must be avoided. • The siting procedure is based on a land use map of potentially suitable areas. • All the waste facilities of the management system are simultaneously considered. • A case study is developed considering two multi-criteria techniques. • An innovative criteria weighting tool (PSW) is used in combination with the AHP. - Abstract: The main aim of this study was to develop a procedure that minimizes the wasting of space for the siting of hazardous waste landfills as part of a solid waste management system. We wanted to tackle the shortage of land for waste disposal that is a serious and growing problem in most large urban regions. The procedure combines a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach with a geographical information system (GIS). The GIS was utilised to obtain an initial screening in order to eliminate unsuitable areas, whereas the MCDA was developed to select the most suitable sites. The novelty of the proposed siting procedure is the introduction of a new screening phase before the macro-siting step aimed at producing a “land use map of potentially suitable areas” for the siting of solid waste facilities which simultaneously takes into consideration all plant types. The issue of obtaining sites evaluations of a specific facility was coupled with the issue of not wasting land appropriate to facilitate other types of waste management options. In the developed case study, the use of an innovative criteria weighting tool (the “Priority Scale”) in combination with the Analytic Hierarchy Process was useful to easier define the priorities of the evaluation criteria in comparison with other classic methods such as the Paired Comparison Technique in combination with the Simple Additive Weighting method.

  16. 36 CFR 6.6 - Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal sites... NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.6 Solid waste disposal sites within new additions to the National Park System. (a) An...

  17. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  18. Locational conflict and the siting of nuclear waste disposal repositories: an international appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    F M Shelley; B D Solomon; M J Pasqualetti; G T Murauskas

    1988-01-01

    The industrialized nations of the world have begun to plan for the storage and eventual disposal of their increasing volumes of nuclear wastes. In this paper the authors inventory the progress made by these nations in planning for nuclear waste disposal. A typology based on the adoption of spent-fuel reprocessing programs and of progress toward selection of permanent disposal sites is developed, and the world's nuclear nations are located within this typology. However, those countries which h...

  19. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  20. Costs for off-site disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes: Salt caverns versus other disposal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1997-09-01

    According to an American Petroleum Institute production waste survey reported on by P.G. Wakim in 1987 and 1988, the exploration and production segment of the US oil and gas industry generated more than 360 million barrels (bbl) of drilling wastes, more than 20 billion bbl of produced water, and nearly 12 million bbl of associated wastes in 1985. Current exploration and production activities are believed to be generating comparable quantities of these oil field wastes. Wakim estimates that 28% of drilling wastes, less than 2% of produced water, and 52% of associated wastes are disposed of in off-site commercial facilities. In recent years, interest in disposing of oil field wastes in solution-mined salt caverns has been growing. This report provides information on the availability of commercial disposal companies in oil-and gas-producing states, the treatment and disposal methods they employ, and the amounts they charge. It also compares cavern disposal costs with the costs of other forms of waste disposal.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  2. Geoscientific Investigations for Searching Suitable Solid Waste Disposal Site Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Rokade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The whole world is facing challenges of geo-environmental disposal of municipal solid waste. Considering the problem, in this paper author has established a methodology for searching the geo-scientifically feasible solid waste disposal site using advent geospatial tools. GIS modeling with overlay operation is most useful to find out geoscientifically feasible areas satisfying criteria decided for site selection. Present disposal system of study area is representing the unawareness about the geo-environmental problems and health hazards. This study provides a selection of environment friendly and geo-scientifically suitable areas for the disposal of solid waste supplying reasonable, convenient and administratively transparent solutions to the waste disposal problems.

  3. Disposal of Low-Level Waste (LLW) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none

    2014-05-14

    DOE Office of Environmental Management presentation at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the National Transportation Stakeholders Forum on the disposal of low-level waste at the Nevada National Security Site.

  4. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    OpenAIRE

    Leaković, S.; Lisac, H.; Vukadin, R.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments) which are bounded by 6 ...

  5. Framework for DOE mixed low-level waste disposal: Site fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Hospelhorn, M.B.; Chu, M.S.Y. [eds.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required to prepare and submit Site Treatment Plans (STPS) pursuant to the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCAct). Although the FFCAct does not require that disposal be addressed in the STPS, the DOE and the States recognize that treatment of mixed low-level waste will result in residues that will require disposal in either low-level waste or mixed low-level waste disposal facilities. As a result, the DOE is working with the States to define and develop a process for evaluating disposal-site suitability in concert with the FFCAct and development of the STPS. Forty-nine potential disposal sites were screened; preliminary screening criteria reduced the number of sites for consideration to twenty-six. The DOE then prepared fact sheets for the remaining sites. These fact sheets provided additional site-specific information for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the twenty-six sites as potential disposal sites. The information also provided the basis for discussion among affected States and the DOE in recommending sites for more detailed evaluation.

  6. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorp, Frits; Grogan, Helen; McCombie, Charles

    The aim of radioactive and non-radioactive waste management is to protect man and the environment from unacceptable risks. Protection criteria for both should therefore be based on similar considerations. From overall protection criteria, performance criteria for subsystems in waste management can be derived, for example for waste disposal. International developments in this field are summarized. A brief overview of radioactive waste sorts and disposal concepts is given. Currently being implemented are trench disposal and engineered near-surface facilities for low-level wastes. For low-and intermediate-level waste underground facilities are under construction. For high-level waste site selection and investigation is being carried out in several countries. In all countries with nuclear programmes, the predicted performance of waste disposal systems is being assessed in scenario and consequence analyses. The influences of variability and uncertainty of parameter values are increasingly being treated by probabilistic methods. Results of selected performance assessments show that radioactive waste disposal sites can be found and suitable repositories can be designed so that defined radioprotection limits are not exceeded.

  7. Sewerage Treatment Plants - WASTE_TREATMENT_STORAGE_DISPOSAL_IDEM_IN: Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_TREATMENT_STORAGE_DISPOSAL_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  8. IMPACT OF THE JAKUŠEVEC-PRUDINEC WASTE DISPOSAL SITE ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Nakić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the research shown in this paper is to investigate the cause and effect relation of the Jakuševec-Prudinec waste disposal site and the groundwater pollution. The recovery of the Jakuševec-Prudinec waste disposal site by the end of 2003 did not have any significant impact on the pollution reduction in groundwater. Very high values of the pollution index defined in the area southeastern from the waste disposal site show spreading of the pollution toward Mičevec village. The analysis of the hydrogeochemical characteristics showed that in the waste disposal site area the local geochemical anomalies of the partial CO2 pressure exist, indicating that the intensive carbonate dissolution processes and HCO3- enrichment dominate in this area. Near the border of the waste disposal site groundwater with high ammonium ion (NH4+ and chloride ion (Cl- dominates. The high concentrations of the heavy metals and very strong geochemical bonds determined from the correlation coefficients show that in the reductive aquifer conditions heavy metals strongly release (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE FOR ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEMS IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Domitrović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered barrier systems are used in radioactive waste disposal sites in order to provide better protection of humans and the environment from the potential hazards associated with the radioactive waste disposal. The engineered barrier systems usually contain cement or clay (bentonite because of their isolation properties and long term performance. Quality control tests of clays are the same for all engineering barrier systems. Differences may arise in the required criteria to be met due for different application. Prescribed clay properties depend also on the type of host rocks. This article presents radioactive waste management based on best international practice. Standard quality control procedures for bentonite used as a sealing barrier in radioactive waste disposal sites are described as some personal experiences and results of the index tests (free swelling index, water adsorption capacity, plasticity limits and hydraulic permeability of bentonite (the paper is published in Croatian.

  10. Site selection and licensing issues: Southwest Compact low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, J.L.

    1989-11-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal site in California is being selected through a three-phase program. Phase 1 is a systematic statewide, regional, and local screening study. This program was conducted during 1986 and 1987, and culminated in the selection of three candidate sites fur further study. The candidate sites are identified as the Panamint, Silurian, and Ward Valley sites. Phase 2 comprises site characterization and environmental and socio-economic impact study activities at the three candidate sites. Based upon the site characterization studies, the candidate sites are ranked according to the desirability and conformance with regulatory requirements. Phase 3 comprises preparation of a license application for the selected candidate site. The license application will include a detailed characterization of the site, detailed design and operations plans for the proposed facility, and assessments of potential impacts of the site upon the environment and the local communities. Five types of siting criteria were developed to govern the site selection process. These types are: technical suitability exclusionary criteria, high-avoidance criteria beyond technical suitability requirements, discretionary criteria, public acceptance, and schedule requirements of the LLWR Policy Act Amendments. This paper discusses the application of the hydrological and geotechnical criteria during the siting and licensing studies in California. These criteria address site location and performance, and the degree to which present and future site behavior can be predicted. Primary regulatory requirements governing the suitability of a site are that the site must be hydrologically and geologically simple enough for the confident prediction of future behavior, and that the site must be stable enough that frequent or intensive maintenance of the closed site will not be required. This paper addresses the methods to measure site suitability at each stage of the process, methods to

  11. A data base for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, M.L.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1989-07-01

    A computerized database was developed to assist the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating methods and data for characterizing health hazards associated with land and ocean disposal options for low-level radioactive wastes. The data cover 1984 to 1987. The types of sites considered include Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed commercial disposal sites, EPA National Priority List (NPL) sites, US Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Project (FUSRAP) and DOE Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) sites, inactive US ocean disposal sites, and DOE/Department of Defense facilities. Sources of information include reports from EPA, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as well as direct communication with individuals associated with specific programs. The data include site descriptions, waste volumes and activity levels, and physical and radiological characterization of low-level wastes. Additional information on mixed waste, packaging forms, and disposal methods were compiled, but are not yet included in the database. 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; waste materials.

  13. Hydrogeologic setting east of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Core samples from 45 test wells and 4 borings were used to describe the glacial geology of the area east of the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Previous work has shown that shallow ground water beneath the disposal site flows east through a pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member of the Glasford Formation. The pebbly sand was found in core samples from wells in an area extending northeast from the waste-disposal site to a strip-mine lake and east along the south side of the lake. Other stratigraphic units identified in the study area are correlated with units found on the disposal site. The pebbly-sand unit of the Toulon Member grades from a pebbly sand on site into a coarse gravel with sand and pebbles towards the lake. The Hulick Till Member, a key bed, underlies the Toulon Member throughout most of the study area. A narrow channel-like depression in the Hulick Till is filled with coarse gravelly sand of the Toulon Member. The filled depression extends eastward from near the northeast corner of the waste-disposal site to the strip-mine lake. (USGS)

  14. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, D.D. [Water Resources Engineer, Lincoln, NE (United States); Stansbury, J. [Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln, Omaha, NE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  15. RESULTS OF THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE CLASSIFIED TRANSURANIC WASTES DISPOSED AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. COCHRAN; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Most transuranic (TRU) wastes are destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, the TRU wastes from the cleanup of US nuclear weapons accidents are classified for national security reasons and cannot be disposed in WIPP. The US Department of Energy (DOE) sought an alternative disposal method for these ''special case'' TRU wastes and from 1984 to 1987, four Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes were used to place these special case TRU wastes a minimum of 21 m (70 ft) below the land surface and a minimum of 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in arid alluvium at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS). Because of state regulatory concerns, the GCD boreholes have not been used for waste disposal since 1989. DOE requires that TRU waste disposal facilities meet the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) requirements for disposal of TRU wastes, which are contained in 40 CFR 191. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU waste emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's requirements. Sandia has completed the PA using all available information and an iterative PA methodology. This paper overviews the PA of the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes [1]. As such, there are few cited references in this paper and the reader is referred to [1] and [2] for references. The results of the PA are that disposal of TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes easily complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 safety standards for disposal of TRU wastes. The PA is undergoing a DOE Headquarters (DOE/HQ) peer review, and the final PA will be released in FY2001 or FY2002.

  16. 1996 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-26-OIF. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal-restricted mixed waste management at the Hanford Site.

  17. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes.

  18. Siting Study for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Joan Connolly; Lance Peterson; Brennon Orr; Bob Starr

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has identified a mission need for continued disposal capacity for remote-handled low-level waste (LLW) generated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). An alternatives analysis that was conducted to evaluate strategies to achieve this mission need identified two broad options for disposal of INL generated remote-handled LLW: (1) offsite disposal and (2) onsite disposal. The purpose of this study is to identify candidate sites or locations within INL boundaries for the alternative of an onsite remote handled LLW disposal facility and recommend the highest-ranked locations for consideration in the National Environmental Policy Act process. The study implements an evaluation based on consideration of five key elements: (1) regulations, (2) key assumptions, (3) conceptual design, (4) facility performance, and (5) previous INL siting study criteria, and uses a five-step process to identify, screen, evaluate, score, and rank 34 separate sites located across INL. The result of the evaluation is identification of two recommended alternative locations for siting an onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility. The two alternative locations that best meet the evaluation criteria are (1) near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and (2) west of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility.

  19. Regulatory Framework for Salt Waste Disposal and Tank Closure at the Savannah River Site - 13663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Steve; Dickert, Ginger [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The end of the Cold War has left a legacy of approximately 37 million gallons of radioactive waste in the aging waste tanks at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). A robust program is in place to remove waste from these tanks, treat the waste to separate into a relatively small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste, and to actively dispose of the low-level waste on-site and close the waste tanks and associated ancillary structures. To support performance-based, risk-informed decision making and to ensure compliance with all regulatory requirements, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its current and past contractors have worked closely with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and implement a framework for on-site low-level waste disposal and closure of the SRS waste tanks. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides DOE the authority to manage defense-related radioactive waste. DOE Order 435.1 and its associated manual and guidance documents detail this radioactive waste management process. The DOE also has a requirement to consult with the NRC in determining that waste that formerly was classified as high-level waste can be safely managed as either low-level waste or transuranic waste. Once DOE makes a determination, NRC then has a responsibility to monitor DOE's actions in coordination with SCDHEC to ensure compliance with the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61 (10CFR61), Subpart C performance objectives. The management of hazardous waste substances or components at SRS is regulated by SCDHEC and the EPA. The foundation for the interactions between DOE, SCDHEC and EPA is the SRS Federal Facility Agreement (FFA). Managing this array of requirements and successfully interacting with regulators, consultants and stakeholders is a challenging task but

  20. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in

  1. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada National Security Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-10-04

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is the federal lands management authority for the NNSS and National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NNSS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NNSS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NNSS. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NNSS (Figure 1), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. The site will be used for the disposal of regulated Asbestiform Low-Level Waste (ALLW), small quantities of low-level radioactive hydrocarbon-burdened (LLHB) media and debris, LLW, LLW that contains Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water, and small quantities of LLHB demolition and construction waste (hereafter called permissible waste). Waste containing free liquids, or waste that is regulated as hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or state-of-generation hazardous waste regulations, will not be accepted for disposal at the site. Waste regulated under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) that will be accepted at the disposal site is regulated asbestos-containing materials (RACM) and PCB Bulk Product Waste greater than 50 ppm that leaches at a rate of less than 10 micrograms of PCB per liter of water. The term asbestiform is

  2. Remote Sensing Analysis Techniques and Sensor Requirements to Support the Mapping of Illegal Domestic Waste Disposal Sites in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Glanville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal disposal of waste is a significant management issue for contemporary governments with waste posing an economic, social, and environmental risk. An improved understanding of the distribution of illegal waste disposal sites is critical to enhance the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of waste management efforts. Remotely sensed data has the potential to address this knowledge gap. However, the literature regarding the use of remote sensing to map illegal waste disposal sites is incomplete. This paper aims to analyze existing remote sensing methods and sensors used to monitor and map illegal waste disposal sites. The purpose of this paper is to support the evaluation of existing remote sensing methods for mapping illegal domestic waste sites in Queensland, Australia. Recent advances in technology and the acquisition of very high-resolution remote sensing imagery provide an important opportunity to (1 revisit established analysis techniques for identifying illegal waste disposal sites, (2 examine the applicability of different remote sensors for illegal waste disposal detection, and (3 identify opportunities for future research to increase the accuracy of any illegal waste disposal mapping products.

  3. DRINK: a biogeochemical source term model for low level radioactive waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, P; McGarry, R; Hoffmann, A; Binks, P

    1997-07-01

    Interactions between element chemistry and the ambient geochemistry play a significant role in the control of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These same interactions influence radionuclide release from near surface, low level radioactive waste, disposal sites once physical containment has degraded. In situations where LLW contains significant amounts of metal and organic materials such as cellulose, microbial degradation in conjunction with corrosion can significantly perturb the ambient geochemistry. These processes typically produce a transition from oxidising to reducing conditions and can influence radionuclide migration through changes in both the dominant radionuclide species and mineral phases. The DRINK (DRIgg Near field Kinetic) code is a biogeochemical transport code designed to simulate the long term evolution of the UK low level radioactive waste disposal site at Drigg. Drigg is the UK's principal solid low level radioactive waste disposal site and has been receiving waste since 1959. The interaction between microbial activity, the ambient geochemistry and radionuclide chemistry is central to the DRINK approach with the development of the ambient pH, redox potential and bulk geochemistry being directly influenced by microbial activity. This paper describes the microbial aspects of the code, site data underpinning the microbial model, the microbiology/chemistry interface and provides an example of the code in action.

  4. DEVELOPMENT QUALIFICATION AND DISPOSAL OF AN ALTERNATIVE IMMOBILIZED LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE FORM AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAMS TL; EDGE JA; SWANBERG DJ; ROBBINS RA

    2011-01-13

    Demonstrating that a waste form produced by a given immobilization process is chemically and physically durable as well as compliant with disposal facility acceptance criteria is critical to the success of a waste treatment program, and must be pursued in conjunction with the maturation of the waste processing technology. Testing of waste forms produced using differing scales of processing units and classes of feeds (simulants versus actual waste) is the crux of the waste form qualification process. Testing is typically focused on leachability of constituents of concern (COCs), as well as chemical and physical durability of the waste form. A principal challenge regarding testing immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) forms is the absence of a standard test suite or set of mandatory parameters against which waste forms may be tested, compared, and qualified for acceptance in existing and proposed nuclear waste disposal sites at Hanford and across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. A coherent and widely applicable compliance strategy to support characterization and disposal of new waste forms is essential to enhance and accelerate the remediation of DOE tank waste. This paper provides a background summary of important entities, regulations, and considerations for nuclear waste form qualification and disposal. Against this backdrop, this paper describes a strategy for meeting and demonstrating compliance with disposal requirements emphasizing the River Protection Project (RPP) Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site and the fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineralized low-activity waste (LAW) product stream.

  5. 1997 State-by-State Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes Received at Commercial Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R. L.

    1998-08-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the United States. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1997 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1993 through 1997; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States as of December 31, 1997.

  6. The Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd., (United Kindgom); Patera, E.S. [Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-04-01

    For some deep geological disposal systems, the level of confinement provided by the natural and engineered barriers is considered to be so high that the greatest long-term risks associated with waste disposal may arise from the possibility of future human actions breaching the natural and/or engineered barrier systems. Following a Workshop in 1989, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established a Working Group on Assessment of Future Human Actions (FHA) a Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. This Group met four times in the period 1991--1993, and has extensively reviewed approaches to and experience of incorporating the effects of FHA into long-term performance assessments (PAs). The Working Group`s report reviews the main issues concerning the treatment of FHA, presents a general framework for the quantitative, consideration of FHA in radioactive waste disposal programmes, and discusses means in reduce the risks associated with FHA. The Working Group concluded that FHA must be considered in PAs, although FHA where the actors were cognizant of the risks could be ignored. Credit can be taken for no more than several hundred years of active site control; additional efforts should therefore be taken to reduce the risks associated with FHA. International agreement on principles for the construction of FHA scenarios would build confidence, as would further discussion concerning regulatory policies for judging risks associated with FHA.

  7. 1997 Hanford site report on land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1997-04-07

    The baseline land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan was prepared in 1990 in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tn-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-00 (Ecology et al, 1989). The text of this milestone is below. ''LDR requirements include limitations on storage of specified hazardous wastes (including mixed wastes). In accordance with approved plans and schedules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) shall develop and implement technologies necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements for mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. LDR plans and schedules shall be developed with consideration of other action plan milestones and will not become effective until approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (or Washington State Department of Ecology [Ecology]) upon authorization to administer LDRs pursuant to Section 3006 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Disposal of LDR wastes at any time is prohibited except in accordance with applicable LDR requirements for nonradioactive wastes at all times. The plan will include, but not be limited to, the following: Waste characterization plan; Storage report; Treatment report; Treatment plan; Waste minimization plan; A schedule depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with LDR requirements; and A process for establishing interim milestones.

  8. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauls, V.W. [Dept. of Energy, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Field Office

    1993-03-01

    An important objective of the Savannah River Site`s low-level radioactive waste management program is to isolate the waste from the environment both now and well into the future. A key element in achieving this is the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in sealed concrete vaults. Historically the Site has disposed of low-level radioactive waste via shallow land burial. In 1987, it was decided that better isolation from the environment was required. At that time several options for achieving this isolation were studied and below grade concrete vaults were chosen as the best method. This paper discusses the performance objectives for the vaults, the current design of the vaults and plans for the design of future vaults, the cost to construct the vaults, and the performance assessment on the vaults. Construction of the first set of vaults is essentially complete and readiness reviews before the start of waste receipt are being performed. Startup is to begin late in calendar year 1992 and continue through early CY 1993. The performance assessment is under way and the first draft is to be completed in early 1993.

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  10. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Frank G.; Phifer, Mark A.

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory

  11. Berm design to reduce risks of catastrophic slope failures at solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Matteo; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Clemmer, Ryan; Jahanfar, M Ali

    2016-11-01

    Existing waste disposal sites are being strained by exceeding their volumetric capacities because of exponentially increasing rates of municipal solid waste generation worldwide, especially in densely populated metropolises. Over the past 40 years, six well-documented and analyzed disposal sites experienced catastrophic failure. This research presents a novel analysis and design method for implementation of a series of in-situ earth berms to slow down the movement of waste material flow following a catastrophic failure. This is the first study of its kind that employs a dynamic landslide analysis model, DAN-W, and the Voellmy rheological model to approximate solid waste avalanche flow. A variety of single and multiple berm configuration scenarios were developed and tested to find an optimum configuration of the various earth berm geometries and number of berms to achieve desired energy dissipation and reduction in total waste material runout length. The case study application of the novel mitigation measure shows that by constructing a series of six relatively inexpensive 3 m high earth berms at an optimum distance of 250 m from the slope toe, the total runout length of 1000 m and associated fatalities of the Leuwigajah dumpsite catastrophic failure in Bandung, Indonesia, could have been reduced by half. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. 1996 state-by-state assessment of low-level radioactive wastes received at commercial disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Each year the National Low-Level Waste Management Program publishes a state-by-state assessment report. This report provides both national and state-specific disposal data on low-level radioactive waste commercially disposed in the US. Data in this report are categorized according to disposal site, generator category, waste class, volumes, and radionuclide activity. Included in this report are tables showing the distribution of waste by state for 1996 and a comparison of waste volumes and radioactivity by state for 1992 through 1996; also included is a list of all commercial nuclear power reactors in the US as of December 31, 1996. This report distinguishes between low-level radioactive waste shipped directly for disposal by generators and waste that was handled by an intermediary, a reporting change introduced in the 1988 state-by-state report.

  13. Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangyao, Komsilp; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of landfill methane emission were performed at nine solid waste disposal sites in Thailand, including five managed sanitary landfills (four deep and one shallow landfills) and four unmanaged landfills (three deep and one shallow dumpsites). It was found that methane emissions during the rainy season were about five to six times higher than those during the winter and summer seasons in the case of managed landfills and two to five times higher in the case of unmanaged landfills. Methane emission estimate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model was compared with the actual field measurement from the studied disposal sites with methane correction factors and methane oxidation factors that were obtained by error function analysis with default values of half-life parameters. The methane emissions from the first-order decay model from the IPCC Waste Model yielded fair results compared to field measurements. The best fitting values of methane correction factor were 0.65, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.1 for deep landfills, shallow landfills, deep dumpsites, and shallow dumpsites, respectively. Using these key parameters in the case of Thailand, it was estimated that 89.22 Gg of methane were released from solid waste disposal sites into the atmosphere in 2006.

  14. Comparative approaches to siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberry, W.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes activities in nine States to select site locations for new disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. These nine States have completed processes leading to identification of specific site locations for onsite investigations. For each State, the status, legal and regulatory framework, site criteria, and site selection process are described. In most cases, States and compact regions decided to assign responsibility for site selection to agencies of government and to use top-down mapping methods for site selection. The report discusses quantitative and qualitative techniques used in applying top-down screenings, various approaches for delineating units of land for comparison, issues involved in excluding land from further consideration, and different positions taken by the siting organizations in considering public acceptance, land use, and land availability as factors in site selection.

  15. Application of Industrial Waste CaF2 for Vegetative Covering of Phosphogypsum Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leaković, S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum, i.e. calcium sulphate dihydrate is generated as a by-product in the phosphoric acid production during reaction between phosphate rock and sulphuric acid. It is stored as nonhazardous waste in a disposal site. Since 1983, when the phosphoric acid plant started operation, about 8 140 000 t of phosphogypsum have been disposed there. The disposal site consists of four separate ponds (compartments which are bounded by 6 meter high embankments of earth. According to a special design, it is possible to build layers upon the existing disposal site using phosphogypsum for making embankments. So far, the first 6-meter high level has been built with a 1:3 side slope of phosphogypsum embankments. Formation of the second level with 1:5 side slope is currently in progress. Another byproduct of phosphoric acid production is fluoride- and phosphorus-polluted wastewater. Before being discharged into the natural recipient, this wastewater is treated with calcium hydroxide. The product of neutralisation is calcium fluoride (CaF2 which is deposited in separate lagoons as nonhazardous waste. The application of calcium fluoride as a substrate for plants in the process of vegetative covering of the phosphogypsum disposal site is a new method of its usage. This way, a significant financial benefit is achieved because it is not necessary to build a new lagoon for calcium fluoride disposal. Regarding the environmental aspect, usage for vegetative covering is far better than the standard process of calcium fluoride disposal because residual phosphorus from CaF2 is utilised for enhanced growth of the plants. At the same time, the necessity for natural soil covering of the disposal site is reduced by 500 000 m3. Apart from the natural grass species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., grass mixtures with high content of red fescue (Festuca rubra L. and false indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa L. displayed the best growth on the

  16. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  17. 1995 Report on Hanford site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-04-01

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-26-01E. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of land disposal restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors at the Hanford Site were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers mixed waste only. The Washington State Department of Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) to bring the Hanford Site operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDRs) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for radioactive mixed waste. This report is the fifth update of the plan first issued in 1990. Tri-Party Agreement negotiations completed in 1993 and approved in January 1994 changed and added many new milestones. Most of the changes were related to the Tank Waste Remediation System and these changes are incorporated into this report.

  18. 76 FR 30027 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste Treatment Issued to Chemical Waste Management in... Direct Final rule pertains to the treatment of a hazardous waste generated by the Owens-Brockway Glass... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 268 Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous...

  19. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    two models are multi-phase models, which defines waste fractions into traditional MSW and low-organic waste categories, respectively. Both the LandGEM and the IPCC model estimated significantly larger methane (CH4) generation in comparison to the Afvalzorg model. The Afvalzorg model could better show...... the influence of not only the total disposed waste amount, but also various waste categories, and was found more suitable to estimate LFG generation from landfills receiving low-organic waste. Four major waste categories currently being disposed at Danish landfills (mixed bulky, shredder, dewatered sludge...... results. The LFG generation from four Danish landfills was estimated by the Afvalzorg model using the experimentally based BMP and k values and compared to whole landfill emission rates measured by applying a tracer gas dispersion method. The results showed that the revised modelled LFG generation rates...

  20. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  1. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover.

  2. Technical Scope and Approach for the 2004 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Charles T.; Bryce, Robert W.; Buck, John W.

    2004-07-09

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 435.1-1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site (DOE/HQ-Manual 435.1-1). A Composite Analysis is defined as ''a reasonably conservative assessment of the cumulative impact from active and planned low-level waste disposal facilities, and all other sources from radioactive contamination that could interact with the low-level waste disposal facility to affect the dose to future members of the public''. At the Hanford Site, a composite analysis is required for continued disposal authorization for the immobilized low-activity waste, tank waste vitrification plant melters, low level waste in the 200 East and 200 West Solid Waste Burial Grounds, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste in the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The 2004 Composite Analysis will be a site-wide analysis, considering final remedial actions for the Columbia River corridor and the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The river corridor includes waste sites and facilities in each of the 100 Areas as well as the 300, 400, and 600 Areas. The remedial actions for the river corridor are being conducted to meet residential land use standards with the vision of the river corridor being devoted to a combination of recreation and preservation. The ''Central Plateau'' describes the region associated with operations and waste sites of the 200 Areas. DOE is developing a strategy for closure of the Central Plateau area by 2035. At the time of closure, waste management activities will shrink to a Core Zone within the Central Plateau. The Core Zone will contain the majority of Hanford's permanently disposed waste

  3. Characterization and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The third Aespoe International Seminar was organised by SKB to assess the state of the art in characterisation and evaluation of sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in fractured rocks. Site characterisation and evaluation are important elements for determining the site suitability and long-term safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste disposal. Characterisation work also provides vital information for the design of the underground facility and the engineered barrier system that will contain the waste. The aim of the seminar was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the current know-how on this topic based on world-wide experience from more than 20 years of characterisation and evaluation work. The seminar, which was held at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory was attended by 72 scientists from 10 different countries. The program was divided into four sessions of which two were run in parallel. A total of 38 oral and 5 poster presentations were given at the seminar. The presentations gave a comprehensive summary of recently completed and current work on site characterisation, modelling and application in performance assessments. The results presented at the seminar generally show that significant progress has been made in this field during the last decade. New characterisation techniques have become available, strategies for site investigations have developed further, and model concepts and codes have reached new levels of refinement. Data obtained from site characterisation have also successfully been applied in several site specific performance assessments. The seminar clearly showed that there is a solid scientific basis for assessing the suitability of sites for actual repositories based on currently available site characterisation technology and modelling capabilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 of the presentations

  4. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  5. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes at a Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-08-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has resulted in long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor soil water potential conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in soil water potential in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to above normal precipitation. These tensiometer data have the potential to effectively and rapidly validate that a remedial action such as placement of an ET cover would be successful in reducing the water moisture movement inside the disposal area to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  6. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Site selection criteria. Technical and economical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granero, J.J. (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    General considerations, geological and socioeconomical criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations are treated. More attention is given to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and different solutions searched abroad which seems of interest for Spain.

  7. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  9. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  10. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  12. IJER@2014 Page 57 Disposal Criteria of Bhanpur Solid Waste Landfill Site: Investigation and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Dasgpta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste management and design assist waste management officials in developing and encouraging environmentally sound methods for the disposal of "nonhazardous" solid waste. Promulgated under the authority of municipal act, the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF regulation act establish a framework for planning and implementing municipal solid waste landfill programs at the state and local levels. This framework sets minimum standards for protecting human health and the environment, while allowing states to develop more flexible MSWLF criteria. Intension to mitigate or expeditiously remediate potential adverse environmental impacts resulting from municipal landfills. However, other regulations existed prior to the revised MSWLF standards discussed in this module. The promulgation Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices. The established regulatory standards to satisfy the minimum national performance criteria for sanitary landfills governs only those solid waste disposal facilities and practices that do not meet the definition of a MSWLF. Such facilities include waste piles, industrial nonhazardous waste landfills, surface impoundments, and land application units. Environmental Protect Authority (EPA modified address the fact that these non-municipal non-hazardous wastes landfills may receive Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator (CESQG hazardous waste, further clarify that construction and demolition landfills may receive residential lead-based paint waste as Solid Waste Disposal Facilities without for MSWLFs as long as all conditions are met.

  13. Quantifying Deep Vadose Zone Soil Water Potential Changes At A Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel M. Hubbell; Deborah L. McElroy

    2007-10-01

    Recent advances in moisture monitoring using tensiometers has allowed long-duration, high quality data sets from within the deep vadose zone. A network of about 30 advanced tensiometers in 18 wells provided field-scale data to monitor moisture conditions and movement in the subsurface in and around a mixed waste disposal site at depths ranging from 6 to over 67 m below land surface (bls). Sensors are located in both sediments and fractured rock within the geologic profile and some have been in operation for over 10 years. The moisture monitoring was able to detect long term declines in moisture content presumably in response to lower than normal precipitation and resultant infiltration over the time period from 2000 to 2004. This trend was reversed in 2005 and 2006 in more than half of the monitoring sites over the 6 to 33 m depth interval and in several monitoring sites from 33 to 67 m, in response to normal to above normal precipitation. This tensiometer data can be used to evaluate the appropriateness of the current conceptual model of flow at this site. It also shows that a moisture monitoring system should be effective to rapidly validate that a proposed remedial action (such as placement of an ET cover) would be effective in reducing the moisture movement to levels similar to those in undisturbed sites outside of the disposal area. This paper will describe the instrument design, how the instruments were installed, and the resultant data from this monitoring system.

  14. Closure Strategy for a Waste Disposal Facility with Multiple Waste Types and Regulatory Drivers at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Wieland, V. Yucel, L. Desotell, G. Shott, J. Wrapp

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) plans to close the waste and classified material storage cells in the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), informally known as the '92-Acre Area', by 2011. The 25 shallow trenches and pits and the 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) borings contain various waste streams including low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), transuranic (TRU), mixed transuranic (MTRU), and high specific activity LLW. The cells are managed under several regulatory and permit programs by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). Although the specific closure requirements for each cell vary, 37 closely spaced cells will be closed under a single integrated monolayer evapotranspirative (ET) final cover. One cell will be closed under a separate cover concurrently. The site setting and climate constrain transport pathways and are factors in the technical approach to closure and performance assessment. Successful implementation of the integrated closure plan requires excellent communication and coordination between NNSA/NSO and the regulators.

  15. Evaluating Transport and Attenuation of Inorganic Contaminants in the Vadose Zone for Aqueous Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    An approach was developed for evaluating vadose zone transport and attenuation of aqueous wastes containing inorganic (non-volatile) contaminants that were disposed of at the land surface (i.e., directly to the ground in cribs, trenches, tile fields, etc.) and their effect on the underlying groundwater. The approach provides a structured method for estimating transport of contaminants through the vadose zone and the resulting temporal profile of groundwater contaminant concentrations. The intent of the approach is also to provide a means for presenting and explaining the results of the transport analysis in the context of the site-specific waste disposal conditions and site properties, including heterogeneities and other complexities. The document includes considerations related to identifying appropriate monitoring to verify the estimated contaminant transport and associated predictions of groundwater contaminant concentrations. While primarily intended for evaluating contaminant transport under natural attenuation conditions, the approach can also be applied to identify types of, and targets for, mitigation approaches in the vadose zone that would reduce the temporal profile of contaminant concentrations in groundwater, if needed.

  16. Investigative studies for the use of an inactive asbestos mine as a disposal site for asbestos wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidarakos, Evangelos; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Koumantakis, Emmanuil; Nikolaos, Stappas

    2008-05-30

    Although, according to European legislation the use of Asbestos Containing Materials is forbidden, many buildings in Greece still contain asbestos products, which must be removed at some point in the near future. Therefore, suitable disposal sites must be found within Greece, so that the unverified disposal of asbestos waste in municipal waste Landfills is brought to an end. In the present work, an innovative approach to the disposal problem of asbestos wastes in Greece has been examined, through a risk assessment analysis of the inactive asbestos mine of Northern Greece and an evaluation of its suitability as a disposal site for asbestos wastes in the future. According to the research carried out, two areas (Site 1 and Site 2) inside the mine area are suitable for the construction of a disposal site for asbestos wastes. The geological investigations showed that in Site 1 and Site 2 ultrabasic rocks of ophiolite complex were prevalent, which have been intensely serpentinized and converted into the fibrous shape of serpentine (asbestos). Concentrations of hazardous substances such as heavy metals in the soil of Site 1 and Site 2 oscillate at low levels, with the exception of the concentrations of nickel and chrome which are high. The investigative work also included the collection of meteorological data and the monitoring of the water level of the artificial lake, which has developed inside the open mine. The main aim is to safely dispose asbestos wastes inside the mine, to minimize any pollution of the wider vicinity of the mine, as well as to engage in restoration activities.

  17. Strategy for identifying natural analogs of the long-term performance of low-level waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J.C.; Waugh, W.J.; Foley, M.G.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Program has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to explore the feasibility of using natural analogs of anticipated waste site and conditions to help validate predictions of the performance of LLW disposal sites. Current regulations require LLW facilities to control the spread of hazardous substances into the environment for at least the next 500 years. Natural analog studies can provide information about processes affecting waste containment that cannot be fully explored through laboratory experimentation and modeling because of the extended period of required performance. For LLW applications, natural analogs include geochemical systems, pedogenic (soil formation) indicators, proxy climate data, and ecological and archaeological settings that portray long-term changes in disposal site environments and the survivability of proposed waste containment materials and structures. Analog data consist of estimates of performance assessment (PA) model input parameters that define possible future environmental states of waste sites, validation parameters that can be predicted by PA models, and descriptive information that can build public confidence in waste disposal practices. This document describes PNL's overall stategy for identifying analogs for LLW disposal systems, reviews lessons learned from past analogs work, outlines the findings of the workshop, and presents examples of analog studies that workshop participants found to be applicable to LLW performance assessment. The lessons from the high-level waste analogs experience and workshop discussions will be used to develop detailed study plans during FY 1990. 39 refs.

  18. Study of contaminant transport at an open-tipping waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Yusoff, Ismail; Yusof, Mohamad; Alias, Yatimah

    2013-07-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to estimate concentration of potential contaminants from landfill in the underlying groundwater, leachate, and surface water. Samples collected in the vicinity of the landfill were analyzed for physiochemical parameters, organic contaminants, and toxic heavy metals. Water quality results obtained were compared from published data and reports. The results indicate serious groundwater and surface water contamination in and around the waste disposal site. Analysis of the organic samples revealed that the site contains polychlorinated biphenyls and other organo-chlorine chemicals, principally chloro-benzenes. Although the amount of PCB concentration discovered was not extreme, their presence indicates a potentially serious environmental threat. Elevated concentrations of lead, copper, nickel, manganese, cadmium, and cobalt at the downgradient indicate that the contamination plume migrated further from the site, and the distribution of metals and metals containing wastes in the site is nonhomogeneous. These results clearly indicate that materials are poorly contained and are at risk of entering the environment. Therefore, full characterization of the dump contents and the integrity of the site are necessary to evaluate the scope of the problem and to identify suitable remediation options.

  19. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  3. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  4. Recommended Radiation Protection Practices for Low-Level Waste Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, D. E.; Hooker, C. D.; Herrington, W. N.; Gilchrist, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in estsblishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) dis- posal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW dis- posal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control , internal exposure control , respiratory protection, survei 1 - lance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of the occupa- tionally exposed individuals. As a result, radiation protection practices were recommended with related rationales in order to reduce occupational exposures as far below specified radiation limits as is reasonably achievable. In addition, recommendations were developed for achieving occupational exposure ALARA under the Regulatory Requirements issued in 10 CFR Part 61.

  5. Gas production, composition and emission at a modern disposal site receiving waste with a low-organic content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Nedenskov, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    AV Miljø is a modern waste disposal site receiving non-combustible waste with a low-organic content. The objective of the current project was to determine the gas generation, composition, emission, and oxidation in top covers on selected waste cells as well as the total methane (CH4) emission fro...... drainage pipes placed in permeable gravel layers in the bottom of empty cells was likely....... the disposal site. The investigations focused particularly on three waste disposal cells containing shredder waste (cell 1.5.1), mixed industrial waste (cell 2.2.2), and mixed combustible waste (cell 1.3). Laboratory waste incubation experiments as well as gas modeling showed that significant gas generation...... was occurring in all three cells. Field analysis showed that the gas generated in the cell with mixed combustible waste consisted of mainly CH4 (70%) and carbon dioxide (CO2) (29%) whereas the gas generated within the shredder waste, primarily consisted of CH4 (27%) and nitrogen (N2) (71%), containing no CO2...

  6. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  7. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  8. Geologic and hydrologic investigations of a potential nuclear waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, M.D.; Yount, J.C. (eds.)

    1988-12-31

    Yucca Mountain in southern Nye County, Nevada, has been selected by the United States Department of Energy as one of three potential sites for the nation`s first high-level nuclear waste repository. Its deep water table, closed-basin ground-water flow, potentially favorable host rock, and sparse population have made the Yucca Mountain area a viable candidate during the search for a nuclear waste disposal site. Yucca Mountain, however, lies within the southern Great Basin, a region of known contemporary tectonism and young volcanic activity, and the characterization of tectonism and volcanism remains as a fundamental problem for the Yucca Mountain site. The United States Geological Survey has been conducting extensive studies to evaluate the geologic setting of Yucca Mountain, as well as the timing and rates of tectonic and volcanic activity in the region. A workshop was convened by the Geologic Survey in Denver, Colorado, on August 19, 20, and 21, 1985, to review the scientific progress and direction of these studies. Considerable debate resulted. This collection of papers represents the results of some of the studies presented at the workshop, but by no means covers all of the scientific results and viewpoints presented. Rather, the volume is meant to serve as a progress report on some of the studies within the Geological Survey`s continuing research program toward characterizing the tectonic framework of Yucca Mountain. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  9. The use of New Brunswick peat moss to treat contaminated groundwater at solid waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, N. [GEMTEC Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Alternative treatment methodology of solid waste disposal sites was investigated in an effort to find a reliable, and cost-effective, means of leachate or impacted groundwater. In particular, the investigation dealt with New Brunswick sphagnum peat moss as an agent capable of removing heavy metals, organics and nutrients. Initially, bench-scale trials were designed to determine optimum operating conditions for full-scale systems. Results of the bench-scale trial showed that increasing the hydraulic loading of the bio-filter did not significantly affect the removal efficiency for most contaminant parameters. On the other hand, incremental reduction of bed depth from 120 cm to 30 cm resulted in a reduction in the removal efficiency of the biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved organic carbon. Adjusting the influent to the bio-filter to pH 9 improved removal efficiency, particularly for heavy metals. It was found that the peat bio-filters eventually became ineffective either as a result of bio-fouling or saturation of the adsorption sites with heavy metals. Investigation of options for disposing of the spent peat is in progress.

  10. Leptospirosis in man, in wild and in domestic animals at waste disposal sites in Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Valova, M; Schaffler, R

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined 65 Rattus rattus, 28 pigs, 12 donkeys, 67 goats, 5 sheep, 1 cow and 1 dog as well as 196 inhabitants at two settlements on the waste disposal sites at the periphery of Cairo. Rattus norvegicus were positive in 55.4% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae, pigs in 14.3% for L. pomona and in 3.6% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae. 2 out of 12 donkeys were positive for L. pomona, 1 of them for L. pyrogenes and L. icterohaemorrhagiae as well, goats in 1.5% for L. grippotyphosa. Human sera reacted positively in 8.7% of the cases, 7.1% of which with L. bratislava, 1.0% with L. icterohaemorrhagiae and 0.5% with L. grippotyphosa and L. sejroe respectively.

  11. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  12. A correction in the CDM methodological tool for estimating methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M M O; van Elk, A G P; Romanel, C

    2015-12-01

    Solid waste disposal sites (SWDS) - especially landfills - are a significant source of methane, a greenhouse gas. Although having the potential to be captured and used as a fuel, most of the methane formed in SWDS is emitted to the atmosphere, mainly in developing countries. Methane emissions have to be estimated in national inventories. To help this task the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has published three sets of guidelines. In addition, the Kyoto Protocol established the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to assist the developed countries to offset their own greenhouse gas emissions by assisting other countries to achieve sustainable development while reducing emissions. Based on methodologies provided by the IPCC regarding SWDS, the CDM Executive Board has issued a tool to be used by project developers for estimating baseline methane emissions in their project activities - on burning biogas from landfills or on preventing biomass to be landfilled and so avoiding methane emissions. Some inconsistencies in the first two IPCC guidelines have already been pointed out in an Annex of IPCC latest edition, although with hidden details. The CDM tool uses a model for methane estimation that takes on board parameters, factors and assumptions provided in the latest IPCC guidelines, while using in its core equation the one of the second IPCC edition with its shortcoming as well as allowing a misunderstanding of the time variable. Consequences of wrong ex-ante estimation of baseline emissions regarding CDM project activities can be of economical or environmental type. Example of the first type is the overestimation of 18% in an actual project on biogas from landfill in Brazil that harms its developers; of the second type, the overestimation of 35% in a project preventing municipal solid waste from being landfilled in China, which harms the environment, not for the project per se but for the undue generated carbon credits. In a simulated landfill - the same

  13. Native Plant Uptake Model for Radioactive Waste Disposal Areas at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,THERESA J.; WIRTH,SHARON

    1999-09-01

    This report defines and defends the basic framework, methodology, and associated input parameters for modeling plant uptake of radionuclides for use in Performance Assessment (PA) activities of Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). PAs are used to help determine whether waste disposal configurations meet applicable regulatory standards for the protection of human health, the environment, or both. Plants adapted to the arid climate of the NTS are able to rapidly capture infiltrating moisture. In addition to capturing soil moisture, plant roots absorb nutrients, minerals, and heavy metals, transporting them within the plant to the above-ground biomass. In this fashion, plant uptake affects the movement of radionuclides. The plant uptake model presented reflects rooting characteristics important to plant uptake, biomass turnover rates, and the ability of plants to uptake radionuclides from the soil. Parameters are provided for modeling plant uptake and estimating surface contaminant flux due to plant uptake under both current and potential future climate conditions with increased effective soil moisture. The term ''effective moisture'' is used throughout this report to indicate the soil moisture that is available to plants and is intended to be inclusive of all the variables that control soil moisture at a site (e.g., precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and soil chemistry). Effective moisture is a concept used to simplify a number of complex, interrelated soil processes for which there are too little data to model actual plant available moisture. The PA simulates both the flux of radionuclides across the land surface and the potential dose to humans from that flux. Surface flux is modeled here as the amount of soil contamination that is transferred from the soil by roots and incorporated into aboveground biomass. Movement of contaminants to the surface is the only transport mechanism evaluated with the model

  14. Application of Geographic Information System and Remotesensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro town, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedshum, A. A.; Gebresilassie, M. A.; Rulinda, C. M.; Kahsay, G. H.; Tesfay, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries. This is a critical problem too in Ethiopia in general and in Wukro town in particular. The existing site for Wukro town is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to the swift expansion and urbanization developments in Wukro town, it badly needs to develop controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Wukro town; and second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites for the town, using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The study exploited the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for dumping site selection. The selected method also uses various geographical data including remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools. Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS environment. Results indicate that 12 dumping sites were appropriate and they were further ranked against their suitability in terms of wind direction, proximity to settlement area and distance from the center of the town. Finally, two sites are the best suitable for dumping site. This study indicated that the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate decision making processes.

  15. Environmental monitoring report for commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (1960`s through 1990`s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    During the time period covered in this report (1960`s through early 1990`s), six commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities have been operated in the US. This report provides environmental monitoring data collected at each site. The report summarizes: (1) each site`s general design, (2) each site`s inventory, (3) the environmental monitoring program for each site and the data obtained as the program has evolved, and (4) what the program has indicated about releases to off-site areas, if any, including a statement of the actual health and safety significance of any release. A summary with conclusions is provided at the end of each site`s chapter. The six commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed are located near: Sheffield, Illinois; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; Beatty, Nevada; West Valley, New York; Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington.

  16. Automated system for monitoring groundwater levels at an experimental low-level waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, J.D.; Bogle, M.A.

    1984-06-01

    One of the major problems with disposing of low-level solid wastes in the eastern United States is the potential for water-waste interactions and leachate migration. To monitor groundwater fluctuations and the frequency with which groundwater comes into contact with a group of experimental trenches, work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Engineered Test Facility (ETF) has employed a network of water level recorders that feed information from 15 on-site wells to a centralized data recording system. The purpose of this report is to describe the monitoring system being used and to document the computer programs that have been developed to process the data. Included in this report are data based on more than 2 years of water level information for ETF wells 1 through 12 and more than 6 months of data from all 15 wells. The data thus reflect both long-term trends as well as a large number of short-term responses to individual storm events. The system was designed to meet the specific needs of the ETF, but the hardware and computer routines have generic application to a variety of groundwater monitoring situations. 5 references.

  17. A health study of two communities near the Stringfellow Waste Disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D B; Greenland, S; Mendlein, J; Harmon, P

    1988-01-01

    A health survey of 2,039 persons in 606 households located near the Stringfellow Hazardous Waste Disposal site, Riverside County, California, and in a reference community was conducted to assess whether rates of adverse health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the site. Data included a household questionnaire, medical records of reported cancers and pregnancies, and birth and death certificates. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 5 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., ear infections, bronchitis, asthma, angina pectoris, and skin rashes. Prevalence odds ratios for 23 symptoms were uniformly greater than 1.0, and 8 symptoms had odds ratios greater than 1.5: blurred vision, pain in ears, daily cough for more than a month, nausea, frequent diarrhea, unsteady when walking, and frequent urination. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the site. These results indicate that future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  18. 1999 Report on Hanford Site land disposal restriction for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACK, D.G.

    1999-03-25

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-011. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility.

  19. Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from municipal solid waste disposal sites: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Mondal, A. N.; Gaikwad, S. A.; Devotta, Sukumar; Singh, R. N.

    2004-09-01

    In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing enormously and most of the SWs are disposed off by land filling in low-lying areas, resulting into generation of large quantities of biogas. Methane, the major constituent gas is known to cause global warming due to green house gas (GHG) effect. There is a need to study the ever-increasing contribution of SW to the global GHG effect. To assess the impacts, estimation of GHG emission is must and to avoid misguidance by these emission-data, qualitative assessment of the estimated GHG is a must. In this paper, methane emission is estimated for a particular landfill site, using default methodology and modified triangular methodology. Total methane generation is same for both theoretical methodologies, but the modified triangular method has an upper hand as it provides a time-dependent emission profile that reflects the true pattern of the degradation process. To check the quality of calculated emission-data, extensive sampling is carried out for different seasons in a year. Field results show a different trend as compared to theoretical results, this compels for logical thinking. Each methane emission-data is backed up by the uncertainty associated with it, this further strengthens the quality check of these data. Uncertainty calculation is done using Monte Carlo simulation technique, recommended in IPCC Guideline. In the due course of qualitative assessment of methane emission-data, many site-specific sensitive parameters are discovered and are briefly discussed in this paper.

  20. Delineation of soil and groundwater contamination using geophysical methods at a waste disposal site in Canakkale, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M Ali; Ozürlan, Gülçin; Sengül, Ebru

    2007-12-01

    Direct current (DC) resistivity, self potential (SP) and very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) measurements are carried out to detect the spread of groundwater contamination and to locate possible pathways of leachate plumes, that resulted from an open waste disposal site of Canakkale municipality. There is no proper management of the waste disposal site in which industrial and domestic wastes were improperly dumped. Furthermore, because of the dumpsite is being located at the catchment area borders of a small creek and is being topographically at a high elevation relative to the urban area, the groundwater is expected to be hazardously contaminated. Interpretations of DC resistivity geoelectrical data showed a low resistivity zone (geophysical investigations and the results of previously collected geochemical and hydrochemical measurements.

  1. Composite analysis for low-level waste disposal in the 200 area plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, C.T.; Bergeron, M.P.; Cole, C.R. [and others

    1998-03-01

    This report presents the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis) prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Implementation Plan for the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-2. The Composite Analysis is a companion document to published analyses of four active or planned low-level waste disposal actions: the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 West Area, the solid waste burial grounds in the 200 East Area, the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, and the disposal facilities for immobilized low-activity waste. A single Composite Analysis was prepared for the Hanford Site considering only sources on the 200 Area Plateau. The performance objectives prescribed in U.S. Department of Energy guidance for the Composite Analysis were 100 mrem in a year and examination of a lower dose (30 mrem in a year) to ensure the {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} concept is followed. The 100 mrem in a year limit was the maximum allowable all-pathways dose for 1000 years following Hanford Site closure, which is assumed to occur in 2050. These performance objectives apply to an accessible environment defined as the area between a buffer zone surrounding an exclusive waste management area on the 200 Area Plateau, and the Columbia River. Estimating doses to hypothetical future members of the public for the Composite Analysis was a multistep process involving the estimation or simulation of inventories; waste release to the environment; migration through the vadose zone, groundwater, and atmospheric pathways; and exposure and dose. Doses were estimated for scenarios based on agriculture, residential, industrial, and recreational land use. The radionuclides included in the vadose zone and groundwater pathway analyses of future releases were carbon-14, chlorine-36, selenium-79, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes.

  2. 1998 report on Hanford Site land disposal restrictions for mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1998-04-10

    This report was submitted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-26-01H. This milestone requires the preparation of an annual report that covers characterization, treatment, storage, minimization, and other aspects of managing land-disposal-restricted mixed waste at the Hanford Facility. The US Department of Energy, its predecessors, and contractors on the Hanford Facility were involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials from the early 1940s to the late 1980s. These production activities have generated large quantities of liquid and solid mixed waste. This waste is regulated under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of l976 and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. This report covers only mixed waste. The Washington State Department of Ecology, US Environmental Protection Agency, and US Department of Energy have entered into the Tri-Party Agreement to bring the Hanford Facility operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement required development of the original land disposal restrictions (LDR) plan and its annual updates to comply with LDR requirements for mixed waste. This report is the eighth update of the plan first issued in 1990. The Tri-Party Agreement requires and the baseline plan and annual update reports provide the following information: (1) Waste Characterization Information -- Provides information about characterizing each LDR mixed waste stream. The sampling and analysis methods and protocols, past characterization results, and, where available, a schedule for providing the characterization information are discussed. (2) Storage Data -- Identifies and describes the mixed waste on the Hanford Facility. Storage data include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 dangerous waste codes, generator process knowledge needed to identify the waste and to make LDR determinations, quantities

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision 0) with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Mark J

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 137 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from February 28 through August 17, 2006, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. ROTC-1: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR. ROTC-2: Downgrade FFACO UR at CAU 137, CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site to an Administrative UR.

  4. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  5. Estimated PBDE and PBB Congeners in soil from an electronics waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H-M; Yu, Y-J; Han, M; Yang, S-W; Li, Q; Yang, Y

    2009-12-01

    This study estimated PBDE and PBB congener emissions into the environment from three different e-waste disposal sites that consisted of rude broilers (RB), acid baths (AB) and end-up dumps (ED). Different PBDE and PBB congener profiles were analyzed, and some of their emission sources were discussed. For the examined sites, the levels of SigmaPBB and SigmaPBDE were highest at ED (SigmaPBB 1943.86 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 990.87 ng/g, dw), followed by RB (SigmaPBB 704.58 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 799.27 ng/g, dw) and finally AB (SigmaPBB 108.78 ng/g, dw; SigmaPBDE 171.18 ng/g, dw). PBE-209 (AB 48.67 ng/g, 28.43%; RB 160.23 ng/g, 20.05%; ED 234.12 ng/g, 23.63%) and PBE-203 (AB 51.23 ng/g, 29.93%; RB 130.34 ng/g, 16.31%; ED 93.41 ng/g, 9.43%) exhibited the highest concentrations when compared to the other congeners. Furthermore, high levels of deca-BDE (BDE-209) were observed in AB (48.67 ng/g, 28.43%) and RB sites (160.23 ng/g, 20.05%), which was in accordance with the large amount of these materials in electronics products in China.

  6. Analysis and evaluation of a radioactive waste package retrieved from the Farallon Islands 900-meter disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Kendig, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was given a Congressional mandate to develop criteria and regulations governing the ocean disposal of all forms of waste. The EPA taken an active role both nationally and within the international nuclear regulatory community to develop the effective controls necessary to protect the health and safety of man and the marine environment. The EPA Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) first initiated feasibility studies to determine whether current technologies could be applied toward determining the fate of radioactive waste disposed of in the past. After successfully locating actual radioactive waste packages in formerly used disposal sites, in the United States, the Office of Radiation Programs developed an intensive program of site characterization studies to examine biological, chemical and physical characteristics including evaluations of the concentration and distribution of radionuclides within these sites, and has conducted a performance evaluation of past packaging techniques and materials. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed container corrosion and matrix analysis studies on the recovered radioactive waste packages. This report presents the final results of laboratory analyses performed. 17 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed. (AT)

  8. Water-quality and hydrogeologic data for three phosphate industry waste-disposal sites in central Florida, 1979-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1982-01-01

    This report is a complilation of geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data and information on test holes collected in the vicinity of gypsum stack complexes at two phosphate chemical plants and one phosphatic clayey waste disposal pond at a phosphate mine and beneficiation plant in central Florida. The data were collected from September 1979 to October 1980 at thee AMAX Phosphate, Inc., chemical plant, Piney Point; the USS AgriChemicals chemical plant, Bartow; and the International Minerals and Chemical Corporation Clear Springs mine, Bartow. Approximmmtely 5,400 field and laboratory water-quality determinations on water samples were collected from about 78 test holes and 31 surface-water, rainfall, and other sampling sites at phosphate industry beneficiation and chemical plant waste-disposal operations. Maps show locations of sampling sites. (USGS)

  9. Performance evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste: Volume 3, Site evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a performance evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Volume 1 summarizes the process for selecting the fifteen sites, the methodology used in the evaluation, and the conclusions derived from the evaluation. Volume 2 provides details about the site-selection process, the performance-evaluation methodology, and the overall results of the analysis. Volume 3 contains detailed evaluations of the fifteen sites and discussion of the results for each site.

  10. A studies on characteristics of groundwater system in discontinuous rockmass for evaluation of safety on disposal site of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Kim, Kyu Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Lee, Chee Hyeong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    This study contains the development of numerical model of groundwater system and its application for the evaluation of safety in disposal site of radioactive waste. Through the identification of hydraulic properties, characteristics of discontinuity and selection of discontinuity model around LPG underground storage facility, the application of continuum model and discrete fracture network model was evaluated for the analysis of groundwater flow and solute transport.

  11. Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2001-09-28

    This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

  12. Scoping evaluation of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebel, M.M.; Waters, R.D.; Langkopf, B.S.

    1997-05-01

    A team of analysts designed and conducted a scoping evaluation to estimate the technical capabilities of fifteen Department of Energy sites for disposal of the hazardous metals in mixed low-level waste (i.e., waste that contains both low-level radioactive materials and hazardous constituents). Eight hazardous metals were evaluated: arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver. The analysis considered transport only through the groundwater pathway. The results are reported as site-specific estimates of maximum concentrations of each hazardous metal in treated mixed low-level waste that do not exceed the performance measures established for the analysis. Also reported are site-specific estimates of travel times of each hazardous metal to the point of compliance.

  13. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  14. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of c...

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, consists of seven inactive sites located in the Yucca Flat area and one inactive site in the Pahute Mesa area. The eight CAU 545 sites consist of craters used for mud disposal, surface or buried waste disposed within craters or potential crater areas, and sites where surface or buried waste was disposed. The CAU 545 sites were used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat area during the 1950s through the early 1990s, and in Area 20 in the mid-1970s. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, this Corrective Action Investigation Plan will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for approval. Fieldwork will be conducted following approval.

  16. Space disposal of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, C. C.; Nixon, R. F.; Rice, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    The DOE has been studying several options for nuclear waste disposal, among them space disposal, which NASA has been assessing. Attention is given to space disposal destinations noting that a circular heliocentric orbit about halfway between Earth and Venus is the reference option in space disposal studies. Discussion also covers the waste form, showing that parameters to be considered include high waste loading, high thermal conductivity, thermochemical stability, resistance to leaching, fabrication, resistance to oxidation and to thermal shock. Finally, the Space Shuttle nuclear waste disposal mission profile is presented.

  17. Solid waste disposal site selection with GIS and AHP methodology: a case study in Senirkent-Uluborlu (Isparta) Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Karagüzel, Remzi

    2011-02-01

    The appropriate site selection for waste disposal is one of the major problems in waste management. Also, many environmental, economical, and political considerations must be adhered to. In this study, landfill site selection is performed using the Geographic Information System (GIS), the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and the remote sensing methods for the Senirkent-Uluborlu Basin. The basin is located in the Eğirdir Lake catchment area, which is one of the most important fresh water in Turkey. So, waste management must be regulated in the basin. For this aim, ten different criteria (lithology, surface water, aquifer, groundwater depth, land use, lineaments, aspect, elevation, slope, and distance to roads) are examined in relation to landfill site selection. Each criterion was identified and weighted using AHP. Then, each criterion is mapped using the GIS technique, and a suitability map is prepared by overlay analyses. The results indicate that 96.3% of the area in the basin is unsuitable; 1.6%, moderately suitable; and 2.1%, most suitable. Finally, suitable regions in the basin are determined for solid waste landfill disposal and checked in the field. The selected and investigated regions are considered to be suitable for the landfill.

  18. Morbidity among children living around clinical waste treatment and disposal site in the Northwest region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. K. Mochungong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical waste is ineffectively treated and disposed in Cameroon. Disposal sites have unrestricted access and are located within communities. We hypothesize that vector proliferation and exposure to chronic low-level emissions will increase morbidity in children living around such sites. Self-reported disease frequency questionnaires were used to estimate the frequency of new episodes of intestinal, respiratory and skin infections among exposed children less than 10 years. Data was simultaneously collected for unexposed children of the same age, using the same questionnaire. Data reporting by the parents was done in the first week in each of the 6 months study period. The risk ratios were 3.54 (95% CI, 2.19-5.73, 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60 and 1.35 (95% CI, 0.75-2.44 for respiratory, intestinal and skin infections respectively. Their respective risk differences were 0.47 (47%, 0.18 (18% and 0.08 (8%. The study revealed that poor treatment and disposal of clinical waste sites enhance morbidity in children living close to such areas. Simple health promotion and intervention programs such as relocating such sites can significantly reduce morbidity.

  19. RCRA Part A and Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site: Proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWSU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-07-19

    The proposed Mixed Waste Storage Unit (MWSU) will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Existing facilities at the RWMC will be used to store low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Storage is required to accommodate offsite-generated LLMW shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal in the new Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU) currently in the design/build stage. LLMW generated at the NTS (onsite) is currently stored on the Transuranic (TRU) Pad (TP) in Area 5 under a Mutual Consent Agreement (MCA) with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). When the proposed MWSU is permitted, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will ask that NDEP revoke the MCA and onsite-generated LLMW will fall under the MWSU permit terms and conditions. The unit will also store polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste and friable and non-friable asbestos waste that meets the acceptance criteria in the Waste Analysis Plan (Exhibit 2) for disposal in the MWDU. In addition to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the proposed MWSU will also be subject to Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other applicable state and federal regulations. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational RCRA units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  20. Genotoxic monitoring of workers at a hazardous waste disposal site in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsebatt, M E; Salazar, A M; Montero, R; Díaz Barriga, F; Yáñez, L; Gómez, H; Ostrosky-Wegman, P

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies were determined in lymphocytes cultured from 12 high-risk individuals working at a landfill for hazardous waste disposal. Cell proliferation kinetics (CPK) was also determined. Compared with 7 control individuals, no effects were observed with respect to SCE nor on CPK. However, the workers exhibited significantly higher frequencies of chromatid and chromosomal deletions, the magnitude of which was related with exposure time. This study suggests that when high-risk exposure is suspected, determining biomarkers of genotoxic damage (e.g., chromosomal aberrations), is useful for risk assessments. PMID:7621789

  1. Possible salt mine sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.

    1972-06-30

    The motivation for this investigation is the necessity for finding the safest possible repository for solid atomic plant wastes. It is believed that rooms mined in thick beds of salt would afford the best sanctuary. This is due especially to the impermeability of massive rock salt. This rock has enough plasticity so that it tends to give rather than fracture when disturbed by movements of the earth's crust. In addition, due to water conditions at the time of deposition, the rocks most commonly associated with salt (anhydrite and shale) are likewise relatively impervious. A number of areas have been selected for detailed discussion because of the excellence of the geological and environmental factors. The optimum requirements for a viable waste disposal prospect are described in detail and nine prospects are considered further.

  2. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  3. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  4. Solution speciation of plutonium and Americium at an Australian legacy radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi; Harrison, Jennifer J; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry; Wong, Henri K Y; Johansen, Mathew P; Waite, T David; Payne, Timothy E

    2014-09-01

    During the 1960s, radioactive waste containing small amounts of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) was disposed in shallow trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), located near the southern suburbs of Sydney, Australia. Because of periodic saturation and overflowing of the former disposal trenches, Pu and Am have been transferred from the buried wastes into the surrounding surface soils. The presence of readily detected amounts of Pu and Am in the trench waters provides a unique opportunity to study their aqueous speciation under environmentally relevant conditions. This study aims to comprehensively investigate the chemical speciation of Pu and Am in the trench water by combining fluoride coprecipitation, solvent extraction, particle size fractionation, and thermochemical modeling. The predominant oxidation states of dissolved Pu and Am species were found to be Pu(IV) and Am(III), and large proportions of both actinides (Pu, 97.7%; Am, 86.8%) were associated with mobile colloids in the submicron size range. On the basis of this information, possible management options are assessed.

  5. Analysis of the technical capabilities of DOE sites for disposal of residuals from the treatment of mixed low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Langkopf, B.S.; Kuehne, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has stored or expects to generate over the next five years more than 130,000 m{sup 3} of mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Before disposal, MLLW is usually treated to comply with the land disposal restrictions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Depending on the type of treatment, the original volume of MLLW and the radionuclide concentrations in the waste streams may change. These changes must be taken into account in determining the necessary disposal capacity at a site. Treatment may remove the characteristic in some waste that caused it to be classified as mixed. Treatment of some waste may, by reduction of the mass, increase the concentrations of some transuranic radionuclides sufficiently so that it becomes transuranic waste. In this report, the DOE MLLW streams were analyzed to determine after-treatment volumes and radionuclide concentrations. The waste streams were reclassified as residual MLLW or low-level or transuranic waste resulting from treatment. The volume analysis indicated that about 89,000 m{sup 3} of waste will require disposal as residual MLLW. Fifteen DOE sites were then evaluated to determine their capabilities for hosting disposal facilities for some or all of the residual MLLW. Waste streams associated with about 90% of the total residual MLLW volume are likely to present no significant issues for disposal and require little additional analysis. Future studies should focus on the remaining waste streams that are potentially problematic by examining site-specific waste acceptance criteria, alternative treatment processes, alternative waste forms for disposal, and pending changes in regulatory requirements.

  6. 36 CFR 6.4 - Solid waste disposal sites not in operation on September 1, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment plant, septic system waste, or domestic sewage; (vii) Petroleum, including used crankcase oil from... Places, or a road designated as open to public travel; (11) The site will receive less than 5 tons per...; (2) The name and legal addresses of the following: (i) Owners of record of the land; and (ii) Any...

  7. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, H.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste - LLW, intermediate-level waste - ILW, high-level waste - HLW) are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  8. An assessment of groundwater quality for agricultural use: a case study from solid waste disposal site SE of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Sayyed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution around the improperly constructed landfill areas of the growing cities has always been in the rising trend and hence its effects on the environment warrant a thorough monitoring. The seasonal variations in the quality of groundwater from the dug wells surrounding the solid waste disposal site from the SE of Pune city (India has been assessed by calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. The results indicate that the groundwater from the wells nearing the waste disposal site show consistent increase in the pollution from monsoon to summer through winter. The study further demonstrates that the wells near the site are severely polluted and the source is mainly the leachates emerging out of the decaying solid wastes. The recurrent addition of the solid waste in the dump site in the coming years would result in further exponential deterioration of the groundwater quality of the dug wells from the area and hence adequate steps are urgently needed to prevent further aggravation of the problem. Based upon the SAR values it is evident that most of the wells from the Hadapsar area have excellent groundwater for irrigation throughout the year; from Manjari area it is excellent to good; the Fursungi area has sub-equal proportions of excellent, good and fair groundwater, while in Mantarwadi, although most of the wells have excellent to good water, few wells have fair to poor quality water for irrigation purpose. In Uruli-Devachi about 50% wells have poor quality of water and hence can not be used for irrigation. Hence this study strongly suggests that most of the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation except from Uruli Devachi area.

  9. Remote Sensing Analysis of the Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Hudspeth County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.; Dodge, R.; Xie, H.; Langford, R. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    Remote sensing images provide useful physical information, revealing such features as geological structure, vegetation, drainage patterns, and variations in consolidated and unconsolidated lithologies. That technology has been applied to the failed Sierra Blanca (Faskin Ranch) shallow burial low-level radioactive waste disposal site selected by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority. It has been re-examined using data from LANDSAT satellite series. The comparison of the earlier LANDSAT V (5/20/86) (30-m resolution) with the later new, higher resolution ETM imagery (10/23/99) LANDSAT VII data (15-m resolution) clearly shows the superiority of the LANDSAT VII data. The search for surficial indications of evidence of fatal flaws at the Sierra Blanca site utilizing was not successful, as it had been in the case of the earlier remote sensing analysis of the failed Fort Hancock site utilizing LANDSAT V data. The authors conclude that the tectonic activity at the Sierra Blanca site is much less recent and active than in the previously studied Fort Hancock site. The Sierra Blanca site failed primarily on the further needed documentation concerning a subsurface fault underneath the site and environmental justice issues. The presence of this fault was not revealed using the newer LANDSAT VII data. Despite this fact, it must be remembered that remote sensing provides baseline documentation for determining future physical and financial remediation responsibilities. On the basis of the two sites examined by LANDSAT remote sensing imaging, it is concluded that it is an essential, cost-effective tool that should be utilized not only in site examination but also in all nuclear-related facilities.

  10. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  11. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, S.P. [ed.] [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Engineering

    1996-12-31

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK).

  12. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality by unsaturated zone study due to migration of leachate from Abloradjei waste disposal site, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbi, Courage Davidson; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Osae, Shiloh; Dampare, Samuel Boakye; Abass, Gibrilla; Adomako, Dickson

    2015-06-01

    Leachate generated by open solid waste disposal sites contains substances likely to contaminate groundwater. The impact of potential contaminants migrating from leachate on groundwater can be quantified by monitoring their concentration and soil properties at specific points in the unsaturated zone. In this study, physical and chemical analyses were carried out on leachate, soil and water samples within the vicinity of the municipal solid waste disposal site at Abloradjei, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. The area has seen a massive increase in population and the residents depend on groundwater as the main source of water supply. Results obtained indicate alkaline pH for leachate and acidic conditions for unsaturated zone water. High EC values were recorded for leachate and unsaturated zone water. Major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, PO4 3- were analysed in leachate, unsaturated zone water, soil solution and groundwater while trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) were analysed in both soil and extracted soil solution. Concentrations of major ions were high in all samples indicating possible anthropogenic origin. Mean % gravel, % sand, % clay, bulk density, volumetric water content and porosity were 28.8, 63.93, 6.6, 1 g cm-3, 35 and 62.7 %, respectively. Distribution of trace elements showed Kd variation of Al > Cu > Fe > Pb > Zn in the order of sequential increasing solubility. It was observed that the quality of groundwater is not suitable for drinking.

  14. Assessment of groundwater quality by unsaturated zone study due to migration of leachate from Abloradjei waste disposal site, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbi, Courage Davidson; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Osae, Shiloh; Dampare, Samuel Boakye; Abass, Gibrilla; Adomako, Dickson

    2017-05-01

    Leachate generated by open solid waste disposal sites contains substances likely to contaminate groundwater. The impact of potential contaminants migrating from leachate on groundwater can be quantified by monitoring their concentration and soil properties at specific points in the unsaturated zone. In this study, physical and chemical analyses were carried out on leachate, soil and water samples within the vicinity of the municipal solid waste disposal site at Abloradjei, a suburb of Accra, Ghana. The area has seen a massive increase in population and the residents depend on groundwater as the main source of water supply. Results obtained indicate alkaline pH for leachate and acidic conditions for unsaturated zone water. High EC values were recorded for leachate and unsaturated zone water. Major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, PO4 3- were analysed in leachate, unsaturated zone water, soil solution and groundwater while trace metals (Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb) were analysed in both soil and extracted soil solution. Concentrations of major ions were high in all samples indicating possible anthropogenic origin. Mean % gravel, % sand, % clay, bulk density, volumetric water content and porosity were 28.8, 63.93, 6.6, 1 g cm-3, 35 and 62.7 %, respectively. Distribution of trace elements showed Kd variation of Al > Cu > Fe > Pb > Zn in the order of sequential increasing solubility. It was observed that the quality of groundwater is not suitable for drinking.

  15. Notifications Dated October 2, 2014 Submitted by We Energies to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal Notifications Dated October 2, 2014 for We Energies and the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste at the Waste Management Disposal Sites in Menomonee Falls and Franklin, WI

  16. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  17. Clays in radioactive waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh

    2010-01-01

    Clays and argillites are considered in some countries as possible host rocks for nuclear waste disposal at great depth. The use of compacted swelling clays as engineered barriers is also considered within the framework of the multi-barrier concept. In relation to these concepts, various research programs have been conducted to assess the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of radioactive waste disposal at great depth. After introducing the concepts of waste isolation developed in Belgium, Fran...

  18. Hydrologic evaluation methodology for estimating water movement through the unsaturated zone at commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, P.D.; Rockhold, M.L.; Nichols, W.E.; Gee, G.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies key technical issues related to hydrologic assessment of water flow in the unsaturated zone at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. In addition, a methodology for incorporating these issues in the performance assessment of proposed LLW disposal facilities is identified and evaluated. The issues discussed fall into four areas: estimating the water balance at a site (i.e., infiltration, runoff, water storage, evapotranspiration, and recharge); analyzing the hydrologic performance of engineered components of a facility; evaluating the application of models to the prediction of facility performance; and estimating the uncertainty in predicted facility performance. To illustrate the application of the methodology, two examples are presented. The first example is of a below ground vault located in a humid environment. The second example looks at a shallow land burial facility located in an arid environment. The examples utilize actual site-specific data and realistic facility designs. The two examples illustrate the issues unique to humid and arid sites as well as the issues common to all LLW sites. Strategies for addressing the analytical difficulties arising in any complex hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone are demonstrated.

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  20. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  1. Disposal Practices of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Solid Waste in Northwest Disposal Site%西北处置场低、中放固体废物处置实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 钱海; 翟健; 安蛟龙; 黄卓人

    2011-01-01

    介绍了我国西北处置场的基本情况,西北处置场低、中放固体废物接收、处置的组织机构及管理体系,工艺技术,辐射防护及环境监测,以期为我国放射性废物处置工程提供借鉴和支持。%The basic situation of Northwest Disposal Site is introduced. The organization and management system, disposal technology, radiation protection, environmental monitoring of low- and medium-level radioactive solid waste recept and disposal in Northwest Disposal Site are also presented. It provides reference and support for our radioactive waste disposal works.

  2. GPS monitoring of bedrock stability at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site in Finland from 1996 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, S.; Kallio, U.; Koivula, H.

    2013-09-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute has studied crustal deformations at Olkiluoto nuclear waste disposal site since mid-90's. Biannual GPS measurement has been carried out in two local GPS networks. This paper analyses the GPS data processing effects on the coordinate solutions and presents the results of GPS monitoring from 1996 to 2012. The GPS data was processed using Bernese GPS Software 5.0. The GPS data processing and baseline analysis showed a 1.0 mm (max RMS) level agreement of observation and high bedrock stability in the area. Most of the horizontal trends were smaller than 0.1 mm/a. The troposphere estimation strategy had a clear effect on the horizontal trends at some sites. The strain rates were all very small, but we could detect motions near the Olkiluoto permanent station.

  3. Comparison of Olkiluoto (Finland) and Forsmark (Sweden) candidate sites for radioactive-waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, J. E.; Bath, A.; Stephansson, O.; Luukkonen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Site characterizations for deep radioactive-waste repositories consider rock properties, groundwater conditions, and the influences of regional settings and site-specific evolution. We present a comparison of these aspects for two candidate repository sites that have similar rocks and coastal settings, but are 200 km apart on opposite sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. The Olkiluoto site in Finland and the Forsmark site in Sweden are both in hard crystalline rock (migmatite gneiss and metagranite, respectively) with groundwater flow mainly via fractures. Both sites are undergoing licensing for a high-level radioactive-waste repository. The licensing is stepwise in Finland, and operation in both countries will be strictly regulated, but all responsibility lies with the implementers until accepted closure. The comparison reveals many expected similarities but also unexplained differences, which illustrate the complexities of site characterization in fractured crystalline rock. Both sites underwent a similar sequence of hydrologic conditions over the Weichselian and earlier glacial cycles. Hydrogeologically, Forsmark has more conductive upper bedrock, contributing to a very flat water table. Deep bedrock at Olkiluoto is more fractured in the horizontal plane. At repository depth and below, Forsmark likely contains larger volumes of low-conductivity rock. At both sites, the local model is connected to regional-scale boundaries via submarine deformation zones which (especially at Olkiluoto) are poorly characterized. Stress measurements at the two sites have shown that vertical stress is in agreement with the weight of overburden while horizontal stresses differ in magnitude and orientation. Interpreted overcoring stress measurements from Forsmark are almost twice the magnitudes estimated from hydraulic methods. Rock mechanical differences include the possibility that Olkiluoto bedrock is more prone to spalling than Forsmark. Olkiluoto bedrock is more anisotropic in terms of

  4. Analysis of multi-temporal landsat satellite images for monitoring land surface temperature of municipal solid waste disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Mahendrarajah, Prathees; Shaker, Ahmed; Faisal, Kamil; Luong, Robin; Al-Ahmad, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    This studypresents a remote sensing application of using time series Landsat satellite images for monitoring the Trail Road and Nepean municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal sites in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Currently, the Trail Road landfill is in operation; however, during the 1960s and 1980s, the city relied heavily on the Nepean landfill. More than 400 Landsat satellite images were acquired from the US Geological Survey (USGS) data archive between 1984 and 2011. Atmospheric correction was conducted on the Landsat images in order to derive the landfill sites' land surface temperature (LST). The findings unveil that the average LST of the landfill was always higher than the immediate surrounding vegetation and air temperature by 4 to 10 °C and 5 to 11.5 °C, respectively. During the summer, higher differences of LST between the landfill and its immediate surrounding vegetation were apparent, while minima were mostly found in fall. Furthermore, there was no significant temperature difference between the Nepean landfill (closed) and the Trail Road landfill (active) from 1984 to 2007. Nevertheless, the LST of the Trail Road landfill was much higher than the Nepean by 15 to 20 °C after 2007. This is mainly due to the construction and dumping activities (which were found to be active within the past few years) associated with the expansion of the Trail Road landfill. The study demonstrates that the use of the Landsat data archive can provide additional and viable information for the aid of MSW disposal site monitoring.

  5. Development of an integrated strategy for the disposal of solid low level waste at BNFL`s Drigg site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, S.G. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1989-11-01

    During the past 12 months, the first phase of a major upgrading of disposal operations at Drigg has been completed. This has involved the introduction of waste containerization and orderly emplacement in open concrete vaults. A further phase over the next few years will involve the introduction of compaction of all suitable waste. While the current upgrade has clearly resulted in a major improvement in the visual impact and management control of the site, the desire to implement such an improvement on a timescale consistent with the short term need for new facilities at Drigg has not allowed sufficient time for a detailed assessment of the full implications of the proposed system. This paper describes the development of the strategy for upgrading the Drigg site, highlights improvements that have been implemented as the project has progressed and outlines major outstanding concerns, particularly in relation to long term site management, that may eventually lead to a requirement for further optimization of the overall strategy. Progress under the Drigg Technical Development Programme is reviewed with specific emphasis on the preliminary results of engineering studies aimed at defining an integrated strategy that will meet the requirements of both acceptable visual impact and long term site stability and safety.

  6. Hydrogeology of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.B.; Erickson, J.R.; Healy, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Sheffield low-level radioactive-waste facility is located on 20 acres of rolling terrain 3 miles southwest of Sheffield, Illinois. The shallow hydrogeologic system is composed of glacial sediments. Pennsylvania shale and mudstone bedrock isolate the regional aquifers below from the hydrogeologic system in the overlying glacial deposits. Pebbly sand underlies 67 percent of the site. Two ground-water flow paths were identified. The primary path conveys ground water from the site to the east through the pebbly-sand unit; a secondary path conveys ground water to the south and east through less permeable material. The pebbly-sand unit provides an underdrain that eliminates the risk of water rising into the trenches. Digital computer model results indicate that the pebbly-sand unit controls ground-water movement. Tritium found migrating in ground water in the southeast corner of the site travels approximately 25 feet per year. A group of water samples from wells which contained the highest tritium concentrations had specific conductivities, alkalinities, hardness, and chloride, sulfate, calcium, and magnesium contents higher than normal for local shallow ground water. (USGS)

  7. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Sandia National Laboratory Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis B. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    This special analysis evaluates whether the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream (ASLA000001007, Revision 4) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream consists of debris from classified nuclear weapons components (SNL 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream had no significant effect on the maximum mean and 95th percentile results for the resident air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream increases the mean air pathway and all-pathways annual TED from approximately 100 to 200 years after closure. Addition of the SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream inventory shifts the maximum TED to approximately 100 years after closure and increases the TED for several alternative exposure scenarios. The maximum mean and the 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  9. DOSE ASSESSMENTS FROM THE DISPOSAL OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTES IN RCRA-C DISPOSAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling the long-term performance of the RCRA-C disposal cell and potential doses to off-site receptors is used to derive maximum radionuclide specific concentrations in the wastes that would enable these wastes to be disposed of safely using the RCRA-C disposal cell technology....

  10. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  11. 30 CFR 816.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 816.89 Section 816.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 30 CFR 817.89 - Disposal of noncoal mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-approved solid waste disposal area. Disposal sites in the permit area shall be designed and constructed to... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of noncoal mine wastes. 817.89 Section 817.89 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. Alternative Evaluation Study: Methods to Mitigate/Accommodate Subsidence for the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County Nevada, with Special Focus on Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, L.

    1997-09-01

    An Alternative Evaluation Study is a type of systematic approach to problem identification and solution. An Alternative Evaluation Study was convened August 12-15, 1997, for the purpose of making recommendations concerning closure of Disposal Cell U-3ax/bl and other disposal cells and mitigation/accommodation of waste subsidence at the Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. This report includes results of the Alternative Evaluation Study and specific recommendations.

  14. Transport of elemental mercury in the unsaturated zone from a waste disposal site in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvoord, M.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Striegl, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury contained in buried landfill waste may be released via upward emission to the atmosphere or downward leaching to groundwater. Data from the US Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in arid southwestern Nevada reveal another potential pathway of Hg release: long-distance (102 m) lateral migration of elemental Hg (Hg0) through the unsaturated zone. Gas collected from multiple depths from two instrumented boreholes that sample the entire 110-m unsaturated zone thickness and are located 100 and 160 m away from the closest waste burial trench exhibit gaseous Hg concentrations of up to 33 and 11 ng m-3, respectively. The vertical distribution of gaseous Hg in the borehole closest to the disposal site shows distinct subsurface peaks in concentration at depths of 1.5 and 24 m that cannot be explained by radial diffusive transport through a heterogeneous layered unsaturated zone. The inability of current models to explain gaseous Hg distribution at the ADRS highlights the need to advance the understanding of gas-phase contaminant transport in unsaturated zones to attain a comprehensive model of landfill Hg release.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF VEGETATION COVER ON SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO, FOLLOWING 13-YEAR-LONG RECLAMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Henryk Dyguś

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of vegetation survey on the alkaline and saline soda waste disposal site at Janikowo Soda Plant near Toruń (central Poland. The site was subject to reclamation using diverse techniques including sewage sludge and ash, starting from the year 2000 onwards. The survey was made to evaluate the status of plant succession as well as stability and diversity of vegetation cover. The vegetation was inventoried using the cover-frequency method, on a 10 x 10 m quadrat samples randomly distributed over the reclaimed area. Communities were classified using the Central-European approach by Braun-Blanquet (1964. In 2013, the vegetation was well established and provided a dense cover of the substrate. 108 plant species were found compared to some 5–8 plants which arrived spontaneously until the year 2000. Species richness increased 15 fold since the year when reclamation started. Species of graminoid and Asteraceae families prevailed in most patches of local vegetation. The vegetation cover on sites treated with a mixt of power plant ash and sewage sludge was less stable and less diverse than that on sites where sewage sludge only was applied. Annuals and biennials dominated in the vegetation on ash grounds while more competitive perennials prevailed on sewage sludge substrates. On the latter substrates there develop plant communities classified as an association of smooth meadow grass and common yarrow Poa pratensis-Achillea millefolium, whose species combination closely resembles that of seminatural fresh meadows. On the ash grounds, a variety of associations of ruderal plants were found with dominating Loesel mustard and common mugwort Sisymbrium loeselii-Artemisia vulgaris. Phytoindicatory methods using Ellenberg values have shown that waste substrates contained increased salt concentrations, however, there was no indication of increased heavy metal contents, as no plants tolerating excessive amounts of heavy metals were

  16. Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Paula J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Druschel, Gregory K.; Morales, Sergio E.; Hayden, Nancy; O'Grady, Patrick; Stevens, Lori

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and δ-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.

  17. Mechanical environmental transport of actinides and ¹³⁷Cs from an arid radioactive waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Clark, Sue B; Morrison, Samuel S; Watrous, Matthew G; Olson, John E; Snyder, Darin C

    2015-10-01

    Aeolian and pluvial processes represent important mechanisms for the movement of actinides and fission products at the Earth's surface. Soil samples taken in the early 1970's near a Department of Energy radioactive waste disposal site (the Subsurface Disposal Area, SDA, located in southeastern Idaho) provide a case study for studying the mechanisms and characteristics of environmental actinide and (137)Cs transport in an arid environment. Multi-component mixing models suggest actinide contamination within 2.5 km of the SDA can be described by mixing between 2 distinct SDA end members and regional nuclear weapons fallout. The absence of chemical fractionation between (241)Am and (239+240)Pu with depth for samples beyond the northeastern corner and lack of (241)Am in-growth over time (due to (241)Pu decay) suggest mechanical transport and mixing of discrete contaminated particles under arid conditions. Occasional samples northeast of the SDA (the direction of the prevailing winds) contain anomalously high concentrations of Pu with (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotopic ratios statistically identical to those in the northeastern corner. Taken together, these data suggest flooding resulted in mechanical transport of contaminated particles into the area between the SDA and a flood containment dike in the northeastern corner, following which subsequent contamination spreading in the northeastern direction resulted from wind transport of discrete particles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert waste on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colizza, E. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy); Fontolan, G. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy); Brambati, A. [Istituto di Geologia e Paleontologia, Univ. degli Studi, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-06-01

    Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-m-wide x 350-m-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the element contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) `anomalous` enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  20. Application of the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment to a generic high-level waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, A; Pinedo, P; Simón, I; Cancio, D; Moraleda, M; Trueba, C; Pérez-Sánchez, D

    2008-09-15

    A methodological approach which includes conceptual developments, methodological aspects and software tools have been developed in the Spanish context, based on the BIOMASS "Reference Biospheres Methodology". The biosphere assessments have to be undertaken with the aim of demonstrating compliance with principles and regulations established to limit the possible radiological impact of radioactive waste disposals on human health and on the environment, and to ensure that future generations will not be exposed to higher radiation levels than those that would be acceptable today. The biosphere in the context of high-level waste disposal is defined as the collection of various radionuclide transfer pathways that may result in releases into the surface environment, transport within and between the biosphere receptors, exposure of humans and biota, and the doses/risks associated with such exposures. The assessments need to take into account the complexity of the biosphere, the nature of the radionuclides released and the long timescales considered. It is also necessary to make assumptions related to the habits and lifestyle of the exposed population, human activities in the long term and possible modifications of the biosphere. A summary on the Spanish methodological approach for biosphere assessment are presented here as well as its application in a Spanish generic case study. A reference scenario has been developed based on current conditions at a site located in Central-West Spain, to indicate the potential impact to the actual population. In addition, environmental change has been considered qualitatively through the use of interaction matrices and transition diagrams. Unit source terms of (36)Cl, (79)Se, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135)Cs, (226)Ra, (231)Pa, (238)U, (237)Np and (239)Pu have been taken. Two exposure groups of infants and adults have been chosen for dose calculations. Results are presented and their robustness is evaluated through the use of uncertainty and

  1. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  2. Siting a municipal solid waste disposal facility, part II: the effects of external criteria on the final decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Karademir, Aykan

    2014-02-01

    The procedure of a multi-criteria decision analysis supported by the geographic information systems was applied to the site selection process of a planning municipal solid waste management practice based on twelve different scenarios. The scenarios included two different decision tree modes and two different weighting models for three different area requirements. The suitability rankings of the suitable sites obtained from the application of the decision procedure for the scenarios were assessed by a factorial experimental design concerning the effect of some external criteria on the final decision of the site selection process. The external criteria used in the factorial experimental design were defined as "Risk perception and approval of stakeholders" and "Visibility". The effects of the presence of these criteria in the decision trees were evaluated in detail. For a quantitative expression of the differentiations observed in the suitability rankings, the ranking data were subjected to ANOVA test after a normalization process. Then the results of these tests were evaluated by Tukey test to measure the effects of external criteria on the final decision. The results of Tukey tests indicated that the involvement of the external criteria into the decision trees produced statistically meaningful differentiations in the suitability rankings. Since the external criteria could cause considerable external costs during the operation of the disposal facilities, the presence of these criteria in the decision tree in addition to the other criteria related to environmental and legislative requisites could prevent subsequent external costs in the first place.

  3. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [NSTec

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  4. Annual Status Report (FY2008) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-12-18

    In accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE 0 435.1, Radioactive to be considered or purposes of Waste Management, and implemented by DOE/RL-2000-292, Maintenance Plan for the Composite Analysis of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annual report for fiscal year 2008 of PNNL-1 1800, Composite Analysis for the Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200-Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Composite Analysis. The main emphasis of DOE/RL-2000-29 Is to identify additional data and information to enhance the Composite Analysis and the subsequent PNNL- 11800 Addendum, Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Addendum, and to address secondary issues identified during the review of the Composite Analysis.

  5. Results of hydrologic research at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Ten years of hydrologic research have been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at a commercial low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Research included studies of microclimate, evapotranspiration, and tritium release by plants; runoff and land modification; water movement through a trench cover; water and tritium movement in the unsaturated zone; gases in the unsaturated zone; water and tritium movement in the saturated zone; and water chemistry. Implications specific to each research topic and those based on overlapping research topics are summarized as to their potential effect on the selection, characterization, design, operation, and decommissioning processes of future low-level radioactive-waste disposal sites. Unconsolidated deposits at the site are diverse in lithologic character and are spatially and stratigraphically complex. Thickness of these Quaternary deposits ranges from 3 to 27 meters and averages 17 meters. The unconsolidated deposits overlay 140 meters of Pennsylvanian shale, mudstone, siltstone, and coal. Approximately 90,500 cubic meters of waste were buried from August 1967 through August 1978, in 21 trenches that were constructed in glacial materials by using a cut-and-fill process. Trenches generally were constructed below grade and ranged from 11 to 180 meters long, 2.4 to 21 meters wide, and 2.4 to about 7.9 meters deep. Research on microclimate and evapotranspiration at the site was conducted from July 1982 through June 1984. Continuous measurements were made of precipitation, incoming and reflected solar (shortwave) radiation, incoming and emitted terrestrial (longwave) radiation, horizontal windspeed and direction, wet- and dry-bulb air temperature, barometric pressure, soil-heat fluxes, and soil temperature. Soil-moisture content, for this research phase, was measured approximately biweekly. Evapotranspiration rates were estimated by using three techniques--energy budget, aerodynamic profile, and water

  6. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 545: Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 545, Dumps, Waste Disposal Sites, and Buried Radioactive Materials, in Areas 2, 3, 9, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (1996, as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 545 is comprised of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): • 02-09-01, Mud Disposal Area • 03-08-03, Mud Disposal Site • 03-17-01, Waste Consolidation Site 3B • 03-23-02, Waste Disposal Site • 03-23-05, Europium Disposal Site • 03-99-14, Radioactive Material Disposal Area • 09-23-02, U-9y Drilling Mud Disposal Crater • 20-19-01, Waste Disposal Site While all eight CASs are addressed in this CADD/CR, sufficient information was available for the following three CASs; therefore, a field investigation was not conducted at these sites: • For CAS 03-08-03, though the potential for subsidence of the craters was judged to be extremely unlikely, the data quality objective (DQO) meeting participants agreed that sufficient information existed about disposal and releases at the site and that a corrective action of close in place with a use restriction is recommended. Sampling in the craters was not considered necessary. • For CAS 03-23-02, there were no potential releases of hazardous or radioactive contaminants identified. Therefore, the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 545 concluded that: “Sufficient information exists to conclude that this CAS does not exist as originally identified. Therefore, there is no environmental concern associated with CAS 03-23-02.” This CAS is closed with no further action. • For CAS 03-23-05, existing information about the two buried sources and lead pig was considered to be

  8. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  9. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  10. Plant species potentially suitable for cover on low-level solid nuclear waste disposal sites: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L.; Parr, P.D.; Taylor, F.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report reviews available literature on soil conditions, hydrology, and climatological data and suggests plant species suitable for covering the low-level nuclear waste disposal areas in the White Oak Creek Watershed within the Oak Ridge Reservation. Literature on naturally invading species and secondary succession, on plant species used for reclamation of coal spoils and roadsides, and on horticultural species is reviewed. The potential of plant species to take up, or mine, the waste through deep rooting is assessed. The effects of vegetation cover on the water balance in a watershed are reviewed. Several conclusions are presented concerning the management of vegetation cover on low-level solid waste disposal areas. 163 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Probability of failure of waste disposals sites in Žirovski vrh uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Beguš

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The only Uranium mine in Slovenia @irovski vrh was closed in 1990 due to economic reasons. After the closure extensive decommissioning works in the mine and in the surrounding began. In the very beginning after the closure great landslide has been occurred in the mill tailings site and recalculation of stability of existent and alternate sites were performed. In this calculations I used statistical scatter of input variables and calculated probability of failure of sites.

  12. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  13. PBC Triggers in Water Reservoirs, Coal Mining Areas and Waste Disposal Sites: From Newcastle to New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyk, Daniel; Mytilinaiou, Maria G.; Rigopoulou, Eirini I.; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    Various environmental factors have been proposed as triggers of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), a progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease which is characterised by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts. Support for their pathogenic role in PBC is provided by epidemiological studies reporting familial clustering and clusters of the disease within a given geographical area. The seminal study by Triger reporting that the great majority of PBC cases in the English city of Sheffield drank water from a specific water reservoir, has been followed by studies reporting disease 'hot spots' within a restricted geographic region of the former coal mining area of Newcastle. The New York study reporting an increased risk and significant clustering of PBC cases near toxic federal waste disposal sites has added strength to the notion that environmental factors, possibly in the form of infectious agents or toxic/chemical environmental factors in areas of contaminated land, water or polluted air may play a key role in the development of the disease. This review discusses the findings of reports investigating environmental factors which may contribute to the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:21297253

  14. PBC Triggers in Water Reservoirs, Coal Mining Areas and Waste Disposal Sites: From Newcastle to New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Smyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various environmental factors have been proposed as triggers of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, a progressive autoimmune cholestatic liver disease which is characterised by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts. Support for their pathogenic role in PBC is provided by epidemiological studies reporting familial clustering and clusters of the disease within a given geographical area. The seminal study by Triger reporting that the great majority of PBC cases in the English city of Sheffield drank water from a specific water reservoir, has been followed by studies reporting disease 'hot spots' within a restricted geographic region of the former coal mining area of Newcastle. The New York study reporting an increased risk and significant clustering of PBC cases near toxic federal waste disposal sites has added strength to the notion that environmental factors, possibly in the form of infectious agents or toxic/chemical environmental factors in areas of contaminated land, water or polluted air may play a key role in the development of the disease. This review discusses the findings of reports investigating environmental factors which may contribute to the cause of primary biliary cirrhosis.

  15. Annual Status Report (FY2010) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2011-01-11

    In accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1 Chg 1, Radioactive Waste Management, and implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, Maintenance Plan for the Composite Analysis of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington, the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), also known as RL, has prepared this annual status report for fiscal year (FY) 2010 of PNNL-11800, Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Composite Analysis.

  16. Annual Status Report (FY2009) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-02-10

    In accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, Maintenance Plan for the Composite Analysis of the Hanford Site, Southeast Washington, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annual status report for fiscal year (FY) 2009 of PNNL-11800, Composite Analysis for the Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200-Area Plateau of the Hanford Site, hereafter referred to as the Composite Analysis.

  17. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  18. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  19. Environmental monitoring at the Barnwell low level radioactive waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, F.A. [South Carolina Dept. of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Barnwell site has undergone an evolution to achieve the technology which is utilized today. A historical background will be presented along with an overview of present day operations. This paper will emphasize the environmental monitoring program: the types of samples taken, the methods of compiling and analyzing data, modeling, and resulting actions.

  20. Crushing leads to waste disposal savings for FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, J. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    In this article the author discusses the application of a rock crusher as a means of implementing cost savings in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. Transportation and offsite disposal costs are at present the biggest cost items in the remediation of FUSRAP sites. If these debris disposal problems can be handled in different manners, then remediation savings are available. Crushing can result in the ability to handle some wastes as soil disposal problems, which have different disposal regulations, thereby permitting cost savings.

  1. Assessment of Alternatives for Upgrading Navy Solid Waste Disposal Sites. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    to monitor grout pressures and amounts. As only a few contractors perform this type of work, it is likely that equip- ment mobilization fees...three technolgies are discussed below. Subsurface Drains Subsurface drains are mainly used to collect leachate from a site where the depth to...Studies by Griffin, Cartwright, Shimp, et al.*, rank the various chemical constituents in a municipal leachate according to relative mobility through

  2. Spatio-temporal evolution of fault networks: implications for deep radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardacre, K.; Scotti, O. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this work is to provide estimates of both vertical and lateral propagation rates, on time scales of 100 000 years, for the faults systems known to be present today in the region of Bure, the site of an underground rock laboratory. The project is divided into three parts: 1) literature review (fault growth processes and data), 2) benchmarking against data a numerical code that allows for spontaneous development and growth of faults and 3) application to the Bure site. A brief overview of fault growth processes and observed fault propagation rates shows that non-negligible values (20-50 mm/yrs or roughly 5 km in 100 000 years) can be reached. Preliminary results obtained from two numerical simulations 1) fault growth of a pre-existing weaknesses and 2) fault growth of a spontaneously generated fault system, provide encouraging results with values that are comparable with those observed in nature for the growth of normal fault systems. The application to strike-slip system that characterizes the Bure site is still underway. (authors)

  3. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  4. A sediment mesocosm experiment to determine if the remediation of a shoreline waste disposal site in Antarctica caused further environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jonathan S; Johnstone, Glenn J; Riddle, Martin J

    2014-12-15

    A shoreline waste disposal site at Casey Station, Antarctica was removed because it was causing impacts in the adjacent marine environment (Brown Bay). We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the excavation created further impacts. Trays of clean, defaunated sediment were deployed at two locations within Brown Bay and two control locations, two years prior to remediation. Trays were sampled one year before, 1month before, 1month after and two years after the excavation. An increase in metals was found at Brown Bay two years after the remediation. However there was little evidence of impacts on sediment assemblages. Communities at each location were different, but differences from before to after the remediation were comparable, indicating there were unlikely to have been further impacts. We demonstrate that abandoned waste disposal sites in hydrologically active places in Antarctica can be removed without creating greater adverse impacts to ecosystems downstream.

  5. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  6. Persistent organochlorine pollutants in children working at a waste-disposal site and in young females with high fish consumption in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Steven N; Linderholm, Linda; Athanasiadou, Maria; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess persistent organochlorine pollutant (POP) levels in serum collected from children (11-15 years old) working and sometimes also living at the municipal waste-disposal site in Managua, located at the shore of Lake Managua, and in nonworking children living both nearby and also far away from the waste-disposal site. The influence of fish consumption was further evaluated by assessing POPs levels in serum from young women (15-24 years old) with markedly different patterns of fish consumption from Lake Managua. 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloro-ethane (4,4'-DDT) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethene (4,4'-DDE), gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH), polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorobiphenylols were quantified in all samples. In general, the levels observed were higher than those reported in children from developed countries, such as Germany and United States. Toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin, and beta-HCH could not be identified in any sample. The children working at the waste-disposal site had higher levels of POPs compared with the nonworking reference groups. In children not working, there were also gradients for several POPs, according to vicinity to the waste-disposal site. Moreover, in children, as well as in young women, there were gradients according to fish consumption. The most abundant component was 4,4'-DDE, but at levels still lower than those reported in children from malarious areas with a history of recent or current application of 4,4'-DDT for vector control.

  7. Prediction of Post-Closure Water Balance for Monolithic Soil Covers at Waste Disposal Sites in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-01-01

    The Ghana Landfill Guidelines require the provision of a final cover system during landfill closure as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of uncontrolled leachate discharges. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configurations that would be suitable for the different climatic zones in Ghana. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict post-closure landfill cover water balance for waste disposal sites located i...

  8. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  9. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  10. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  11. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL WASTE DISPOSAL BY SUBSURFACE INJECTION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Branimir

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of oilfield and solution mining technology to subsurface disposal of technological wastes has proven to be an environmentally, technically and economically suitable method for the disposal of the waste generated in petroleum industry as well as other industrial branches. This paper describes the subsurface injection technology, the disposal formation characteristics, the waste disposal well design, evaluates the environmental impact of above mentioned technology and proposes a solutions for disposing of technological wastes in Croatia or nerby region by implementing underground injection technology according to the world experience (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. Low-Level Waste Disposal Alternatives Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Carlson; Kay Adler-Flitton; Roy Grant; Joan Connolly; Peggy Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz

    2006-09-01

    This report identifies and compares on-site and off-site disposal options for the disposal of contract-handled and remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Potential disposal options are screened for viability by waste type resulting in a short list of options for further consideration. The most crediable option are selected after systematic consideration of cost, schedule constraints, and risk. In order to holistically address the approach for low-level waste disposal, options are compiled into comprehensive disposal schemes, that is, alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario addresses the disposal path for all low-level waste types over the period of interest. The alternative scenarios are compared and ranked using cost, risk and complexity to arrive at the recommended approach. Schedule alignment with disposal needs is addressed to ensure that all waste types are managed appropriately. The recommended alternative scenario for the disposal of low-level waste based on this analysis is to build a disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  14. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  15. Geological and geophysical investigations in the selection and characterization of the disposal site for high-level nuclear waste in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulamaki, S.; Paananen, M.; Kuivamaki, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Wikstrom, L. [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)], e-mail: seppo.paulamaki@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    and the overall suitability of the sites for final disposal in terms of technical and safety aspects was evaluated. After the detailed site investigations, the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy (jointly owned by TVO and Fortum) proposed Olkiluoto as the site of the final disposal facility. In December 2000, the Government made a decision in principle in favour of the project, and in May 2001, the Parliament ratified the Government's policy decision by 159 votes to 3. (orig.)

  16. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  17. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  18. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  19. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHRADER, T.; MACBETH, P.

    2002-01-01

    On February 25, 2000, the US. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLWMLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLWMLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified disposal process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  20. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  1. Modeling of 3d Space-time Surface of Potential Fields and Hydrogeologic Modeling of Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, V.; Bondarenko, Y.; Zayonts, I.; Rudenko, Y.

    Introduction After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) disaster (04.26.1986) a huge amount (over 2000 sq. km) of nuclear wastes appeared within so-called "Cher- nobyl Exclusion Zone" (CEZ). At present there are not enough storage facilities in the Ukraine for safe disposal of nuclear wastes and hazardous chemical wastes. The urgent problem now is safe isolation of these dangerous wastes. According to the developed state program of radioactive waste management, the construction of a na- tional storage facility of nuclear wastes is planned. It is also possible to create regional storage facilities for hazardous chemical wastes. The region of our exploration cov- ers the eastern part of the Korosten Plutone and its slope, reaching the CNPP. 3D Space-Time Surface Imaging of Geophysical Fields. There are only three direct meth- ods of stress field reconstruction in present practice, namely the field investigations based on the large-scale fracturing tests, petrotectonic and optical polarization meth- ods. Unfortunately, all these methods are extremely laborious and need the regular field tests, which is difficult to conduct in the areas of anisotropic rock outcrops. A compilation of magnetic and gravity data covering the CNPP area was carried out as a prelude to an interpretation study. More than thirty map products were generated from magnetic, gravity and geodesy data to prepare the 3D Space-Time Surface Images (3D STSI). Multi-layer topography and geophysic surfaces included: total magnetic intensity, isostatically-corrected Bouguer gravity, aspect and slope, first and second derivatives, vertical and horizontal curvature, histogram characteristics and space cor- relation coefficients between the gradient fields. Many maps shows the first and sec- ond derivatives of the potential fields, with the results of lineament (edge) structure detection superimposed. The lineament or edges of the potential fields are located from maximal gradient in many directions

  2. 10 CFR 850.32 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waste disposal. 850.32 Section 850.32 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.32 Waste disposal. (a) The responsible employer must control the generation of beryllium-containing waste, and beryllium-contaminated equipment and other...

  3. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Campinas City, Brazil Using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Bruna Fernanda; Moreira, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    The problem of solid waste in most countries is on the rise as a result of rapid population growth, urbanization, industrial development and changes in consumption habits. Amongst the various forms of waste disposals, landfills are today the most viable for the Brazilian reality, both technically and economically. Proper landfill construction practices allow minimizing the effects of the two main sources of pollution from solid waste: landfill gas and slurry. However, minimizing is not synonymous with eliminating; consequently, the landfill alone cannot resolve all the problems with solid waste disposal. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the content of trace elements in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry arising from local solid waste disposals in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil. Samples were collected at the Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli landfills. At the Delta and Santa Barbara sites, values above the maximum permitted level established by CETESB for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Pb were observed in samples of groundwater, while at the Pirelli site, elements with concentrations above the permitted levels were Mn, Fe, Ba and Pb. At Delta, values above levels permitted by the CONAMA 357 legislation were still observed in surface water samples for Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu, whereas in slurry samples, values above the permitted levels were observed for Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. Slurry samples were prepared in accordance with two extraction methodologies, EPA 3050B and EPA 200.8. Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were higher than the limit established by CONAMA 357 for most samples collected at different periods (dry and rainy) and also for the two extraction methodologies employed.

  4. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  5. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Aaberg, R.L.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    This report contains the draft results of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste disposal criteria for the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of various defense TRU advanced disposal options at the Hanford Site. Advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. They will be used to complement the waste geologic disposal in achieving permanent disposal of selected TRU wastes. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 5 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 561 is located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 12, 22, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 561 is comprised of the 10 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 01-19-01, Waste Dump • 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area • 03-19-02, Debris Pile • 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile • 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump • 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site • 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches • 25-08-02, Waste Dump • 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump • 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 28, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 561. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the Corrective Action Investigation for CAU 561 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys

  7. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  8. Standardization of DOE Disposal Facilities Waste Acceptance Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader, T. A.; Macbeth, P. J.

    2002-02-26

    On February 25, 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) for low-level and mixed low-level wastes (LLW/ MLLW) treatment and disposal. The ROD designated the disposal sites at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to dispose of LLW/MLLW from sites without their own disposal facilities. DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL) and the National Nuclear Security Administration's Nevada Operations Office (NV) have been charged with effectively implementing the ROD. To accomplish this task NV and RL, assisted by their operating contractors Bechtel Nevada (BN), Fluor Hanford (FH), and Bechtel Hanford (BH) assembled a task team to systematically map out and evaluate the current waste acceptance processes and develop an integrated, standardized process for the acceptance of LLW/MLLW. A structured, systematic, analytical process using the Six Sigma system identified dispos al process improvements and quantified the associated efficiency gains to guide changes to be implemented. The review concluded that a unified and integrated Hanford/NTS Waste Acceptance Process would be a benefit to the DOE Complex, particularly the waste generators. The Six Sigma review developed quantitative metrics to address waste acceptance process efficiency improvements, and provides an initial look at development of comparable waste disposal cost models between the two disposal sites to allow quantification of the proposed improvements.

  9. The new site selection process in Germany. Results of the ''Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Weber, Stefan [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    After the open exploration of the salt dome Gorleben was suspended for political reasons and in favour of a new selection process in Germany the German Bundestag passed the site selection law mid-2013. It provides a three-phase process, which shall lead to the designation of a site with ''best possible safety'' in particular for highly radioactive waste in the year 2031. Early July 2016 the ''Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste'' submitted now its final report. Thus it is up to the legislator to legally implement the commission's recommendations and to clear the path for the start of phase 1 of the selection process.

  10. Prediction of Post-Closure Water Balance for Monolithic Soil Covers at Waste Disposal Sites in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ghana Landfill Guidelines require the provision of a final cover system during landfill closure as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of uncontrolled leachate discharges. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configurations that would be suitable for the different climatic zones in Ghana. The aim of this study was to simulate and predict post-closure landfill cover water balance for waste disposal sites located in the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area using the USGS Thornthwaite monthly water balance computer program. Five different cover soil types were analyzed under using historical climatic data for the metropolis from 1980 to 2001. The maximum annual percolation and evapotranspiration rates for the native soil type were 337 mm and 974 mm respectively. Monthly percolation rates exhibited a seasonal pattern similar to the bimodal precipitation regime whereas monthly evapotranspiration did not. It was also observed that even though soils with a high clay content would be the most suitable option as landfill cover material in the Accra metropolis the maximum thickness of 600 mm recommended in the Ghana Landfill Guidelines do not seem to provide significant reduction in percolation rates into the buried waste mass when the annual rainfall exceeds 700 mm. The findings from this research should provide additional guidance to landfill managers on the specification of cover designs for waste disposal sites with similar climatic conditions.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during 1976-1983 at the Sheffield low-level radioactive waste disposal site and adjacent areas, Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.B.; Garklavs, George; Mackey, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogeologic studies were conducted at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976-84. Data in this report include water levels in wells, lake stages, inorganic, organic, and radiometric chemical analyses of ground and surface water, hydraulic conductivities of glacial materials, grain-size distribution, clay and carbonate mineralogy, and cation exchange capacities of the glacial materials. Also included are results of petrographic analyses, physical measurements of wells, stratigraphy and lithology of cores collected from test wells, and horizontal coordinates of wells.

  12. Moisture monitoring in waste disposal surface barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelik, Alex; Huebner, Christof

    2003-05-01

    Surface barriers for waste disposal sites should prevent waste water and gas emission into the environment. It is necessary to assess their proper operation by monitoring the water regime of the containment. A set of three new water content measuring devices has been developed that provide an economical solution for monitoring the moisture distribution and water dynamic. They will give an early warning service if the barrier system is at risk of being damaged. The cryo soil moisture sensor 'LUMBRICUS' is an in situ self-calibrating absolute water content measuring device. It measures moisture profiles at spot locations down to 2.5 m depth with an accuracy of better than 1.5% and a depth resolution of 0.03 m. The sensor inherently measures density changes and initial cracks of shrinking materials like clay minerals. The large area soil moisture sensor 'TAUPE' is a moisture sensitive electric cable network to be buried in the mineral barrier material of the cover. A report will be given with results and experiences on an exemplary installation at the Waste Disposal Facility Karlsruhe-West. 800 m2 of the barrier construction have been continuously monitored since December 1997. Volumetric water content differences of 1.5% have been detected and localised within 4 m. This device is already installed in two other waste disposal sites. A modified 'TAUPE' was constructed for the control of tunnels and river dams as well. Thin sheet moisture sensor 'FORMI' is specifically designed for moisture measurements in liners like bentonite, textile and plastic. Due to its flexibility it follows the curvature of the liner. The sensor measures independently from neighbouring materials and can be matched to a wide range of different thickness of the material. The sensors are patented in several countries.

  13. Advanced disposal systems for transuranic waste: Preliminary disposal criteria for Plutonium-239 at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide ''greater confinement'' than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000-year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/yr to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth.

  14. Transuranic advanced disposal systems: preliminary /sup 239/Pu waste-disposal criteria for Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of the feasibility and potential application of advanced disposal systems is being conducted for defense transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Hanford Site. The advanced waste disposal options include those developed to provide greater confinement than provided by shallow-land burial. An example systems analysis is discussed with assumed performance objectives and various Hanford-specific disposal conditions, waste forms, site characteristics, and engineered barriers. Preliminary waste disposal criteria for /sup 239/Pu are determined by applying the Allowable Residual Contamination Level (ARCL) method. This method is based on compliance with a radiation dose rate limit through a site-specific analysis of the potential for radiation exposure to individuals. A 10,000 year environmental performance period is assumed, and the dose rate limit for human intrusion is assumed to be 500 mrem/y to any exposed individual. Preliminary waste disposal criteria derived by this method for /sup 239/Pu in soils at the Hanford Site are: 0.5 nCi/g in soils between the surface and a depth of 1 m, 2200 nCi/g of soil at a depth of 5 m, and 10,000 nCi/g of soil at depths 10 m and below. These waste disposal criteria are based on exposure scenarios that reflect the dependence of exposure versus burial depth. 2 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  16. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  17. Environmental risks of radioactive discharges from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site at Dessel, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, J Vives I; Sweeck, L; Wannijn, J; Vandenhove, H

    2016-10-01

    The potential radiological impact of releases from a low-level radioactive waste (Category A waste) repository in Dessel, Belgium on the local fauna and flora was assessed under a reference scenario for gradual leaching. The potential impact situations for terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora considered in this study were soil contamination due to irrigation with contaminated groundwater from a well at 70 m from the repository, contamination of the local wetlands receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer and contamination of the local river receiving the highest radionuclide flux after migration through the aquifer. In addition, an exploratory study was carried out for biota residing in the groundwater. All impact assessments were performed using the Environmental Risk from Ionising Contaminants: Assessment and Management (ERICA) tool. For all scenarios considered, absorbed dose rates to biota were found to be well below the ERICA 10 μGy h(-1) screening value. The highest dose rates were observed for the scenario where soil was irrigated with groundwater from the vicinity of the repository. For biota residing in the groundwater well, a few dose rates were slightly above the screening level but significantly below the dose rates at which the smallest effects are observed for those relevant species or groups of species. Given the conservative nature of the assessment, it can be concluded that manmade radionuclides deposited into the environment by the near surface disposal of category A waste at Dessel do not have a significant radiological impact to wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-18

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  20. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/ processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  1. DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  2. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  3. Disposal of medical waste: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Karen; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2013-09-03

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. The illegal dumping of hazardous waste poses a danger to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection or toxicity, endangering the health of humans who might become exposed to infection and toxins. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation in South Africa. Reports of the illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in regard to the safe disposal of medical waste

  4. Three-Dimensional Geologic Modeling of a Prospective Deep Underground Laboratory Site for High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. Y.; Lee, S.; Park, S. U.; Kim, J. M.; Kihm, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A series of three-dimensional geologic modeling was performed using a geostatistical geologic model GOCAD (ASGA and Paradigm) to characterize quantitatively and to visualize realistically a prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Korea. The necessity of a deep underground laboratory arises from its in-situ conditions for related deep scientific experiments. However, the construction and operation of such a deep underground laboratory take great efforts and expenses owing to its larger depth and thus higher geologic uncertainty. For these reasons, quantitative characterization and realistic visualization of geologic formations and structures of a deep underground laboratory site is crucial before its construction and operation. The study area for the prospective deep underground laboratory site is mainly consists of Precambrian metamorphic rocks as a complex. First, various topographic and geologic data of the study area were collected from literature and boreholes and preliminarily analyzed. Based on the preliminary analysis results, a three-dimensional structural model, which consists of the boundaries between the geologic formations and structures, was established, and a three-dimensional grid model, which consists of hexahedral grid blocks, was produced. Three-dimensional geologic formation model was then established by polymerizing these two models. Finally, a series of three-dimensional lithofacies modeling was performed using the sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS). The volume fractions of metamorphic rocks predicted using the TGS are more similar to the actual data observed in boreholes than those predicted using the SIS. These three-dimensional geologic modeling results can improve a quantitative and realistic understanding of geologic characteristics of the prospective deep underground laboratory site for high-level radioactive waste disposal and thus can provide

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  6. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Landfill (waste Disposal) Site Selection and Environmental Impacts Assessment around Mysore City, Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavarajappa, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    Landfill site selection is a complex process involving geological, hydrological, environmental and technical parameters as well as government regulations. As such, it requires the processing of a good amount of geospatial data. Landfill site selection techniques have been analyzed for identifying their suitability. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) is suitable to find best locations for such installations which use multiple criteria analysis. The use of Artificial intelligence methods, such as expert systems, can also be very helpful in solid waste planning and management. The waste disposal and its pollution around major cities in Karnataka are important problems affecting the environment. The Mysore is one of the major cities in Karnataka. The landfill site selection is the best way to control of pollution from any region. The main aim is to develop geographic information system to study the Landuse/ Landcover, natural drainage system, water bodies, and extents of villages around Mysore city, transportation, topography, geomorphology, lithology, structures, vegetation and forest information for landfill site selection. GIS combines spatial data (maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images) with quantitative, qualitative, and descriptive information database, which can support a wide range of spatial queries. For the Site Selection of an industrial waste and normal daily urban waste of a city town or a village, combining GIS with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) will be more appropriate. This method is innovative because it establishes general indices to quantify overall environmental impact as well as individual indices for specific environmental components (i.e. surface water, groundwater, atmosphere, soil and human health). Since this method requires processing large quantities of spatial data. To automate the processes of establishing composite evaluation criteria, performing multiple criteria analysis and carrying out spatial clustering

  7. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, D. S.

    1980-03-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the absorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strengths and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area.

  8. Possible salt mine and brined cavity sites for radioactive waste disposal in the northeastern southern peninsula of Michigan. [Seven possible sites are considered on the basis of listed criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, K.K.; Bourne, H.L.

    1976-05-31

    A reconnaissance report on the possibilities for disposal of radioactive waste covers Michigan only, and is more detailed than an earlier one involving the northeastern states. Revised ''ground rules'' for pinpointing both mine and dissolved salt cavern sites for waste disposal include environmental, geologic, and economic factors. The Michigan basin is a structural bowl of Paleozoic sediments resting on downwarped Precambrian rocks. The center of the bowl is in Clare and Gladwin Counties, a short distance north of the middle of the Southern Peninsula. The strata dip toward this central area, and some stratigraphic sequences, including especially the salt-containing Silurian section, increase considerably in thickness in that direction. Lesser amounts of salt are also present in the north central part of the Lower Peninsula. Michigan has been an oil and gas producing state since 1925 and widespread exploration has had two effects on the selection of waste disposal sites: (1) large areas are leased for oil and gas; and (2) the borehole concentrations, whether producing wells, dry holes, or industrial brine wells that penetrated the salt section, should be avoided. Two types of nuclear waste, low level and high level, can be stored in man-made openings in salt beds. The storage facilities are created by (1) the development of salt mines where the depths are less than 3000 ft, and (2) cavities produced by pumping water into a salt bed, and bringing brine back out. The high level waste disposal must be confined to mines of limited depth, but the low level wastes can be accommodated in brine cavities at any depth. Seven potential prospects have been investigated and are described in detail.

  9. The Challenges of Waste Disposal in a Secondary City: Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Challenges of Waste Disposal in a Secondary City: Calabar Metropolis – Cross ... Waste disposal is a major aspect in environmental preservation for healthy living. ... irregular collection and evacuation of waste materials and lack of funds. ... agencies to partner in waste disposal, create awareness on waste disposal, ...

  10. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  11. Assessment of Potential Flood Events and Impacts at INL's Proposed Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Jeff Sondrup; Annette L. Schafter

    2010-09-01

    Rates, depths, erosion potential, increased subsurface transport rates, and annual exceedance probability for potential flooding scenarios have been evaluated for the on-site alternatives of Idaho National Laboratory’s proposed remote handled low-level waste disposal facility. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of flood impacts are required to meet the Department of Energy’s Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE-O 435.1), its natural phenomena hazards assessment criteria (DOE-STD-1023-95), and the Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1) guidance in addition to being required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) environmental assessment (EA). Potential sources of water evaluated include those arising from (1) local precipitation events, (2) precipitation events occurring off of the INL (off-site precipitation), and (3) increased flows in the Big Lost River in the event of a Mackay Dam failure. On-site precipitation events include potential snow-melt and rainfall. Extreme rainfall events were evaluated for the potential to create local erosion, particularly of the barrier placed over the disposal facility. Off-site precipitation carried onto the INL by the Big Lost River channel was evaluated for overland migration of water away from the river channel. Off-site precipitation sources evaluated were those occurring in the drainage basin above Mackay Reservoir. In the worst-case scenarios, precipitation occurring above Mackay Dam could exceed the dam’s capacity, leading to overtopping, and eventually complete dam failure. Mackay Dam could also fail during a seismic event or as a result of mechanical piping. Some of the water released during dam failure, and contributing precipitation, has the potential of being carried onto the INL in the Big Lost River channel. Resulting overland flows from these flood sources were evaluated for

  12. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site.

  13. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  14. Methodology of site selection for solid municipal waste disposal plants; Metodologia per la localizzazione sul territorio di aree ambientalmente compatibili con impianti di smaltimento rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E.; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Andriola, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The selection of suitable areas for solid municipal waste disposal plants has a notable importance in relation to the problems linked to the solid municipal waste management. The knowledge of the territory constitutes the fundamental base for the selection of compatible areas, from an environmental point of view. The method developed by ENEA (1995) and applied to the Latina territory (Central Italy) preliminary considers an accurate bibliographic and cartographic search, relative to the geological, presently, hydrogeological characteristics and the use constraints of the territory. The selection of suitable areas has been carried out on the ground of the following criteria: - selection of potentially suitable large areas, carried out overlaying thematic maps (geological, geomorphological, etc.) elaborated for all the examined territory; - selection of ``exclusion`` areas on the ground of use constraints, such as residential areas, water protection zones and so on. At the end of the proceeding phases other main points with territorial and socioeconomic significance have been examined and represented on thematic maps. Because the selected areas have resulted too numerous, it has been necessary to utilize methods to get environmental comparative evaluations of the areas in relation to the solid municipal waste disposal plants. A method, developed by ENEA (1994) and based on the calculus of the ``impacts matrix`` has been used. The application of the described method has allowed to find out the areas with the best degree of compatibility, which could be defined ``first priority`` areas for the final choice of the plants site. The aforesaid classification allows the Local Administrators to select the site in a scientifically correct way, on the ground of the evaluation of environmental characteristics above indicated and of a cost-benefit balance; this latter is presently not included among the objectives of the methodology.

  15. Characterization of discontinuities in an argillaceous medium (Tournemire site): key questions related to safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera Nunez, J. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    2001-07-01

    The safety assessment of deep radioactive waste disposal in argillaceous medium concerns the evaluation of the possibilities and transfer processes through this geological barrier. Generally, this material is characterized by a very low permeability. However, faults and fractures may affect this medium and consequently it is important to analyse the transfer possibilities along these discontinuities. The first phase of this evaluation is the detection or survey of the fractures, and the second one is the evaluation of their hydraulic properties. A discontinuity is not a synonymous of fluid transfer, which in turn may be inhomogeneous along the same fracture. The well-compacted Tournemire argillaceous medium (argilites and marls) is affected by some faults and fractures of natural (tectonic) and artificial (excavation) origin. The natural fractures are of different scales: major regional faults that limit blocks, secondary fault and fractured zones that affect the blocks, and local fractures and micro-fractures. These discontinuities are studied from the surface analyses, transversal boreholes and drifts. Geophysical methods are tested to detect these discontinuities to different scales. The present-day fluids are shown in some fractured sectors that allow us to analyse the possibilities of fluid transfer along these discontinuities. The fracture analyses show that permeability or transmissivity properties may change along the discontinuities. A decametric fluid transfer is shown along some fractures; however, their integration in a larger scale is not yet analysed. It is necessary to understand how the transfer in the near field may be connected to the possible far field transfer, or these transfers are not possible through the argillaceous medium. (author)

  16. Effects of low-level radioactive-waste disposal on water chemistry in the unsaturated zone at a site near Sheffield, Illinois, 1982-84

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.A.; Striegl, R.G.; Mills, P.C.; Healy, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    A 1982-84 field study defined the chemistry of water collected from the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Bureau County, Illinois. Chemical data were evaluated to determine the principal naturally occurring geochemical reactions in the unsaturated zone and to evaluate waste-induced effects on pore-water chemistry. Samples of precipitation, unsaturated-zone pore water, and saturated-zone water were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, major cations and anions, dissolved organic carbon, gross alpha and beta radiation, and tritium. Little change in concentration of most major constituents in the unsaturated-zone water was observed with respect to depth or distance from disposal trenches. Tritium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were, however, dependent on proximity to trenches. The primary reactions, both on- site and off-site, were carbonate and clay dissolution, cation exchange, and the oxidation of pyrite. The major difference between on-site and off-site inorganic water chemistry resulted from the removal of the Roxana Silt and the Radnor Till Member of the Glasford Formation from on-site. Off-site, the Roxana Silt contributed substantial quantities of sodium to solution from montmorillonite dissolution and associated cation-exchange reactions. The Radnor Till Member provided exchange surfaces for magnesium. Precipitation at the site had an ionic composition of calcium zinc sulfate and an average pH of 4.6. Within 0.3 meter of the land surface, infiltrating rain water or snowmelt changed to an ionic canposition of calcium sulfate off-site and calcium bicarbonate on-site and had an average pH of 7.9; below that depth, pH averaged 7.5 and the ionic composition generally was calcium magnesium bicarbonate. Alkalinity and specific conductance differed primarily according to composition of geologic materials. Tritium concentrations ranged from 0.2 (detection limit) to 1,380 nanocuries per liter. The

  17. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  18. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  19. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  1. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  2. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  3. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 7, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Trench water samples from the commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and West Valley, New York, were collected, and the bacterial populations were enumerated. The range of bacterial populations in six trench water samples were 400 to 24,000 aerobic and 90 to 15,000 anaerobic bacteria/ml. Most of the bacteria isolated from the anaerobic culture plates were facultative anaerobes, although a few strict anaerobes were also present. Mixed bacterial populations isolated from the trench waters were able to grow anaerobically utilizing the carbon and nitrogen sources present in the trench waters. Trench waters supplemented with mineral salts supported only a modest increase in growth of these bacteria. The results of this study indicate that bacteria are active in the trenches, and the radioactivity and organic compounds present in the trenches are not toxic to these bacteria.

  4. Mixed waste characterization, treatment & disposal focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The mission of the Mixed Waste Characterization, Treatment, and Disposal Focus Area (referred to as the Mixed Waste Focus Area or MWFA) is to provide treatment systems capable of treating DOE`s mixed waste in partnership with users, and with continual participation of stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. The MWFA deals with the problem of eliminating mixed waste from current and future storage in the DOE complex. Mixed waste is waste that contains both hazardous chemical components, subject to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and radioactive components, subject to the requirements of the Atomic Energy Act. The radioactive components include transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). TRU waste primarily comes from the reprocessing of spent fuel and the use of plutonium in the fabrication of nuclear weapons. LLW includes radioactive waste other than uranium mill tailings, TRU, and high-level waste, including spent fuel.

  5. Assessing doses to terrestrial wildlife at a radioactive waste disposal site: Inter-comparison of modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, M.P., E-mail: mathew.johansen@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Barnett, C.L., E-mail: clb@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Beresford, N.A., E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Brown, J.E., E-mail: justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway); Cerne, M., E-mail: marko.cerne@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Howard, B.J., E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kamboj, S., E-mail: skamboj@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Keum, D.-K., E-mail: dkkeum@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Smodis, B. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Twining, J.R., E-mail: jrt@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW, 2232 (Australia); Vandenhove, H., E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jvbatll@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium); Wood, M.D., E-mail: m.d.wood@salford.ac.uk [University of Salford, Manchester (United Kingdom); Yu, C., E-mail: cyu@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Radiological doses to terrestrial wildlife were examined in this model inter-comparison study that emphasised factors causing variability in dose estimation. The study participants used varying modelling approaches and information sources to estimate dose rates and tissue concentrations for a range of biota types exposed to soil contamination at a shallow radionuclide waste burial site in Australia. Results indicated that the dominant factor causing variation in dose rate estimates (up to three orders of magnitude on mean total dose rates) was the soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides that included variation in transfer parameter values as well as transfer calculation methods. Additional variation was associated with other modelling factors including: how participants conceptualised and modelled the exposure configurations (two orders of magnitude); which progeny to include with the parent radionuclide (typically less than one order of magnitude); and dose calculation parameters, including radiation weighting factors and dose conversion coefficients (typically less than one order of magnitude). Probabilistic approaches to model parameterisation were used to encompass and describe variable model parameters and outcomes. The study confirms the need for continued evaluation of the underlying mechanisms governing soil-to-organism transfer of radionuclides to improve estimation of dose rates to terrestrial wildlife. The exposure pathways and configurations available in most current codes are limited when considering instances where organisms access subsurface contamination through rooting, burrowing, or using different localised waste areas as part of their habitual routines. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of modelled dose rates to terrestrial biota from radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substantial variation among current approaches is quantifiable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dominant variable was soil

  6. The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

  7. The common good accompaniment on the long road to the site selection. The report of the Commission Disposal of Highly Radioactive Waste and the site selection act; Die gemeinwohlorientierte Begleitung auf dem langen Weg zur Standortauswahl. Zum Bericht der Endlager-Kommission und zur Aenderung des StandAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2016-10-15

    Almost in time, on 5 July 2016 the 'Commission Disposal of High Radioactive Waste' presented its report according to the German Site Selection Act (for disposal of radioactive waste). On July 20, 2016, the act for reorganisation of the organisational structure in the field of radioactive waste disposal entered into force. The new law raises a number of institutional, organisational and fundamental questions on the way to a final repository for high-level waste. The path continues to appear rocky and long.

  8. Geochemical factors affecting radionuclide transport through near and far fields at a Low-Level Waste Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D.I.; Seme, R.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Piepkho, M.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The concentration of low-level waste (LLW) contaminants in groundwater is determined by the amount of contaminant present in the solid waste, rate of release from the waste and surrounding barriers, and a number of geochemical processes including adsorption, desorption, diffusion, precipitation, and dissolution. To accurately predict radionuclide transport through the subsurface, it is essential that the important geochemical processes affecting radionuclide transport be identified and, perhaps more importantly, accurately quantified and described in a mathematically defensible manner.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  10. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  11. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Appel, Detlef [PanGeo, Hannover (Germany); Buser, Marcos [Buser and Finger, Zurich (Switzerland); Eckhardt, Anne [Basler and Hofmann, Zurich (Switzerland); Hufschmied, Peter [Emch and Berger, Bern (Switzerland); Keusen, Hans-Rudolf [Geotest, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Aebersold, Michael [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE), CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2000-01-15

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA.

  12. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  13. Uptake of strontium by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) shrub plants growing over a former liquid waste disposal site at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Foxx, T.S.; Naranjo, L. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Environment, Safety and Health Div.

    1996-06-01

    A major concern of managers at low-level waste burial site facilities is that plant roots may translocate contaminants up to the soil surface. This study investigates the uptake of strontium ({sup 90}Sr), a biologically mobile element, by chamisa (Chrysothamnus nauseosus), a deep-rooted shrub plant, growing in a former liquid waste disposal site (Solid Waste Management Unit [SWMU] 10-003[c]) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico. Surface soil samples were also collected from below (understory) and between (interspace) shrub canopies. Both chamisa plants growing over SWMU 10-003(c) contained significantly higher concentrations of {sup 90}Sr than a control plant--one plant, in particular, contained 3.35 x 10{sup 6} Bq kg{sup {minus}1} ash (9.05 x 10{sup 4} pCi g{sup {minus}1} ash) in top-growth material. Similarly, soil surface samples collected underneath and between plants contained {sup 90}Sr concentrations above background and LANL screening action levels (> 218 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} dry [5.90 pCi g{sup {minus}1} dry]); this probably occurred as a result of chamisa plant leaf fall contaminating the soil understory area followed by water and/or winds moving {sup 90}Sr to the soil interspace areas. Although some soil surface migration of {sup 90}Sr from SWMU 10-003(c) has occurred, the level of {sup 90}Sr in sediments collected downstream of SWMU 10-003(c) at the LANL boundary was still within regional (background) concentrations.

  14. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  15. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  16. Concepts and data-collection techniques used in a study of the unsaturated zone at a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; DeVries, M.P.; Striegl, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study of water and radionuclide movement through the unsaturated zone is being conducted at the low level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Included in the study are detailed investigations of evapotranspiration, movement of water through waste trench covers, and movement of water and radionuclides (dissolved and gaseous) from the trenches. An energy balance/Bowen ratio approach is used to determine evapotranspiration. Precipitation, net radiation, soil-heat flux, air temperature and water vapor content gradients, wind speed, and wind direction are measured. Soil water tension is measured with tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers which are connected to pressure transducers. Meteorological sensors and tensiometers are monitored with automatic data loggers. Soil moisture contents are measured through small-diameter access tubes with neutron and gamma-ray attenuation gages. Data beneath the trenches are obtained through a 130-meter-long tunnel which extends under four of the trenches. Water samples are obtained with suction lysimeters, and samples of the geologic material are obtained with core tubes. These samples are analyzed for radiometric and inorganic chemistry. Gas samples are obtained from gas piezometers and analyzed for partial pressures of major constituents, Radon-222, tritiated water vapor, and carbon-14 dioxide. (USGS)

  17. The disposal of nuclear waste in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The important problem of disposal of nuclear waste in space is addressed. A prior study proposed carrying only actinide wastes to space, but the present study assumes that all actinides and all fission products are to be carried to space. It is shown that nuclear waste in the calcine (oxide) form can be packaged in a container designed to provide thermal control, radiation shielding, mechanical containment, and an abort reentry thermal protection system. This package can be transported to orbit via the Space Shuttle. A second Space Shuttle delivers an oxygen-hydrogen orbit transfer vehicle to a rendezvous compatible orbit and the mated OTV and waste package are sent to the preferred destination. Preferred locations are either a lunar crater or a solar orbit. Shuttle traffic densities (which vary in time) are given and the safety of space disposal of wastes discussed.

  18. A hybrid modeling approach to evaluate the groundwater flow system at the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal site in Gyeong-Ju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Lim, Doo-Hyun; Kim, Chunsoo; Kim, Kyung Su; Dershowitz, William

    2012-11-01

    The development and implementation of a hybrid discrete fracture network/equivalent porous medium (DFN/EPM) approach to groundwater flow at the Gyeong-Ju low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal site in the Republic of Korea is reported. The geometrical and hydrogeological properties of fractured zones, background fractures and rock matrix were derived from site characterization data and implemented as a DFN. Several DFN realizations, including the deterministic fractured zones and the stochastic background fractures, whose statistical properties were verified by comparison with in-situ fracture and hydraulic test data, were suggested, and they were then upscaled to continuums using a fracture tensor approach for site-scale flow simulations. The upscaled models were evaluated by comparison to in-situ pressure monitoring data, and then used to simulate post-closure hydrogeology for the LILW facility. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of careful characterization and implementation of fractured zones. The study highlighted the importance of reducing uncertainty regarding the properties and variability of natural background fractures, particularly in the immediate vicinity of repository emplacement.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 561: Waste Disposal Areas, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2011-08-01

    CAU 561 comprises 10 CASs: (1) 01-19-01, Waste Dump; (2) 02-08-02, Waste Dump and Burn Area; (3) 03-19-02, Debris Pile; (4) 05-62-01, Radioactive Gravel Pile; (5) 12-23-09, Radioactive Waste Dump; (6) 22-19-06, Buried Waste Disposal Site; (7) 23-21-04, Waste Disposal Trenches ; (8) 25-08-02, Waste Dump; (9) 25-23-21, Radioactive Waste Dump; and (10) 25-25-19, Hydrocarbon Stains and Trench. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 561 with no further corrective action. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the DQO process: (1) Determine whether COCs are present; (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent; and (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: (1) No contamination exceeding FALs was identified at CASs 01-19-01, 03-19-02, 05-62-01, 12-23-09, and 22-19-06. (2) The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area at CAS 02-08-02 contains arsenic and lead above the FALs of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The surface and subsurface soil within the burn area also contains melted lead slag (potential source material [PSM]). The soil within the waste piles contains polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the FALs. The contamination within the burn area is spread throughout the area, as it was not feasible to remove all the PSM (melted lead), while at the waste piles, the contamination is confined to the piles. (3) The surface and subsurface soils within Trenches 3 and 5 at CAS 23-21-04 contain arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the FALs of 23 mg/kg and 0.74 mg/kg, respectively. The soil was removed from both trenches, and the soil that remains at this CAS does not contain contamination exceeding the FALs. Lead bricks and

  20. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  1. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Statement of position of the United States Department of Energy in the matter of proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste (waste confidence rulemaking)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-15

    Purpose of this proceeding is to assess generically the degree of assurance that the radioactive waste can be safely disposed of, to determine when such disposal or off-site storage will be available, and to determine whether wastes can be safely stored on-site past license expiration until off-site disposal/storage is available. (DLC)

  3. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yeh, Gour-Tsyh [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  4. 77 FR 50622 - Land Disposal Restrictions: Site-Specific Treatment Variance for Hazardous Selenium-Bearing Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Management Division, Office of Resource Conservation and Recovery (MC 5304 P), U.S. Environmental Protection...-renewable resource, and because the wastes in question contain high selenium concentrations, EPA's... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  5. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  6. An Assessment of Household Solid Waste Disposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 5, 1, December 2012. An Assessment of ... sites and interview with agencies responsible for municipal solid waste ... farms, wetlands, uncompleted buildings ..... construct and maintain solid waste.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Seminar on waste treatment and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Malgorzata Karpow; Snihs, Jan Olof

    1999-07-01

    Leading abstract. A seminar on radioactive waste treatment and disposal was held 9 - 14 November 1998 in Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective of the seminar was to exchange information on national and international procedures, practices and requirements for waste management. This information exchange was intended to promote the development of a suitable strategy for management of radioactive waste in Northwest Russia to be used as background for future co-operation in the region. The seminar focused on (1) overviews of international co-operation in the waste management field and national systems for waste management, (2) experiences from treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste, (3) the process of determining the options for final disposal of radioactive waste, (4) experiences from performance assessments and safety analysis for repositories intended for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste, (5) safety of storage and disposal of high-level waste. The seminar was jointly organised and sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) and the European Commission. A Russian version of the report is available. In brief, the main conclusions are: (1) It is the prerogative of the Russian federal Government to devise and implement a waste management strategy without having to pay attention to the recommendations of the meeting, (2) Some participants consider that many points have already been covered in existing governmental documents, (3) Norway and Sweden would like to see a strategic plan in order to identify how and where to co-operate best, (4) There is a rigorous structure of laws in place, based on over-arching environmental laws, (5) Decommissioning of submarines is a long and complicated task, (6) There are funds and a desire for continued Norway/Sweden/Russia co-operation, (7) Good co-operation is already taking place.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  11. Radioactive Waste Streams: Waste Classification for Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-13

    acidity with caustic soda or sodium nitrate to condition it for storage in the carbon-steel tanks. (The neutralization reaction formed a...waste ranges between from 47 to 147 curies/cubic-meter based on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant inventory. The vitrified high-level waste processed by...Facility St T Assembly MTHM 1. Arkansas Nuclear One AK P 1,517 666.7 46. Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant NC P 3,814 964.5 I 552 241.4 47. Cooper

  12. THE RADIOECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITES OF URANIUM PRODUCTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Ten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the issues of management of the uranium industry wastes at the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The characteristics of the main uranium deposits and mining methods are given. The environmental problems associated with presence of large areas occupied by the uranium industry wastes and with the influence of natural processes on the integrity of such storage places are discussed. The author gives a generalized description of the measures on improving radiation situation in the ecosystems at contaminated territories and facilities of the country. The efforts of the State in relation to the remediation of contaminated land on dangerous facilities are described. The main directions of responsibility and control of radiation safety at the territories containing the uranium industry wastes are indicated. Based on the analysis, the author highlights promising areas of the state policy to improve the system of protective actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The main tasks in the field of protection of public health and the environment are defined in the paper.

  13. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  14. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    As a generator of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste destined for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the Hanford Site must ensure that its TRU waste meets the requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) 0 435.1, ''Radioactive Waste Management,'' and the Contact-Handled (CH) Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP-WAC). WIPP-WAC requirements are derived from the WIPP Technical Safety Requirements, WIPP Safety Analysis Report, TRUPACT-II SARP, WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 191/194 Compliance Certification Decision. The WIPP-WAC establishes the specific physical, chemical, radiological, and packaging criteria for acceptance of defense TRU waste shipments at WIPP. The WPP-WAC also requires that participating DOE TRU waste generator/treatment/storage sites produce site-specific documents, including a certification plan, that describe their program for managing TRU waste and TRU waste shipments before transferring waste to WIPP. Waste characterization activities provide much of the data upon which certification decisions are based. Waste characterization requirements for TRU waste and TRU mixed waste that contains constituents regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) are established in the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit Waste Analysis Plan (WAP). The Hanford Site Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) (HNF-2599) implements the applicable requirements in the WAP and includes the qualitative and quantitative criteria for making hazardous waste determinations. The Hanford Site must also ensure that its TRU waste destined for disposal at WPP meets requirements for transport in the Transuranic Package Transporter-11 (TRUPACT-11). The US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) establishes the TRUPACT-11 requirements in the Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package

  15. Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winogard, I J

    1981-06-26

    Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolatic is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere.

  16. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, F. G., Ed.

    This manual is designed to provide laboratory personnel with information about chemical hazards and ways of disposing of chemical wastes with minimum contamination of the environment. The manual contains a reference chart section which has alphabetical listings of some 1200 chemical substances with information on the health, fire and reactivity…

  17. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D

    2000-07-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation.

  18. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  19. Ecological Risk Assessment of Jarosite Waste Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihone Kerolli-Mustafa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste, originating from zinc extraction industry, is considered hazardous due to the presence and the mobility of toxic metals that it contains. Its worldwide disposal in many tailing damps has become a major ecological concern. Three different methods, namely modified Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP, three-stage BCR sequential extraction procedure and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI Method were used to access the ecological risk of jarosite waste disposal in Mitrovica Industrial Park, Kosovo. The combination of these methods can effectively identify the comprehensive and single pollution levels of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and As present in jarosite waste. Moreover, the great positive relevance between leaching behavior of heavy metals and F1 fraction was supported by principal component analysis (PCA. PERI results indicate that Cd showed a very high risk class to the environment. The ecological risk of heavy metals declines in the following order: Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>As.

  20. 77 FR 14307 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and... (RUS) proposes to amend the regulations pertaining to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants program, which provides water and waste disposal facilities and services to...

  1. 77 FR 43149 - Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... CFR Part 1777 RIN 0572-AC26 Water and Waste Disposal Loans and Grants AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service... related to the Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal (WWD) Loans and Grants Program, which provides water... additional priority points to the colonias that lack access to water or waste disposal systems and...

  2. Annual Status Report (FY2104) Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-24

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy requirements in DOE O 435.1 and as implemented by DOE/RL-2009-29, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annul summary of the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for fiscal year 2014.

  3. Annual Status Report (FY2016) Composite Analysis for Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M. C. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-14

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1 and as implemented by DOE/RL-2009-29, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annual summary of the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for fiscal year 2016.

  4. Annual Status Report (FY2015) Composite Analysis for Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1, and as implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, the DOE Richland Operations Office has prepared this annual summary of the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for fiscal year 2015.

  5. Annual Status Report (FY2013 Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-25

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1, 3 Chg. 11, and as implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, Rev. 22, the DOE Richland Operations 4 Office (DOE-RL) has prepared this annual summary of the Hanford Site Composite Analysis 5 for fiscal year (FY) 2013.

  6. Land suitability for waste disposal in metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, Valerio; Lelo, Keti; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella

    2014-08-01

    Site selection for waste disposal is a complex task that should meet the requirements of communities and stakeholders. In this article, three decision support methods (Boolean logic, index overlay and fuzzy gamma) are used to perform land suitability analysis for landfill siting. The study was carried out in one of the biggest metropolitan regions of Italy, with the objective of locating suitable areas for waste disposal. Physical and socio-economic information criteria for site selection were decided by a multidisciplinary group of experts, according to state-of-the-art guidelines, national legislation and local normative on waste management. The geographic information systems (GIS) based models used in this study are easy to apply but require adequate selection of criteria and weights and a careful evaluation of the results. The methodology is arranged in three steps, reflecting the criteria defined by national legislation on waste management: definition of factors that exclude location of landfills or waste treatment plants; classification of the remaining areas in terms of suitability for landfilling; and evaluation of suitable sites in relation to preferential siting factors (such as the presence of quarries or dismissed plants). The results showed that more than 80% of the provincial territory falls within constraint areas and the remaining territory is suitable for waste disposal for 0.72% or 1.93%, according to the model. The larger and most suitable sites are located in peripheral areas of the metropolitan system. The proposed approach represents a low-cost and expeditious alternative to support the spatial decision-making process.

  7. Biosphere models for safety assesment of radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proehl, G.; Olyslaegers, G.; Zeevaert, T. [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium); Kanyar, B. [University of Veszprem (Hungary). Dept. of Radiochemistry; Pinedo, P.; Simon, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Bergstroem, U.; Hallberg, B. [Studsvik Ecosafe, Nykoeping (Sweden); Mobbs, S.; Chen, Q.; Kowe, R. [NRPB, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the BioMoSA project has been to contribute in the confidence building of biosphere models, for application in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal. The detailed objectives of this project are: development and test of practical biosphere models for application in long-term safety studies of radioactive waste disposal to different European locations, identification of features, events and processes that need to be modelled on a site-specific rather than on a generic base, comparison of the results and quantification of the variability of site-specific models developed according to the reference biosphere methodology, development of a generic biosphere tool for application in long term safety studies, comparison of results from site-specific models to those from generic one, Identification of possibilities and limitations for the application of the generic biosphere model. (orig.)

  8. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  9. Radioactive waste management and disposal scenario for fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabara, Takashi; Yamano, Naoki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Seki, Yasushi; Aoki, Isao

    1997-10-01

    The environmental and economic impact of radioactive waste (radwaste) generated from fusion power reactors using five types of structural materials and a light water reactor (LWR) have been evaluated and compared. At first, the amount and the radioactive level of the radwaste generated in five fusion reactors ware evaluated by an activation calculation code. Next, a possible radwaste disposal scenario applicable to fusion radwaste in Japan is considered and the disposal cost evaluated under certain assumptions. The exposure doses are evaluated for the skyshine of gamma-rays during the disposal operation, groundwater migration scenario during the institutional control period of 300 years and future site use scenario after the institutional period. The radwaste generated from a typical LWR was estimated based on a literature survey and the disposal cost was evaluated using the same assumptions as for the fusion reactors. It is found that the relative cost of disposal is strongly dependent on the cost for interim storage of medium level waste of fusion reactors and the cost of high level waste for the LWR. (author)

  10. Site-selective fluorescence spectroscopy investigations of LnPO{sub 4} xenotime ceramics for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, A.; Peters, L. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Crystallography; Holthausen, J.; Neumeier, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Huittinen, Nina [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Loesch, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Europium incorporation in different LnPO{sub 4} (Ln=Tb, Lu and Gd{sub 1-x}Lu{sub x}) phases crystallizing in the xenotime structure was investigated with site-selective TRLFS, PXRD and Rietveld analyses. Based on recorded emission spectra and diffraction patterns, the formation of three different crystal systems (xenotime, anhydrite, and monazite) could be identified. Aging of the ceramic samples and a second sintering step led to an accumulation of europium in the grain boundaries and on the surface.

  11. Strategic environmental audit for the national waste disposal program; Strategische Umweltpruefung zum Nationalen Entsorgungsprogramm. Umweltbericht fuer die Oeffentlichkeitsbeteiligung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhoff, Mathias; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Claus, Manuel [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-03-27

    The report on the strategic environmental audit for the national waste disposal program covers the following issues: aim of the study, active factors, environmental objectives; description and evaluation of environmental impact including site selection criteria for final repositories of heat generating radioactive waste, intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and waste from reprocessing plants, disposal of wastes retrieved from Asse II; hypothetical zero variants.

  12. Application of geographic information system as support technique in site selection for radioactive waste disposal; Exemplo da aplicacao de sistema de informacao geografica como tecnica auxiliar na selecao de local para deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Alberto A.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A. de; Aquino Branco, Octavio E. de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    The present work describes an application of Geographic Information System (GIS). This technology was used to select, hypothetically, a site to disposal of radioactive wastes. In this work, the methodology is applied in an area of the Projeto Hidrogeologico do Engenho Nogueira (PROHBEN), located at Pampulha`s region, in Belo Horizonte city. The GIS used the software Idrisi. This software was used to create the Digital Elevation Model, maps of declivity, thickness of unsaturated zone and geology of the region. This database was processed using GIS`s recourses capability to create a vulnerability map of the aquifer, of the region. The site to disposal of radioactive wastes was select using the vulnerability map. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  14. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste...

  15. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    pr_121508_energysecnom.cfm. 13 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, “Growing energy: Berkeley Lab’s Steve Chu on what termite guts have to do with global warming...does not seem an attractive alternative to the geological 60 Steven Nadis, “The Sub-Seabed Solution...could be done at Yucca Mountain.82 Such “salt creep” occurs more quickly at higher temperatures , which could result from the disposal of high-level waste

  16. Remediation of a Former USAF Radioactive Material Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D. E.; Cushman, M; Tupyi, B.; Lambert, J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the remediation of a low-level radiological waste burial site located at the former James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas. Burial activities at the site occurred during the 1950's when the property was under the ownership of the United States Air Force. Included is a discussion of methods and strategies that were used to successfully exhume and characterize the wastes for proper disposal at offsite disposal facilities. Worker and environmental protection measures are also described. Information gained from this project may be used at other similar project sites. A total of nine burial tubes had been identified for excavation, characterization, and removal from the site. The disposal tubes were constructed of 4-ft lengths of concrete pipe buried upright with the upper ends flush with ground surface. Initial ground level observations of the burial tubes indicated that some weathering had occurred; however, the condition of the subsurface portions of the tubes was unknown. Soil excavation occurred in 1-foot lifts in order that the tubes could be inspected and to allow for characterization of the soils at each stage of the excavation. Due to the weight of the concrete pipe and the condition of the piping joints it was determined that special measures would be required to maintain the tubes intact during their removal. Special tube anchoring and handling methods were required to relocate the tubes from their initial positions to a staging area where they could be further characterized. Characterization of the disposal tubes was accomplished using a combination of gamma spectroscopy and activity mapping methods. Important aspects of the project included the use of specialized excavation and disposal tube reinforcement measures to maintain the disposal tubes intact during excavation, removal and subsequent characterization. The non-intrusive gamma spectroscopy and data logging methods allowed for effective characterization of the wastes

  17. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  18. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable

  19. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  20. Development of disposal technologies for radioactive waste generated from radioisotope users and research institutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    In order to safely dispose of a radioactive waste, which is generated from radioisotope users and research institutes, investigation of characteristics of the waste and conceptual design of disposal facility were carried out. As a result of investigating JAERI that the waste has mainly been stored, it became clear that radioactivities of 19 nuclides are important from the viewpoint of the safety of the disposal. And the result of the conceptual design of disposal facilities on the assumption of 3 kinds of sites, the differences on the safety could not be recognized in either case, though the installation depth to construct the facilities influenced the economical efficiency. (author)

  1. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  2. Radioactive waste disposal fees-Methodology for calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, Július; Králík, Tomáš; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, Jiří; Starý, Oldřich

    2014-11-01

    This paper summarizes the methodological approach used for calculation of fee for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal and for spent fuel disposal. The methodology itself is based on simulation of cash flows related to the operation of system for waste disposal. The paper includes demonstration of methodology application on the conditions of the Czech Republic.

  3. Comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO); Stellungnahme zu konzeptionellen Fragen der Freigabe zur Beseitigung auf einer Deponie bei Stilllegung und Abbau des Kernkraftwerks Obrigheim (KWO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueppers, Christian

    2015-08-03

    The comments on conceptual questions concerning the clearance of wastes for disposal on a dump site during the decommissioning and dismantling of the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (KWO) cover the following issues: fundamentals of the 10 micro-Sv concept for clearance; specific regulations for the clearance of wastes from the dismantling of KWO for disposal on a dump site; disposal concept at shutdown and dismantling of KWO; measurements and control during clearance for disposal during shutdown and dismantling of KWO; documentation and reports.

  4. Movement of a tritium plume in shallow groundwater at a legacy low-level radioactive waste disposal site in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C E; Cendón, D I; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S I; Johansen, M P; Payne, T E; Vine, M; Collins, R N; Hoffmann, E L; Loosz, T

    2011-10-01

    Between 1960 and 1968 low-level radioactive waste was buried in a series of shallow trenches near the Lucas Heights facility, south of Sydney, Australia. Groundwater monitoring carried out since the mid 1970s indicates that with the exception of tritium, no radioactivity above typical background levels has been detected outside the immediate vicinity of the trenches. The maximum tritium level detected in ground water was 390 kBq/L and the median value was 5400 Bq/L, decay corrected to the time of disposal. Since 1968, a plume of tritiated water has migrated from the disposal trenches and extends at least 100 m from the source area. Tritium in rainfall is negligible, however leachate from an adjacent and fill represents a significant additional tritium source. Study data indicate variation in concentration levels and plume distribution in response to wet and dry climatic periods and have been used to determine pathways for tritium migration through the subsurface.

  5. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  6. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  7. Biotic, temporal and spatial variability of tritium concentrations in transpirate samples collected in the vicinity of a near-surface low-level nuclear waste disposal site and nearby research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, J R; Hughes, C E; Harrison, J J; Hankin, S; Crawford, J; Johansen, M; Dyer, L

    2011-06-01

    The results of a 21 month sampling program measuring tritium in tree transpirate with respect to local sources are reported. The aim was to assess the potential of tree transpirate to indicate the presence of sub-surface seepage plumes. Transpirate gathered from trees near low-level nuclear waste disposal trenches contained activity concentrations of (3)H that were significantly higher (up to ∼700 Bq L(-1)) than local background levels (0-10 Bq L(-1)). The effects of the waste source declined rapidly with distance to be at background levels within 10s of metres. A research reactor 1.6 km south of the site contributed significant (p nuclear waste site.

  8. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    simulation conditions. Functional behaviors that cannot be fit include concentration trend reversals and radionuclide desorption spikes. Other simulation results are fit successfully but the fitted parameters (Kd and dispersivity) vary significantly depending on simulation conditions (e.g. "infiltration" vs. "cleanup" conditions). Notably, an increase in the variance of the specified sorption capacities results in a marked increase in the dispersion of the radionuclides. The results presented have implications for the simulation of radionuclide migration in performance assessments of nuclear waste-disposal sites, for the future monitoring of those sites, and more generally for modeling contaminant transport in ground-water environments. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Radioactive wastes: public attitudes toward disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Hebert, J.A.; Perry, R.W.

    1978-10-01

    Seventeen geographically widespread, established groups were selected which were expected to vary in their attitudes from strongly pronuclear to strongly antinuclear. People who tend to be politically active were chosen. The highest level of consensus was found on the need for site monitoring, site control, and information transfer in a waste repository. Overall, the results indicate that pronuclear respondents believe that the hazards of nuclear waste are similar to other industrial risks, while antinuclear respondents are less optimistic about safe storage of nuclear wastes and believe that nuclear power is different.

  10. Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites, The data layer can be used as a guide for the Federal On Scene Coordinator (FOSC), the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office, the Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6), and oil spill response organizations in the event of an oil spill emergency., Published in 2000, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Nuclear Waste Disposal Sites dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2000. It is described as 'The data layer can be used as a guide for the...

  11. Periglacial phenomena affecting nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niini, H.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow future changes in astronomic phenomena seem to make it likely that Finland nll suffer several cold periods during the next 100,000 years. The paper analyses the characteristics of the periglacial factors that are most likely to influence the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposed of in bedrock. These factors and their influences have been divided into two categories, natural and human. It is concluded that the basically natural phenomena are theoretically better understood than the complicated phenomena caused by man. It is therefore important in future research into periglacial phenomena, as well as of the disposal problem, to emphasize not only the proper applications of the results of natural sciences, but especially the effects and control of mankind's own present and future activities.

  12. 50 CFR 27.94 - Disposal of waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of waste. 27.94 Section 27.94... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Other Disturbing Violations § 27.94 Disposal of waste. (a... manager, or the draining or dumping of oil, acids, pesticide wastes, poisons, or any other types of...

  13. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  14. Evaluation of isotope migration: land burial. Water chemistry at commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Progress report No. 6, July--September 1977. [Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, P.; Weiss, A. J.; Francis, A. J.

    1978-04-01

    A survey of the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, low-level radioactive waste disposal site was conducted to obtain an overview of the radioactivity in the trench waters for the purpose of selecting specific trenches for comprehensive study. Water samples collected from trenches and wells were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved organic carbon, tritium, gross alpha, gross beta, and gamma radioactivities. The results indicate that there are large differences in the composition of trench waters at the site. Several trenches, that represent extreme and average values of the major parameters measured, have been tentatively selected for further study. 10 fig, 6 tables.

  15. Future intrusion of oxygenated glacial meltwaters into the Fennoscandian shield: a possibility to consider in performance assessments for nuclear-waste disposal sites?: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Provost et al. (1998) and Glynn and Voss (1999; also published in Glynn et al., 1999) considered the possibility that during future glaciations, oxygenated glacial meltwaters from two- to three-kilometer thick ice sheets could potentially intrude to the 500 m depth of planned nuclear-waste repositories. This possibility has been of concern because of potential negative effects on the stability of the repository engineered environment, and because of the potential mobilization of radionuclides should the oxygenated waters come into contact with the radioactive waste. The above reports argued that given the current state of knowledge, it was hard to discount the possibility that oxygenated waters could penetrate to repository level depth. The reports also suggested that oxidizing conditions might be present in the fractured rock environment for significant amounts of time, on the order of thousands to tens of thousands of years. In some earlier reports, Swedish and Finnish governmental agencies in charge of nuclear-waste disposal had considered the possibility that oxygenated meltwaters might intrude to the repository depth (SKI: 1992; Martinerie et al, 1992; Ahonen and Vieno, 1994). Subsequent to the publication of Provost et al. (1998), Glynn et al. (1999) and Glynn and Voss (1999), the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Handling Company (SKB) commissioned efforts to examine more thoroughly the possibilities that oxygenated meltwaters might occur under ice-sheet conditions and intrude to the repository depth.

  16. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  17. Sulfuric Acid Regeneration Waste Disposal Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    tons calcium sulfate (gypsum) per ton of titanium oxide (TiO2 ) produced. Because of the shear magnitude of the calcium sulfate disposal problem, one... pickling liquors that used as high as a 40:1 seed recycle ratio (we did not talk directly with Bethlehem Steel on their process). The Dorr Oliver...I I I 4-14 / Arthur D. Little, Inc. SECTION 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Aarons, R. and Taylor, R.A. (1967), The DuPont Waste Pickle Liquor Process, 22 Ind

  18. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  19. Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

  20. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  1. Tomography finds waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  2. Process performance of the pilot-scale in situ vitrification of a simulated waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J.G.; Koegler, S.S.; Bates, S.O.

    1988-06-01

    Process feasibility studies have been successfully performed on three developmental scales to determine the potential for applying in situ vitrification to intermediate-level (low-level) waste placed in seepage pits and trenches at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the laboratory, testing was performed in crucibles containing a mixture of 50% ORNL soil and 50% limestone. In an engineering-scale test at Pacific Northwest Laboratory a /1/12/-scale simulation of an ORNL waste trench was constructed and vitrified, resulting in a waste product containing soil and limestone concentrations of 68 wt % and 32 wt %, respectively. In the pilot-scale test a /3/8/-scale simulation of the same trench was constructed and vitrified at ORNL, resulting in soil and limestone concentrations of 80% and 20%, respectively, in the waste product. Results of the three scales of testing indicate that the ORNL intermediate-level (low-level) waste sites can be successfully processed by in situ vitrification; the waste form will retain significant quantities of the cesium and strontium. Because cesium-137 and strontium-90 are the major components of the radionuclide inventory in the ORNL seepage pits and trenches, final field process decontamination factors (i.e., losses to the off-gas system relative to the waste inventory) of 1.0 E + 4 are desired to minimize activity buildup in the off-gas system. 17 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  4. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  5. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  6. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  7. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  8. Evaluating pharmaceutical waste disposal in pediatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Angélica Randoli de; Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini

    2016-01-01

    To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. 356 drugs disposals were identified (35.1% in the clinic, 31.8% in the intensive care unit, 23.8% in the surgical unit and 9.3% in the infectious diseases unit). The most discarded pharmacological classes were: 22.7% antimicrobials, 14.8% electrolytes, 14.6% analgesics/pain killers, 9.5% diuretics and 6.7% antiulcer agents. The most used means for disposal were: sharps' disposable box with a yellow bag (30.8%), sink drain (28.9%), sharps' box with orange bag (14.3%), and infectious waste/bin with a white bag (10.1%). No disposal was identified after drug administration. A discussion of measures that can contribute to reducing (healthcare) waste volume with the intention of engaging reflective team performance and proper disposal is necessary. Verificar o descarte dos resíduos de medicamentos realizado em unidades pediátricas. Estudo descritivo e observacional, realizado em um hospital universitário. A amostra de conveniência foi constituída pelos medicamentos descartados durante o período de estudo. Observaram-se a manipulação e o descarte durante o preparo e a administração. A coleta dos dados ocorreu em horários preestabelecidos e realizada por meio de instrumento pré-validado. Identificaram-se 356 descartes de medicamentos (35,1% na clínica, 31,8% na unidade de cuidados intensivos, 23,8% na cirúrgica e 9,3% na infectologia). As classes farmacológicas mais descartadas foram: 22,7% antimicrobianos, 14,8% eletrólitos, 14,6% analgésicos, 9,5% diuréticos e 6,7% antiulcerosos. Vias mais utilizadas: caixa descartável para perfurocortante com

  9. Disposal of NORM-Contaminated Oil Field Wastes in Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blunt, D.L.; Elcock, D.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Viel, J.A.; and Williams, G.P.

    1999-01-21

    In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW) into salt caverns. That study concluded that disposal of NOW into salt caverns is feasible and legal. If caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they can be a suitable means of disposing of NOW (Veil et al. 1996). Considering these findings and the increased U.S. interest in using salt caverns for NOW disposal, the Office of Fossil Energy asked Argonne to conduct further research on the cost of cavern disposal compared with the cost of more traditional NOW disposal methods and on preliminary identification and investigation of the risks associated with such disposal. The cost study (Veil 1997) found that disposal costs at the four permitted disposal caverns in the United States were comparable to or lower than the costs of other disposal facilities in the same geographic area. The risk study (Tomasko et al. 1997) estimated that both cancer and noncancer human health risks from drinking water that had been contaminated by releases of cavern contents were significantly lower than the accepted risk thresholds. Since 1992, DOE has funded Argonne to conduct a series of studies evaluating issues related to management and disposal of oil field wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Included among these studies were radiological dose assessments of several different NORM disposal options (Smith et al. 1996). In 1997, DOE asked Argonne to conduct additional analyses on waste disposal in salt caverns, except that this time the wastes to be evaluated would be those types of oil field wastes that are contaminated by NORM. This report describes these analyses. Throughout the remainder of this report, the term ''NORM waste'' is used to mean &apos

  10. Benefits of On-Site Management of Environmental Restoration Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Michael J. ,P.E.; Wood, Craig, R.E.M.; Kwiecinski, Daniel, P.E.; Alanis, Saul

    2003-02-27

    As Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) began assessing options under which to conduct the remediation of environmental restoration sites, it became clear that the standard routes for permanent disposal of waste contaminated with hazardous materials would be difficult. Publicly, local citizens' groups resisted the idea of large volumes of hazardous waste being transported through their communities. Regulations for the off-site disposal are complicated due to the nature of the environmental restoration waste, which included elevated tritium levels. Waste generated from environmental restoration at SNL/NM included debris and soils contaminated with a variety of constituents. Operationally, disposal of environmental restoration waste was difficult because of the everchanging types of waste generated during site remediation. As an alternative to standard hazardous waste disposal, SNL/NM proposed and received regulatory approval to construct a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). By containing the remediation wastes on-site, SNL/NM's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program managed to eliminate transportation concerns from the public, worked with regulatory agencies to develop a safe, permanent disposal, and modified the waste disposal procedures to accommodate operational changes. SNL/NM accomplished the task and saved approximately $200 million over the life of the CAMU project, as compared to off-site disposal options.

  11. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, W.M. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulations Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States); Kovach, L.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  12. Microbial processes in radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology

    2000-04-15

    Independent scientific work has unambiguously demonstrated life to be present in most deep geological formations investigated, down to depths of several kilometres. Microbial processes have consequently become an integral part of the performance safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories. This report presents the research record from the last decade of the microbiology research programme of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and gives current perspectives of microbial processes in HLW disposal. The goal of the microbiology programme is to understand how microbes may interact with the performance of a future HLW repository. First, for those who are not so familiar with microbes and their ways of living, the concept of 'microbe' is briefly defined. Then, the main characteristics of recognised microbial assemblage and microbial growth, activity and survival are given. The main part of the report summarises data collected during the research period of 1987-1999 and interpretations of these data. Short summaries introduce the research tasks, followed by reviews of the results and insight gained. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulphide and have commonly been observed in groundwater environments typical of Swedish HLW repositories. Consequently, the potential for sulphide corrosion of the copper canisters surrounding the HLW must be considered. The interface between the copper canister and the buffer is of special concern. Despite the fact that nowhere are the environmental constraints for life as strong as here, it has been suggested that SRB could survive and locally produce sulphide in concentrations large enough to cause damage to the canister. Experiments conducted thus far have indicated the opposite. Early studies in the research programme revealed previously unknown microbial ecosystems in igneous rock aquifers at depths exceeding 1000 m. This discovery triggered a thorough exploration of the

  13. Preliminary Closure Plan for the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-08-31

    This document describes the preliminary plans for closure of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) disposal facility to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The facility will provide near-surface disposal of up to 204,000 cubic meters of ILAW in engineered trenches with modified RCRA Subtitle C closure barriers.

  14. Safer Transportation and Disposal of Remote Handled Transuranic Waste - 12033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Vicente; Timm, Christopher M.; Fox, Jerry V. [PECOS Management Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Since disposal of remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) began in 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) has had difficulty meeting the plans and schedule for disposing this waste. PECOS Management Services, Inc. (PECOS) assessed the feasibility of proposed alternate RH-TRU mixed waste containerisation concepts that would enhance the transportation rate of RH-TRU waste to WIPP and increase the utilization of available WIPP space capacity for RH-TRU waste disposal by either replacing or augmenting current and proposed disposal methods. In addition engineering and operational analyses were conducted that addressed concerns regarding criticality, heat release, and worker exposure to radiation. The results of the analyses showed that the concept, development, and use of a concrete pipe based design for an RH-TRU waste shipping and disposal container could be potentially advantageous for disposing a substantial quantity of RHTRU waste at WIPP in the same manner as contact-handled RH waste. Additionally, this new disposal method would eliminate the hazard associated with repackaging this waste in other containers without the requirement for NRC approval for a new shipping container. (authors)

  15. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal.

  16. Commercial disposal options for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C.L.; Widmayer, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned, contractor-operated site. Significant quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been generated and disposed of onsite at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The INEL expects to continue generating LLW while performing its mission and as aging facilities are decommissioned. An on-going Performance Assessment process for the RWMC underscores the potential for reduced or limited LLW disposal capacity at the existing onsite facility. In order to properly manage the anticipated amount of LLW, the INEL is investigating various disposal options. These options include building a new facility, disposing the LLW at other DOE sites, using commercial disposal facilities, or seeking a combination of options. This evaluation reports on the feasibility of using commercial disposal facilities.

  17. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  18. 20 CFR 654.406 - Excreta and liquid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excreta and liquid waste disposal. 654.406 Section 654.406 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.406 Excreta and liquid waste disposal....

  19. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  20. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  1. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranwell, R.M.; Campbell, J.E.; Ortiz, N.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Guzowski, R.V. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-04-01

    This report contains the description of a procedure for selecting scenarios that are potentially important to the isolation of high- level radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations. In this report, the term scenario is used to represent a set of naturally occurring and/or human-induced conditions that represent realistic future states of the repository, geologic systems, and ground-water flow systems that might affect the release and transport of radionuclides from the repository to humans. The scenario selection procedure discussed in this report is demonstrated by applying it to the analysis of a hypothetical waste disposal site containing a bedded-salt formation as the host medium for the repository. A final set of 12 scenarios is selected for this site. 52 refs., 48 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Kubicz; Mateusz Hämmerling; Natalia Walczak

    2016-01-01

    Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exp...

  3. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Total System Performance Assessment - Analyses for Disposal of Commercial and DOE Waste Inventories at Yucca Mountain - Input to Final Environmental Impact Statement and Site Suitability Evaluation, Rev. 00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2001-09-17

    This Letter Report presents the results of calculations to assess long-term performance of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and Greater Than Class C (GTCC) radioactive waste and DOE Special Performance Assessment Required (SPAR) radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain repository in Nye County Nevada with respect to the 10,000-year performance period specified in 40 CFR Part 197.30 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32134) with regard to radiation-protection standards. The EPA Final Rule 40 CFR Part 197 has three separate standards, individual-protection, human-intrusion, and groundwater-protection standards, all with a compliance timeframe of 10,000 years. These calculations evaluate the dose to receptors for each of these standards. Further, this Letter Report includes the results of simulations to the 1,000,000-year performance period described in 40 CFR Part 197.35 (66 FR 32074 [DIRS 155216], p. 32135) which calls for the calculation of the peak dose to the Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual (RMEI) that would occur after 10,000 years and within the period of geological stability. In accordance with TSPA-SR the ''period of geologic stability'' is from zero to 1,000,000 years after repository closure. The calculations also present the 5th and 95th percentiles, and the mean and median of the set of probabilistic simulations used to evaluate various disposal scenarios.

  5. Hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembra, R.L

    1989-01-01

    This report has found that while most states have accomplished few or no cleanups of sites contaminated by hazardous waste, some have enacted tough cleanup laws, committed relatively large resources to the cleanup effort, and achieved considerable results. At the 17 cleanup sites analyzed, state cleanup plans were generally stringent. However, no federal standards have been set for over half of the contaminants found at these sites. For 11 sites, the states set cleanup levels without doing formal risk assessments. Also, most states reviewed did not consider the full range of alternatives EPA requires. Most states have not shown that they can effectively clean up large, hazardous waste sites. This report recommends that EPA turn sites targeted for cleanup over to the states only if there are adequate controls and oversight.

  6. Estimation of Exposure Doses for Several Scenarios of the Landfill Disposal of NORM Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ko, Nak Yul; Baik, Min Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ki Hoon [Korea Institude of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The Act on safety control of radioactive materials around living environment was promulgated to protect citizen's health and environment in 2013. According to this Act, the integrated plan for radiation protection and the necessary safety guides for treatment, reuse, and disposal of NORM wastes have to be made. And NORM wastes have to be disposed in landfill sites by reducing the concentration of radionuclide, and they should not be reutilized. In this study, we estimated exposure doses for several scenarios for NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) waste disposal into a reference landfill site to check the radiological safety. Also, we estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of important radionuclides in wastes to be disposed into a landfill site based on the exposure dose limits to support the establishment of technical bases for safety guide. We estimated the amount of NORM wastes for different activity levels of wastes containing U series, Th series, and {sup 40}K based on the exposure dose limits. The results of this study can be used as technical bases to support the establishment of a guide for the safe management of NORM waste disposal.

  7. Systems engineering programs for geologic nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R. D.; Hertel, Jr., E. S.; Ellis, M. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design sequence and system programs presented begin with general approximate solutions that permit inexpensive analysis of a multitude of possible wastes, disposal media, and disposal process properties and configurations. It then continues through progressively more precise solutions as parts of the design become fixed, and ends with repository and waste form optimization studies. The programs cover both solid and gaseous waste forms. The analytical development, a program listing, a users guide, and examples are presented for each program. Sensitivity studies showing the effects of disposal media and waste form thermophysical properties and repository layouts are presented as examples.

  8. Status report on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culler, F.L. Jr.; McLain, S. (comps.)

    1957-06-25

    A comprehensive survey of waste disposal techniques, requirements, costs, hazards, and long-range considerations is presented. The nature of high level wastes from reactors and chemical processes, in the form of fission product gases, waste solutions, solid wastes, and particulate solids in gas phase, is described. Growth predictions for nuclear reactor capacity and the associated fission product and transplutonic waste problem are made and discussed on the basis of present knowledge. Biological hazards from accumulated wastes and potential hazards from reactor accidents, ore and feed material processing, chemical reprocessing plants, and handling of fissionable and fertile material after irradiation and decontamination are surveyed. The waste transportation problem is considered from the standpoints of magnitude of the problem, present regulations, costs, and cooling periods. The possibilities for ultimate waste management and/or disposal are reviewed and discussed. The costs of disposal, evaporation, storage tanks, and drum-drying are considered.

  9. Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 等

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilins(CRKs) is an alternative technology for the treatment of certain types of industrial waste(IW).In this paper,three typical types of industrial wastes were co-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal(especially solid waste disposal )on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission.Experimental results show that(1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash,and fly ash after the IW disposal can still be used in the cement production,(2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China National Standard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard(GB 16297-1996).

  10. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement

  11. Research on the assessment technology of the radionuclide inventory for the radioactive waste disposal(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Hong, D. S.; Hwang, G. H.; Shin, J. J.; Yuk, D. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Characteristics and states of management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in site : state of management for each type of wastes, characteristics of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste, stage of management of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste. Survey of state of management and characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in foreign countries : state of management of disposal facilities, classification criteria and target radionuclides for assessment in foreign disposal facilities. Survey of the assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory and establishing the direction of requirement : assessment methods of the radionuclides inventory, analysis of radionuclides assay system in KORI site, establishment the direction of requirement in the assessment methods.

  12. Potential areas for the near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Nazran; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan; Simon, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Radioactive material has been used in Malaysia since the 1960's. The low level radioactive wastes are generated every year and stored in Nuclear Malaysia. The storage capacities are expected to reach its maximum capacity by the year 2025. Disposal of the radioactive waste is considered as one of the best options for future radioactive and nuclear material generated in Malaysia, hence the necessary site selection. The selection process used the IAEA document as the main reference, supported by site selection procedure applied by various countries. ArcGIS software was used to simulate the selection of the near surface radioactive waste disposal. This paper suggested the best four potential areas for the near surface radioactive waste disposal in Pahang state, Malaysia, the Sg. Lembing, Gambang, Felda Lepar Utara and Cheneh areas. These areas are located within 100 km from the potential radioactive waste producer (Lynas).

  13. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Colón Jordà, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez Ferrer, Antoni; González Puig, Aina; PUIG VENTOSA, Ignasi

    2011-01-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process per...

  14. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiann -Cherng [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    -profile threaded connections at each end. The internal-flush design would be suitable for loading waste that arrives from the originating site in weld-sealed, cylindrical canisters. Internal, tapered plugs with sealing filet welds would seal the tubing at each end. The taper would be precisely machined onto both the tubing and the plug, producing a metal-metal sealing surface that is compressed as the package is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. The lower plug would be welded in place before loading, while the upper plug would be placed and welded after loading. Conceptual Waste Packaging Options for Deep Borehole Disposal July 30, 2015 iv Threaded connections between packages would allow emplacement singly or in strings screwed together at the disposal site. For emplacement on a drill string the drill pipe would be connected directly into the top package of a string (using an adapter sub to mate with premium semi-flush tubing threads). Alternatively, for wireline emplacement the same package designs could be emplaced singly using a sub with wireline latch, on the upper end. Threaded connections on the bottom of the lowermost package would allow attachment of a crush box, instrumentation, etc.

  15. Geophysical investigations applied to site selection for the radioactive waste disposal; Investigacoes geofisicas aplicadas na selecao de um repositorio de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Samir; Dornelles, Gerson; Pedrozo, Geraldo Arholdi [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-07-01

    In this work the geophysical exploratory techniques and the results obtained for the selection of a candidate site for the final repository of the radioactive waste containing cesium-137 generated by the Goiania accident occurred in September 1987, are described. The studies were performed in an area of about 100 hectares where is located the present radioactive waste provisional repository. the geophysical investigations using electromagnetic methods (VLF-EM), electric drillings and surface and sub-surface radiometry allowed for the area monitoring and provided the geophysical parameters necessary for understanding the structural and stratigraphic context. Furthermore, they will provide data for the geotechnical, geochemical and hydrogeological investigations as well as for the engineering conceptual project for the repository construction. (author)

  16. Preliminary risk assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    Safety guidelines are presented. Waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication facilities, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, payload primary container/core, radiation shield, reentry systems, launch site facilities, uprooted space shuttle launch vehicle, Earth packing orbits, orbit transfer systems, and space destination are discussed. Disposed concepts and risks are then discussed.

  17. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  18. Municipal solid waste management in India: From waste disposal to recovery of resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Tapan

    2009-03-01

    Unlike that of western countries, the solid waste of Asian cities is often comprised of 70-80% organic matter, dirt and dust. Composting is considered to be the best option to deal with the waste generated. Composting helps reduce the waste transported to and disposed of in landfills. During the course of the research, the author learned that several developing countries established large-scale composting plants that eventually failed for various reasons. The main flaw that led to the unsuccessful establishment of the plants was the lack of application of simple scientific methods to select the material to be composted. Landfills have also been widely unsuccessful in countries like India because the landfill sites have a very limited time frame of usage. The population of the developing countries is another factor that detrimentally impacts the function of landfill sites. As the population keeps increasing, the garbage quantity also increases, which, in turn, exhausts the landfill sites. Landfills are also becoming increasingly expensive because of the rising costs of construction and operation. Incineration, which can greatly reduce the amount of incoming municipal solid waste, is the second most common method for disposal in developed countries. However, incinerator ash may contain hazardous materials including heavy metals and organic compounds such as dioxins, etc. Recycling plays a large role in solid waste management, especially in cities in developing countries. None of the three methods mentioned here are free from problems. The aim of this study is thus to compare the three methods, keeping in mind the costs that would be incurred by the respective governments, and identify the most economical and best option possible to combat the waste disposal problem.

  19. Disposal of radioactive waste in Swedish crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greis Dahlberg, Christina; Wikberg, Peter [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is tasked with managing Swedish nuclear and radioactive waste. Crystalline rock is the obvious alternative for deep geological disposal in Sweden. SKB is, since 1988, operating a near surface repository for short-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFR. The waste in SFR comprises operational and decommissioning waste from nuclear plants, industrial waste, research-related waste and medical waste. Spent nuclear fuel is currently stored in an interim facility while waiting for a license to construct a deep geological repository. The Swedish long-lived low and intermediate-level waste consists mainly of BWR control rods, reactor internals and legacy waste from early research in the Swedish nuclear programs. The current plan is to dispose of this waste in a separate deep geological repository, SFL, sometimes after 2045. Understanding of the rock properties is the basis for the design of the repository concepts. Swedish crystalline rock is mechanical stable and suitable for underground constructions. The Spent Fuel Repository is planned at approximately 500 meters depth in the rock at the Forsmark site. The host rock will keep the spent fuel isolated from human and near-surface environment. The rock will also provide the stable chemical and hydraulic conditions that make it possible to select suitable technical barriers to support the containment provided by the rock. A very long lasting canister is necessary to avoid release and transport of radionuclides through water conducting fractures in the rock. A canister designed for the Swedish rock, consists of a tight, 5 cm thick corrosion barrier of copper and a load-bearing insert of cast iron. To restrict the water flow around the canister and by that prevent fast corrosion, a bentonite buffer will surround the canister. Secondary, the bentonite buffer will retard a potential release by its strong sorption of radionuclides. The SFR repository is situated in

  20. Developments in management and technology of waste reduction and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushbrook, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Scandals and public dangers from the mismanagement and poor disposal of hazardous wastes during the 1960s and 1970s awakened the modern-day environmental movement. Influential publications such as "Silent Spring" and high-profile disposal failures, for example, Love Canal and Lekkerkerk, focused attention on the use of chemicals in everyday life and the potential dangers from inappropriate disposal. This attention has not abated and developments, invariably increasing expectations and tightening requirements, continue to be implemented. Waste, as a surrogate for environmental improvement, is a topic where elected representatives and administrations continually want to do more. This article will chart the recent changes in hazardous waste management emanating from the European Union legislation, now being implemented in Member States across the continent. These developments widen the range of discarded materials regarded as "hazardous," prohibit the use of specific chemicals, prohibit the use of waste management options, shift the emphasis from risk-based treatment and disposal to inclusive lists, and incorporate waste producers into more stringent regulatory regimes. The impact of the changes is also intended to provide renewed impetus for waste reduction. Under an environmental control system where only certainty is tolerated, the opportunities for innovation within the industry and the waste treatment and disposal sector will be explored. A challenging analysis will be offered on the impact of this regulation-led approach to the nature and sustainability of hazardous waste treatment and disposal in the future.

  1. Patterns and correlates of solid waste disposal practices in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study examines the patterns and correlations of solid waste disposal practices ... suggest that distance, home ownership, household expenditure proxy for income, ... Key words: Solid waste, garbage, waste disposal, waste management, ...

  2. High level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    PUSCH, R; NAKANO, M

    2011-01-01

    High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW.The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly des

  3. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed.

  4. A factorial analysis experimentation of inappropriate waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Oke, K. O. Awofeso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a statistical approach to estimating the effects of psychological factors on humans due to inappropriate waste disposal in the environment. Factorial experimental analysis is combined with the concepts of transition matrix and steady state conditions. An adequate understanding into the statistical quantification of the waste disposal concept would aid policy makers in effective decision making and the proper control of environment. The feasibility of developing statistical parameters for assessing the waste disposal concept is confirmed. The work shows the novelty of the approach.

  5. The regulatory environment for drilling and oilfield waste disposal and remediation in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, L.J.; Stimpson, S. [Macleod Dixon, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-04-01

    The legislative basis of regulation of all aspects of oilfield waste, including all oil and gas, oil sands, and oilfield waste management facility operations in Alberta is discussed. The appropriate waste management practices for the upstream petroleum industry and all waste stream associated with the petroleum industry are outlined. Major topics discussed include: (1) the roles and the jurisdictions of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP), (2) drilling waste and oilfield waste disposal, EUB guides 50 and 58, (3) wellsite abandonment and reclamation of wellsites, (4) spills and contaminated sites, (5) environmental offences, enforcement, penalties and defences.

  6. Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Facility Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Facilities ( DALF ) at RVA" (USATHANA, 1984) provided the basis for the volume estimates for siting a disposal facility as discussed in Appendix 1.3. The... DALF also addressed on-site disposal options in addition to other technologies. This study supported the on-site disposal option by stating that a...impermeable bedrock do not exist at RMA. The DALF , drawing on the conclusions of the earlier WES 1983 report, recoumended a site in the northeast quarter of

  7. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  8. Location Allocation of Recycling, Storage and Disposal Sites for Urban Construction Wastes%城市建筑垃圾资源化调蓄处置场选址

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽颖

    2016-01-01

    对城市建筑垃圾处理的现状和流程进行了分析,构建了城市建筑垃圾资源化调蓄处置场选址模型,并以武汉市为例,采用Lingo软件进行编程,求解出以费用最低为目标函数的模型结果,验证了模型的实用性,可为政府和企业提供一定的参考。%In this paper, we analyzed the current status and process of the disposal of urban construction wastes, then built the location model for the recycling, storage and disposal site for the urban construction wastes, and then in the case of Wuhan, used the Lingo program to solve the model which aimed at cost minimization which verified the practicality of the model.

  9. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.D. [Bechtel Nevada, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Gertz, C.P.; Clayton, W.A.; Crowe, B.M. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1998-12-31

    In 1978, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), established a managed LLW disposal project at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Two, sites which were already accepting limited amounts of on-site generated waste for disposal and off-site generated Transuranic Waste for interim storage, were selected to house the disposal facilities. In those early days, these sites, located about 15 miles apart, afforded the DOE/NV the opportunity to use at least two technologies to manage its waste cost effectively. The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose packaged waste while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. The paper describes the technical attributes of both Area 5 and Area 3 facilities, the acceptance process, the disposal processes, and present and future capacities of both sites.

  11. Tank Waste Remediation System retrieval and disposal mission technical baseline summary description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, T.J.

    1998-01-06

    This document is prepared in order to support the US Department of Energy`s evaluation of readiness-to-proceed for the Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission at the Hanford Site. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission is one of three primary missions under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The other two include programs to characterize tank waste and to provide for safe storage of the waste while it awaits treatment and disposal. The Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission includes the programs necessary to support tank waste retrieval, wastefeed, delivery, storage and disposal of immobilized waste, and closure of tank farms. This mission will enable the tank farms to be closed and turned over for final remediation. The Technical Baseline is defined as the set of science and engineering, equipment, facilities, materials, qualified staff, and enabling documentation needed to start up and complete the mission objectives. The primary purposes of this document are (1) to identify the important technical information and factors that should be used by contributors to the mission and (2) to serve as a basis for configuration management of the technical information and factors.

  12. Alternatives for the treatment and disposal of healthcare wastes in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, L F; Savage, G M; Eggerth, L L

    2005-01-01

    Waste production in healthcare facilities in developing countries has brought about a variety of concerns due to the use of inappropriate methods of managing the wastes. Inappropriate treatment and final disposal of the wastes can lead to adverse impacts to public health, to occupational health and safety, and to the environment. Unfortunately, most economically developing countries suffer a variety of constraints to adequately managing these wastes. Generally in developing countries, few individuals in the staff of the healthcare facility are familiar with the procedures required for a proper waste management program. Furthermore, the management of wastes usually is delegated to poorly educated laborers who perform most activities without proper guidance and insufficient protection. This paper presents some of the most common treatment and disposal methods utilized in the management of infectious healthcare wastes in developing countries. The methods discussed include: autoclave; microwave; chemical disinfection; combustion (low-, medium-, and high-technology); and disposal on the ground (dump site, controlled landfill, pits, and sanitary landfill). Each alternative for treatment and disposal is explained, including a description of the types of wastes that can and cannot be treated. Background information on the technologies also is included in order to provide information to those who may not be familiar with the details of each alternative. In addition, a brief presentation of some of the emissions from each of the treatment and disposal alternatives is presented.

  13. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  14. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  15. Waste disposal conditions at the Incel thermal power plant at Banja Luka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazic, P.; Knezevic, D. (Rudarski Institut, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Zavod za Pripremu Mineralnih Sirovina)

    1990-01-01

    Proposes variants of a modernized ash disposal system at the Banja Luka coal power plant in Yugoslavia (Bosnia Herzegovina). The plant combusts coal from the Gracanica, Kreka, Stanari and Kamengrad mines, as well as wood wastes and spent liquor from the paper industry of the area. Possibilities for disposal include dry ash disposal by dump truck transportation after ash pelletizing, or wet ash disposal by hydraulic pipeline transport (over 1 km) to the disposal site. Chemical properties of the ash are given. Optimum ash and water mixture for hydraulic transport was found to have a 50% solids content. Pelletizing of ash without additional binders is regarded as feasible due to chemical properties of the ash. Ground insulation of the disposal site is required due to the high alkaline content of the ash. 4 refs.

  16. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kubicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exposed to its negative effects. Many types of waste material are a valuable source of secondary raw materials which are suitable for use by various industries. Examples of such materials are mining waste (flotation tailings, usually neutral to the environment, whose quantities produced in the process of exploitation of minerals is sizeable. The article compares different technological methods of mining waste disposal using AHP method and their environmental impact.

  17. Disposal of solid wastes with simultaneous energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.

    1980-01-01

    The need for resource recovery from solid wastes is discussed. The incentives for a comprehensive system, a gasification based disposal system, and biological recovery methods are reviewed. Biogas process development and the Lanfilgas process are described. (MHR)

  18. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  19. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and ... been overcrowding, poverty, health problems and an ever increasing strain on basic ... ·adequate water supply, then 111 adequate waste disposal syltcm is needed ...

  20. Environmental Management of Human Waste Disposal for Recreational Boating Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer; Yoon

    1998-01-01

    / A methodology to estimate the number of pump-out facilities and dump stations required to service human waste disposal for recreational power boating activities in Pennsylvania during the 1994 boating season is described. Study results suggest that a total of 39 additional pump-out stations and 13 dump stations may be required on seven major waterbodies: The Three Rivers Area, Lake Erie/Presque Isle Bay, Raystown Lake, the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, Lake Wallenpaupack, and the Kinzua Reservoir. Suggestions for improving the methodology are provided. KEY WORDS: Human waste; Recreation; Power boating; Waste facilities; Waste disposal; Pennsylvania

  1. Solid Waste Disposal: A Choice Experiment Experience in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pek, Chuen Khee; Othman, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    Increasing generation of solid waste requires better quality disposal options in Malaysia. Control tipping is the most commonly used complemented by sanitary landfill and incineration. This study estimates the non-market values of improved waste disposal services and also ranking them using choice experiment. River water quality is the most concerned followed by psychological fear, air pollution and land use. Socio-economic background and distance factor influence the types of compensating su...

  2. INTRODUCTION A dump is defined as, “a site used to dispose of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    Landfill is defined as a "facility in which solid waste ... assess the quality in view of the proximity of the wells to open solid waste disposal sites and some uncased pit latrines. Results ..... such as agriculture, mining, or other activities (. Kaown.

  3. Pulp fiction - The volunteer concept (or how not to site additional LLRW disposal capacity)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.A. [Heartland Operation to Protect the Environment, Inc., Auburn, NE (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Experiences of compacts and of individual states throughout the nation indicate that low-level radioactive waste disposal siting processes, based from the beginning upon the volunteer concept are fraught with problems. Most apparent among these problems is that the volunteer concept does not lead to scientifically and technically based siting endeavors. Ten years have passed since the Amendments Act of 1985, and no compact or state has been - successful in providing for new LLRW disposal capacity. That failure can be traced in part to the reliance upon the volunteer concept in siting attempts. If success is to be achieved, the future direction for LLRW management must focus on three areas: first, a comprehensive evaluation of all LLRW management options, including reduction of waste generated and on-site storage; secondly, a comprehensive evaluation of the current as well as projected waste stream, to determine the amount of disposal capacity actually needed; and, finally, sound scientifically and technically based siting processes.

  4. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  5. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  6. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, R; Kelemen, D I; Kern, Z; Kapitány, S; Veres, M; Jull, A J T; Molnár, M

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility but it represents the natural regional (14)C level. The (14)C concentration of the cellulose content of tree rings was measured by AMS. Data of the tree ring series from the disposal facility was compared to the control site for each year. The results were also compared to the (14)C data of the atmospheric (14)C monitoring stations at the disposal facility and to international background measurements. On the basis of the results, the excess radiocarbon of the disposal facility can unambiguously be detected in the tree from the repository site.

  7. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  8. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  9. Analysis of alternatives for immobilized low activity waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A.

    1997-10-28

    This report presents a study of alternative disposal system architectures and implementation strategies to provide onsite near-surface disposal capacity to receive the immobilized low-activity waste produced by the private vendors. The analysis shows that a flexible unit strategy that provides a suite of design solutions tailored to the characteristics of the immobilized low-activity waste will provide a disposal system that best meets the program goals of reducing the environmental, health, and safety impacts; meeting the schedule milestones; and minimizing the life-cycle cost of the program.

  10. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  12. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hun; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Jun; Ham, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Seong [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    In the study, GSIS os developed for the maximizing effectiveness of the database system. For this purpose, the spatial relation of data from various fields that are constructed in the database which was developed for the site selection and management of repository for radioactive waste disposal. By constructing the integration system that can link attribute and spatial data, it is possible to evaluate the safety of repository effectively and economically. The suitability of integrating database and GSIS is examined by constructing the database in the test district where the site characteristics are similar to that of repository for radioactive waste disposal.

  13. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  14. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  15. The diffusion of differentiated waste disposal taxes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.

    2007-01-01

    The diffusion of a novel taxing scheme among Dutch municipalities in the period 1998-2005 is studied. In this taxing scheme the waste disposal tax is made dependent on the amount of waste a household produces. Inspecting the pattern of the introduction of this tariff, it seems to be contagious: the

  16. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  17. Disposal and recovery of waste paper in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brooks, GR

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available This survey of current practice relating to the disposal and recycling of waste paper was commissioned by the Committee for Solid Wastes, through the National Scientific Programmes Unit of the CSIR. It was undertaken by Louis Heyl and Associates, a...

  18. EUROSAFE forum 2013. Safe disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The proceedings of the EUROSAFE forum 2013 - safe disposal of nuclear waste include contributions to the following topics: Nuclear installation safety - assessment; nuclear installation safety - research; waste and decommissioning - dismantling; radiation protection, 3nvironment and emergency preparedness; security of nuclear installations and materials.

  19. Regulating the disposal of cigarette butts as toxic hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste laws, such as those covering used tyres and automobile batteries, in which the retailer is responsible for the proper disposal of the waste, but most post-consumer waste disposal is the responsibility of the consumer. Concepts such as extended producer responsibility (EPR) are being used for some post-consumer waste to pass the responsibility and cost for recycling or disposal to the manufacturer of the product. In total, 32 states in the US have passed EPR laws covering auto switches, batteries, carpet, cell phones, electronics, fluorescent lighting, mercury thermostats, paint and pesticide containers, and these could be models for cigarette waste legislation. A broader concept of producer stewardship includes EPR, but adds the consumer and the retailer into the regulation. The State of Maine considered a comprehensive product stewardship law in 2010 that is a much better model than EPR. By using either EPR or the Maine model, the tobacco industry will be required to cover the cost of collecting and disposing of cigarette butt waste. Additional requirements included in the Maine model are needed for consumers and businesses to complete the network that will be necessary to maximise the segregation and collection of cigarette butts to protect the environment.

  20. Geological aspects of the high level waste and spent fuel disposal programme in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matej, Gedeon; Milos, Kovacik; Jozef, Hok [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2001-07-01

    An autonomous programme for development of a deep geological high level waste and spent fuel disposal began in 1996. One of the most important parts in the programme is siting of the future deep seated disposal. Geological conditions in Slovakia are complex due to the Alpine type tectonics that formed the geological environment during Tertiary. Prospective areas include both crystalline complexes (tonalites, granites, granodiorites) and Neogene (Miocene) argillaceous complexes. (author)

  1. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in the vadose zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of the vadose zone with respect to radioactive waste disposal, the mechanics of unsaturated flow in arid regions and the geohydrology of four areas with a deep water table were studied. The studies indicated that (1) arid sites with a water table deeper than 200 m can be found in at least three distinct geologic settings in the western United States, (2) the physics of unsaturated flow in soils and rock with interstitial porosity at low water contents, particularly under thermal gradients, is not yet completely understood, and (3) under certain conditions unsaturated flow can be so slow that analytic modeling of an unflawed repository is unnecessary to prove effective containment.

  2. Municipal Waste Disposal by High Temperature Smelting Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zong-bin; ZHANG Chun-xia; ZHANG You-ping; LIU Kun

    2004-01-01

    Municipal waste disposal system by high temperature smelting has the following characteristics: ① The smelting temperature is as high as 1 700-1 800 ℃; ② The dioxin is hardly produced; ③ The secondary pollution can be avoided because of the absence of heavy metals in the flux; ④ The metals and flux after disposal can be reused for construction materials. If outdated, the idle or discarded medium and small blast furnaces can be reconstructed into a waste resource system with high temperature smelting technique, and it is possible to make full use of their existing functions to reduce the investment and exploit their social function of environmental protection. In addition, a new waste disposal system with high temperature smelting was designed based on the recycling municipal waste technology abroad.

  3. Risk assessment of nonhazardous oil-field waste disposal in salt caverns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.

    1998-03-10

    that if caverns are sited and designed well, operated carefully, closed properly, and monitored routinely, they could, from technical and legal perspectives, be suitable for disposing of oil-field wastes. On the basis of these findings, ANL subsequently conducted a preliminary risk assessment on the possibility that adverse human health effects (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) could result from exposure to contaminants released from the NOW disposed of in salt caverns. The methodology for the risk assessment included the following steps: identifying potential contaminants of concern; determining how humans could be exposed to these contaminants; assessing contaminant toxicities; estimating contaminant intakes; and estimating human cancer and noncancer risks. To estimate exposure routes and pathways, four postclosure cavern release scenarios were assessed. These were inadvertent cavern intrusion, failure of the cavern seal, failure of the cavern through cracks, failure of the cavern through leaky interbeds, and partial collapse of the cavern roof. Assuming a single, generic, salt cavern and generic oil-field wastes, potential human health effects associated with constituent hazardous substances (arsenic, benzene, cadmium, and chromium) were assessed under each of these scenarios. Preliminary results provided excess cancer risk and hazard index (for noncancer health effects) estimates that were well within the EPA target range for acceptable exposure risk levels. These results lead to the preliminary conclusion that from a human health perspective, salt caverns can provide an acceptable disposal method for nonhazardous oil-field wastes.

  4. SAFE DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL WASTES IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    affairs in the management of municipal solid waste in most parts of Nigeria. .... 13 Damilola Olawuyi, The Principles of Nigerian Environmental Law (Business ..... To achieve sustainable waste management practices in Nigeria, first it is.

  5. Vegetative cover for low level radioactive waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, S. Keith (USDA Soil Conservation Service, Raleigh, NC (United States))

    1994-06-01

    Low level radioactive waste (LLRW), hazardous, and mixed waste disposal sites normally require some form of plant material to prevent erosion of the soil cover cap. Waste disposal sites are closed and capped in a complex scientific manner to minimize water infiltration and percolation down into the waste material. Turf type grasses are normally used as the principal vegetative cover for most sites. Consequently, the sites require periodic mowing and other expensive annual maintenance practices. The purpose of this 5 year study was to evaluate alternative plant material for use on LLRW sites that can be quickly and easily established and economically maintained, retards water infiltration, provides maximum year-round evapotranspiration, is ecologically acceptable and does not harm the closure cap.The results of the study suggest that two species of bamboo (Phyllostachys bissetii and Phyllostachys rubromarginata) could be utilized to quickly establish a long lived, low maintenance, final vegetative cover for the waste sites.

  6. [PRIORITY TECHNOLOGIES OF THE MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samutin, N M; Butorina, N N; Starodubova, N Yu; Korneychuk, S S; Ustinov, A K

    2015-01-01

    The annual production of waste in health care institutions (HCI) tends to increase because of the growth of health care provision for population. Among the many criteria for selecting the optimal treatment technologies HCI is important to provide epidemiological and chemical safety of the final products. Environmentally friendly method of thermal disinfection of medical waste may be sterilizators of medical wastes intended for hospitals, medical centers, laboratories and other health care facilities that have small and medium volume of processing of all types of waste Class B and C. The most optimal method of centralized disposal of medical waste is a thermal processing method of the collected material.

  7. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  8. Taiwan industrial cooperation program technology transfer for low-level radioactive waste final disposal - phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, Robert G.; Cochran, John Russell; Arnold, Bill Walter; Jow, Hong-Nian; Mattie, Patrick D.; Schelling, Frank Joseph Jr. (; .)

    2007-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan have collaborated in a technology transfer program related to low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal in Taiwan. Phase I of this program included regulatory analysis of LLW final disposal, development of LLW disposal performance assessment capabilities, and preliminary performance assessments of two potential disposal sites. Performance objectives were based on regulations in Taiwan and comparisons to those in the United States. Probabilistic performance assessment models were constructed based on limited site data using software including GoldSim, BLT-MS, FEHM, and HELP. These software codes provided the probabilistic framework, container degradation, waste-form leaching, groundwater flow, radionuclide transport, and cover infiltration simulation capabilities in the performance assessment. Preliminary performance assessment analyses were conducted for a near-surface disposal system and a mined cavern disposal system at two representative sites in Taiwan. Results of example calculations indicate peak simulated concentrations to a receptor within a few hundred years of LLW disposal, primarily from highly soluble, non-sorbing radionuclides.

  9. Factors Explaining Households’ Cash Payment for Solid Waste Disposal and Recycling Behaviors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental safety is one of the top policy priorities in some developing countries. This study analyzed the factors influencing waste disposal and recycling by households in South Africa. The data were collected by Statistics South Africa in 2012 during the General Household Survey (GHS. Analysis of the data was carried out with the Bivariate Probit model. The results showed that 56.03% and 31.98% of all the households disposed waste through local authority/private companies and own refuse dump sites, respectively. Limpopo and Mpumalanga had the highest usage of own refuse dump sites and dumping of waste anywhere. Littering (34.03% and land degradation (31.53% were mostly perceived by the households, while 38.42% were paying for waste disposal and 8.16% would be willing to pay. Only 6.54% and 1.70% of all the households were recycling and selling waste respectively with glass (4.10% and papers (4.02% being most recycled. The results of the Bivariate Probit model identified income, access to social grants, Indian origin, and attainment of formal education as significant variables influencing payment for waste disposal and recycling. It was inter alia recommended that revision of environmental law, alleviating poverty, and gender sensitive environmental education and awareness creation would enhance environmental conservation behaviors in South Africa.

  10. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  11. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  12. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear wasite: site performance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    This report states ten criteria governing the suitability of sites for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Department of Energy will use these criteria in its search for sites and will reevaluate their use when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules. These criteria encompass site geometry, geohydrology, geochemistry, geologic characteristics, tectonic environment, human intrusion, surface characteristics, environment, and potential socioeconomic impacts. The contents of this document include background discussion, site performance criteria, and appendices. The background section describes the waste disposal system, the application of the site criteria, and applicable criteria from NWTS-33(1) - Program Objectives, Functional Requirements and System Performance Criteria. Appendix A, entitled Comparison with Other Siting Criteria compares the NWTS criteria with those recommended by other agencies. Appendix B contains DOE responses to public comments received on the January 1980 draft of this document. Appendix C is a glossary.

  13. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  14. Instructions and Form for Hazardous Waste Generators, Transporters and Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities to Obtain an EPA Identification Number (EPA Form 8700-12/Site Identification Form)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This booklet is designed to help you determine if you are subject to requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for notifying the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of your regulated waste activities.

  15. Low-level waste disposal in highly populated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, E.; McCombie, C.; Issler, H. [NAGRA-Swiss National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste, Baden (Switzerland)

    1989-11-01

    Nuclear-generated electricity supplies almost 40% of the demand in Switzerland (the rest being hydro-power). Allowing for a certain reserve and assuming an operational life-time of 40 years for each reactor, and taking into account wastes from decommissioning and from medicine, industry and research, the total amount of low-level radioactive waste to be disposed of is about 175,000 m{sup 3}. Since there are no unpopulated areas in Switzerland, and since Swiss Federal Law specifies that the safety of disposal may not depend upon supervision of the repository, no shallow-land burial has been foreseen, even for short-lived low-level waste. Instead, geological disposal in a mined cavern system with access through a horizontal tunnel was selected as the best way of meeting the requirements and ensuring the necessary public acceptance.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Bodo Canyon Disposal Site, Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Durango, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Durango (Bodo Canyon) disposal site, which will be referred to as the disposal site throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal site continues to function as designed. This LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). RRMs include tailings and other uranium ore processing wastes still at the site, which the DOE determines to be radioactive. This LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992).

  17. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  18. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambow, Bernd

    2008-12-12

    When disposing nuclear waste in clay formations it is expected that the most radiotoxic elements like Pu, Np or Am move only a few centimetres to meters before they decay. Only a few radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere and contribute to their long-term exposure risks, mainly anionic species like I129, Cl36, Se79 and in some cases C14 and Tc99, whatever the scenario considered. The recent OECD/NEA cosponsored international MOFAP workshop focussed on transport and chemical behaviour of these less toxic radionuclides. New research themes have been addressed, such as how to make use of molecular level information for the understanding of the problem of migration at large distances. Diffusion studies need to face mineralogical heterogeneities over tens to hundreds of meters. Diffusion rates are very low since the clay rock pores are so small (few nm) that electrostatic repulsion limits the space available for anion diffusion (anion exclusion). The large volume of traversed rock will provide so many retention sites that despite weak retention, even certain of these "mobile" nuclides may show significant retardation. However, the question how to measure reliably very low retention parameters has been posed. An important issue is whether redox states or organic/inorganic speciation change from their initial state at the moment of release from the waste during long term contact with surfaces, hydrogen saturated environments, etc.

  19. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  20. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the

  1. Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernt Brewitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.

  2. Nuclear reactor high-level waste: origin and safe disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, C.; Tsipis, K. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    High-level waste (HLW) is a natural component of the nuclear fuel cycle. Because of its radioactivity, HLW needs to be handled with great care. Different alternatives for permanently storing HLW are evaluated. Studies have shown that the disposal of HLW is safest when the waste is first vitrified before storage. Simple calculations show that vitrified HLW that is properly buried in deep, carefully chosen crystalline rock structures poses insignificant health risks. (author).

  3. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC), Rev. 7-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2009-05-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NTSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal.

  4. Evaluation of Low-Level Waste Disposal Receipt Data for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Robert [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-04-17

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational or institutional waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety, and the environment. To comply with this order, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for LLW disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. Furthermore, sites are required to conduct composite analyses that account for the cumulative impacts of all waste that has been (or will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with the facilities. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 (LANL, 2008). These analyses estimate rates of radionuclide release from the waste disposed of at the facility, simulate the movement of radionuclides through the environment, and project potential radiation doses to humans for several on-site and off-site exposure scenarios. The assessments are based on existing site and disposal facility data and on assumptions about future rates and methods of waste disposal. The accuracy of the performance assessment and composite analysis depends upon the validity of the data used and assumptions made in conducting the analyses. If changes in these data and assumptions are significant, they may invalidate or call

  5. Consideration of Criteria for a Conceptual Near Surface Radioactive Waste disposal Facility in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nderitu, Stanley Werugia; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures. This study will present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and illustrate some of its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in a conceptual near surface disposal facility in Kenya. The approach will make use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities. The study will mainly focus on post-closure periods. The study will employ some specific inadvertent human intrusion scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. The specific performance assessments will use modified scenarios and data to establish acceptable disposal concentrations for specific disposal sites and conditions. Safety and environmental impacts assessments is required in the post-closure phase to support particular decisions in development, operation, and closure of a near surface repository.

  6. A New Waste Disposal Technology-plasma arc Pyrolysis System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建军; 施嘉标; 梁荣庆; 刘正之

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new waste disposal technology with plasma arc. Being different from conventional combustion or burning such as incineration, it is based on a process called controlled pyrolysis-thermal destruction and recovery process. It has four advantages, they are completely safe, clean, high-energy synthesis gas, non-toxic vitrified slag and metal.

  7. 41 CFR 50-204.29 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Waste disposal. 50-204.29 Section 50-204.29 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.29...

  8. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  9. Pre-feasibility study for final disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal concepts. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.; Skov, C.; Kueter, A.; Schepper, L.; Gottberg Roemer, H.; Refsgaard, A.; Utko, M.; Kristiansen, Torben (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    This prefeasibility study is part of the overall process related to the decision on placement and design of a repository for the Danish low and medium level radioactive waste primarily from the facilities at Risoe. The prefeasibility study encompasses the preliminary design of a number of repository types based on the overall types set out in the 'Parliamentary decision' together with a preliminary safety assessment of these repository types based on their possible placement in a set of typical Danish geologies. The report consists of three parts. Part I is the descriptive part containing information on the waste to be disposed of, the potential conditioning (packaging) possibilities for the waste before placement in a repository, the suggested preliminary design of the different repository types, and the suggested visual appearance of the repository. Part II is the assessment part. It contains an introduction to the concepts used in the preliminary safety assessment, which encompasses: the assessment of potential long term impact and the assessment of possible accidental incidents. The division of the preliminary safety assessment in to these two categories has several reasons. One is that the criteria to which impact is to be compared are different for the two types of impact, another is that while the possible variation in the long term impact is primarily due to the possible variation in the parameters influencing the impact, the impact from accidental incidents is governed by the probability of the occurrence of these incidents and the potential consequence of the impact, which calls for a different assessment approach. Since the suggestions for packaging of the different waste types is a result of both types of assessments, part II also contains a description of these suggestions based on the preliminary safety assessments. Finally part II contains the costs related to the different types of repositories and the suggested packaging. Part III of the

  10. Modeling field-scale multiple tracer injection at a low-level waste disposal site in fractured rocks: Effect of multiscale heterogeneity and source term uncertainty on conceptual understanding of mass transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Jardine, Philip M.; Sanford, William E.

    2005-03-01

    Multiple factors may affect the scale-up of laboratory multi-tracer injection into structured porous media to the field. Under transient flow conditions and with multiscale heterogeneities in the field, previous attempts to scale-up laboratory experiments have not answered definitely the questions about the governing mechanisms and the spatial extent of the influence of small-scale mass transfer processes such as matrix diffusion. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of multiscale heterogeneity, mechanistic and site model conceptualization, and source term density effect on elucidating and interpreting tracer movement in the field. Tracer release and monitoring information previously obtained in a field campaign of multiple, conservative tracer injection under natural hydraulic gradients at a low-level waste disposal site in eastern Tennessee, United States, is used for the research. A suite of two-pore-domain, or fracture-matrix, groundwater flow and transport models are calibrated and used to conduct model parameter and prediction uncertainty analyses. These efforts are facilitated by a novel nested Latin-hypercube sampling technique. Our results verify, at field scale, a multiple-pore-domain, multiscale mechanistic conceptual model that was used previously to interpret only laboratory observations. The results also suggest that, integrated over the entire field site, mass flux rates attributable to small-scale mass transfer are comparable to that of field-scale solute transport. The uncertainty analyses show that fracture spacing is the most important model parameter and model prediction uncertainty is relatively higher at the interface between the preferred flow path and its parent bedrock. The comparisons of site conceptual models indicate that the effect of matrix diffusion may be confined to the immediate neighborhood of the preferential flow path. Finally, because the relatively large amount of tracer needed for field studies, it is

  11. Crystalline ceramics: Waste forms for the disposal of weapons plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C.; Lutze, W. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    At present, there are three seriously considered options for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium: (i) incorporation, partial burn-up and direct disposal of MOX-fuel; (ii) vitrification with defense waste and disposal as glass ``logs``; (iii) deep borehole disposal (National Academy of Sciences Report, 1994). The first two options provide a safeguard due to the high activity of fission products in the irradiated fuel and the defense waste. The latter option has only been examined in a preliminary manner, and the exact form of the plutonium has not been identified. In this paper, we review the potential for the immobilization of plutonium in highly durable crystalline ceramics apatite, pyrochlore, monazite and zircon. Based on available data, we propose zircon as the preferred crystalline ceramic for the permanent disposition of excess weapons plutonium.

  12. Development of database systems for safety of repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Hoon; Han, Jeong Sang; Shin, Hyeon Joon; Ham, Sang Won; Moon, Sang Kee [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In this study, contents and survey and supervision items in each part are selected to avoid overlap between different parts referring national lows, criterion, and guidance related to atomic energy. The items consist of climatology, hydrology, geology, seismology, engineering geology, geochemistry, and civil and social parts. Based on these items, general study and systematic control related to the stability of disposal sites os established and as specific region required with the properties that is similar to properties of radioactive waste disposal sites, Ulsan region equipped with LPG underground storage facility was selected and its datum were surveyed and inputted. So propriety of established database system was proved.

  13. Korean Waste Management Law and Waste Disposal Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Soil Treatment Tanks) 69 Article 8. (Interim Measures on Report of Recycler or Reuser of Industrial Waste) 69 Article 9. (Interim Measures on Permit...recycling and reuse (hereinafter referred to as a "recycler and reuser of industrial waste"), pursuant to Article 23.2. of the Law, shall submit a "Filing... reuser of industrial waste, pursuant to Article 45.2., shall submit a "Modification of Recycle or Reuse of Industrial Waste" (Form No. 17), to the

  14. Management of the radioactive waste of European Spallation Source within the Swedish waste disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ene, Daniela [European Spallation Source AB, ESS-AB (Sweden); Forsstroem, H. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The European Spallation Source AB (ESS) is the European common effort in designing and building a next generation large-scale user facility for studies of the structure and dynamics of materials. The proposed schematic layout of the ESS facility is based on a linear driver (linac) directing the proton beam (5 MW of 2.5 GeV) of 2.8 ms long pulses with a 20 Hz on a tungsten target where neutrons are produced via spallation reactions. Further the neutrons will be moderated to thermal and sub-thermal energies in a couple of moderators placed around the target. The moderators feed 22 beam-lines guiding the neutrons to the scattering instruments, mainly for neutron scattering research, as has been previously mentioned. The ESS will generate specific types of radioactive waste. This waste should be handled and disposed of within the Swedish radioactive waste management system, which is owned and operated by Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, (SKB). The main objectives of this work are: i) To estimate types and quantities of waste that the ESS project will generate at different stages: commission, operation, decommissioning; ii) To allocate the waste to specific disposal route; iii) To assess the disposal volumes needed and to ensure that the ESS waste may safely be accommodated within the Swedish disposal system, SKB The amounts of ESS waste and classifications were derived using: i) precise Monte Carlo calculations ii) scaling the activity from the operation experience of the existing spallation source installations for waste such it is difficult to predict level of activation or for components of the facility in stage of the pre-conceptual model. Associated waste treatment/conditioning options were further analyzed in order to define the waste type and packet descriptions in agreement with Swedish regulations and policy. The potential final disposal routes for high activated components were decided via the comparison of the activity levels of the isotopes inside the

  15. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research shall be taken into account. (f) Sewage and... deposition over areas of special biological, scientific, historic, aesthetic or wilderness significance. (i) Each unauthorized release of waste in Antarctic shall be, to the maximum extent practicable,...

  16. OPTIMAL ALLOCATION OF LANDFILL DISPOSAL SITE: A FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh, A. K. Vidyarthi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The arbitrary disposal through land-fill sites and also the unscientific management of solid wastes generated by domestic, commercial and industrial activities leading to serious problems of health, sanitation and environmental degradation in India demand an immediate proper solid waste disposal planning otherwise it may cause a serious problem, especially in small and medium-sized cities/towns if proper steps are not initiated now. The present paper aims to develop decision support systems to allocate the best landfill disposal site among the given alternative sites for Vidya Vihar, Pilani, Rajasthan, India. The technique is applied to determine the overall strategy for planning of solid waste disposal and management, while taking into account its environmental impact, as well as economical, technical and sustainable development issues. The model effectively reflects dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the solid waste management system and provides decision-makers with a decision tool to make a better decision while choosing a municipal solid waste management strategy.

  17. A conflict model for the international hazardous waste disposal dispute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Kaixian, E-mail: k2hu@engmail.uwaterloo.ca [Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Hipel, Keith W., E-mail: kwhipel@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Fang, Liping, E-mail: lfang@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    A multi-stage conflict model is developed to analyze international hazardous waste disposal disputes. More specifically, the ongoing toxic waste conflicts are divided into two stages consisting of the dumping prevention and dispute resolution stages. The modeling and analyses, based on the methodology of graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR), are used in both stages in order to grasp the structure and implications of a given conflict from a strategic viewpoint. Furthermore, a specific case study is investigated for the Ivory Coast hazardous waste conflict. In addition to the stability analysis, sensitivity and attitude analyses are conducted to capture various strategic features of this type of complicated dispute.

  18. International Approaches for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Geological Formations: Geological Challenges in Radioactive Waste Isolation—Fifth Worldwide Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sassani, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    The overall objective of the Fifth Worldwide Review (WWR-5) is to document the current state-of-the-art of major developments in a number of nations throughout the World pursuing geological disposal programs, and to summarize challenging problems and experience that have been obtained in siting, preparing and reviewing cases for the operational and long-term safety of proposed and operating nuclear waste repositories. The scope of the Review is to address current specific technical issues and challenges in safety case development along with the interplay of technical feasibility, siting, engineering design issues, and operational and post-closure safety. In particular, the chapters included in the report present the following types of information: the current status of the deep geological repository programs for high level nuclear waste and low- and intermediate level nuclear waste in each country, concepts of siting and radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management in different countries (with the emphasis of nuclear waste disposal under different climatic conditions and different geological formations), progress in repository site selection and site characterization, technology development, buffer/backfill materials studies and testing, support activities, programs, and projects, international cooperation, and future plans, as well as regulatory issues and transboundary problems.

  19. Modeling of Carbon Tetrachloride Flow and Transport in the Subsurface of the 200 West Disposal Sites: Large-Scale Model Configuration and Prediction of Future Carbon Tetrachloride Distribution Beneath the 216-Z-9 Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Mart; Thorne, Paul D.; Zhang, Z. F.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-12-17

    Three-dimensional simulations considered migration of dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) consisting of CT and co disposed organics in the subsurface as a function of the properties and distribution of subsurface sediments and of the properties and disposal history of the waste. Simulations of CT migration were conducted using the Water-Oil-Air mode of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. A large-scale model was configured to model CT and waste water discharge from the major CT and waste-water disposal sites.

  20. Safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [and others

    1997-12-01

    During 1994-1997 a project on the disposal of radioactive waste was carried out as part of the NKS program. The objective of the project was to give authorities and waste producers in the Nordic countries background material for determinations about the management and disposal of radioactive waste. The project NKS/AFA-1 was divided into three sub-projects: AFA-1.1, AFA-1.2 and AFA-1.3. AFA-1.1 dealt with waste characterisation, AFA-1.2 dealt with performance assessment for repositories and AFA-1.3 dealt with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The studies mainly focused on the management of long-lived low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from research, hospitals and industry. The AFA-1.1 study included an overview on waste categories in the Nordic countries and methods to determine or estimate the waste content. The results from the AFA-1.2 study include a short overview of different waste management systems existing and planned in the Nordic countries. However, the main emphasis of the study was a general discussion of methodologies developed and employed for performance assessments of waste repositories. Some of the phenomena and interactions relevant for generic types of repository were discussed as well. Among the different approaches for the development of scenarios for safety and performance assessments one particular method, the Rock Engineering System (RES), was chosen to be tested by demonstration. The possible interactions and their safety significance were discussed, employing a simplified and generic Nordic repository system as the reference system. New regulations for the inventory of a repository may demand new assessments of old radioactive waste packages. The existing documentation of a waste package is then the primary information source although additional measurements may be necessary. (EG) 33 refs.

  1. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  2. Preliminary criteria for shallow-land storage/disposal of low-level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shord, A. L.

    1979-09-01

    Preliminary criteria for shallow land storage/disposal of low level radioactive solid waste in an arid environment were developed. Criteria which address the establishment and operation of a storage/disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid wastes are discussed. These were developed from the following sources: (1) a literature review of solid waste burial; (2) a review of the regulations, standards, and codes pertinent to the burial of radioactive wastes; (3) on site experience; and (4) evaluation of existing burial grounds and practices. (DMC)

  3. International program to study subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlin, E.M.; Hinga, K.R.; Knauss, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the international program to study seabed disposal of nuclear wastes. Its purpose is to inform legislators, other policy makers, and the general public as to the history of the program, technological requirements necessary for feasibility assessment, legal questions involved, international coordination of research, national policies, and research and development activities. Each of these major aspects of the program is presented in a separate section. The objective of seabed burial, similar to its continental counterparts, is to contain and to isolate the wastes. The subseabed option should not be confuesed with past practices of ocean dumping which have introduced wastes into ocean waters. Seabed disposal refers to the emplacement of solidified high-level radioactive waste (with or without reprocessing) in certain geologically stable sediments of the deep ocean floor. Specially designed surface ships would transport waste canisters from a port facility to the disposal site. Canisters would be buried from a few tens to a few hundreds of meters below the surface of ocean bottom sediments, and hence would not be in contact with the overlying ocean water. The concept is a multi-barrier approach for disposal. Barriers, including waste form, canister, ad deep ocean sediments, will separate wastes from the ocean environment. High-level wastes (HLW) would be stabilized by conversion into a leach-resistant solid form such as glass. This solid would be placed inside a metallic canister or other type of package which represents a second barrier. The deep ocean sediments, a third barrier, are discussed in the Feasibility Assessment section. The waste form and canister would provide a barrier for several hundred years, and the sediments would be relied upon as a barrier for thousands of years. 62 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  4. 40 CFR 22.37 - Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. 22.37 Section 22.37 Protection of Environment... Supplemental rules governing administrative proceedings under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (a) Scope. This... sections 3005(d) and (e), 3008, 9003 and 9006 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6925(d) and...

  5. 75 FR 39041 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Solid Waste Disposal Act Notice is hereby given that... Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'') for violations of Section 7003 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (as... oilfield waste disposal facility, located in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Consent Decree resolves...

  6. 76 FR 55256 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BD04 Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax... published in the Federal Register on Friday, August 19, 2011, on the definition of solid waste disposal... solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use those facilities. DATES: This correction...

  7. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of...

  8. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain food waste disposers and... sale within the United States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components...

  9. Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, Luigi; Baldassarre, Antonio; Gatti, Maria Franca; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Dirodi, Angelica A; Cuccaro, Francesco; Bellino, Raffaello Maria

    2016-06-24

    Waste management, namely, collection, transport, sorting and processing, and disposal, is an issue of social concern owing to its environmental impact and effects on public health. In fact, waste management activities are carried out according to procedures that can have various negative effects on the environment and, potentially, on human health. The aim of our study was to assess the potential effects on respiratory health of this exposure in workers in the waste management and disposal field, as compared with a group of workers with no occupational exposure to outdoor pollutants. The sample consisted of a total of 124 subjects, 63 waste collectors, and 61 office clerks. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before inclusion in the study. The entire study population underwent pulmonary function assessments with spirometry and completed two validated questionnaires for the diagnosis of rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 13. Spirometry showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Tiffenau Index values in the exposed workers, as compared with the controls, after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, BMI, and smoking habit. Similarly, the mean FEV1 values were lower in the exposed workers than in the controls, this difference being again statistically significant. The FVC differences measured in the two groups were not found to be statistically significant. We ran a cross-sectional study to investigate the respiratory health of a group of workers in the solid waste collection and disposal field as compared with a group of office workers. In agreement with most of the data in the literature, our findings support the existence of a prevalence of respiratory deficits in waste disposal workers. Our data suggest the importance of adopting preventive measures, such as wearing specific individual protection devices, to protect this particular category of workers from adverse effects on respiratory

  10. Are MUPs a Toxic Waste Disposal System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kwak

    Full Text Available Male house mice produce large quantities of major urinary proteins (MUPs, which function to bind and transport volatile pheromones, though they may also function as scavengers that bind and excrete toxic compounds ('toxic waste hypothesis'. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of an industrial chemical, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (DTBP, in the urine of wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus. Addition of guanidine hydrochloride to male and female urine resulted in an increased release of DTBP. This increase was only observed in the high molecular weight fractions (HMWF; > 3 kDa separated from male or female urine, suggesting that the increased release of DTBP was likely due to the denaturation of MUPs and the subsequent release of MUP-bound DTBP. Furthermore, when DTBP was added to a HMWF isolated from male urine, an increase in 2-sec-butyl-4,5-dihydrothiazole (SBT, the major ligand of MUPs and a male-specific pheromone, was observed, indicating that DTBP was bound to MUPs and displaced SBT. These results suggest that DTBP is a MUP ligand. Moreover, we found evidence for competitive ligand binding between DTBP and SBT, suggesting that males potentially face a tradeoff between eliminating toxic wastes versus transporting pheromones. Our findings support the hypothesis that MUPs bind and eliminate toxic wastes, which may provide the most important fitness benefits of excreting large quantities of these proteins.

  11. Attenuation of heavy metal leaching from hazardous wastes by co-disposal of wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Wookeun; Shin, Eung Bai [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kil Chul; Kim, Jae Hyung [National Institute of Environmental Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The potential hazard of landfill wastes was previously evaluated by examining the extraction procedures for individual waste, although various wastes were co-disposed of in actual landfills. This paper investigates the reduction of extraction-procedure toxicity by co-disposing various combinations of two wastes. When two wastes are mixed homogeneously, the extraction of heavy metals from the waste mixture is critically affected by the extract pH. Thus, co-disposal wastes will have a resultant pH between the pH values of its constituent. The lower the resultant pH, the lower the concentrations of heavy metals in the extract. When these wastes are extracted sequentially, the latter extracted waste has a stronger influence on the final concentration of heavy metals in the extract. Small-scale lysimeter experiments confirm that when heavy-metal-bearing leachates Generated from hazardous-waste lysimeters are passed through a nonhazardous-waste lysimeter filled with compost, briquette ash, or refuse-incineration ashes, the heavy-metal concentration in the final leachates decreases significantly. Thus, the heavy-metal leaching could be attenuated if a less extraction-procedure-toxic waste were placed at the bottom of a landfill. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  13. Hydrogeology, waste disposal, science and politics: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, P.K. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    A total of 48 papers were presented at the Engineering Geology and Geotechnical Engineering 30th Symposium. These papers are presented in this proceedings under the following headings: site characterization--Pocatello area; site characterization--Boise Area; site assessment; Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; geophysical methods; remediation; geotechnical engineering; and hydrogeology, northern and western Idaho. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  15. Radioactive waste disposal via electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that space transportation is a feasible method of removal of radioactive wastes from the biosphere. The high decay heat of the isotopes powers a thermionic generator which provides electrical power for ion thrust engines. The massive shields (used to protect ground and flight personnel) are removed in orbit for subsequent reuse; the metallic fuel provides a shield for the avionics that guides the orbital stage to solar system escape. Performance calculations indicate that 4000 kg. of actinides may be removed per Shuttle flight. Subsidiary problems - such as cooling during ascent - are discussed.

  16. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W.M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  17. Monitoring the dispersion of ocean waste disposal plumes from ERTS-1 and Skylab. [Delaware coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Myers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. About forty miles off the Delaware coast is located the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant processing titanium dioxide. The discharge is a greenish-brown; 15-20% acid liquid which consists primarily of iron chlorides and sulfates. The barge which transports this waste has a 1,000,000 gallon capacity and makes approximately three trips to the disposal site per week. ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes are being used to study the dispersion patterns and drift velocities of the iron-acid plume. Careful examination of ERTS-1 imagery disclosed a fishhook-shaped plume about 40 miles east of Cape Henlopen caused by a barge disposing acid wastes. The plume shows up more strongly in the green band than in the red band. Since some acids have a strong green component during dumping and turn slowly more brownish-reddish with age, the ratio of radiance signatures between the green and red bands may give an indication of how long before the satellite overpass the acid was dumped. Enlarged enhancements of the acid waste plumes, prepared from the ERTS-1 MSS digital tapes aided considerably in studies of the dispersion of the waste plume. Currently acid dumps are being coordinated with ERTS-1 overpasses.

  18. 40 CFR 262.212 - Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site interim status or permitted treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....212 Making the hazardous waste determination at an on-site interim status or permitted treatment... hazardous waste permit or interim status as soon as it arrives in the on-site treatment, storage or disposal... permitted treatment, storage or disposal facility. (e) If the unwanted material is a hazardous waste, the...

  19. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  20. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  1. Emplacement Guidance for Criticality Safety in Low-Level-Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-06-23

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) containing special nuclear material (SNM) presents some unusual challenges for LLW disposal site operators and regulators. Radiological concerns associated with the radioactive decay of the SNM are combined with concerns associated with the avoidance of a nuclear criticality both during handling and after disposal of the waste. Currently, there are three operating LLW disposal facilities: Envirocare, Barnwell, and Richland. All these facilities are located in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Agreement States and are regulated by their respective state: Utah, South Carolina, and Washington. As such, the amount of SNM that can be possessed by each of these facilities is limited to the 10 CFR Part 150 limits (i.e., 350 g of uranium-235, 200 g of uranium-233, and 200 g of Pu, with the sum-of-fractions rule applying), unless an exemption is issued. NRC has applied these SNM possession limits to above-ground possession. The purpose of this report is to provide data which could demonstrate that SNM waste at emplacement will not cause a nuclear criticality accident. Five different SNM isotopic compositions were studied: 100 wt% enriched uranium, 10 wt% enriched uranium, uranium-233, plutonium-239, and an isotopic mixture of plutonium (76 wt% plutonium-239, 12 wt% plutonium-240, and 12 wt% plutonium-241). Three different graded-approach methods are presented. The first graded-approach method is the most conservative and may be applicable to facilities that dispose of very low areal densities of SNM, or dispose of material with a low average enrichment. It relies on the calculation of average areal density or on the average enrichment of SNM. The area over which averaging may be performed is also specified, but the emplacement depth is not constrained. The second graded-approach method relies on limiting the average concentration by weight of SNM in the waste, and on limiting the depth of the emplacement. This method

  2. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  3. Annual Status Report (Fiscal Year 2012) Composite Analysis of Low-Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements in DOE O 435.1, Chg. 1,1 and as implemented by DOE/RL-2000-29, Rev. 2,2 the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) has prepared this annual summary of the Hanford Site Composite Analysis for fiscal year (FY) 2012, as originally reported in PNNL-118003 and PNNL-11800, Addendum 14 (hereafter these reports are referred to collectively as the Composite Analysis), and to address secondary issues identified during the review of the Composite Analysis.

  4. Geological Disposal Options for the Radioactive Wastes from a Recycling Process of Spent Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, M. S.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Kim, S. K.; Cho, D. K.; Kuk, D. H.; Cha, J. H

    2008-10-15

    The electricity from the nuclear power plants is around 40 % of total required electricity in Korea and according to the energy development plan, the proportion will be raised about 60 % in near future. To implement this plan, the most important factor is the back-end fuel cycle, namely the safe management of the spent fuel or high level radioactive wastes from the nuclear power plants. Various researches are being carried out to manage the spent fuel effectively in the world. In our country, as one of the management alternatives which is more effective and non-proliferation, pyro-processing method is being developed actively to retrieve reusable uranium and TRU, and to reduce the volume of high level waste from a Nuclear power plant. This is a new dry recycling process. In this report, the amount of various wastes and their characteristics are estimated in a Pyro-process. Based on these information, the geological disposal alternatives are developed. According to the amount and the characteristics of each waste, the concepts of waste packages and the disposal container are developed. And also from the characteristics of the radioactivity and the heat generation, multi-layer of the depth is considered to dispose these wastes. The proposed various alternatives in this report can be used as input data for design of the deep geological disposal system. And they will be improved through the application of the real site data and safety assessment in the future. After then, the final disposal concept will be selected with various assessment and the optimization will be carried out.

  5. Forming artificial soils from waste materials for mine site rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellishetty, Mohan; Wong, Vanessa; Taylor, Michael; Li, Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Surface mining activities often produce large volumes of solid wastes which invariably requires the removal of significant quantities of waste rock (overburden). As mines expand, larger volumes of waste rock need to be moved which also require extensive areas for their safe disposal and containment. The erosion of these dumps may result in landform instability, which in turn may result in exposure of contaminants such as trace metals, elevated sediment delivery in adjacent waterways, and the subsequent degradation of downstream water quality. The management of solid waste materials from industrial operations is also a key component for a sustainable economy. For example, in addition to overburden, coal mines produce large amounts of waste in the form of fly ash while sewage treatment plants require disposal of large amounts of compost. Similarly, paper mills produce large volumes of alkaline rejected wood chip waste which is usually disposed of in landfill. These materials, therefore, presents a challenge in their use, and re-use in the rehabilitation of mine sites and provides a number of opportunities for innovative waste disposal. The combination of solid wastes sourced from mines, which are frequently nutrient poor and acidic, with nutrient-rich composted material produced from sewage treatment and alkaline wood chip waste has the potential to lead to a soil suitable for mine rehabilitation and successful seed germination and plant growth. This paper presents findings from two pilot projects which investigated the potential of artificial soils to support plant growth for mine site rehabilitation. We found that pH increased in all the artificial soil mixtures and were able to support plant establishment. Plant growth was greatest in those soils with the greatest proportion of compost due to the higher nutrient content. These pot trials suggest that the use of different waste streams to form an artificial soil can potentially be used in mine site rehabilitation

  6. TWRS retrieval and storage mission, immobilized low-activity waste disposal plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shade, J.W.

    1998-01-07

    The TWRS mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the encapsulated cesium and strontium) in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner (TWRS JMN Justification for mission need). The mission includes retrieval, pretreatment, immobilization, interim storage and disposal, and tank closure. As part of this mission, DOE has established the TWRS Office to manage all Hanford Site tank waste activities. The TWRS program has identified the need to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose of the highly radioactive Hanford Site tank waste and encapsulated cesium and strontium materials in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. To support environmental remediation and restoration at the Hanford Site a two-phase approach to using private contractors to treat and immobilize the low-activity and high-level waste currently stored in underground tanks is planned. The request for proposals (RFP) for the first phase of waste treatment and immobilization was issued in February 1996 (Wagoner 1996) and initial contracts for two private contractor teams led by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. and Lockheed-Martin Advanced Environmental Services were signed in September 1996. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept and commercial demonstration effort to demonstrate the technical and business feasibility of using private facilities to treat Hanford Site waste, maintain radiological, nuclear, process, and occupational safety; and maintain environmental protection and compliance while reducing lifecycle costs and waste treatment times. Phase 1 production of ILAW is planned to begin in June 2002 and could treat up to about 13 percent of the waste. Phase 1 production is expected to be completed in 2007 for minimum order quantities or 2011 for maximum order quantities. Phase 2 is a full-scale production effort that will begin after Phase 1 and treat and immobilize most of the waste. Phase 2 production is

  7. 10 CFR 61.50 - Disposal site suitability requirements for land disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should be selected so that projected population growth and future developments are not likely to affect...-year flood plain, coastal high-hazard area or wetland, as defined in Executive Order 11988, “Floodplain... of subpart C of this part being met. In no case will waste disposal be permitted in the zone of...

  8. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-03-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  9. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-04-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  10. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2009-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  11. Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-06-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  12. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  13. Operating room waste: disposable supply utilization in neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Yoon, Seungwon; Valencia, Victoria; Boscardin, Christy; Moriates, Christopher; Gonzales, Ralph; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Disposable supplies constitute a large portion of operating room (OR) costs and are often left over at the end of a surgical case. Despite financial and environmental implications of such waste, there has been little evaluation of OR supply utilization. The goal of this study was to quantify the utilization of disposable supplies and the costs associated with opened but unused items (i.e., "waste") in neurosurgical procedures. METHODS Every disposable supply that was unused at the end of surgery was quantified through direct observation of 58 neurosurgical cases at the University of California, San Francisco, in August 2015. Item costs (in US dollars) were determined from the authors' supply catalog, and statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS Across 58 procedures (36 cranial, 22 spinal), the average cost of unused supplies was $653 (range $89-$3640, median $448, interquartile range $230-$810), or 13.1% of total surgical supply cost. Univariate analyses revealed that case type (cranial versus spinal), case category (vascular, tumor, functional, instrumented, and noninstrumented spine), and surgeon were important predictors of the percentage of unused surgical supply cost. Case length and years of surgical training did not affect the percentage of unused supply cost. Accounting for the different case distribution in the 58 selected cases, the authors estimate approximately $968 of OR waste per case, $242,968 per month, and $2.9 million per year, for their neurosurgical department.