WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste combustion ash

  1. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  2. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  3. Managing ash from the combustion of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with millions of tons of refuse being combusted each year, increasing concern over the environment impact of the residue produced has caused both regulators and the resource recovery industry to address the technical and regulatory issues relating to the safe handling and disposal of ash. The basic issue concerning solid waste combustion ash management in this country is how, based on past, recent, and ongoing scientific research, solid waste combustion ash should be handled. Typically, refuse contains approximately 20 to 25 percent residue, which is collected either on grates at the bottom of the combustion chamber or filtered from the exhaust gases by the air pollution control equipment. The fly ash component of the total residue stream is between 10 and 30 percent of the total residue while the bottom ash content ranges from 70 to 90 percent of the total weight, depending upon the air pollution control equipment utilized, especially acid gas scrubbing equipment

  4. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  5. Utilization of stabilized municipal waste combustion ash residues as construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Stabilized municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash residues were investigated for their potential as construction material that can be beneficially used in terrestrial and marine environments. End-use products, such as patio stones, brick pavers, solid blocks, and reef units, were fabricated and tested for their engineering and chemical characteristics. engineering feasibility and environmental acceptability of using stabilized ash residues as construction material are discussed in this paper. Ash samples were collected from two mass-burn facilities and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) facility in Florida

  6. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Vassileva, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). Trace elements are concentrated mainly in the heavy accessory minerals and organic matter in coal. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements in coal may occur as: element-organic compounds; impurities in the mineral matter; major components in the mineral matter; major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous matter; and elements in the fluid constituent. A number of trace elements in the waste products, similar to coal ashes, exceed known Clarke contents. Trace elements are mainly enriched in non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions of fly ash. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the crystalline components. Their accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements from the chalcophile, lithophile and siderophile groups may release into the atmosphere during coal burning. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing their relative enrichment in the fly ash and rarely in the bottom ash and slag. 65 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  7. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Kloeft, H.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Frandsen, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. (Author)

  8. Incineration of a typical LWR combustible waste and analysis of the resulting ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Lokken, R.O.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    In this study 4540 kg (10,000 lb) of simulated nuclear power plant combustion wastes were burned in a controlled-air incinerators. The purpose of this work was to generate ashes suitable for solidification, the products of which will be analyzed to determine if they are suitable for disposal. Two different types of waste were burned: resin and simulated crud, and general trash (paper, plastics, wood, rubber, and cloth). Volume-reduction ratios (unburned waste: ash) were 13:1 and 22:1, respectively. Approximately 20% of the ash was lost due to adherence to incinerator walls and entrainment in the off-gas stream. Losses of the volatile species cesium and iodine were 79% and 100%, respectively. The ashes were not hygroscopic, but they exhibited a pH of 4.6 to 5.0 when water was added. Corrosion of mild steel drums would occur within this pH range. The ashes contained a significant quantity of clinkers haveing lengths as great as 20 cm (8 in.). Most of the clinkers were fully incinerated and easy to crush, suggesting that standard comminuting equipment should be effective in reducing the size of clinkers to allow their solidification with the fine ashes

  9. Obtaining zeolites from slags and ashes from a waste combustion plant in an autoclave process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste combustion is associated with the generation of post-processing solid products – waste such as slag and ash. One of the promising technologies in waste management and processing is the synthesis of zeolites and other materials exhibiting sorption properties. The aim of this study was to characterise and assess the physicochemical properties of the waste and the products synthesised from it. This paper presents the possibility of synthesis zeolites from the slag and ash from two waste combustion plants. The investigated waste is classified as hazardous waste and denoted by the EWC code 190111*. The paper presents the results of physicochemical studies of these materials. As a result of synthesis in an autoclave at 140°C with the use of 2 M NaOH, and other compounds, such zeolite forms as chabazite and sodalite were obtained. Textural studies and ion-exchange capacity investigations carried out allowed characterisation of the sorption properties of the materials. It was found that the materials obtained are characterised by the BET specific surface areas of 25.45 m2/g and 16.79 m2/g.

  10. Characterization of ash melting behaviour at high temperatures under conditions simulating combustible solid waste gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Miaomiao; Dong, Qing; Huang, Yaji; Jin, Baosheng; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Haiming

    2018-05-01

    To achieve high-temperature gasification-melting of combustible solid waste, ash melting behaviour under conditions simulating high-temperature gasification were studied. Raw ash (RA) and gasified ash (GA) were prepared respectively by waste ashing and fluidized bed gasification. Results of microstructure and composition of the two-ash indicated that GA showed a more porous structure and higher content of alkali and alkali earth metals among metallic elements. Higher temperature promoted GA melting and could reach a complete flowing state at about 1250°C. The order of melting rate of GA under different atmospheres was reducing condition > inert condition > oxidizing condition, which might be related to different existing forms of iron during melting and different flux content with atmosphere. Compared to RA, GA showed lower melting activity at the same condition due to the existence of an unconverted carbon and hollow structure. The melting temperature for sufficient melting and separation of GA should be at least 1250°C in this work.

  11. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces...... of incompletely combusted wood rich in Cr and Ca, and irregular particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was also found incorporated in silica-based matrix particles. As was associated with Ca in porous (char) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was associated with Cr...... in the incompletely combusted wood pieces and was also found in almost pure form in a surface layer of some matrix particles – indicating surface condensation of volatile Cu species. In treated ash, Ca and As were no longer found together, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been dissolved due to the electrodialytic...

  12. Ash quality and environmental quality assurance system in co-combustion - Co-combustion of forest industry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.

    2000-01-01

    The environmental acceptability and possible utilization of co-combustion ashes will have a significant influence on the wider use of co-combustion in the future. At present the correlation between currently used fuels, their mixture ratios, and quality variations in ashes are not known, which complicates the assessment of possible utilization and environmental acceptability of co-combustion ashes. The composition of ashes has also been found to vary significantly. Effective utilization requires that process variations to alter ash composition and quality variations are known in advance. The aim of the research was to characterize the fly ash from co- combustion of peat, wood and biological paper mill sludge produced under different fuel loadings, especially with and without sludge addition, ant to identify critical parameters influencing on the ash composition. The variations in the leaching properties of ashes collected daily were followed up. The environmental acceptability of the ashes produced under different fuel loadings, especially their suitability for use in road constructions, were evaluated. The project included also the preparation of laboratory reference material from ash material. Guidelines were developed for sampling, sample preparation and analysis, and leaching tests. Furthermore, a quality control system, including sampling strategies, sample analysis and leaching testing, was established

  13. Washing of fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste using water as leachant; Vattentvaett av flygaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Zhao, Dongmei

    2010-03-15

    Ashes from combustion of municipal solid waste contain a large amount of minerals, salts and other metal compounds that are more or less soluble in water. The metal salts are often enriched in the fly ash which leads to a classification of the ash as hazardous waste. This makes ash management complicated and costly. Many stabilisation methods for Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been developed and most of them are based on a removal of chloride and sulfate in addition to a binding of metals in less soluble forms. The aim is to avoid the common situation that the ash does not comply to leaching limit values due to release of harmless salts. The aim of this project was to investigate if a simple washing with water can remove enough of the fly ash content of chloride and sulphate so that the ash can be landfilled in a simpler and less costly way than today. The project was focused on fly ashes from the MSWI units owned by Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB and Renova AB Goeteborg, i.e. a electro filter ash from grate fired boilers at Renova and a cyclone ash from a fluid bed boiler at Boraas. The results show that the main part of the chloride content of the ashes can be removed easily, but the washing with water is less effective in the removal of sulphate. A water-to-ash ratio of 1-2 l/kg removes about 100% of chloride but only 8-16% of the sulphate content. In many cases, the leachability of sulphate increases after the washing step. This is due to the rather complex sulphate chemistry with several possible reactions taking place in the ash-water system. For both the tested ashes the high level of chloride leaching is an important factor that prevents admittance on a landfill for hazardous waste without treatment.. The leaching of certain metals, such as Pb, is also high from both ashes but in the case of the Renova fly ash this is dealt with by treatment of the ash according to the Bamberg method. After a water washing with L/S 1-2 (L/kg dry ash

  14. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A4 to A6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeft, H.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Hyks, J.; Astrup, T. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with collection of slags for the rotary kiln experiments; overview of the thermal treatment experiments - phase 1; a journal paper with the title ''Quantification of leaching from waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln

  15. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A1 to A3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, I.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Kloeft, H.; Boejer, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with incineration bottom ash leaching properties; design and construction of rotary kiln facility; manual to rotary kiln experiments. (Author)

  16. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A7 to A10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.; Astrup, T.; Jensen, Peter A.; Nesterov, I.; Boejer, M.; Frandsen, F.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with the influence of kiln treatment on incineration bottom ash leaching; the influence of kiln treatment on corrosive species in deposits; operational strategy for rotary kiln; alkali/chloride release during refuse incineration on a grate. (Author)

  17. Improved electrical efficiency and bottom ash quality on waste combustion plants. Appendix A11 to A14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard Madsen, O.; Boejer, M.; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Lundtorp, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Erhardt (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund A/S, Glostrup (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    Investigations making it possible to evaluate and further develop concepts to improve electrical efficiency in a waste combustion plant were performed. Furthermore, one objective of the study was to investigate the possibilities of improving waste bottom ash leaching properties by use of a rotary kiln treatment. The project work included construction of a bench-scale rotary kiln, performing ash rotary kiln treatment experiments, conducting gas suction probe measurements on a waste incineration plant and making some concept evaluations. The influence of the rotary kiln thermal treatment on the leaching of Ca, Al, Si, Mg, Ba, Sr, Cl, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mo, sulfate, DOC and carbonate was determined. As a result of these tests, the rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended for reducing the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl, Zn and DOC; however, an increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected. The combustion conditions above the grate of a waste incineration plant were investigated and the release and concentration of volatile ash species in the flue gas such as Cl, Na, K, Ca, Pb, Zn and S were measured. The conducted measurements show that flue gas from grate sections 3 and 4 can produce a sufficiently hot flue gas that contains only low concentrations of corrosive species, and therefore can be used to increase superheater temperatures. Implementation of the so-called flue gas split concept together with other steam circle modifications on a waste combustion plant, and using a reasonable increase in final steam temperature from 400 to 500 deg. C, have the potential to increase electrical efficiency from 24 to 30% (with respect to lower fuel heating value) in a waste combustion plant. The appendices deal with electrical efficiency by dividing the combustion products; release of potentially corrosive constituents from the grate; CFD modeling of grate with and without vertical divider. (Author)

  18. Some aspects of the technology improvement for heat reprocessing of the combustible radioactive wastes and ash residue conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Knyazev, I.A.; Buravchenko, N.N.; Sobolev, I.A.; Mamaev, L.A.; Alekseev, A.N.; Simagina, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of studies devoted to increasing the efficiency of thermal reprocessing (combustion) of organic low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are given. The new most efficient three-stage process including: 1) gasification and pyrolysis of an organic material with volatile product release, 2) coke residual combustion, ash and noncombustible materials melting, 3) combustion of volatile products of thermal decomposition is developed on the basis of the analysis of solid radioactive waste combustion schemes, mathematical simulation and laboratory studies. Experimental bed, in which these processes are realized, is created. The results obtained in it have allowed one to begin designing of the pilot-commercial plant with shaft furnace having the capacity up to 200 kg/h for solid wastes

  19. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined distiller waste utilisation and combustion gases desulphurisation method. The case study of soda-ash industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasikowski, Tomasz; Buczkowski, Roman; Cichosz, Marcin; Lemanowska, Eliza [Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolas Copernicus University, ul. Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, a concept of technology that can be helpful for lowering the negative influence of the synthetic (based on the Solvay process) soda ash plant on the natural environment is presented. We describe the desulphurisation of combustion gases from the factory's power plant, which is based on their absorption in the overflow of distiller waste. The excess of lime milk, which is added in the process of ammonia regeneration from filter liquor, results in a strong alkalinity of distiller waste. The high pH of distiller waste favours absorption of acidic combustion gases. The laboratory-scale tests showed about 80% efficiency of the desulphurisation process. The suspension samples we obtained consist mainly of CaCO{sub 3}. We suggest using the obtained solid phase as an adsorbent-insert in Fluidised Bed Combustion technology (FBC). Based on raw material prices, production costs, and average sell prices of the product, economic analysis of innovation was executed. Profits from employing the method presented come mainly from reduction of environmental fees. The sensitivity analysis of cost showed that the application of the desulphurisation process causes cost reduction in soda-ash production accounting for EUR 150 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Poland, and EUR 11,700 thousand per year (excluding depreciation) in Sweden. It has been found that the latter value is similar to the positive environmental impact of this innovation expressed in monetary units (EUR 10,350 thousand per year, excluding depreciation). (author)

  1. Ash and heavy metals in fluidized-bed combustion of wood wastes; Tuhka ja raskasmetallit puuperaeisen jaetteen kerrosleijupoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaessi, T; Aittoniemi, P [IVO Power Engineering, Vantaa (Finland); Kauppinen, E; Latva-Somppi, J; Kurkela, J [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J [IVO Technology Centre, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Ash formation and deposition mechanisms during co-combustion of pulp mill sludge and bark in industrial bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) combustor have been studied. Similar fuels were used in a bench-scale BFB for co-combustion of sludge and bark pellets and comparative studies with separate combustion of these fuels. Results indicated that in industrial scale unit significant fraction of ash had vaporization. About 14 mass-% of the total fly ash was found in the particle size below 0.2 {mu}m. The vaporized species consisted of potassium (K), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl) and also of minor quantities of sodium (Na). In the benchscale similar vaporization fractions during co-combustion were measured, about 11 mass-%. During the combustion of bark this ratio, about 20 mass-%, was higher than during sludge combustion. The vaporized ash fraction was in the case of dried sludge combustion about 7 mass-%, but with wet sludge the vaporization rate was remarkably lower, about 1-2 mass-%. An increase in the bed temperature increased also ash vaporization. Test run period without combustion at elevated temperatures produced very low quantities of vaporized ash. The vaporized species in bench-scale test during bark pellet combustion were K, S and Cl, for sludge combustion also Na was clearly detected. No condensation of the vaporized species in bed area or furnace walls was observed. Bed defluidization was studied in the bench-scale unit. During bark pellet combustion the bed-agglomeration proceeded via small ash particle, below 2 {mu}m, coating on sand particle surface and consequent bonding between the ash layers. In the case of sludge combustion the accumulation of large ash particles and sintering of these porous agglomerates was observed to cause bed coarsening and defluidization. (orig.)

  2. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  3. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  4. Synthetic aggregates from combustion ashes using an innovative rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P J; Cresswell, D J

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a number of different combustion ashes to manufacture synthetic aggregates using an innovative rotary 'Trefoil' kiln. Three types of combustion ash were used, namely: incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA); municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA-- referred to here as BA); and pulverised fuel ash (Pfa). The fine waste ash fractions listed above were combined with a binder to create a plastic mix that was capable of being formed into 'green pellets'. These pellets were then fired in a Trefoil kiln to sinter the ashes into hard fused aggregates that were then tested for use as a replacement for the natural coarse aggregate in concrete. Results up to 28 days showed that these synthetic aggregates were capable of producing concretes with compressive strengths ranging from 33 to 51 MPa, equivalent to between 73 and 112% of that of the control concrete made with natural aggregates.

  5. Evaluating possible industrial applications of combustible shales and shale ash wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. К. Кондрашева

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Today energy consumption is constantly growing while explored reserves of easily accessible oil are depleting, which is a reason why most countries tend to diversify their energy mix, develop non-hydrocarbon energy sources and use domestic types of fuel, including the low grade ones. Thereby interest is raised to such a source of hydrocarbons as combustible shales. Combustible shales appear to be one of the highest-potential types of organic raw materials, which may offset and in future even substitute oil products and gas. The paper is investigating behavior and structure of combustible shales during heat treatment in order to identify their possible industrial applications. A synchronous thermal analysis has been held, chemical composition of combustible shales’ mineral fraction and optimal conditions for shale fines briquetting have been determined.

  6. Coal combustion waste management study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    Coal-fired generation accounted for almost 55 percent of the production of electricity in the United States in 1990. Coal combustion generates high volumes of ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastes, estimated at almost 90 million tons. The amount of ash and flue gas desulfurization wastes generated by coal-fired power plants is expected to increase as a result of future demand growth, and as more plants comply with Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Nationwide, on average, over 30 percent of coal combustion wastes is currently recycled for use in various applications; the remaining percentage is ultimately disposed in waste management units. There are a significant number of on-site and off-site waste management units that are utilized by the electric utility industry to store or dispose of coal combustion waste. Table ES-1 summarizes the number of disposal units and estimates of waste contained at these unites by disposal unit operating status (i.e, operating or retired). Further, ICF Resources estimates that up to 120 new or replacement units may need to be constructed to service existing and new coal capacity by the year 2000. The two primary types of waste management units used by the industry are landfills and surface impoundments. Utility wastes have been exempted by Congress from RCRA Subtitle C hazardous waste regulation since 1980. As a result of this exemption, coal combustion wastes are currently being regulated under Subtitle D of RCRA. As provided under Subtitle D, wastes not classified as hazardous under Subtitle C are subject to State regulation. At the same time Congress developed this exemption, also known as the ''Bevill Exclusion,'' it directed EPA to prepare a report on coal combustion wastes and make recommendations on how they should be managed

  7. Management of coal combustion wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-02-01

    It has been estimated that 780 Mt of coal combustion products (CCPs) were produced worldwide in 2010. Only about 53.5% were utilised, the rest went to storage or disposal sites. Disposal of coal combustion waste (CCW) on-site at a power plant may involve decades-long accumulation of waste, with hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of tonnes of dry ash or wet ash slurry being stored. In December 2008, a coal combustion waste pond in Kingston, Tennessee, USA burst. Over 4 million cubic metres of ash sludge poured out, burying houses and rivers in tonnes of toxic waste. Clean-up is expected to continue into 2014 and will cost $1.2 billion. The incident drew worldwide attention to the risk of CCW disposal. This caused a number of countries to review CCW management methods and regulations. The report begins by outlining the physical and chemical characteristics of the different type of ashes generated in a coal-fired power plant. The amounts of CCPs produced and regulations on CCW management in selected countries have been compiled. The CCW disposal methods are then discussed. Finally, the potential environmental impacts and human health risks of CCW disposal, together with the methods used to prevent them, are reviewed.

  8. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice....... In this study, a fly ash sample from an operating Danish power plant based on wood biomass was collected, chemically characterized and investigated for its leaching release of nutrients and heavy metals. A column leaching test was employed. The strongly alkaline pH of all the collected eluates suggested...

  9. System for manufacturing ash products and energy from refuse waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutin, G.L.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1996-01-04

    The present invention provides a system of manufacturing energy and ash products from solid waste. The system includes apparatus for receiving solid waste for processing, apparatus for shredding the received solid waste, apparatus for removing ferrous material from the shredded solid waste to create processed refuse fuel (PRF) and apparatus for efficiently combusting the PRF. A conveyor transfers the PRF to the combusting apparatus such that the density of the PRF is always controlled for continuous non-problematic flow. Apparatus for recovering residual combustion particulate from the combustion residual gases and for recovering solid ash residue provides the system with the ability to generate steam and electrical energy, and to recover for reuse and recycling valuable materials from the solid ash residue. (author) figs.

  10. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  11. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The current project focuses on eventual changes in ash characteristics during co-combustion of refuse derived fuel with coal, peat, wood or bark, which could lead to slagging, fouling and corrosion in the boiler. Ashes were produced at fluidised bed (FB) combustion conditions in the 15 kW reactor at VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae, the fly ash captured by the cyclone was further analysed by XRF at Outokumpu Geotechnical Laboratory, Outokumpu. The sintering behaviour of these ashes was investigated using a test procedure developed at the Combustion Chemistry Research Group at Aabo Akademi University. The current extended programme includes a Danish refuse-derived fuel (RDF), co-combusted with bark/coal (5 tests) and wood/coal (2 tests), a RF from Jyvaskyla (2 tests with peat/coal) and de-inking sludges co- combusted at full-scale with wood waste or paper mill sludge (4 ashes provided by IVO Power). Ash pellets were thermally treated in nitrogen in order to avoid residual carbon combustion. The results obtained show no sintering tendencies below 600 deg C, significant changes in sintering are seen with pellets treated at 1000 deg C. Ash from 100 % RDF combustion does not sinter, 25 % RDF co-combustion with wood and peat, respectively, gives an insignificant effect. The most severe sintering occurs during co-combustion of RDF with bark. Contrary to the earlier hypothesis a 25 % coal addition seems to have a negative effect on all fuel blends. Analysis of the sintering results versus ash chemical composition shows, that (again), in general, an increased level of alkali chlorides and sulphates gives increased sintering. Finally, some results on sintering tendency measurements on ashes from full-scale CFB co-combustion of deinking sludge with wood waste and paper mill sludge are given. This shows that these ashes show very little, if any, sintering tendency, which can be explained from ash chemistry

  12. Molten salt combustion of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantham, L.F.; McKenzie, D.E.; Richards, W.L.; Oldenkamp, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Atomics International Molten Salt Combustion Process reduces the weight and volume of combustible β-γ contaminated transuranic waste by utilizing air in a molten salt medium to combust organic materials, to trap particulates, and to react chemically with any acidic gases produced during combustion. Typically, incomplete combustion products such as hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are below detection limits (i.e., 3 ) is directly related to the sodium chloride vapor pressure of the melt; >80% of the particulate is sodium chloride. Essentially all metal oxides (combustion ash) are retained in the melt, e.g., >99.9% of the plutonium, >99.6% of the europium, and >99.9% of the ruthenium are retained in the melt. Both bench-scale radioactive and pilot scale (50 kg/hr) nonradioactive combustion tests have been completed with essentially the same results. Design of three combustors for industrial applications are underway

  13. Advanced characterisation of municipal solid waste ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte Pedersen, Randi

    2002-12-15

    This report deals with characterisation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) ashes from the Danish power plant Maebjergvaerket, Holstebro. MSW has been used as a fuel since the mid 1960's and since then, the MSW incineration plants have experienced operational problems due to deposit formation and corrosion. Inorganic elements tightly or loosely bound in the waste are the main cause of these problems. The tightly bound elements will mainly stay on the grate during combustion, whereas the loosely bound elements are volatilised and recondensed elsewhere in the furnace. Many of the heavy metals form volatile chlorides during the incineration, and the fly ash fraction thus show enrichment in these elements. Presence of chlorides and heavy metals in deposits may cause severe corrosion due to formation of low-melting eutectics. Chlorine gas in the flue gas is also of major concern with respect to corrosion, due to formation of volatile chlorides when chlorine comes in contact with the tube material. Four different ash fractions (bottom ash, super heater ash, economiser ash and fly ash) taken from Maebjergvaerket have been analysed with respect to particle sizes, structures, shapes and composition. The applied methods were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX) and mapping, which were used in order to determine sizes, chemical composition and structure of the particles. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was used to provide information about crystallography and mineral phases. Chemical analysis was also performed along with a particle size distribution for the fine-grained fractions (economiser and fly ash). The amount of silicates consisting of Ca, Al and Si, were found to decrease through the furnace, whereas the amount of alkali (Na, K) chlorides and heavy metals (Pb, Zn) increased. The bonding in the waste before incineration is the direct cause of this, since silicates are tightly bound and chlorides are loosely bound. There was a

  14. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...

  15. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  16. Quantification of fusion in ashes from solid fuel combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug; Frandsen, Flemming; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    The fusion of ashes produced during solid fuel combustion greatly affects the tendency of these ashes to cause operational problems in utility boilers. In this paper, a new and quantitative laboratory method for assessing the fusion of ashes based on simultaneous thermal analysis, STA, is described...

  17. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of Cd, biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. In this work the potential of using the method Electrodialytic Remediation to reduce the concentration of Cd in different biomass combustion....... The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg DM (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg DM (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 to 13.3. In spite of large differences in ash characteristics, the electrodialytic remediation experiments indicated a good remediation potential for all...... four ashes. Final Cd concentrations below 2.0 mg Cd/kg were reached in all ashes within 14 days of remediation and legislative requirements were met. After further optimization of the remediation process on the pre-washed straw ash, limiting concentrations were reached after only 48 hours...

  18. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  19. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  20. Utilization of Hospital Waste Ash in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement.

  1. Utilization of hospital waste ash in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Sheikh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement) while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix) showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement. (author)

  2. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  3. Furnace for degasification and gasification of combustibles rich in ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-13

    A furnace is described for the degasification and the gasification of combustibles rich in ashes with continuous-functioning vertical chambers of transversal rectangular sections in which the washing gas flows from one side to the other, traversing the combustible, characterized by the fact that the height of the combustible surrounded by the washing gas stays in a proportion higher than 10:1 to the thickness of the width of combustible.

  4. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  5. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...... has a low sensitivity toward small variations in AEA adsorption between different fly ashes and it requires further work before a finished procedure is accomplished. Finally, it was shown that changes in temperature affect both test methods. Pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow...... formation. It was found that the AEA adsorption of the fly ash was reduced up to five times compared to reference operation, when the plant was operated with minimum furnace air staging, three levels of burners instead of four and without recycled flue gas. The lower AEA requirements of the fly ash...

  6. Determination of Plant-Available Nutrients in Two Wood Ashes: the Influence of Combustion Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perná, Ivana; Ochecová, P.; Száková, J.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Tlustoš, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, 13/14 (2016), 1664-1674 ISSN 0010-3624 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : combustion condition * crystal phases * fertilizer * plant-available nutrients * wood ash Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  7. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  8. Effect of additives in reducing ash sintering and slagging in biomass combustion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liang

    2012-07-01

    formation of low temperature melting potassium rich silicates and phosphates, causing severe sintering of the WCob ash at elevated temperatures. In contrast, both the Pioneer corn cob (PCob) and Surcin corn cob (SCob) contained high contents of Cl, Ca and Mg that promote K release from the ashes to a certain extent and inhibit formation of low temperature melting K rich silicates and phosphates. In addition, abundance of Ca and Mg in the PCob and SCob facilitated formation of high temperature melting Ca/Mg-K-silicates and Ca/Mg-K-phosphates, reducing sintering degrees of ashes derived from these two corn cobs. Utilizing additives is an efficient way to mitigate ash related operational problems in biomass combustion applications. The useful additives can be proximately categorized into Al-Si-based, S-based, calcium-based and phosphorus-based, according to the major chemical composition in the additives. After fed into biomass combustion systems with different approaches, the additives can decrease amounts of problematic ash species through five possible mechanisms, which prevent and/or abate ash related problems consequently. It is interesting to exploit additives from waste materials, which are normally characterized with rather high chemical reactivity, physical adsorption capacity, abundance of refractory compounds themselves and low costs. More detailed studies are needed to clarify effects of these additives on ash transformation during biomass combustion processes. Sintering characteristics of biomass ashes and effects of additives were investigated. The work revealed that severe fusion of wheat straw ash was associated with intensive formation and melting of potassium silicates under heating. Whereas, sintering of wood waste ash was caused by generation of low temperature melting potassium/sodium aluminum silicates and potassium/sodium calcium silicates. The best anti-sintering effect was achieved by using the marble sludge as additive. The dilution effect from the

  9. Obtaining of granular fertilizers based on ashes from combustion of waste residues and ground bones using phosphorous solubilization by bacteria Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolewicz, M; Rusek, P; Borowik, K

    2018-06-15

    The article presents research results on obtaining phosphorus granulated fertilizers on the basis of microbiologically activated sewage sludge ashes, ground bones and dried blood from meat industry. Granulation tests were carried out using a laboratory pan granulator as well as on an experimental pilot plant. The aim of the studies was to select the proper composition of the mixture of raw materials and binding agents to obtain granulated fertilizers from waste materials such as MSSA and MBM and bacteria lyophilisate. Obtained fertilizer samples were subjected to physical tests (granulation tests etc.) and quality assessment. The tests confirmed that it was possible to produce granulated phosphate fertilizers using the Bacillus megaterium for solubilization of phosphorus in a simple process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  11. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes

  12. Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusar, Henrik

    2003-09-01

    This thesis concerns catalytic combustion for gas turbine application using a low heating-value (LHV) gas, derived from gasified waste. The main research in catalytic combustion focuses on methane as fuel, but an increasing interest is directed towards catalytic combustion of LHV fuels. This thesis shows that it is possible to catalytically combust a LHV gas and to oxidize fuel-bound nitrogen (NH{sub 3}) directly into N{sub 2} without forming NO{sub x} The first part of the thesis gives a background to the system. It defines waste, shortly describes gasification and more thoroughly catalytic combustion. The second part of the present thesis, paper I, concerns the development and testing of potential catalysts for catalytic combustion of LHV gases. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility to use a stable metal oxide instead of noble metals as ignition catalyst and at the same time reduce the formation of NO{sub x} In paper II pilot-scale tests were carried out to prove the potential of catalytic combustion using real gasified waste and to compare with the results obtained in laboratory scale using a synthetic gas simulating gasified waste. In paper III, selective catalytic oxidation for decreasing the NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen was examined using two different approaches: fuel-lean and fuel-rich conditions. Finally, the last part of the thesis deals with deactivation of catalysts. The various deactivation processes which may affect high-temperature catalytic combustion are reviewed in paper IV. In paper V the poisoning effect of low amounts of sulfur was studied; various metal oxides as well as supported palladium and platinum catalysts were used as catalysts for combustion of a synthetic gas. In conclusion, with the results obtained in this thesis it would be possible to compose a working catalytic system for gas turbine application using a LHV gas.

  13. Ash chemistry and behavior in advanced co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M; Skrifvars, B J [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this LIEKKI 2 project is to report results achieved within the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project to the Finnish combustion research community through the LIEKKI program. The purpose of the EU/JOULE/OPTEB project is to find prediction methods for evaluating ash behavior, such as slagging, fouling and corrosion propensity, in full scale combustion systems through chemical or mineralogical analyses, intelligent laboratory tests and chemistry calculations. The project focuses on coals, coal mixtures and coal biomass mixtures fired in advanced combustion systems, such as fluidized bed boilers, pulverized fuel boilers with critical steam values etc. The project will make use of (1) advanced multi-component combustion equilibrium calculations, (2) ash sintering tendency laboratory tests and (3) chemical evaluations of slagging, fouling and corrosion measurements in full scale units. (orig.)

  14. DETERMINATION OF METAL CONTENT AND AN ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL USE OF WASTE CASHEW NUT ASH (CNSA) AS SOURCE FOR POTASH PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Bosede Ogundiran; Joshua Olajiire Babayemi; Chima Gregory Nzeribe

    2011-01-01

    The potential use of waste cashew nut shell (CNS) ash as a source for potash production was investigated in this study. Managing waste ash generated from cashew nut processing is a major challenge, as land filling and open dumping of the waste ashes have been the main options in management of the ash in Nigeria. Economically viable ways of using waste ash rather than having to dispose of it have to be investigated. The CNS was air-dried for 4 weeks and combusted to ashes; the resulting ash wa...

  15. Use of combustible wastes as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Salamov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Achievements of science and technology in creating and using units for combustion of wastes with recovery of heat of the escaping gases has been systematized and generalized. Scales and outlooks are examined for the use of general, industrial and agricultural waste as fuel, composition of the waste, questions of planning and operating units for combustion of solid refuse, settling of waste water and industrial and agricultural waste. Questions are covered for preparing them for combustion use in special units with recovery of heat and at ES, aspects of environmental protection during combustion of waste, cost indicators of the employed methods of recovering the combustible waste.

  16. Stabilization of ash from combustion of MSW in a fluidised bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenari, Britt-Marie; Wilewska, Magda [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Inorganic Chemistry

    2004-06-01

    Due to restrictions against the land filling of combustible waste and directives from authorities that favour energy recovery from the waste, combustion of household waste is becoming more common. Even though combustion of MSW reduces the volume of waste to be handled by approximately 90%, it produces ash residues containing most of the metals present in the original fuel and a number of other species carried through the boiler or formed during combustion. The residues can be divided into three categories: 1. Stable, inert ash that can be utilised in, for example, construction applications 2. Ash that is stable enough to be land filled as nonhazardous waste 3. Ash that contains large amounts of soluble components and potentially toxic metal species. The regulations considering leaching of ash components set limits for the release of soluble salts and toxic metals. Some fly ashes show low leachability for metals but gives a salt release that is too close to the limit for total dissolved solids. Since fly ash from FBC boilers represent the largest volume of ash from these boilers there is a need for a simple and cheap treatment method that reduces the amount of soluble salts, i.e. NaCl, KCl etc, in the ash. After stabilisation, the ash is supposed to go into a more stable category. The aim of this project has been to investigate the applicability of a method to wash such an ash with water. The work included laboratory studies of the ash properties, the water washing process, filtration properties of the ash slurry and also tests of the method in pilot scale at a full scale boiler. This work has been concentrated towards the investigation of cyclone ash from a bubbling fluidised bed boiler in Lidkoeping fired with 100% household waste. Elemental composition of ash samples before and after washing/filtration was determined by AAS or ICP after a suitable dissolution of the sample. The mineralogy of ash samples was analysed using X-ray powder diffractometry. This method

  17. Recovered fuels - The connection between fuel preparation, combustion equipments and ash quality; Returbraenslen - kopplingen mellan braensleberedning, foerbraenningsutrustning och askkvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Johansson, Inge [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The lack of bio fuel and new regulations of waste treatment have increased the interest of recovered fuels. Co-combustion is of great interest, but the consequences and permit handling involved in introducing a new fuel into a plant have to be investigated. The aim of this study is to see if it is possible to affect the ash quality by pre-treatment of the fuel, or by firing in different combustion equipments. Ashes can be used in several different types of applications. Few of these have uniform requirements of ash quality. The ongoing research will hopefully help generating unified regulations and recommendations for the uses of ashes. However, right now the knowledge is limited and very specific. Every type of ash has to be analysed for the appropriate use. It is especially the requirements of leaching that are difficult to make general. The work started with a survey of recovered fuels. It contains roughly which fuels exist and which of those are accessible for the energy market in Sweden. The survey showed that there are approximately 13 Mton/y wastes partly accessible to the energy market; 50 % are used for material recycling, 32 % for energy recovery, 1.5 % for composting and the rest are used as landfill. Three recovered fuels were chosen and studied more thoroughly. These were PTP (paper, wood and plastic), tires and impregnated wood. The project showed that the recovered fuels have different qualifications as fuels and have different possibilities at co-combustion which results in variable ash quality. A pre-treated fuel is more homogeneous which give better combustion and cleaner ashes. A fluidised bed demands a more pre-treated fuel than a grate and the fluidised bed generate more ashes because the ashes contain bed material. As a result of this the ashes from a fluidised bed is generally easier to utilize. In this project the composition of ashes from co-combustion of the three recovered fuels together with wood fuel has been estimated. The aim was to

  18. Sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. Part I. A model of char particle combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV GRUBOR

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for the combustion of porous char particles as a basis for modeling the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion is developed in this paper. The model belongs to the microscopic intrinsic models and describes the dynamic behavior of a porous char particle during comustion, taking into account temporal and spatial changes of all important physical properties of the char particle and various combustion parameters. The parametric analysis of the enhanced model shows that the model represents a good basis for the development of a model for the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. The model enables the prediction of the values of all parameters necessary for the introduction of reactions between sulfur compounds and mineral components in ash, primarily calcium oxide.

  19. Ash related behaviour in staged and non-staged combustion of biomass fuels and fuel mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becidan, Michaël; Todorovic, Dusan; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Khalil, Roger A.; Backman, Rainer; Goile, Franziska; Skreiberg, Alexandra; Jovovic, Aleksandar; Sørum, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The fate of selected elements (with focus on the important players in corrosion i.e. Na, K, Pb, Zn, Cl and S) are investigated for three biomasses (wood, demolition wood and coffee waste) and six mixtures of these as pellets both with and without air staging in a laboratory reactor. In order to get a complete overview of the combustion products, both online and offline analytical methods are used. Information is collected about: flue gas composition, particle (fly ash) size distribution and composition, bottom ash composition and melting properties. The main findings are: (1) complex interactions are taking place between the mixed fuels during combustion; (2) the mode of occurrence of an element as well as the overall structure of the fuel are important for speciation; (3) the pelletisation process, by bringing chemical elements into intimate contact, may affect partitioning and speciation; (4) staging and mixing might simultaneously have positive and negative effects on operation; (5) staging affects the governing mechanisms of fly ash (aerosols) formation. -- Highlights: ► Complex interactions are taking place between the mixed fuels during combustion. ► The mode of occurrence of an element as well as the overall structure of the fuel are important for speciation. ► The pelletisation process, by bringing chemical elements into intimate contact, may affect partitioning and speciation. ► Staging and mixing might simultaneously have positive and negative effects on operation. ► Staging affects the governing mechanisms of fly ash (aerosols) formation.

  20. 30 CFR 57.4104 - Combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combustible waste. 57.4104 Section 57.4104... Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4104 Combustible waste. (a) Waste materials, including liquids, shall not accumulate in quantities that could create a fire hazard. (b) Waste or rags containing...

  1. Mercury and toxic metals in ash from combustion and incineration processes; Mercurio y metales toxicos en cenizas provenientes de procesos de combustion e incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V.; Amador, M.A.; Torres, M.; Figueroa, J. de J. [Universidad Autonomo-Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Reynosa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In Mexico, most of the ashes from combustion and incineration process were not appropriately disposed, they are either left on industrial yards and cliffs or thrown away in open spaces and then carried by the wind to places where they can harm population, affect aquatic environment or soils. For prevention and control, the knowledge on the concentration of trace elements in waste ashes is necessary. In this study, several oxidation methods for digestion of ashes followed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry were evaluated. Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V were determined in ashes from coal and fuel oil combustion, as well as in ashes from the incineration of municipal, water treatment sludge, and medical wastes. Results showed important concentrations of different trace elements in the ashes. This suggests that adequate disposal of these wastes should be mandatory. On the other hand, concentration of trace elements in the leachates indicated that these wastes are not toxic and they could be disposed in sanitary landfill. 23 refs.

  2. Ultrafine ash aerosols from coal combustion: Characterization and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William P. Linak; Jong-Ik Yoo; Shirley J. Wasson; Weiyan Zhu; Jost O.L. Wendt; Frank E. Huggins; Yuanzhi Chen; Naresh Shah; Gerald P. Huffman; M. Ian Gilmour [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    Ultrafine coal fly-ash particles withdiameters less than 0.5 {mu}m typically comprise less than 1% of the total fly-ash mass. This paper reports research focused on both characterization and health effects of primary ultrafine coal ash aerosols alone. Ultrafine, fine, and coarse ash particles were segregated and collected from a coal burned in a 20 kW laboratory combustor and two additional coals burned in an externally heated drop tube furnace. Extracted samples from both combustors were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence(WD-XRF) spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Pulmonary inflammation was characterized by albumin concentrations in mouse lung lavage fluid after instillation of collected particles in saline solutions and a single direct inhalation exposure. Results indicate that coal ultrafine ash sometimes contains significant amounts of carbon, probably soot originating from coal tar volatiles, depending on coal type and combustion device. Surprisingly, XAFS results revealed the presence of chromium and thiophenic sulfur in the ultrafine ash particles. The instillation results suggested potential lung injury, the severity of which could be correlated with the carbon (soot) content of the ultrafines. This increased toxicity is consistent with theories in which the presence of carbon mediates transition metal (i.e., Fe) complexes, as revealed in this work by TEM and XAFS spectroscopy, promoting reactive oxygenspecies, oxidation-reduction cycling, and oxidative stress. 24 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Co-combustion of waste materials using fluidized bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Lopes; I. Gulyurtlu; P. Abelha; T. Crujeira; D. Boavida; I. Cabrita [INETI-DEECA, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in using renewable fuels in order to sustain the CO{sub 2} accumulation. Several waste materials can be used as coal substitutes as long as they contain significant combustible matter, as for example MSW and sewage sludge. Besides the outcome of the energetic valorization of such materials, combustion must be regarded as a pre-treatment process, contributing to the safe management of wastes. Landfilling is an expensive management option and requires a previous destruction of the organic matter present in residues, since its degradation generates greenhouse gases and produces acidic organic leachates. Fluidized bed combustion is a promising technology for the use of mixtures of coal and combustible wastes. This paper presents INETI's experience in the co-combustion of coal with this kind of residues performed in a pilot fluidized bed. Both the RDF (from MSW and sewage sludge) and sewage sludge combustion problems were addressed, relating the gaseous emissions, the behaviour of metals and the leachability of ashes and a comparison was made between co-combustion and mono-combustion in order to verify the influence of the utilization of coal. 9 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  5. Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Bicer; Serif Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conduct...

  6. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  7. New-Generation Aluminum Composite with Bottom Ash Industrial Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A. K.; Sinha, O. P.

    2018-06-01

    Industrial waste bottom ash (BA) from a pulverized coal combustion boiler containing hard wear-resistant particles was utilized in this study to form an aluminum composite through a liquid metallurgy route. Composites comprising 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% bottom ash were characterized for their physiochemical, microstructural, mechanical, as well as tribological properties, along with pure aluminum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure revealed uniform distribution of BA particles throughout the matrix of the composite, whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed presence of aluminosilicate phase. Addition of 10 wt.% BA improved the Brinell hardness number (BHN) from 13 to 19 and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) from 71 MPa to 87 MPa, whereas ductility was adversely reduced after 5% BA addition. Incorporation of BA particles resulted in reduced dry sliding wear rates examined up to 80 N load compared with aluminum. Hence, such composites having lower cost could be applied as significantly hard, wear-resistant materials in applications in the automotive industry.

  8. New-Generation Aluminum Composite with Bottom Ash Industrial Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A. K.; Sinha, O. P.

    2018-02-01

    Industrial waste bottom ash (BA) from a pulverized coal combustion boiler containing hard wear-resistant particles was utilized in this study to form an aluminum composite through a liquid metallurgy route. Composites comprising 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% bottom ash were characterized for their physiochemical, microstructural, mechanical, as well as tribological properties, along with pure aluminum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) microstructure revealed uniform distribution of BA particles throughout the matrix of the composite, whereas x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed presence of aluminosilicate phase. Addition of 10 wt.% BA improved the Brinell hardness number (BHN) from 13 to 19 and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) from 71 MPa to 87 MPa, whereas ductility was adversely reduced after 5% BA addition. Incorporation of BA particles resulted in reduced dry sliding wear rates examined up to 80 N load compared with aluminum. Hence, such composites having lower cost could be applied as significantly hard, wear-resistant materials in applications in the automotive industry.

  9. Influence of carbonation under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas on the leachability of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Xiong, Zhuo; Tian, Chong; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high cost of pure CO 2 , carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO 2 instead of pure CO 2 . The CO 2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO 2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO 2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO 2 . The leaching concentration of heavy metals in all MSWI fly ash samples, especially in ash from Changzhou, China (CZ), decreased after carbonation. Specifically, the leached Pb concentration of the CZ MSWI fly ash decreased 92% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, 95% under pure CO 2 atmosphere and 84% under the air combustion flue gas. After carbonation, the leaching concentration of Pb was below the Chinese legal limit. The leaching concentration of Zn from CZ sample decreased 69% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, which of Cu, As, Cr and Hg decreased 25%, 33%, 11% and 21%, respectively. In the other two samples of Xuzhou, China (XZ) and Wuhan, China (WH), the leaching characteristics of heavy metals were similar to the CZ sample. The speciation of heavy metals was largely changed from the exchangeable to carbonated fraction because of the carbonation reaction under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas. After carbonation reaction, most of heavy metals bound in carbonates became more stable and leached less. Therefore, oxy-fuel combustion flue gas could be a low-cost source for carbonation of MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is coal ash and slag any useful or unloaded wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.; Iacob, O.

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that all types of coal, like most materials found in nature, contain trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides (uranium and thorium families and potassium-40). Therefore, the combustion of coal results in partitioning of radionuclides included in the non-combustible mineral matter, between the bottom ash and fly ash, and in the release into the environment of large amounts of coal ash. Emissions from thermal power stations in gaseous and particulate form contain radioisotopes arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K . They are discharged into the environment causing changes in the natural radiation background and radiation exposures to the population. The continued releases of these materials to environment may result in a buildup in the air, water and soil of the radionuclides, particularly radium-226. There will be an increase of the basic radiation rate in the neighborhood area of these plants and consequently relatively higher exposure of the local population to radiation. Coal burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides (1,2,3,4,5,6). Coal based thermal power plants constitute about 35% of quantum of energy supply in Romania. In view of the importance of coal for energy supply in Romania, we were interested in knowing possible uses of the resulting wastes and minimize the following harmful consequences of coal burning

  11. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.H.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC with the aim of characterizating the ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  12. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    the co-combustion of wood and oil. The focus is laid on differences in ash characteristics and on the mobility of Cd and Cr. These two heavy metals are chosen because Cd is the problematic heavy metal in bio ashes and Cr is problematic in many ash stabilization methods (in the Cr(VI) state). Based...

  14. Environmental optimisation of waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Robert [AaF Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Berge, Niclas; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The regulations concerning waste combustion evolve through R and D and a strive to get better and common regulations for the European countries. This study discusses if these rules of today concerning oxygen concentration, minimum temperature and residence time in the furnace and the use of stand-by burners are needed, are possible to monitor, are the optimum from an environmental point of view or could be improved. No evidence from well controlled laboratory experiments validate that 850 deg C in 6 % oxygen content in general is the best lower limit. A lower excess air level increase the temperature, which has a significant effect on the destruction of hydrocarbons, favourably increases the residence time, increases the thermal efficiency and the efficiency of the precipitators. Low oxygen content is also necessary to achieve low NO{sub x}-emissions. The conclusion is that the demands on the accuracy of the measurement devices and methods are too high, if they are to be used inside the furnace to control the combustion process. The big problem is however to find representative locations to measure temperature, oxygen content and residence time in the furnace. Another major problem is that the monitoring of the operation conditions today do not secure a good combustion. It can lead to a false security. The reason is that it is very hard to find boilers without stratifications. These stratifications (stream lines) has each a different history of residence time, mixing time, oxygen and combustible gas levels and temperature, when they reach the convection area. The combustion result is the sum of all these different histories. The hydrocarbons emission is in general not produced at a steady level. Small clouds of unburnt hydrocarbons travels along the stream lines showing up as peaks on a THC measurement device. High amplitude peaks has a tendency to contain higher ratio of heavy hydrocarbons than lower peaks. The good correlation between some easily detected

  15. Fluidized-bed-combustion ash for the solidification and stabilization of a metal-hydroxide sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, K L; Behr-Andres, C

    1998-01-01

    Fluidized-bed-combustion (FBC) ash is a by-product from a developing technology for coal-fired power plants that will economically reduce air emissions to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act. FBC ash has physical and chemical properties similar to Portland cement, but only has moderate success as a pozzolan in concrete applications due to low compressive strengths. However, FBC ash has proven effective for use as a binder for the solidification and stabilization (S/S) of metal-bearing sludges. Physical and chemical characterization procedures were used to analyze FBC ash and a metal-bearing sludge obtained from a hazardous waste treatment facility to develop 12 different S/S mix designs. The mix designs consist of four binder designs to evaluate sludge-to-binder ratios of approximately 0, 0.5, and 1. Portland cement is used as a control binder to compare unconfined compressive strengths and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses from different ratios of the FBC ash streams: fly ash, char, and spent bed material (SBM). Compressive strengths ranging from 84 lbs per square inch (psi) to 298 psi were obtained from various mix designs containing different sludge-to-ash ratios cured for 28 days. All the mix designs passed the TCLP. Recoveries from leaching for each metal were less than 5% for most mix designs. Results of unconfined compressive strengths, TCLP, and percent recovery calculations indicate that the mix design containing approximately a 1:1 ratio of fly ash to char-and-sludge is the best mix design for the S/S of the metal-bearing sludge.

  16. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO x emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO x emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects

  17. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Maarten, E-mail: maarten.dubois@kuleuven.be

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO{sub x} emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO{sub x} emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects.

  18. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    vitrification, electric arc and melting in a secondary combustion chamber by adding coke as a heating source (coke bed melting furnaces) or residual carbon in the fly ash (Rotary surface melting furnace) are the most common methods. In general, vitrification processes require a high-energy input and are therefore relatively cost intensive. Locking the hazardous components into the matrix by a stabilization/solidification with cement is a common alternative to decontamination. Mixing the fly ash with cement or asphalt is widely used for the reuse of fly ash from coal incineration, but it requires careful attention to any leaching of heavy metals if applied to fly ash from waste incineration. Studies by mixing fly ash with cement at concentrations from 5 to 70 % showed, that in most cases an additional pretreatment step, e.g. washing in HNO{sub 3} solution, is necessary to receive acceptable leaching behaviour and required properties as building material. Related European regulations are currently pending. On the other hand, the use of fly ash as filler for asphalt does not require any pretreatment and is already commonly applied in some countries such as the Netherlands as a well-established method. Solvent extraction methods such as acidic extraction (3R-process) or combined basic and acidic extraction (MR-process) are also designed to remove the contaminants. The effectiveness of these methods is only moderate and a further thermal treatment is required to destroy the dioxins. These methods require relatively high amounts of chemicals and wastewater management. However, they are supposed to be relatively cost effective. Other treatment options that are being tested at laboratory scale such as microbiological treatment and supercritical extraction are optimistic but have no realistic practical relevance at this state.

  20. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  1. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method-Cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Wenhua; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO 4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or soil sample was combusted by the OFC method. By use of Hg-free graphite as the combustion agent, the determination of Hg in ash and soil was successfully carried out; the Hg-free graphite was prepared by use of a mild pyrolysis procedure at 500 deg. C. For six certified reference materials (three CFA samples and three soil samples), the values of Hg obtained by this method were in good agreement with the certified or reference values. In addition, real samples including nine CFAs collected from some coal-fired power plants, five WIAs collected from waste incineration plants, and two soils were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method

  2. Characterization of residues from waste combustion in fluidized bed boilers. Evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagman, U.; Elander, P.

    1996-04-01

    In this report a thorough characterization of the solid residues from municipal solid waste combustion in a Kvaerner EnviroPower bubbling fluidized bed boiler in Lidkoeping, is presented. Three different end products are generated, namely bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash. The bottom ash, consisting of bed ash and hopper ash, is screened and useful bed material recycled. In the characterization, also the primary constituents bed ash and hopper ash have been included. A chemical characterization have been performed including total inorganic contents, content of unburnt matter, leaching behaviour (availability tests, column tests, pH-static tests) and leaching tests according to certain standards for classification (AFX31-210, DIN38414, TCLP). Physical characterization have included grain size distribution, grain density, compaction properties and stabilization of cyclone ash with subsequent testing of comprehensive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity. From an environmental point of view, the quality of the bottom ash and probably the cyclone ash from fluidized bed combustion as determined in this study, indicate a potential for utilization. Utilization of the bottom ash could be accepted in certain countries, e.g. France, according to their current limit values. In other countries, e.g. Sweden, no general limit values are given and utilization have to be applied for in each case. The judgement is then based, not only on total contents in the residue and its leaching behaviour, but also on the specific environmental conditions at the site. 7 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  3. Fluidized bed combustion bottom ash: A better and alternative geo-material resource for construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A K; Paramkusam, Bala Ramudu; Sinha, O P

    2018-04-01

    Though the majority of research on fly ash has proved its worth as a construction material, the utility of bottom ash is yet questionable due to its generation during the pulverized combustion process. The bottom ash produced during the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) process is attracting more attention due to the novelty of coal combustion technology. But, to establish its suitability as construction material, it is necessary to characterize it thoroughly with respect to the geotechnical as well as mineralogical points of view. For fulfilling these objectives, the present study mainly aims at characterizing the FBC bottom ash and its comparison with pulverized coal combustion (PCC) bottom ash, collected from the same origin of coal. Suitability of FBC bottom ash as a dike filter material in contrast to PCC bottom ash in replacing traditional filter material such as sand was also studied. The suitability criteria for utilization of both bottom ash and river sand as filter material on pond ash as a base material were evaluated, and both river sand and FBC bottom ash were found to be satisfactory. The study shows that FBC bottom ash is a better geo-material than PCC bottom ash, and it could be highly recommended as an alternative suitable filter material for constructing ash dikes in place of conventional sand.

  4. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengtao, Feng; Li, Gong; Li, Cheng; Benli, Wang; Lihong, Wang [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 {+-} 5 wt% cement, 29 {+-} 2 wt% water, and 36 {+-} 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH{sub 4A} flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH{sub 4A} flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH{sub 4A} and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and {<=} 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs.

  5. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shengtao; Gong Li; Cheng Li; Wang Benli; Wang Lihong

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 ± 5 wt% cement, 29 ± 2 wt% water, and 36 ± 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH 4A flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH 4A flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH 4A and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and ≤ 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  6. Thermogravimetric analysis of combustible waste components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munther, Anette; Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter

    In order to gain fundamental knowledge about the co-combustion of coal and waste derived fuels, the pyrolytic behaviors of coal, four typical waste components and their mixtures have been studied by a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA). The investigated waste components were wood, paper, polypro......In order to gain fundamental knowledge about the co-combustion of coal and waste derived fuels, the pyrolytic behaviors of coal, four typical waste components and their mixtures have been studied by a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA). The investigated waste components were wood, paper...

  7. Ash and heavy metals in fluidized bed-combustion; Tuhka ja raskasmetallit puuperaeisen jaetteen kerrosleijupoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaessi, T.; Aittoniemi, P. [IVO International, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Combustion ashes and submicron fly ash particles were characterized in two industrial boilers (bubbling vs. circulating fluidized bed) burning paper mill deinking sludge and bark or wood as support fuel. Bulk samples from fly ash, circulating ash and bottom ash were analyzed. Fine particles in fly ash were monitored and sampled for microscopic studies. The mass size distribution of fly ash was measured and the chemical composition according to particle size was analyzed. The results showed that ash consists of large and friable clusters formed by sintering of small mineral particles originating from paper fillers. Very few ash particles were fused and they were found only among the smallest particles. No agglomerates of fused particles were found. If the residence time in furnace is long enough sintering may proceed further and ash structure grows more dense. No indication of ash vaporization was detected. These results were similar for bubbling and circulating fluidized bed boilers. (author)

  8. Environmental, physical and structural characterisation of geopolymer matrixes synthesised from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Querol, X.; Plana, F.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, N.; Izquierdo, M.; Font, O.; Moreno, T.; Diez, S.; Vazquez, E.; Barra, M.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of geopolymer matrixes from coal (co-)combustion fly ashes as the sole source of silica and alumina has been studied in order to assess both their capacity to immobilise the potentially toxic elements contained in these coal (co-)combustion by-products and their suitability to be used as cement replacements. The geopolymerisation process has been performed using (5, 8 and 12 M) NaOH solutions as activation media and different curing time (6-48 h) and temperature (40-80 o C) conditions. Synthesised geopolymers have been characterised with regard to their leaching behaviour, following the DIN 38414-S4 [DIN 38414-S4, Determination of leachability by water (S4), group S: sludge and sediments. German standard methods for the examination of water, waste water and sludge. Institut fuer Normung, Berlin, 1984] and NEN 7375 [NEN 7375, Leaching characteristics of moulded or monolithic building and waste materials. Determination of leaching of inorganic components with the diffusion test. Netherlands Normalisation Institute, Delft, 2004] procedures, and to their structural stability by means of compressive strength measurements. In addition, geopolymer mineralogy, morphology and structure have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. It was found that synthesised geopolymer matrixes were only effective in the chemical immobilisation of a number of elements of environmental concern contained in fly ashes, reducing (especially for Ba), or maintaining their leachable contents after the geopolymerisation process, but not for those elements present as oxyanions. Physical entrapment does not seem either to contribute in an important way, in general, to the immobilisation of oxyanions. The structural stability of synthesised geopolymers was mainly dependent on the glass content of fly ashes, attaining at the optimal activation conditions (12 M NaOH, 48 h, 80 o C

  9. Effect of municipal solid waste ash on comprehensive strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blocks were moulded in a CINVA-Ram machine by replacing 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% of municipal solid waste ash (MSW ash) as a stabilizing agent. The compressive strengths of individual blocks were obtained after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days. The 2%MSW ash replacement gave the highest compressive strength and ...

  10. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from biomass combustion fly ash in larger scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Due to a high concentration of the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), biomass combustion fly ash often fails to meet the Danish legislative requirements for recycling on agricultural fields. It has previously been shown that it is possible to reduce the concentration of Cd in different bio ashes...... significantly by using electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted extraction method. In this work the potential of the method was demonstrated in larger scale. Three different experimental set-ups were used, ranging from bench-scale (25 L ash suspension) to pilot scale (0.3 - 3 m3......). The experimental ash was a straw combustion fly ash suspended in water. Within 4 days of remediation, Cd concentrations below the limiting concentration of 5.0 mg Cd/kg DM for straw ash were reached. On the basis of these results, the energy costs for remediation of ash in industrial scale have been estimated...

  11. The behavior of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Helena M.; Abelha, P.; Cabrita, I. [INETI-DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal); Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S. [UNL-Ubia, Monte de Caparica (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FRC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their reactor further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out, and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in the cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, and, hence, could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release, which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  12. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helena Lopes, M; Abelha, P; Lapa, N; Oliveira, J S; Cabrita, I; Gulyurtlu, I

    2003-01-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials.

  13. The behaviour of ashes and heavy metals during the co-combustion of sewage sludges in a fluidised bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helena Lopes, M.; Abelha, P.; Lapa, N.; Oliveira, J.S.; Cabrita, I.; Gulyurtlu, I.

    2003-01-01

    Co-combustion tests of dry sewage sludges with coal were performed in a pilot bubbling FBC aiming at the characterization of ashes and determining the behaviour of heavy metals in the process. The tests showed compliance with the regulatory levels as far as heavy metal emissions were concerned. The bottom ashes, which accounted for about 70% of the total ash production, were obtained in a granular form, with diameters ranging from 0.5 to 4 mm. The heavy metals were distributed in ashes obtained from different locations of the installation and their concentrations were found to vary depending on the location of capture. The increase in heavy metals content in bottom ashes was not found to lead to higher leachability and ecotoxicity compared to sewage sludges, suggesting that there could be opportunities for their further use. Mercury suffered vaporisation inside the reactor, thus leaving bottom ashes free of contamination by it. However, there was observed a strong retention of mercury in cyclone ashes due to the presence of unburned carbon which probably acted as an adsorbent. The effluent mercury was also found to be mostly associated with the particulate fraction, being less than 20% emitted in gaseous forms. The results suggested that the combustion of the sewage sludge could successfully be carried out and the amount of unburned carbon leaving the combustor but captured in cyclone was large enough to ensure substantial retention of mercury at low temperatures, hence could contribute to an improvement of the mercury release which still remains an issue of great concern to resolve during combustion of waste materials

  14. Field study of wastes from fluidized-bed combustion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.; Holcombe, L.; Butler, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken a research project to monitor advanced coal process wastes placed in natural geologic settings. The overall objective of the study is to gather field data on the engineering and environmental performance of disposed solid waste from various advanced coal processes. The coal ash from a fluidized-bed combustion unit is being studied as part of the DOE program. The unit is a 110-MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) at Colorado Ute Electric Association's Nucla Steam Electric Station, which is being demonstrated with the support of the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program. The Electric Power Research Institute is cofunding the study. In June of 1989, a test cell approximately 100 feet square and 8 feet deep was constructed and filled with ash from the Colorado Ute CFB unit. The cell was instrumented with lysimeters and neutron probe access tubes to monitor water flow and leachate chemistry in the ash; groundwater wells and runoff collection devices were installed to determine the effects on groundwater and surface water quality, and a meteorological station was installed to determine the water balance. Additionally, tests are being performed to evaluate the chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties of the solid waste and geologic materials. Results from the first year of monitoring are presented

  15. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications. PMID:28788372

  17. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Messina, Francesco; Iucolano, Fabio; Liguori, Barbara; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-10-31

    Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS) supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL) have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  18. Coal Combustion Wastes Reuse in Low Energy Artificial Aggregates Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cioffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable building material design relies mostly on energy saving processes, decrease of raw materials consumption, and increase of waste and by-products recycling. Natural and lightweight artificial aggregates production implies relevant environmental impact. This paper addresses both the issues of residues recycling and energy optimization. Particularly, three coal combustion wastes (Weathered Fly Ash, WFA; Wastewater Treatment Sludge, WTS; Desulfurization Device Sludge, DDS supplied by the Italian electric utility company (ENEL have been employed in the manufacture of cold bonded artificial aggregates. Previously, the residues have been characterized in terms of chemical and mineralogical compositions, water content, particle size distribution, and heavy metal release behavior. These wastes have been used in the mix design of binding systems with the only addition of lime. Finally, the artificial aggregates have been submitted to physical, mechanical, and leaching testing, revealing that they are potentially suitable for many civil engineering applications.

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  20. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  1. IMPROVED COMBUSTION PROCESSES IN MEDICAL WASTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small rig was designed for conducting tests on the incineration of rural clinical wastes in Botswana. Experimental results showed that if proper combustion conditions are applied to low technology rural clinical waste incinerators, the operating temperatures could increase from around 400 to above 850oC. It was ...

  2. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO 2 to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO 2 to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms

  3. Determining ash content in flotation wastes by means of the MPOF optical ash meter. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-03-01

    The paper evaluates an experimental unit of the MPOF optical ash meter, developed by the EMAG Research and Production Center for Electrical Engineering and Mining Automation. The MPOF, which is being tested at the coal preparation plant of the 30 lecia PRL mine, is the first system for continuous determination of ash content in flotation tailings developed in Poland. A block scheme of the system is given. It consists of a measuring head and electronic system which processes data supplied by the measuring head and calculates ash content. System operation is based on the principle of determining ash content in a mixture of coal and mineral wastes by measuring mixture reflectivity. Determining ash content in the mixture is possible as reflectivity coefficients for coal and ash are constant. Performance of the MPOF optical ash meter is evaluated; the results are shown in a table and a scheme. Measurement accuracy is satisfactory.

  4. Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation - a Danish case-study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine...... the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...

  5. Coal Combustion Residual Beneficial Use Evaluation: Fly Ash Concrete and FGD Gypsum Wallboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the evaluation of coal combustion residual beneficial use of fly ash concrete and FGD gypsum wallboard including the evaluation itself and the accompanying appendices

  6. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-08-01

    Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO(x) emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilot incineration plant for solid, combustible, and low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francioni, W.M.

    Radioactively contaminated wastes are formed in the handling of radioactive materials at the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (FIRR) and in other facilities, hospitals, sanitoria, industry, and nuclear power plants. A large part of the wastes are combustible and only very slightly radioactive. Incineration of these wastes is obvious. A pilot incineration plant, henceforth called the PIP, for radioactive combustible wastes of the FIRR is surveyed. The plant and its individual components are described. The production costs of the plant and experience gained in operation available at present are reviewed. Solid combustible radioactive waste can be incinerated in the PIP. The maximum possible reduction in volume of these wastes is achieved by incineration. Subsequently the chemically sterile ashes can be consolidated in a stable block suitable for long-term storage mixing with cement

  8. Electrochemical treatment of wood combustion fly ash for the removal of cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    Due to a high content of macronutrients and a potential liming capacity, recycling of ashes from biomass combustion to agricultural fields as fertilisers and/or for soil improvement is considered in Denmark and other countries utilising biomass as an energy source. However, especially the fly ash...

  9. Variability of total and mobile element contents in ash derived from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Ochecová, P.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 11 (2013), s. 1376-1385 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : biomass combustion * fly ash * bottom ash * element contents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  10. Combustion modeling in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.; Unal, C.; Travis, J.R.; Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    1997-01-01

    This paper has two objectives. The first one is to repeat previous simulations of release and combustion of flammable gases in tank SY-101 at the Hanford reservation with the recently developed code GASFLOW-II. The GASFLOW-II results are compared with the results obtained with the HMS/TRAC code and show good agreement, especially for non-combustion cases. For combustion GASFLOW-II predicts a steeper pressure rise than HMS/TRAC. The second objective is to describe a so-called induction parameter model which was developed and implemented into GASFLOW-II and reassess previous calculations of Bureau of Mines experiments for hydrogen-air combustion. The pressure time history improves compared with the one-step model, and the time rate of pressure change is much closer to the experimental data

  11. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  12. Ash formation and deposition in coal and biomass fired combustion systems: Progress and challenges in the field of ash particle sticking and rebound behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinhans, Ulrich; Wieland, Christoph; Frandsen, Flemming J.

    2018-01-01

    . The impaction of solid, molten or partially molten particles on surfaces is dependent on the particle and surface characteristics. For instance, a particulate deposit might capture incoming particles or be removed due to erosion, while a molten layer will collect all impacting particles, no matter...... if they are sticky or not. The main properties affecting the particle stickiness are the viscosity and surface tension for silicate-rich ashes. On the contrary, the stickiness of salt-rich ashes – typical for herbaceous biomass and wood- or waste-based fuels – is often described using the liquid melt fraction......, their required parameters are discussed and typical particle and surface properties found in combustion systems, are summarized. Eight different sticking criteria are implemented in a computational fluid dynamics code and computations are compared against measurements from an entrained flow reactor. Uniform...

  13. Durability of incinerator ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Pietrzak, R.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    Waste form stability under anticipated disposal conditions is an important consideration for ensuring continued isolation of contaminants from the accessible environment. Modified sulfur cement is a relatively new material and has only recently been applied as a binder for encapsulation of mixed wastes. Little data are available concerning its long-term durability. Therefore, a series of property evaluation tests for both binder and waste-binder combinations have been conducted to examine potential waste form performance under storage and disposal conditions. These tests include compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, water immersion, thermal cycling, and leaching. Waste form compressive strength increased with ash waste loadings to 30.5 MPa at a maximum incinerator ash loading of 43 wt %. Biodegradation testing resulted in no visible microbial growth of either bacteria or fungi. Initial radiation stability testing did not reveal statistically significant deterioration in structural integrity. Results of 90 day water immersion tests were dependent on the type of ash tested. There were no statistically significant changes in compressive strength detected after completion of thermal cycle testing. Radionuclides from ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement leached between 5 and 8 orders of magnitude slower than the leach index criterion established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing up to 43 wt % incinerator fly ash passed EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) criteria for lead and cadmium leachability. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Soot, organics and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper is concerned with determining the effects of oxy-combustion of coal on the composition of the ultrafine fly ash. To this end, a 10 W externally heated entrained flow furnace was modified to allow the combustion of pulverized coal in flames under practically relevant s...

  15. Application of hydrothermally crystallized coal ashes for waste water treatment, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Kakimoto, Kohji; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Tomari, Masao; Sakamoto, Eiji; Asahara, Teruzo

    1986-11-01

    To provide an application of combustion coal ash, hydrothermal reaction of fly ash (FA) and clinker ash (CA) is performed and an investigation is carried out to determine the capability of the P type zeolite produced from these ashes to adsorb heavy metal ions. Hydrothermal reaction of FA and CA at 95 - 100 deg C is conducted with various concentrations of sodium hydroxide for various reaction times. Both types of ash are found to easily undergo crystallization to form P type zeolite (PZ) and hydroxy sodalite (HS) when treated with a sodium hydroxide solution (sodium hydroxide/coal ash = 10 v/w) for 18 hours. The FA-PZ and CA-PZ produced by the hydrothermal treatment have degrees of crystallinity in the range of 40 - 60 percent. It is seen that the degree of crystallinity gradually increases with increasing treatment time. The crystallinity of hydrothermally treated coal ash is also shown to have good correlation with the base substitution capacity and the maximum adsorption of ammonium ion. Furthermore, they are shown to effectively adsorb metal ions, in particular those of lead, cadmium and strontium. It is suggested that they may serve as an enrichment agent for low-level radioactive nuclides produced in nuclear power plants. They also seem to have the possibility of serving as a metal elution preventive for industrial wastes of some special types. (Nogami, K.).

  16. Viscosity of ashes from energy production and municipal solid waste handling: A comparative study between two different experimental setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Folkedahl, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of ash fractions produced from the co-combustion of coal and biomass in a pilot-scale pulverized fuel (PF) boiler and from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a Danish incinerator that were determined using the high...

  17. Non-radioactive verification test of ZRF25 radioactive combustible solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiyi; Li Xiaohai; Yang Liguo

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the construction and test run of ZRF25 radioactive combustible solid waste incinerator, by a series of simulating waste tests, such as 24 h test, 72 h test, 168 h test, making a conclusion that the incinerator runs reliably. In addition, all of the indexes (such as treatment capacity, volume reduction coefficient, clinker ignition loss of incineration ash) meet the requirements of contract and pollution discharging standards. (authors)

  18. Ashes of biomass combustion. Report of a workshop at 15 May 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevalkink, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    In a previous study the results of a study on the options to recycle or re-use ashes from biomass combustion were presented. Those results were discussed in detail in the title workshop, attended by researchers, market representatives that have to find practical solutions, and representatives of the Dutch government. It is concluded that only ashes from clean biomass can be used as a fertilizer (e.g. recycling of the ashes to forest soils), preferably in the form of granulated materials to realize a slow uptake of nutrients. Bottom ash can be applied in road construction materials or in concretes. In the appendices of this report sheets of 4 contributions are presented: ' Re-use of ashes form biomass combustion'; The Vattenfall project. Closing of the cycle in Sweden'; 'The vision of a biomass producer'; and ' The market problems for the initiator of biomass projects'. 3 appendices

  19. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  20. Effects of ashes in solid fuels on fuel particle charging during combustion in an air stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, A.G.; Fialkov, B.S.; Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Khvan, L.A.

    1982-09-01

    Black coal from the Karaganda basin is mixed with sodium chloride and graphite. Coal characteristics are given in a table (density, ashes, content of silica, aluminium oxides, iron oxides, calcium oxides, potassium oxides and magnesium oxides). Effects of ash fluctuations on electric potential of fuel particles during combustion are analyzed. Analyses show that with increasing ash content electric potential of fuel particles decreases and reaches the minimum when ash content ranges from 70 to 80 %. Particles with electric potential are generated during chemical processes between carbon and oxygen when coal is burned in an air stream. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

  1. Co-combustion of anthracite coal and wood pellets: Thermodynamic analysis, combustion efficiency, pollutant emissions and ash slagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feihong; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2018-08-01

    This work presents studies on the co-combustion of anthracite coal and wood pellets in fluidized bed. Prior to the fluidized bed combustion, thermogravimetric analysis are performed to investigate the thermodynamic behavior of coal and wood pellets. The results show that the thermal decomposition of blends is divided into four stages. The co-firing of coal and wood pellets can promote the combustion reaction and reduce the emission of gaseous pollutants, such as SO 2 and NO. It is important to choose the proportion of wood pellets during co-combustion due to the low combustion efficiency caused by large pellets with poor fluidization. Wood pellets can inhibit the volatilization of trace elements, especially for Cr, Ni and V. In addition, the slagging ratio of wood pellets ash is reduced by co-firing with coal. The research on combustion of coal and wood pellets is of great significance in engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluidized bed combustion of low-grade coal and wastes: Research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dikalenko, V.I.; Palchonok, G.I.; Vinogradov, L.M. [Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus). A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst.; Dobkin, S.M.; Telegin, E.M. [Special Design Office, Brest (Belarus)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental studies were carried out to investigate devolatilization of fuel as single spherical particles of wood, hydrolytic lignin, leather sewage sludge and Belarussian brown coals in a fluidized bed of sand. It is found that the devolatilization process depends on moisture and ash contents in fuel and on the external heat and mass transfer rate. The char combustion occurs largely in the intermediate region. Kinetic parameters of the devolatilization and char combustion are obtained. A low-capacity fluidized bed boiler suitable for combustion of coal and different wastes is described.

  3. Characteristic fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion found in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliksaar, T.; Hoerstedt, P.; Renberg, I.

    1998-01-01

    Fly-ash particles accumulate in sediments and can be used to assess spatial distribution and temporal trends of atmospheric deposition of pollutants derived from high temperature combustion of fossil fuels. Previous work has concerned fly-ash derived from oil and coal. Oil-shale is the main fossil fuel used in Estonia and a major source of atmospheric pollution in the Baltic states. To assess if oil-shale power plants produce specific fly-ash particles scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to compare fly-ash particles from oil-shale combustion with particles from oil and coal combustion. Two types were analysed, large black (10-30μm) and small glassy (< 5 μm) spheroidal particles. Although article morphology to some extent is indicative of the fuel burnt, morphological characters are not sufficient to differentiate between particles of different origin. However, the results indicate that with EDX analysis the fly-ash from oil-shale can be distinguished form oil and coal derived particles in environmental samples. Concentrations of large black and small glassy spheroidal fly-ash particles in a sediment core from an Estonian lake showed similar trends to oil-shale combustion statistics from Estonian power plants. 27 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Rheology of fly ashes from coal and biomass co-combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The presence of large amounts of alkali metals, chlorine and sulphur in most biomass fuels - compared to coal - can create serious ash-related problems such as deposition, agglomeration and/or corrosion. This paper discusses the viscosity characteristics of fly ash from the co-combustion of various...... coal/biomass blends in a pilot scale pf-boiler. The produced data provide information on the melting of the ash and its flow characteristics, as a function of temperature, which may be used to modify the temperature profile of the boiler in order to avoid slagging. Straw co-firing lowers the ash...... viscosity leading to higher stickiness of the ash particles. Wood co-firing has only minor effects, due to the composition of wood ash and the low percentage of wood in the coal/biomass blend....

  5. Waste gas combustion in a Hanford radioactive waste tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, J.R.; Fujita, R.K.; Spore, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    It has been observed that a high-level radioactive waste tank generates quantities of hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen that are potentially well within flammability limits. These gases are produced from chemical and nuclear decay reactions in a slurry of radioactive waste materials. Significant amounts of combustible and reactant gases accumulate in the waste over a 110- to 120-d period. The slurry becomes Taylor unstable owing to the buoyancy of the gases trapped in a matrix of sodium nitrate and nitrite salts. As the contents of the tank roll over, the generated waste gases rupture through the waste material surface, allowing the gases to be transported and mixed with air in the cover-gas space in the dome of the tank. An ignition source is postulated in the dome space where the waste gases combust in the presence of air resulting in pressure and temperature loadings on the double-walled waste tank. This analysis is conducted with hydrogen mixing studies HMS, a three-dimensional, time-dependent fluid dynamics code coupled with finite-rate chemical kinetics. The waste tank has a ventilation system designed to maintain a slight negative gage pressure during normal operation. We modeled the ventilation system with the transient reactor analysis code (TRAC), and we coupled these two best-estimate accident analysis computer codes to model the ventilation system response to pressures and temperatures generated by the hydrogen and ammonia combustion

  6. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  7. Screening coal combustion fly ashes for application in geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Sarabér, A.J.; Fischer, H.R.; Nugteren, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by cost and sustainability, secondary resource materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash are increasingly used for alternative types of concrete binders, such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources may be highly variable from the perspective of geopolymers, it is

  8. RICE-HUSK ASH-CARBIDE-WASTE STABILIZATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present results of the laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of carbide waste and rice husk ash stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement waste with a ... of 5.7 % and resistance to loss in strength of 84.1 %, hence the recommendation of the mixture for use as sub-base material in flexible pavement construction.

  9. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Caseria, E.S.; Salom, D.S.; Alamares, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137 Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  10. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E M; Marcelo, E A; Junio, J B; Caseria, E S; Salom, D S; Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Manila (Philippines). Radiation Protection Services

    1997-02-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing {sup 137}Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  11. Leaching of Nutrient Salts from Fly Ash from Biomass Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Vu, Duc Thuong; Stenby, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Methods to selectively leach nutrient salts from fly ash, while leaving cadmium un-dissolved were studied. Temperature, pH, water to fly ash ratio are all expected to influence the kinetics and the equilibrium boundaries for this process. Three different leaching methods were investigated....... The first method was a counter current moving bed process in four stages. The ash was kept in filter bags and leached with water that was introduced into the bags at 40-50°C. In the second method, fly ash and water was brought into contact in a partially fluidized bed. The third method was a counter current...... moving bed process with agitation/centrifugation. It was found that a satisfactory leaching of the nutrient salts could be achieved with the third method using only two or three stages, depending on the water to fly ash ratio. It is an advantage to perform the process at temperatures above 50°C...

  12. Appendices 1-3 - the effects of combustion on ash and deposits from low rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledger, R.C.; Ottrey, A.L.; Mackay, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    Thermomechanical analyses (TMA) of ashes derived from combustion of fourteen coal samples from Victorian and South Australian coalfields are presented in the results volumes of this report (Volume 2-4). This appendix describes the analytical equipment used, the modifications that were incorporated and the technique developed for analysis and interpretation of the data. To aid identification, limited numbers of analyses were performed on reference materials, the results of which are presented in this appendix. Analyses were performed on a modified Stanton Redcroft 790 series thermomechanical analyser. The aim was to identify components in the ashes and to gain an understanding of the sintering and fusion behaviour of the ashes up to temperatures encountered in large scale boilers. As part of the main project, ashes were also submitted to simultaneous Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG). For each coal burnt in this investigation the Test Bank 1 and precipitator ashes produced at a flame temperature of 1200/sup o/C and 3% excess oxygen were examined by TMA, as were ashes from tests at other flame temperatures and at 3% excess oxygen for four of the coals. This was to investigate the effects of variation in combustion conditions on ash properties. The results are presented in Volume 2-4 of this report as tables, giving details of events and assignments and as a formalised TMA pattern for each ash tested.

  13. Properties of Controlled Low Strength Material with Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Ash and Recycled Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tsai-Lung; Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Hsu, Hui-Mi

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of adding circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) ash, desulfurization slag, air-cooled blast-furnace slag and coal bottom ash to the controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Test methods include slump flow test, ball drop test, water soluble chloride ion content measurement, compressive strength and length change measurement. The results show that (1) the use of CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag of slump flow is the best, and the use of CFBC hydration ash with coal bottom ash and slump flow is the worst; (2) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and chloride ion content is the highest; (3) 24 h ball drop test (diameter ≤ 76 mm), and test results are 70 mm to 76 mm; (4) CFBC hydration ash with desulfurization slag and compression strength is the highest, with the coal bottom ash being the lowest; increase of CFBC hydration ash can reduce compressive strength; and (5) the water-quenched blast furnace slag and CFBC hydration ash would expand, which results in length changes of CLSM specimens. PMID:29724055

  14. Dynamic evaluation of municipal solid waste ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, T.L.; Gardner, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) produces ashes which are concentrated in many inorganic species. The release of toxic elements from the ash to the aqueous environment is of concern as present methods of ash disposal consist primarily of landfilling. It was the goal of this paper to achieve an understanding of the mechanisms by which elements are transported from the solid ash phase to the aqueous phase. Twelve ash samples were collected from six different incinerators with varying designs and capacities. The leaching experiments were conducted using small (mini) dynamic columns to investigate the variation of leachate chemical characteristics with time. In analyzing the data, a multicomponent chemical equilibrium model was used to determine chemical speciation and component activities. Auxiliary experiments included an array of physical measurements, and aqueous batch leach tests

  15. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  16. Particle size distribution of fly ash from co-incineration of bituminous coal with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, Ewelina; Konieczny, Tomasz; Bobik, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    One of the source of air pollutants is emission from local coal-fired boiler-houses and domestic heating boilers. The consequence of incineration of municipal waste is the introduction of additional pollutants into the atmosphere, including fly ash. The aim of this work was to evaluate the particle size distribution of fly ash emitted by coal combustion and co-incineration of coal with municipal waste in a domestic 18 kW central heating boiler equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. Mixtures of bituminous coal with different types of solid waste (5, 10 and 15% of mass fraction) were used. Solid waste types consisted of: printed, colored PE caps, fragmented cable trunking, fragmented car gaskets and shredded tires from trucks. During the incineration of a given mixture of municipal waste with bituminous coal, the velocity of exhaust gas was specified, the concentration and mass flow of fly ash were determined together with the physico-chemical parameters of the exhaust gas, the samples of emitted fly ash were taken as the test material. Particle size analysis of fly ash was performed using laser particle sizer Fritch Analysette 22. The PM10 share from all fly ashes from incineration of mixtures was about 100%. Differences were noted between PM2.5 and PM1.

  17. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of fly ashes from Swiss waste incineration plants and determination of the ash fraction in the nanometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buha, Jelena; Mueller, Nicole; Nowack, Bernd; Ulrich, Andrea; Losert, Sabrina; Wang, Jing

    2014-05-06

    Waste incineration had been identified as an important source of ultrafine air pollutants resulting in elaborated treatment systems for exhaust air. Nowadays, these systems are able to remove almost all ultrafine particles. However, the fate of ultrafine particles caught in the filters has received little attention so far. Based on the use of engineered nano-objects (ENO) and their transfer into the waste stream, it can be expected that not only combustion generated nanoparticles are found in fly ashes but that many ENO finally end up in this matrix. A more detailed characterization of the nanoparticulate fraction of fly ashes is therefore needed. Physical and chemical characterizations were performed for fly ashes from five selected waste incineration plants (WIPs) with different input materials such as municipal waste, wood and sewage sludge. The intrinsic densities of the fly ashes were in the range of 2.7-3.2 g/cm(3). When the fly ash particle became airborne, the effective density depended on the particle size, increasing from 0.7-0.8 g/cm(3) for 100-150 nm to 2 g/cm(3) for 350-500 nm. The fly ash samples were fractionated at 2 μm, yielding fine fractions (2 μm). The size distributions of the fine fractions in the airborne form were further characterized, which allowed calculation of the percentage of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. We found the highest mass-based percentage was about 0.07%; the number percentage in the fine fraction was in the range of 4.8% to 22%. Comparison with modeling results showed that ENO may constitute a considerable part of the fly ash particles below 100 nm. Chemical analyses showed that for the municipal waste samples Ca and Al were present in higher concentrations in the coarse fraction; for the mixed wood and sludge sample the P concentration was higher in the coarse fraction; for most other samples and elements they were enriched in the fine fraction. Electron microscopic images of fly ashes showed a wide range of

  19. Pretreatment and utilization of waste incineration bottom ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers and authorities have had increasing focus on leaching properties from waste incineration bottom ashes. Researchers have investigated processes such as those related to carbonation, weathering, metal complexation, and leaching control. Most of these investigations......, however, have had a strong emphasis on lab experiments with little focus on full scale bottom ash upgrading methods. The introduction of regulatory limit values restricting leaching from utilized bottom ashes, has created a need for a better understanding of how lab scale experiences can be utilized...

  20. Faecal-wood biomass co-combustion and ash composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Tosin Onabanjo; Kolios, Athanasios J; Parker, Alison; McAdam, Ewan; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Fuel blending is a widely used approach in biomass combustion, particularly for feedstocks with low calorific value and high moisture content. In on-site sanitation technologies, fuel blending is proposed as a pre-treatment requirement to reduce moisture levels and improve the physiochemical properties of raw faeces prior to drying. This study investigates the co-combustion performance of wood dust: raw human faeces blends at varying air-to-fuel ratios in a bench-scale combustor test rig. It concludes with ash composition analyses and discusses their potential application and related problems. The study shows that a 50:50 wood dust (WD): raw human faeces (FC) can reduce moisture levels in raw human faeces by ∼40% prior to drying. The minimum acceptable blend for treating moist faeces without prior drying at a combustion air flow rate of 14-18 L/min is 30:70 WD: FC. For self-sustained ignition and flame propagation, the minimum combustion temperature required for conversion of the fuel to ash is ∼400 °C. The most abundant elements in faecal ash are potassium and calcium, while elements such as nickel, aluminium and iron are in trace quantities. This suggests the potential use of faecal ash as a soil conditioner, but increases the tendency for fly ash formation and sintering problems.

  1. Trends in the Rare Earth Element Content of U.S.-Based Coal Combustion Fly Ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Ross K; Hower, James C; Dwyer, Gary S; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2016-06-07

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical and strategic materials in the defense, energy, electronics, and automotive industries. The reclamation of REEs from coal combustion fly ash has been proposed as a way to supplement REE mining. However, the typical REE contents in coal fly ash, particularly in the United States, have not been comprehensively documented or compared among the major types of coal feedstocks that determine fly ash composition. The objective of this study was to characterize a broad selection of U.S. fly ashes of varied geological origin in order to rank their potential for REE recovery. The total and nitric acid-extractable REE content for more than 100 ash samples were correlated with characteristics such as the major element content and coal basin to elucidate trends in REE enrichment. Average total REE content (defined as the sum of the lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium) for ashes derived from Appalachian sources was 591 mg kg(-1) and significantly greater than in ashes from Illinois and Powder River basin coals (403 and 337 mg kg(-1), respectively). The fraction of critical REEs (Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Y, and Er) in the fly ashes was 34-38% of the total and considerably higher than in conventional ores (typically less than 15%). Powder River Basin ashes had the highest extractable REE content, with 70% of the total REE recovered by heated nitric acid digestion. This is likely due to the higher calcium content of Powder River Basin ashes, which enhances their solubility in nitric acid. Sc, Nd, and Dy were the major contributors to the total REE value in fly ash, based on their contents and recent market prices. Overall, this study shows that coal fly ash production could provide a substantial domestic supply of REEs, but the feasibility of recovery depends on the development of extraction technologies that could be tailored to the major mineral content and origins of the feed coal for the ash.

  2. Hydrothermal processing of transuranic contaminated combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, S.J.; Worl, L.; Harradine, D.; Padilla, D.; McInroy, R.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated the usefulness of hydrothermal processing for the disposal of a wide variety of transuranic contaminated combustible wastes. This paper provides an overview of the implementation and performance of hydrothermal treatment for concentrated salt solutions, explosives, propellants, organic solvents, halogenated solvents, and laboratory trash, such as paper and plastics. Reaction conditions vary from near ambient temperatures and pressure to over 1000degC and 100 MPa pressure. Studies involving both radioactive and non-radioactive waste simulants are discussed. (author)

  3. Volume reduction of waste contaminated by fission product elements and plutonium using molten salt combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, D.E.; Grantham, L.F.; Paulson, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    In the Molten Salt Combustion Process, transuranic or β-γ organic waste and air are continuously introduced beneath the surface of a sodium carbonate-containing melt at a temperature of about 800 0 C. Complete combustion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and steam occurs without the conversion of nitrogen to nitrogen oxides. The noxious gases formed by combustion of the chloride, sulfur or phosphorus content of the waste instantly react with the melt to form the corresponding sodium compounds. These compounds as well as the ash and radionuclides are retained in the molten salt. The spent salt is either fused cast into an engineered disposal container or processed to recover salt and plutonium. Molten salt combustion reduces the waste to about 2% of its original volume. Many reactor or reprocessing wastes which cannot be incinerated without difficulty are readily combusted in the molten salt. A 50 kg/hr molten salt combustion system is being designed for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Construction of the combustor started during 1977, and combustor startup was scheduled for the spring of 1978

  4. Combustion chamber for solid and liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vcelak, L.; Kocica, J.; Trnobransky, K.; Hrubes, J. (VSCHT, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Describes combustion chamber incorporated in a new boiler manufactured by Elitex of Kdyne to burn waste products and occasionally liquid and solid waste from neighboring industries. It can handle all kinds of solids (paper, plastics, textiles, rubber, household waste) and liquids (volatile and non-volatile, zinc, chromium, etc.) and uses coal as a fuel additive. Its heat output is 3 MW, it can burn 1220 kg/h of coal (without waste, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 500 kg/h of coal (as fuel additive, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 285 kg/h of solid waste (calorific value 20.8 MJ/kg). Efficiency is 75%, capacity is 103 m{sup 3} and flame temperature is 1,310 C. Individual components are designed for manufacture in small engineering workshops with basic equipment. A disk absorber with alkaline filling is fitted for removal of harmful substances arising when PVC or tires are combusted.

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of fly ash from co-combustion of wood and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wan; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal content in fly ash from biomass combustion, such as straw, wood and sludge, often needs reducing before the ash can be used as fertilizer for agricultural land or as a component in the production of construction materials. In this study, fly ash from a boiler fueled with wood chips...... and straw was treated either by electrodialytic remediation (EDR) directly or by a combination of EDR and pre-wash with distilled water to investigate the possibilities of reducing the heavy metal content and reusing nutrients as fertilizer and bulk material in construction materials. Different experimental....../pre-wash-EDR treated ash mainly contained quartz, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of K salts had disappeared. This shows that the potassium fertilizer potential was lost in the treated ashes, but the quartz mineral is beneficial in construction materials, such as ceramics. The K fertilizer could be recovered...

  6. Conditioning of alpha and beta-gamma ashes of incinerator, obtained by radioactive wastes incinerating and encapsulation in several matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, C.J.; Chenavas, P.R.; Auffret, L.

    1993-01-01

    In this final report, the work carried out, and the results, obtained on the ash incinerator conditioning study, by means of encapsulation in several matrices, are presented. Three encapsulation matrices were checked: - a ternary cement, containing OPC, blast furnace slag and flying ash, - a two component epoxide system, - an epoxide-cement compound matrix. Three ash categories were employed: - real alpha ash, coming from plutonium bearing wastes, - ash, from inactive combustible waste, obtained by treatment in an incinerator prototype, - ash coming from inactive waste incineration plant. Using three different matrices, the encapsulated form properties were determined: at the laboratory scale, the encapsulating formulation was established, and physico mechanical data were obtained, - on active encapsulated forms, containing a calculated amount of 238 Pu, a radiolysis study was performed in order to measure the composition and volume of the radiolytic gas flow, - at the industrial scale, a pilot plant operating the polyvalent encapsulating process, was designed and put into service. Bench-scale experiments were done, on alpha ash embedded forms using the modified sulphur cement matrix as embedding agent. 4 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs

  7. Long-term leaching of nutrients and contaminants from wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Hyks, J.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long-term lea......With increasing amounts of woody biomass being combusted for energy purposes worldwide, more wood ash is being generated and needs management. As an alternative to landfilling, residues may be utilised for liming and fertilising purposes on forest soils. Comprehensive evaluations of long......-term leaching from these residues are needed in order to assess potential environmental impacts associated with their utilisation. Two Danish wood ash samples, one fly ash and one mixed ash (a combination of fly ash and bottom ash), were evaluated in long-term percolation column tests (up to L/S ∼2000 L....../kg), in order to quantify the release of major, minor and trace metal(loid)s. While columns of three different lengths were used, the leaching of individual elements could be described as a function of the L/S ratio – irrespective of the column length. At L/S 1000 L/kg, the cumulative releases of K, S, Na, Ca...

  8. Characterization and electrodialytic treatment of wood combustion fly ash for the removal of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Due to a high content of macronutrients and a potential liming capacity, recycling of ashes from biomass combustion to agricultural fields as fertilisers and/or for soil improvement is considered in Denmark and other countries utilising biomass as an energy source. However, the fly ash fractions especially contain amounts of the toxic heavy metal cadmium that may exceed the limiting values for agricultural utilisation given by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. In this work the advances of using an electrodialytic remediation method to reduce the Cd content in wood combustion fly ash--for the aim of recycling--was described. Initial characterisation of the experimental ash showed that the Cd content exceeded the limiting values for agricultural use and therefore needed treatment before being recycled. The pH in the ash was very high (13.3), and the Cd was not soluble at these alkaline conditions. However, significant amounts of Cd could be extracted at neutral to alkaline conditions using an ammonium citrate solution as a desorption agent. Electrodialytic remediation experiments showed that, under optimised remediation conditions using a mixture of ammonium citrate (0.25 M) and NH 3 (1.25%) as an assisting agent, more than 70% of the initial Cd could be removed from the wood fly ash. The results also indicated that a continuous out-separation of Cd from the aqueous process solutions is possible. Thereby, recycling of the (nutrient rich) process solutions as well as of the remediated ash seems achievable

  9. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  10. Formation and degradation of PCDD/F in waste incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lisa

    2007-11-01

    The disposal of combustible wastes by incineration is a controversial issue that is strongly debated by both scientists and environmental activists due to the resulting emissions of noxious compounds, including (inter alia) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), heavy metals and acid gases like sulfur dioxide. Currently available air pollution control devices are capable of effectively cleaning flue gases, and PCDD/F emissions to air from modern municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are low. However, the PCDD and PCDF end up in ash fractions that, in Sweden, are usually deposited in landfills. The European Union has recently set a maximum permitted total concentration of 15 μg TEQ/kg for PCDD/F species in waste. Fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration containing PCDD/Fs at concentrations above this limit will have to be remediated to avoid disposing of them in landfills; an expensive and environmentally unfriendly option. Therefore, effective, reliable and cost-effective methods for degrading PCDD/F in fly ash are required, and a better understanding of the behavior of PCDDs and PCDFs during thermal treatment will be needed to develop them. In the studies this thesis is based upon both the formation and degradation of PCDDs and PCDFs in ashes from MSW incineration were studied. The main findings of the investigations regarding PCCD/F formation were: The concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in fly ash increased with reductions in the temperature in the post-combustion zone. The homologue profile in the ash changed when the temperature in the post-combustion zone changed. The final amounts of PCDD and PCDF present were affected by their rates of both formation and degradation, and the mechanisms involved differ between PCDDs and PCDFs. The main findings from the degradation studies were: The chemical composition of ash has a major impact on the degradation potential of PCDD and PCDF. The presence of oxygen during thermal

  11. Combustion of Biosolids in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Part 1: Main Ash-Forming Elements and Ash Distribution with a Focus on Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Nils; Grimm, Alejandro; Ohman, Marcus; Boström, Dan

    2014-02-20

    This is the first in a series of three papers describing combustion of biosolids in a 5-kW bubbling fluidized bed, the ash chemistry, and possible application of the ash produced as a fertilizing agent. This part of the study aims to clarify whether the distribution of main ash forming elements from biosolids can be changed by modifying the fuel matrix, the crystalline compounds of which can be identified in the raw materials and what role the total composition may play for which compounds are formed during combustion. The biosolids were subjected to low-temperature ashing to investigate which crystalline compounds that were present in the raw materials. Combustion experiments of two different types of biosolids were conducted in a 5-kW benchscale bubbling fluidized bed at two different bed temperatures and with two different additives. The additives were chosen to investigate whether the addition of alkali (K 2 CO 3 ) and alkaline-earth metal (CaCO 3 ) would affect the speciation of phosphorus, so the molar ratios targeted in modified fuels were P:K = 1:1 and P:K:Ca = 1:1:1, respectively. After combustion the ash fractions were collected, the ash distribution was determined and the ash fractions were analyzed with regards to elemental composition (ICP-AES and SEM-EDS) and part of the bed ash was also analyzed qualitatively using XRD. There was no evidence of zeolites in the unmodified fuels, based on low-temperature ashing. During combustion, the biosolid pellets formed large bed ash particles, ash pellets, which contained most of the total ash content (54%-95% (w/w)). This ash fraction contained most of the phosphorus found in the ash and the only phosphate that was identified was a whitlockite, Ca 9 (K,Mg,Fe)(PO 4 ) 7 , for all fuels and fuel mixtures. With the addition of potassium, cristobalite (SiO 2 ) could no longer be identified via X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the bed ash particles and leucite (KAlSi 2 O 6 ) was formed. Most of the alkaline-earth metals

  12. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  13. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha"−"1 application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha"−"1 straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil.

  14. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoxi, E-mail: Xiaoxi.Li@agro.au.dk; Rubæk, Gitte H.; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-07-01

    For biomass combustion to become a sustainable energy production system, it is crucial to minimise landfill of biomass ashes, to recycle the nutrients and to minimise the undesirable impact of hazardous substances in the ash. In order to test the plant availability of phosphorus (P) and cadmium (Cd) in four biomass ashes, we conducted two pot experiments on a P-depleted soil and one mini-plot field experiment on a soil with adequate P status. Test plants were spring barley and Italian ryegrass. Ash applications were compared to triple superphosphate (TSP) and a control without P application. Both TSP and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha{sup −1} application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha{sup −1} straw ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash-amended soil after harvest indicate that the ash may also contribute to P availability for the following crops. In conclusion, the biomass ashes in this study had P availability similar to the TSP fertiliser and did not contaminate the crop with Cd during the first year. - Highlights: • Effects of four biomass ashes vs. a P fertiliser (TSP) on two crops were studied. • Ashes increased crop yields with P availability similar to TSP on P-depleted soil

  15. Recovery of plutonium from the combustion residues of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.; Wieczorek, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental researches on plutonium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid in inactive and alpha-bearing wastes are presented in this report. After a review of the literature published on dissolution methods of PuO 2 combustion residues. Then results obtained in the ALONA plant on the dissolution of plutonium containing ashes in sulfuric acid and nitric acid are presented. Plutonium purification is studied. At last a simplified scheme of processing based on results obtained

  16. Combustion of Waste Wood. Second phase of the collaboration project on waste wood combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Annika; Andersson, Christer; Eriksson, Jan; Hemstroem, Bengt; Jungstedt, Jenny; Kling, Aasa; Bahr, Bo von; Ekvall, Annika; Eskilsson, David; Tullin, Claes; Harnevie, Henrik; Sieurin, Jan; Keihaes, Juha; Mueller, Christian; Berg, Magnus; Wikman, Karin

    2003-08-01

    Combustion of waste wood has during the last decade increased dramatically and this has resulted in a number of Swedish plants using this fuel, e.g. Handeloe P11 (Norrkoeping) and ldbaecken P3 (Nykoeping), and yet other plants that are under construction (e.g. Nynaeshamn). The experience from these plants are that waste wood combustion results in a number of operational problems. To some extent these problems are different compared with the problems related to combustion of other biofuels but the situation is not directly comparable to waste incinerators. The problems are mainly related to slagging and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces and accelerated corrosion at relatively low temperature compared to the situation for ordinary biofuels. In some cases an increase in the emissions of specific substances can also result in difficulties to fulfil the EC-directive on waste combustion. Within previous projects the main problems related to combustion of waste wood have been identified and to some extent the cause of these problems has been clarified. One result of this reported investigation is a deeper understanding of the actual causes of these problems. However, the most important result is a number of recommendations for different measures on how to achieve disturbance-free combustion of waste wood. These recommendations actually summarises the most important possible solutions on how to achieve a disturbance-free operation and a lower maintenance cost for boilers combusting waste wood and can thereby be regarded as a short summery of the whole project: 1) Improving fuel quality by Improved sorting at the source and Sieving of the fuel -> Reducing the amount of metals and chlorine and Separation of fines and thereby reducing the amount of metals. 2) Combustion modifications by Avoiding reducing conditions at the heat exchanger surfaces -> Minimising slagging, fouling and corrosion. 3) Additives or co-combustion by Addition of sulphur with the fuel; Injection of

  17. Fixed-bed studies of the interactions between mercury and coal combustion fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Grant E.; DeWall, Raymond A. [Energy and Environmental Research Center, 15 North 23rd Street, Grand Forks, ND 58203 (United States); Senior, Constance L. [Reaction Engineering International, 77 West 200 South, Suite 210, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States)

    2003-08-15

    Sixteen different fly ash samples, generated from both pilot-scale and full-scale combustion systems, were exposed to a simulated flue gas containing either elemental mercury or HgCl{sub 2} in a bench-scale reactor system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center to evaluate the interactions and determine the effects of temperature, mercury species, and ash type on adsorption of mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury. The fly ash samples were characterized for surface area, loss on ignition, and forms of iron in the ash. While many of the ash samples oxidized elemental mercury, not all of the samples that oxidized mercury also captured elemental mercury. However, no capture of elemental mercury was observed without accompanying oxidation. Generally, oxidation of elemental mercury increased with increasing amount of magnetite in the ash. However, one high-carbon subbituminous ash with no magnetite showed considerable mercury oxidation that may have been due to unburned carbon. Surface area as well as the nature of the surface appeared to be important for oxidation and adsorption of elemental mercury. The capacity of the ash samples for HgCl{sub 2} was similar to that for elemental mercury. There was a good correlation between the capacity for HgCl{sub 2} and the surface area; capacity decreased with increasing temperature.

  18. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Andersen, Myrrha E.

    2016-10-19

    Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10. W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28, 32, and 36%). Experiments were designed to produce flames with practically relevant stoichiometric ratios (SR. =1.2-1.4) and constant residence times (2.3. s). Size-classified fly ash samples were collected, and measurements focused on the soot, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) composition of the total and ultrafine (<0.6. μm) fly ash. Results indicate that although the total fly ash carbon, as measured by loss on ignition, was always acceptably low (<2%) with all three oxy-combustion conditions lower than air-combustion, the ultrafine fly ash for both air-fired and oxy-fired combustion conditions consists primarily of carbonaceous material (50-95%). Carbonaceous components on particles <0.6. μm measured by a thermal optical method showed that large fractions (52-93%) consisted of OC rather than EC, as expected. This observation was supported by thermogravimetric analysis indicating that for the air, 28% oxy, and 32% oxy conditions, 14-71% of this material may be OC volatilizing between 100. C and 550. C with the remaining 29-86% being EC/soot. However, for the 36% oxy condition, OC may comprise over 90% of the ultrafine carbon with a much smaller EC/soot contribution. These data were interpreted by considering the effects of oxy-combustion on flame attachment, ignition delay, and soot oxidation of a bituminous coal, and the effects of these processes on OC and EC emissions. Flame aerodynamics and inlet oxidant composition may influence emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from a bituminous coal. During oxy-coal combustion, judicious control of inlet oxygen concentration and placement may be used to minimize organic HAP and soot emissions.

  19. Major and trace elements in coal bottom ash at different oxy coal combustion conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of temperature on the concentration of 27 major and trace elements in bottom ash generated from oxy fuel-combustion. The major elements are Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca and Fe and the minor and trace elements...

  20. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of waste fly ash and construction-waste in cement filling material in goaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. X.; Xiao, F. K.; Guan, X. H.; Cheng, Y.; Shi, X. P.; Liu, S. M.; Wang, W. W.

    2018-01-01

    As the process of urbanization accelerated, resulting in a large number of abandoned fly ash and construction waste, which have occupied the farmland and polluted the environment. In this paper, a large number of construction waste and abandoned fly ash are mixed into the filling material in goaf, the best formula of the filling material which containing a large amount of abandoned fly ash and construction waste is obtained, and the performance of the filling material is analyzed. The experimental results show that the cost of filling material is very low while the performance is very good, which have a good prospect in goaf.

  2. Chloride leaching from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alam, Q.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Vlastimil, Bilek; Kersner, Zbynek; Simonova, Hana

    2017-01-01

    The presence of chlorides in the Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom ashes (BA) hinders their potential for recycling in building materials. The contaminant content in the incineration residues is strictly regulated by the Dutch legislation Soil Quality Decree (2013). The fine fraction

  3. Ash liberation from included minerals during combustion of pulverized coal: the relationship with char structure and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Wall, T.; Liu, G.; Bryant, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilization and Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    In this study, the float fraction ({lt} specific gravity of 2.0) of a size cut (63-90 {mu}m) bituminous coal was combusted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at a gas temperature of 1300{degree}C under an atmosphere of air, to investigate the ash liberation at five coal burnoff levels (35.5%, 54.3%, 70.1%, 87.1% and 95.6%). The data indicated that char structure determines the ash liberation at different burnoff levels. Fragmentation of porous char was found to be the determinative mechanism for formation of fine ash during the early and middle stages of char combustion, while coalescence of included mineral matter determines the coarse ash formed in the later stages of combustion. The investigation confirmed that the char morphology and structure play a key role in determining char fragmentation, char burnout history, and the ash liberation during combustion. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Electron microscopy and phase analysis of fly ash from pressurized fluidized bed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maenami, Hiroki; Isu, Norifumi; Ishida, Emile H.; Mitsuda, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The characterization of the typical fly ashes from pressurized fluidized bed combustion system (PFBC) in Japan and Europe was carried out by electron microscopy and phase analysis using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The purity of limestone as in-bed sulfur removal sorbent influences the desulfurization reaction. The high-purity limestone yielded both hydroxyl ellestadite and anhydrite in Japanese PFBC ashes, while dolomite-rich limestone yielded anhydrite in European PFBC ashes. When the high-purity limestone was used, hydroxyl ellestadite particles were observed as the independent particles or the rim around limestone particles. The Al 2 O 3 content in the glassy phase was inversely proportional to the CaO content in the glassy phase, suggesting that the glassy phases were formed from metakaoline and calcite as end members. Since hydroxyl ellestadite, glassy phase and metakaoline are reactive under hydrothermal conditions, PFBC ashes are expected to be used as raw materials for autoclaved products

  5. State of art in incineration technology of radioactive combustible solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1984-01-01

    The features of incineration treatment as the method of treating radioactive wastes are the effect of volume reduction and inorganic stabilization (change to ash). The process of incineration treatment is roughly divided into dry process and wet process. But that in practical use is dry incineration by excess air combustion or suppressed combustion. The important things in incineration techniques are the techniques of exhaust gas treatment as well as combustion techniques. In Europe and USA, incineration has been practiced in laboratories and reprocessing plants for low level combustible solids, but the example of application in nuclear power stations is few. In Japan, though the fundamental techniques are based on the introduction from Europe, the incineration treatment of combustible solids has been carried out in laboratories, reprocessing plants, nuclear fuel production facilities and also nuclear power stations. The techniques of solidifying ash by incineration and the techniques of incinerating spent ion exchange resin are actively developed, and the development of the treatment of radioactive wastes in the lump including incineration also is in progress. (Kako, I.)

  6. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental research concerning waste co-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionel, I.

    2007-07-01

    The paper focuses on a lab facility designed for the co-combustion of low calorific Lignite with waste. Also a technology for the potential removal of principal pollutants such as NO{sub x}, Hg and SO{sub 2}, including particles in the fuel gases is described. The novelty of the paper consists in the lay out of the experimental rigs, as well as the application of renewable energy resource in order to generate energy, with lower CO{sub 2} emission. (orig.)

  8. Quick monitoring of pozzolanic reactivity of waste ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthaworn, Suppachai; Nimityongskul, Pichai

    2009-05-01

    This article proposes a quick method of monitoring for pozzolanic reactivity of waste ashes by investigating the electrical conductivity of the suspension at an elevated temperature. This suspension is obtained by mixing tested pozzolan with an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) solution produced by mixing ordinary Portland cement with water. For comparison, silica fume, metakaolin, rice husk ash and river sand - whose pozzolanic reactivities range from reactive to inert - were used in the experimental investigation. The electrical conductivity of the suspension was continually recorded by using an electrical conductivity meter and stored by using a personal computer for a period of slightly over 1day. The indicative parameters that can be related to pozzolanic reactivity were discussed and analyzed in detail. It was found that it is possible to determine the pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash within 28h by using the proposed technique, as compared to 7 or 28 days for the determination of strength activity index according to ASTM. This technique would help concrete technologists to speedily investigate the quality of fly ash for use as a cement replacement in order to alleviate pollution caused by cement production and solve disposal problems of waste ashes.

  9. ECOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGYCAL ASPECTS OF ASH AND SLAG WASTES UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigation focused on the utilization of ash and slag wastes (ASW in Russia including investigation of chemical and physical properties of ASW and processing products. Many factors influence the technological properties of ash and slag materials: naturals, processes and environments. The integrated treatment of ash and slag wastes of both stored and re-formed types will allow obtaining the following commercial products: coal concentrate, iron concentrate, aluminosilicate cenospheres, aluminosilicate product. In this study we have analyzed the methods for separation of ASW iron-containing part using the different types of the magnetic separation from the ash and slag material from one of the combined heat and power plant (CHPP in the Russian Far East Federal District. The greatest interest is the dry magnetic separation with travelling electromagnetic field. The subject of research was a sample taken from one of ash dump of CHPP in the Far East. In the study iron concentrate containing Fetotal = 64% was obtained recovery 68% in the low intensity (up to 5 kOe travelling magnetic field.

  10. Mercury removal from coal combustion flue gas by fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Junyan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Graduate Univ.; Xu, Wenqing; Zhu, Tingyu; Jing, Pengfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Process Pollution Control

    2013-07-01

    The effect of physicochemical properties on the mercury adsorption performance of three fly ash samples has been investigated. The samples were tested for mercury adsorption using a fixed-bed with a simulated gas. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and other methods were used to characterize the samples. The results indicate that mercury adsorption on fly ash is mainly physisorption and chemisorption. Uncompleted burned carbon is an important factor for the improvement of mercury removal efficiency, especially, the C-M bond may improve the oxidation of mercury, which formed via the reaction of C and Ti, Si and other elements. The higher specific surface areas and smaller pore diameter are all beneficial for the high mercury removal efficiency. The presence of O{sub 2} plays a positive role on Hg adsorption of modified fly ash, while SO{sub 2} has double role of inhibition because of competitive adsorption and promotion to chemisorption. In addition, sample modified with FeCl{sub 3} has a great performance in Hg removal.

  11. High temperature co-treatment of bottom ash and stabilized fly ashes from waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Abildgaard; Mogensen, E.P.B.; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2001-01-01

    Bottom ashes from two Danish municipal solid waste incineration plants were heated at 900 degreesC with iron oxide stabilized air pollution control residues at actual mass flow ratios (9:1), simulating a treating method for the residues. The two residues were cotreated, producing one combined...... ashes. The process, thus, fixates the metals in the solid residues without altering the leaching properties of the bottom ash too significantly. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... stream that may be utilized as a secondary road construction material. Scanning electron microscope analysis and grain size distribution analysis indicated that sintering of the particles did not occur. Batch leaching tests at liquid/solid 10 I/kg at a range of pH-values (6-10) quantified with respect...

  12. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with ...

  13. Speciation of Chromium in Bottom Ash Obtained by the Incineration of the Leather Waste Shavings

    OpenAIRE

    k. louhab; H. Assas

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of bottom ash morphology and chromium metals behavior during incineration of a leather waste shavings at different incineration temperature have been studied. The Cr, Ca, Mg, Cl rates in bottom ashes, flay ashes and emitted gases in different incineration temperature of the tannery wastes are also determined. The morphology of the bottom ashes obtained by incineration at different temperature from the leather waste shavings was examined by MEB. The result sho...

  14. Management methods ash from combustion of biomass. Review of productions and associated methods. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulday, D.; Marcovecchio, F.

    2016-02-01

    The study deals with the management of biomass ashes from industrial and collective facilities (wood log excluded) and provides a state of the art, in France and in Europe, flows, methods of recovery and post-treatment, physico-chemical characteristics and programs for new opportunities. Currently, flows of biomass ash are estimated at 110 kt-330 kt in France and 1 500 kt - 4 500 kt in Europe and should amount respectively 330 kt-1000 kt and 3100 kt-8000 kt in 2020. The physical and chemical composition of biomass ash is influenced by many factors: fuel, pretreatment, post-treatment, additives, fly and bottom ash, power installation, type of combustion equipment, extraction mode...However, these ashes have characteristics which are commonly accepted: liming / neutralizing power, fertilizer, pozzolanic behavior generally almost zero. In France and Europe, a distinction is made between fly and bottom ashes, usually less polluted. However, this separation does not always make sense according to the valuation mode, the type of equipment (including fluidized bed or grid) or mixtures of ash made in the plant (e.g. mix of bottom and coarse ash). Currently, the main outlet is ash landfill, followed by agricultural and forestry recycling. The other identified opportunities concern a few countries and marginal flows: brick-works, road engineering... The development of biomass energy, coupled with a reduction in landfill options, has given rise to many research and demonstration programs in recent years, particularly in France, with some promising solutions. Many limiting factors, which can be different according to opportunities, have been identified. More or less advanced solutions aimed at reducing the harmful effects of these factors (slaking lime, sorting, grinding...).However to date, the most robust and massive solution for ash recycling material remains undoubtedly the agricultural recycling. According to the study, it's necessary to consolidate the agricultural

  15. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, N; Barbosa, R; Lopes, M H; Mendes, B; Abelha, P; Boavida, D; Gulyurtlu, I; Oliveira, J Santos

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub-products of such type

  16. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, N. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)]. E-mail: ncsn@fct.unl.pt; Barbosa, R. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Lopes, M.H. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Mendes, B. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Abelha, P. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Gulyurtlu, I. [National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI), Department of Energetic Engineering and Environmental Control (DEECA). Edificio J, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos Oliveira, J. [Environmental Biotechnology Researching Unit (UBiA), Faculty of Science and Technology (FCT), New University of Lisbon - UNL, Ed. Departamental, piso 3, gabinete 377, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2007-08-17

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  17. Chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of ashes obtained from sewage sludge combustion in a fluidised-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, N.; Barbosa, R.; Lopes, M.H.; Mendes, B.; Abelha, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Santos Oliveira, J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the DEECA/INETI and the UBiA/FCT/UNL started a researching project on the partition of heavy metals during the combustion of stabilised sewage sludge (Biogran[reg]), in a fluidised-bed reactor, and on the quality of the bottom ashes and fly ashes produced. This project was entitled Bimetal and was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. In this paper only the results on the combustion of Biogran[reg]) are reported. The combustion process was performed in two different trials, in which different amounts of sewage sludge and time of combustion were applied. Several ash samples were collected from the bed (bottom ashes) and from two cyclones (first cyclone and second cyclone ashes). Sewage sludge, bed material (sand) and ash samples were submitted to the leaching process defined in the European leaching standard EN 12457-2. The eluates were characterized for a set of inorganic chemical species. The ecotoxicological levels of the eluates were determined for two biological indicators (Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna). The results were compared with the limit values of the CEMWE French Regulation. The samples were also ranked according to an index based on the chemical characterization of the eluates. It was observed an increase of the concentration of metals along the combustion system. The ashes trapped in the second cyclone, for both combustion trials, showed the highest concentration of metals in the eluates. Chemically, the ashes of the second cyclone were the most different ones. In the ecotoxicological point of view, the ecotoxicity levels of the eluates of the ashes, for both combustion cycles, did not follow the same pattern as observed for the chemical characterization. The ashes of the first cyclone showed the highest ecotoxicity levels for V. fischeri and D. magna. This difference on chemical and ecotoxicological results proves the need for performing both chemical and ecotoxicological characterizations of the sub

  18. Effect of coal blending on the leaching characteristics of arsenic and selenium in fly ash from fluidized bed coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, F.; Yamada, N.; Sato, A.; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko [Chubu Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Zhang, L. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capture ability of fly ash to arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) was investigated through the combustion of two single bituminous coals A and B and their mixture (blending ratio of 1:1, wt/wt) in a lab-scale fluidized bed reactor. The leaching characteristics of As and Se in corresponding fly ash were also conducted according to Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Speciation of As and Se during fly ash leaching test were predicted from the perspective of thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicate that, combustion of coal B, containing abundant calcium, possesses a higher capture ability of As and Se than that of coal A through possible chemical reaction between As/Se with CaO. Leaching behavior of As and Se from fly ash is strongly dependent on the pH of the leachate. Free calcium in fly ash generates an alkaline leachate during leaching test and subsequently reduces As and Se leaching, which cause the leaching ratio of As and Se in fly ash derived from the combustion of coal B was much lower, relative to that in coal A. Combustion of blending coal promotes the overall capture ability of the fly ash to As/Se and reduces their leaching from fly ash through the synergy of free CaO between this two kind of fly ash.

  19. The Evaluation of Solid Wastes Reduction with Combustion System in the Combustion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Sukosrono

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of solid wastes reduction with combustion system is used for weight reduction factor. The evaluation was done design system of combustion chamber furnace and the experiment was done by burning a certain weight of paper, cloth, plastic and rubber in the combustion chamber. The evaluation of paper wastes, the ratio of wastes (paper, cloth, plastic and rubber) against the factor of weight reduction (%) were investigated. The condition was dimension of combustion chamber furnace = 0.6 X 0.9 X 1.20 X 1 m with combustion chamber and gas chamber and reached at the wastes = 2.500 gram, oxygen pressure 0.5 Bar, wastes ratio : paper : cloth : plastic : rubber = 55 : 10 : 30 : 5, the reduction factor = 6.36 %. (author)

  20. Geochemical characterization of arsenic-rich coal-combustion ashes buried under agricultural soils and the release of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselská, Veronika; Majzlan, Juraj; Hiller, Edgar; Peťková, Katarína; Jurkovič, Ľubomír; Ďurža, Ondrej; Voleková-Lalinská, Bronislava

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sources, mineralogy and mobility of As in coal-combustion ashes were investigated. ► After a dam failure in 1965, the spilled ashes were buried under agricultural soils. ► Primary carriers of As within coal-combustion ashes are aluminosilicate glasses. ► The most probable secondary carriers of labile As are oxyhydroxides of Si, Al, and Fe. ► Arsenic stored in ashes is a long-term contamination source for the environment. - Abstract: A combination of geochemical and mineralogical methods was used to determine the concentrations, mobility, and sources of As in coal-combustion ashes and soils in the vicinity of a thermal power plant at Nováky, central Slovakia. Fresh lagooned ash, ashes buried under agricultural soils for 45 a, and the overlying soils, contain high concentrations of As ranging from 61 to 1535 mg/kg. There is no differences in the water extractable percentages of As between the fresh lagooned ash and buried ashes, which range from 3.80% to 6.70% of the total As. This small amount of As may perhaps reside on the surfaces of the ash particles, as postulated in the earlier literature, but no evidence was found to support this claim. Electron microprobe analyses show that the dominant primary As carriers are the aluminosilicate glasses enriched in Ca and Fe. The acid NH 4 + -oxalate extraction hints that the oxyhydroxides of Si, Al, and Fe are the most probable secondary carriers of labile As. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analyses show that As in the lagooned and buried ashes occurs mostly as As(V). The long-term burial of the coal-combustion ash under agricultural soil did not cause any major change of its chemical composition or As lability compared to the fresh lagooned ash

  1. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste

  2. Bioextraction of copper and zinc from fly ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczok, T; Cwalina, B; Chrostowska, D

    1986-02-01

    Results are evaluated of investigations carried out by the Institute of Chemistry and Physics of the Silesia Medical Academy in Sosnowiec into feasibility of bacterial leaching for utilization of fly ash from combustion of black coal. Fly ash separated by electrostatic precipitators in the Dolna Odra power plant fired with black coal was used. Copper content in the fly ash on the average was 0.012%, that of zinc was 0.025%. When Thiobacillus ferroxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans and bacteria separated from fly ash were used leaching efficiency after 21 days ranged from 69 to 87% in the case of copper and from 48 to 72% in the case of zinc. Origin of bacteria separated from fly ash was unclear. Autochthonous bacteria in the fly ash being leached increased efficiency of bacterial leaching. Effects of autochthonous bacteria were similar to those of the bacterial culture of Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans. Investigation results were shown in a table and 2 diagrams. 19 references.

  3. Microstructure and wear characterization of aluminum matrix composites reinforced with industrial waste fly ash particulates synthesized by friction stir processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinaharan, I., E-mail: dinaweld2009@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Nelson, R., E-mail: nelson.90.mech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Vijay, S.J., E-mail: vijayjoseph.2001@gmail.com [Center for Research in Metallurgy, School of Mechanical Sciences, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamil Nadu (India); Akinlabi, E.T., E-mail: etakinlabi@uj.ac.za [Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park Kingsway Campus, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2016-08-15

    Fly ash (FA) is a waste product of coal combustion in thermal power plants which is available in massive quantities all over the world causing land pollution. This paper reports the characterization of AA6061 aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) reinforced with FA particles synthesized using friction stir processing (FSP). The volume fraction of FA particles was varied from 0 to 18 in steps of 6. The prepared AMCs were characterized using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscattered diagram (EBSD). The wear rate was estimated using a pin-on-disc wear apparatus. FA particles were observed to be distributed homogeneously in the AMC irrespective of the location within the stir zone. The EBSD micrographs revealed remarkable grain refinement in the AMC. The incorporation of FA particles enhanced the microhardness and wear resistance of the AMC. The strengthening mechanisms of the AMC were discussed and correlated to the observed microstructures. The wear mechanisms were identified by characterizing the wear debris and worn surfaces. - Highlights: •Industrial waste fly ash was used to produce aluminum matrix composites. •Friction stir processing was used to produce AA6061/Fly Ash composite. •Fly ash particles refined the grains of aluminum matrix. •Fly ash particles enhanced the hardness and wear resistance. •Successful utilization of fly ash to make aluminum composites reduces land pollution.

  4. Characteristics and application potential of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes from two waste-to-energy plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash characteristics, its heterogeneity, environmental properties, and their stability in time. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ashes from two plants were determined over time; results show that their

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of fly ash from co-combustion of wood and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wan; Jensen, Pernille E.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Kirkelund, Gunvor M.

    2015-01-01

    The heavy metal content in fly ash from biomass combustion, such as straw, wood and sludge, often needs reducing before the ash can be used as fertilizer for agricultural land or as a component in the production of construction materials. In this study, fly ash from a boiler fueled with wood chips and straw was treated either by electrodialytic remediation (EDR) directly or by a combination of EDR and pre-wash with distilled water to investigate the possibilities of reducing the heavy metal content and reusing nutrients as fertilizer and bulk material in construction materials. Different experimental set-ups were tested for EDR treatment primarily of Cd and Pb as well as of Cu and Zn. Elemental contents such as K, P and Ni were compared in ash samples before and after treatment. The results showed that pre-washing caused an increase in total concentrations of most heavy metals because the highly soluble fraction, mainly KCl and K 2 SO 4 , was removed. After EDR treatment, the Cd concentration was reduced to below 2 mg kg −1 in all ash samples with high and stable average removal of above 95%, no matter how high the initial concentration was. The amount of Pb removed varied from 12% to 67%. Even though Pb was extracted from the ash samples, its concentrations in the treated ash samples were elevated due to the ash dissolution, except in the case of pre-washed ash treated in a two-compartment EDR cell, where the mass of Pb removed was the highest with a final concentration of about 100 mg kg −1 . The two-compartment EDR cell probably performed better due to a fast acidification process. In addition, this process was less energy-consuming. However, the fast acidification did in turn affect the leaching property of the treated ash, such as As and Ni, exceeding the limiting concentrations. The EDR/pre-wash-EDR treated ash mainly contained quartz, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of K salts had disappeared. This shows that the potassium fertilizer potential was

  6. Electrically fired incineration of combustible radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.; Hill, M.

    1985-01-01

    Du Pont Company and Shirco, Inc. are developing a process to incinerate plutonium-contaminated combustible waste in an electrically fired incineration system. Preliminary development was completed at Shirco, Inc. prior to installing an incineration system at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), which is operated by Du Pont for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The waste consists of disposable protective clothing, cleaning materials, used filter elements, and miscellaneous materials exposed to plutonium contamination. Incinerator performance testing, using physically representative nonradioactive materials, was completed in March 1983 at Shirco's Pilot Test Facility in Dallas, TX. Based on the test results, equipment sizing and mechanical begin of a full-scale process were completed by June 1983. The full-scale unit is being installed at SRL to confirm the initial performance testing and is scheduled to begin in June 1985. Remote operation and maintenance of the system is required, since the system will eventually be installed in an isolated process cell. Initial operation of the process will use nonradioactive simulated waste. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high......]. In order to optimize the process and reach the lowest possible leachability of target constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cl, Na and SO4) at minimum time and energy consumption, the present work gives results of 10 pilot scale (8 kg MSWI fly ash each) electrodialysis experiments at different...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...

  8. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generates millions of tons of ash each year. In European and Asian countries, this ash has been recycled into road beds, asphalt paving, and concrete products encouraged and enforced by standards, managem...

  9. Characterization and electrodialytic treatment of wood combustion fly ash for removal of cadmium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2003-01-01

    especially contain amounts of the toxic heavy metal cadmium that may exceed the limiting values for agricultural utilisation given by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency.In this work the advances of using an electrodialytic remediation method to reduce the Cd content in wood combustion fly ash...... conditions. However, significant amounts of Cd could be extracted at neutral to alkaline conditions using an ammonium citrate solution as a desorption agent.Electrodialytic remediation experiments showed that, under optimised remediation conditions using a mixture of ammonium citrate (0.25M) and NH"3 (1.......25%) as an assisting agent, more than 70% of the initial Cd could be removed from the wood fly ash. The results also indicated that a continuous out-separation of Cd from the aqueous process solutions is possible. Thereby, recycling of the (nutrient rich) process solutions as well as of the remediated ash seems...

  10. Fertilisers production from ashes after sewage sludge combustion - A strategy towards sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorazda, Katarzyna; Tarko, Barbara; Wzorek, Zbigniew; Kominko, Halyna; Nowak, Anna K; Kulczycka, Joanna; Henclik, Anna; Smol, Marzena

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable development and circular economy rules force the global fertilizer industry to develop new phosphorous recovery methods from alternative sources. In this paper a phosphorus recovery technology from Polish industrial Sewage Sludge Ashes was investigated (PolFerAsh - Polish Fertilizers form Ash). A wet method with the use of mineral acid and neutralization was proposed. Detailed characteristic of SSA from largest mono-combustion plans were given and compared to raw materials used on the market. The technological factors associated with such materials were discussed. The composition of the extracts was compared to typical industrial phosphoric acid and standard values characterizing suspension fertilizers. The most favorable conditions for selective precipitation of phosphorus compounds were revealed. The fertilizers obtained also meet EU regulations in the case of the newly discussed Cd content. The process was scaled up and a flow mass diagram was defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enrichment of thallium in fly ashes in a Spanish circulating fluidized-bed combustion plant

    OpenAIRE

    López Antón, María Antonia; Spears, D. Alan; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Díaz, Luis; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of thallium in a 50 MW industrial circulating fluidized-bed combustion plant (CFBC), focusing on the distribution of this element among the bottom and fly ashes separated by the solid retention devices in the plant. The results show that thallium species are mainly retained in the solid by-products and are not emitted to air with flue gases in significant amounts, proving that this technology is a more effective means of preventing thallium emissions than pulv...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in ashes from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Havelcová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2012), s. 481-490 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : biomass combustion * ash * PAHs Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2012_04/6.Straka_%20Havelcova.pdf

  13. Thermal valorization of footwear leather wastes in bubbling fluidized bed combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahillo, A; Armesto, L; Cabanillas, A; Otero, J

    2004-01-01

    Transformation of hide (animal skins) into leather is a complicated process during which significant amounts of wastes are generated. Footwear is the sector that consumes the major part of leather (60%). Logically, this industry is producing the largest quantity of leather wastes. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of fluidized bed technology to recover the energy from burning footwear leather wastes. Considering the characteristics of leather waste, especially the heating value (12.5-21 MJ/kg), it can be considered a fairly good fuel. Moreover, leather waste has suitable characteristics for combustion, e.g., high volatile matter (76.5%) and low ash content (5.2%). Two factors deserve special attention: N3O and NOx emissions as a consequence of its unusual high nitrogen content (14.1%) and the chromium speciation because chromium is the main element of ash (3.2%) due to its use in leather tanning. A series of experiments has been carried out in a 0.1 MWt bubbling fluidized bed pilot plant. The combustion efficiency, flue gas composition and chromium speciation were investigated. Despite having high nitrogen content, a low conversion rate of fuel-N to NOx and N2O was attained. Chromium was concentrated in the solid streams and it was consistently found as Cr(III+); no presence of Cr(VI+) was detected.

  14. Immersion Freezing of Coal Combustion Ash Particles from the Texas Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, C. L.; Tobo, Y.; Mulamba, O.; Brooks, S. D.; Mirrielees, J.; Hiranuma, N.

    2017-12-01

    Coal combustion aerosol particles contribute to the concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere. Especially, immersion freezing can be considered as one of the most important mechanisms for INP formation in supercooled tropospheric clouds that exist at temperatures between 0°C and -38°C. The U.S. contains more than 550 operating coal-burning plants consuming 7.2 x 108 metric tons of coal (in 2016) to generate a total annual electricity of >2 billion MW-h, resulting in the emission of at least 4.9 x 105 metric tons of PM10 (particulate matter smaller than 10 µm in diameter). In Texas alone, 19 combustion plants generate 0.15 billion MW-h electricity and >2.4 x 104 metric tons of PM10. Here we present the immersion freezing behavior of combustion fly ash and bottom ash particles collected in the Texas Panhandle region. Two types of particulate samples, namely electron microscopy on both ash types will also be presented to relate the crystallographic and chemical properties to their ice nucleation abilities.

  15. Hydrothermal processing of radioactive combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, L.A.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.; Le, L.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrothermal processing has been demonstrated for the treatment of radioactive combustible materials for the US Department of Energy. A hydrothermal processing system was designed, built and tested for operation in a plutonium glovebox. Presented here are results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of plutonium and americium contaminated organic wastes. Experiments show the destruction of the organic component to CO 2 and H 2 O, with 30 wt.% H 2 O 2 as an oxidant, at 540 C and 46.2 MPa. The majority of the actinide component forms insoluble products that are easily separated by filtration. A titanium liner in the reactor and heat exchanger provide corrosion resistance for the oxidation of chlorinated organics. The treatment of solid material is accomplished by particle size reduction and the addition of a viscosity enhancing agent to generate a homogeneous pumpable mixture

  16. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: Strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tang, Hsing-Chuan; Lin, Kae-Long; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash.

  17. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tang, Hsing-Chuan; Lin, Kae-Long; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2010-01-15

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash.

  18. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: Strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wu-Jang, E-mail: wjhuang@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, National Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, 912 Ping-Tung, Taiwan (China); Tang, Hsing-Chuan [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, National Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, 912 Ping-Tung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kae-Long [Department of Environmental Engineering, National I-Lan University, 260 I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Liao, Ming-Huei [Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Ping-Tung University of Science and Technology, 912 Ping-Tung, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash.

  19. Cadmium adsorption by coal combustion ashes-based sorbents-Relationship between sorbent properties and adsorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, Marco; Di Natale, Francesco; Erto, Alessandro; Lancia, Amedeo [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale Vincenzo Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Montagnaro, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.montagnaro@unina.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Santoro, Luciano [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    A very interesting possibility of coal combustion ashes reutilization is their use as adsorbent materials, that can also take advantage from proper beneficiation techniques. In this work, adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solutions was taken into consideration, with the emphasis on the intertwining among waste properties, beneficiation treatments, properties of the beneficiated materials and adsorption capacity. The characterization of three solid materials used as cadmium sorbents (as-received ash, ash sieved through a 25 {mu}m-size sieve and demineralized ash) was carried out by chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, laser granulometry and mercury porosimetry. Cadmium adsorption thermodynamic and kinetic tests were conducted at room temperature, and test solutions were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Maximum specific adsorption capacities resulted in the range 0.5-4.3 mg g{sup -1}. Different existing models were critically considered to find out an interpretation of the controlling mechanism for adsorption kinetics. In particular, it was observed that for lower surface coverage the adsorption rate is governed by a linear driving force while, once surface coverage becomes significant, mechanisms such as the intraparticle micropore diffusion may come into play. Moreover, it was shown that both external fluid-to-particle mass transfer and macropore diffusion hardly affect the adsorption process, which was instead regulated by intraparticle micropore diffusion: characteristic times for this process ranged from 4.1 to 6.1 d, and were fully consistent with the experimentally observed equilibrium times. Results were discussed in terms of the relationship among properties of beneficiated materials and cadmium adsorption capacity. Results shed light on interesting correlations among solid properties, cadmium capture rate and maximum cadmium uptake.

  20. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  1. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, Naeem, E-mail: naeem.saqib@oru.se; Bäckström, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.backstrom@oru.se

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different solids waste incineration is discussed in grate fired and fluidized bed boilers. • We explained waste composition, temperature and chlorine effects on metal partitioning. • Excessive chlorine content can change oxide to chloride equilibrium partitioning the trace elements in fly ash. • Volatility increases with temperature due to increase in vapor pressure of metals and compounds. • In Fluidized bed boiler, most metals find themselves in fly ash, especially for wood incineration. - Abstract: Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine

  2. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. ► Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. ► Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. ► Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA’s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg

  3. Characterisation of ashes produced by co-combustion of recovered fuels and peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenhaeuser, M.; Zevenhoven, R. [Borealis Polymers Oy, Porvoo (Finland); Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Orjala, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Peltola, K. [Foster Wheeler Energy (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Source separation of combustible materials from household or municipal solid waste yields a raw material for the production of Packaging Derived Fuel (PDF). This fuel can substitute the traditional fuels in heat and power generation and is also called recycled fuel. Co-combustion of these types of fuels with coal has been studied in several LIEKKI-projects and the results have been both technically and environmentally favourable. (author)

  4. UTYLIZATION METHODS OF SLAGS AND ASH FROM WASTE INCINERATION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mikuła

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modern management methods, solidification and immobilization of ash and slag from waste incineration plants. The innovative technologies for solving this kind of problem were described. Results focused on the most promising technologies of solidification, among others geopolymerization processes. The paper presents examples of the results of solidified ash and slag in the geopolymer matrix. The studies showed that the leachable of heavy metals from the geopolymer matrix containing ashes from the incineration of municipal waste qualifies them for storage in landfills for non-hazardous and inert. Moreover, these studies demonstrated practically 100% effectiveness for immobilization of the elements: bar (Ba, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb. In the case of chromium III (Cr+3 97% level of effectiveness of the immobilization was achieved. In order to immobilize chromium VI (Cr+6 introduced additions of sulfur compounds. The study confirmed the low efficiency of the immobilization of: arsenic (As, selenium (Se and molybdenum (Mo.

  5. The Swedish Ash Programme 2002-2008. Biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik; Herbert, Roger

    2009-07-15

    In Sweden, producers of combustion residues have since 2002 implemented a collaborative applied RandD programme aimed at the utilisation of combustion residues (ash). The fuels are biomass, wastes, peat - any solid fuel but coal. In this report, the main lines of the programme are described: Covers for landfills and mine tailings; Civil works, e.g. road-buildings, where both geotechnical and environmental questions have been addressed; Cement and concrete applications; Compensating soils for removing biomass and the mineral nutrients in the biomass. The emphasis of the Programme is on environmental questions, even if technical questions have been treated. The time perspective in this context is much longer than the 3-5 years that are usual in an applied RandD programme, i.e. decades after ash has been placed on a site, e.g. in a road, or spread to forest soil. New test fields have been created in the programme and old test fields have been evaluated in order to gather available information

  6. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  7. Possible applications for municipal solid waste fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Ribeiro, A; Ottosen, L

    2003-01-31

    The present study focuses on existing practices related to the reuse of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) fly ash and identifies new potential uses. Nine possible applications were identified and grouped into four main categories: construction materials (cement, concrete, ceramics, glass and glass-ceramics); geotechnical applications (road pavement, embankments); "agriculture" (soil amendment); and, miscellaneous (sorbent, sludge conditioning). Each application is analysed in detail, including final-product technical characteristics, with a special emphasis on environmental impacts. A comparative analysis of the different options is performed, stressing the advantages but also the weaknesses of each option. This information is systemized in order to provide a framework for the selection of best technology and final products. The results presented here show new possibilities for this waste reuse in a short-term, in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization as well as resources conservation.

  8. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  9. Ash deposition and high temperature corrosion at combustion of aggressive fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O [I/S Fynsvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Odense (Denmark); Henriksen, N [Elsamprojekt A/S, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    In order to reduce CO{sub 2} emission, ELSAM is investigating the possibilities of using biomass - mainly straw - for combustion in high efficiency power plants. As straw has very high contents of chlorine and potassium, a fuel with high corrosion and ash deposition propensities has been introduced. ELSAM has investigated 3 ultra supercritical boiler concepts for combustion of straw alone or together with coal: (1) PF boilers with a relatively low share of straw, (2) CFB boilers with low to high share of straw and (3) vibrating grate boilers with 100% straw. These investigations has mainly been full-scale tests with straw fed into existing boilers. Corrosion tests have been performed in these boilers using temperature regulated probes and in-plant test tubes in existing superheaters. The corrosion has been determined by detailed measurements of wall thickness reduction and light optical microscopic measurements of the material degradation due to high temperature corrosion. Corrosion mechanisms have been evaluated using SEM/EDX together with thermodynamical considerations based on measurements of the chemical environment in the flue gas. Ash deposition is problematic in CFB boilers and in straw fired boilers, especially in years with high potassium and chlorine content of the straw. This ash deposition also is related to condensation of KCl and can probably only be handled by improved cleaning devices. (EG)

  10. Improved Economic Performance of Municipal Solid Waste Combustion Plants by Model Based Combustion Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) is used for its inertisation, reduction of its volume and the conversion of its energy content into heat and/or electricity. Operation and control of modern large scale MSW combustion (MSWC) plants is determined by economic and environmental objectives

  11. Acid digestion of combustible waste. Status report 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.; Cowan, R.; Divine, J.

    1978-10-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) has been constructed at Hanford to process combustible transuranic waste. Laboratory testing, pilot plant testing, engineering studies, and safety studies have been completed and incorporated in the system design. 44 figures, 7 tables

  12. Legislative and Regulatory Timeline for Fossil Fuel Combustion Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This timeline walks through the history of fossil fuel combustion waste regulation since 1976 and includes information such as regulations, proposals, notices, amendments, reports and meetings and site visits conducted.

  13. The technology available for more efficient combustion of waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, J.

    1999-01-01

    Alternative combustion technologies for open flare systems are discussed, stressing their advantages and limitations while meeting the fundamental requirements of personnel and plant safety, high destruction efficiencies, environmental parameters and industrial reliability. The use of BACT (Best Available Control Technologies) is dependent on the destruction efficiency of waste gas defined by regulatory agencies or industrial leaders. Enclosed vapour combustors and high destruction efficiency thermal oxidation are two of the technologies which result in more efficient combustion of waste gases. There are several conditions that should be considered when choosing combustion equipment for the disposal of waste gas. These include volatile organic compounds content, lower heating value, the composition of the waste gas, the specified combustion efficiency, design flow rates, smokeless operation, operating conditions, ground level radiation, SO 2 dispersion, environmental and social expectations, and economic limitation. 10 figs

  14. Co-combustion of Fossil Fuels and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao

    The Ph.D. thesis deals with the alternative and high efficiency methods of using waste-derived fuels in heat and power production. The focus is on the following subjects: 1) co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel (SRF) under pulverized fuel combustion conditions; 2) dust-firing of straw...

  15. Engineering properties of cement mortar with pond ash in South Korea as construction materials: from waste to concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sang Hwa; Kwon, Seung-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Among the wastes from coal combustion product, only fly ash is widely used for mineral mixture in concrete for its various advantages. However the other wastes including bottom ash, so called PA (pond ash) are limitedly reused for reclamation. In this paper, the engineering properties of domestic pond ash which has been used for reclamation are experimentally studied. For this, two reclamation sites (DH and TA) in South Korea are selected, and two domestic PAs are obtained. Cement mortar with two different w/c (water to cement) ratios and 3 different replacement ratios (0%, 30%, and 60%) of sand are prepared for the tests. For workability and physical properties of PA cement mortar, several tests like flow, setting time, and compressive strength are evaluated. Several durability tests including porosity measuring, freezing and thawing, chloride migration, and accelerated carbonation are also performed. Through the tests, PA (especially from DH area) in surface saturated condition is evaluated to have internal curing action which leads to reasonable strength development and durability performances. The results show a potential applicability of PA to concrete aggregate, which can reduce consuming natural resources and lead to active reutilization of coal product waste.

  16. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, which has been treated electrodialytically for the removal of heavy metals, may have changed characteristics compared to untreated fly ash. In this study, MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH static leaching...

  17. Applied Gaussian Process in Optimizing Unburned Carbon Content in Fly Ash for Boiler Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Gaussian Process (GP has attracted generous attention from industry. This article focuses on the application of coal fired boiler combustion and uses GP to design a strategy for reducing Unburned Carbon Content in Fly Ash (UCC-FA which is the most important indicator of boiler combustion efficiency. With getting rid of the complicated physical mechanisms, building a data-driven model as GP is an effective way for the proposed issue. Firstly, GP is used to model the relationship between the UCC-FA and boiler combustion operation parameters. The hyperparameters of GP model are optimized via Genetic Algorithm (GA. Then, served as the objective of another GA framework, the predicted UCC-FA from GP model is utilized in searching the optimal operation plan for the boiler combustion. Based on 670 sets of real data from a high capacity tangentially fired boiler, two GP models with 21 and 13 inputs, respectively, are developed. In the experimental results, the model with 21 inputs provides better prediction performance than that of the other. Choosing the results from 21-input model, the UCC-FA decreases from 2.7% to 1.7% via optimizing some of the operational parameters, which is a reasonable achievement for the boiler combustion.

  18. Improving lithium-ion battery performances by adding fly ash from coal combustion on cathode film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyartanti, Endah Retno; Jumari, Arif, E-mail: arifjumari@yahoo.com; Nur, Adrian; Purwanto, Agus [Research Group of Battery & Advanced Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A Kentingan, Surakarta Indonesia 57126 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    A lithium battery is composed of anode, cathode and a separator. The performance of lithium battery is also influenced by the conductive material of cathode film. In this research, the use of fly ash from coal combustion as conductive enhancer for increasing the performances of lithium battery was investigated. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) was used as the active material of cathode. The dry fly ash passed through 200 mesh screen, LiFePO{sub 4} and acethylene black (AB), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a binder and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent were mixed to form slurry. The slurry was then coated, dried and hot pressed to obtain the cathode film. The ratio of fly ash and AB were varied at the values of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% while the other components were at constant. The anode film was casted with certain thickness and composition. The performance of battery lithium was examined by Eight Channel Battery Analyzer, the composition of the cathode film was examined by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), and the structure and morphology of the anode film was analyzed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). The composition, structure and morphology of cathode film was only different when fly ash added was 4% of AB or more. The addition of 2% of AB on cathode film gave the best performance of 81.712 mAh/g on charging and 79.412 mAh/g on discharging.

  19. Ash-forming elements in four Scandinavian wood species part 3: Combustion of five spruce samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werkelin, Johan; Lindberg, Daniel; Skrifvars, Bengt-Johan; Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FI-20500 Turku (Finland); Bostroem, Dan [Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Forest residue is the remaining fraction after the outtake of timber, which comprises the tree tops and branches. It may as fuel cause damage to the combustion device through ash slagging and fouling. The objective of this work was to model the ash composition from well-specified samples of a spruce tree: wood, bark, twigs, needles, and shoots. Their ash at 1000 C was modelled using global chemical equilibrium calculations, and laboratory-made ash of the five samples was analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDXA. According to the results, the risk of slagging arises from the spruce foliage: molten alkali silicates from spruce needles and probably molten alkali phosphates from spruce shoots may cause problems in the furnace. Fouling caused by condensing alkali vapours can be produced by all five samples. The amount of alkali vapours in the flue gas was in the same order of magnitude for all five samples, in spite of large differences in their original alkali contents. (author)

  20. ERA-Net Evaluation of technology status for small-scale combustion of pellets from new ash rich biomasses - combustion tests in residential burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennbaeck, Marie; Johansson, Mathias; Frida Claesson

    2008-07-01

    In this project, pellets with higher ash content compared to the wood pellets used today on the Swedish market were tested in three domestic-scale burners. The tests were carried out based on EN 303-5. In the flue gas, combustion parameters as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydro carbons were measured, and also more fuel specific parameters such as nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, total dust and particle mass- and number concentration. The dust (fly ash) and bottom ash were characterized chemically. The implications of high ash content on combustion performance are discussed in the report. Altogether five pellets with 8 mm diameter were tested: oilseed straw pellet, reed canary grass pellet (RCG), barley straw pellet, bark pellet and wood pellet. All fuels were dry ranging from 6.5-12 % moisture. The ash content varied from 0.3 weight-% dm in wood to 7.9 % in RCG. Barley straw has a noticeable low ash melting temperature, < 980 deg C, and could not be combusted in any of the burners. The nitrogen content varied nine times and sulphur more than 10 times. The chlorine content was very low in wood and bark and more than 20 times higher in oilseed and barley. The composition of inorganic species in the fuel ash was dominated by calcium, potassium and silica in wood, bark and oilseed pellet, while RCG and barley straw were dominated by silica. The three burners used were commercial and known to fulfil high quality requirements. Burner A is a pellet burner where fuel is supplied on top of the grate with no mechanical mean for moving bottom ash on the grate during combustion. Bottom ash is blown away, and any slag remaining on the grate is removed with a scrape before ignition. Burner B is an upward burning pellet burner where fuel and ash is pushed upwards and the glow bed is exposed to the surrounding combustion department. Burner C is a forward burning grain burner that pushes fuel and ash forwards, inside a cylinder. From the

  1. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, R.C.; Giovannitti, E.

    1997-01-01

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  2. Leaching properties of substances from marine-deposited combustion wastes; Stofudvaskning fra marint deponerede forbraendingsrester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Hansen, E; Hjelmar, O

    1992-09-01

    During the period 1986-1991/92, approximately 640,000 tons of coal fly ash (CFA) and 535,000 tons of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash (fly ash and bottom ash) have been used as a filling material in a land reclamation disposal site at a new coal-fired power plant at Avedoere, Denmark. A shallow coastal area of a maximum water depth of ca. 2 m was surrounded by dikes and gradually filled up by backtipping the combustion residues to a total height of 2-3 m above sea level. The dikes and the bottom of the site are water-permeable and a top cover of clay restricts the infiltration of precipitaion into the finalized parts of the site. The leaching and hydraulic properties of the depositied residues were investigated in order to provide and estimate of the emission of selected trace elements. The results are given in detail. The composition of the leachates collected from various parts of the site appear to a certain degree to reflect the type of residues deposited. Relatively high concentrations of NVOC and ammonia-N were found in the leachates from deposited MSWI ash, whereas the presence of measurable concentrations of Cr appeared only in areas containing CFA without MSWI ash. Significant differences were found between residue permeabilities determined in the field (higher) and in the laboratory (lower). One field measurement gave a permeability of ca. 10{sup -5} m/s for deposited CFA. This may have a serious impact on future evaluations of hydraulic conditions in coal fly ash disposal sites. It is recommended that it should be ensured that water displaced from the diked area will pass through deposited residues before it flows through the bottom and/or the dikes. (AB).

  3. Leaching properties of substances from marine-deposited combustion wastes. Stofudvaskning fra marint deponerede forbraendingsrester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Hansen, E; Hjelmar, O

    1992-09-01

    During the period 1986-1991/92, approximately 640,000 tons of coal fly ash (CFA) and 535,000 tons of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash (fly ash and bottom ash) have been used as a filling material in a land reclamation disposal site at a new coal-fired power plant at Avedoere, Denmark. A shallow coastal area of a maximum water depth of ca. 2 m was surrounded by dikes and gradually filled up by backtipping the combustion residues to a total height of 2-3 m above sea level. The dikes and the bottom of the site are water-permeable and a top cover of clay restricts the infiltration of precipitaion into the finalized parts of the site. The leaching and hydraulic properties of the depositied residues were investigated in order to provide and estimate of the emission of selected trace elements. The results are given in detail. The composition of the leachates collected from various parts of the site appear to a certain degree to reflect the type of residues deposited. Relatively high concentrations of NVOC and ammonia-N were found in the leachates from deposited MSWI ash, whereas the presence of measurable concentrations of Cr appeared only in areas containing CFA without MSWI ash. Significant differences were found between residue permeabilities determined in the field (higher) and in the laboratory (lower). One field measurement gave a permeability of ca. 10[sup -5] m/s for deposited CFA. This may have a serious impact on future evaluations of hydraulic conditions in coal fly ash disposal sites. It is recommended that it should be ensured that water displaced from the diked area will pass through deposited residues before it flows through the bottom and/or the dikes. (AB).

  4. Sulphation of oil shale ash under atmospheric and pressurized combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelaots, I.; Yrjas, P.; Hupa, M.; Ots, A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the main problems in conventional combustion boilers firing pulverized oil shale is the corrosion and fouling of heating surfaces, which is caused by sulphur compounds. Another major problem, from the environmental point of view, are the high SO 2 emissions. Consequently, the amount of sulphur in flue gases must be reduced. One alternative to lower the SO 2 , concentration is the use of new technologies, such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). In FBC processes, the sulphur components are usually removed by the addition of limestone (CaCO 3 ) or dolomite (CaCO 3 x MgCO 3 ) into the bed. The calcium in these absorbents react with SO 2 , producing solid CaSO 4 . However, when burning oil shale, there would be no need to add limestone or dolomite into the bed, due to the initially high limestone content in the fuel (molar ratio Ca/S =10). The capture of sulphur by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus (PTGA). The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. Four different materials were tested - one cyclone ash from an Estonian oil shale boiler, two size fractions of Estonian oil shale and, one fraction of Israeli oil shale. The cyclone ash was found to be the poorest sulphur absorbent. In general, the results from the sulphur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed conditions showed that the oil shale can capture not only its own sulphur but also significant amounts of additional sulphur from another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. (author)

  5. Resource recovery from coal fly ash waste: an overview study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Matsuda, M.; Miyake, M. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Science

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a useful byproduct of the combustion of coal. It is composed primarily of almost perfectly spherical aluminosilicate glass particles. This spherical characteristic and other characteristics of CFA should be exploited, rather than simply using CFA as inert filler for construction. Unfortunately, the presence of carbon residues and high levels of heavy metals has so far limited the uses of CFA. Forced leaching methods have been used to improve the technical and environmentally friendly qualities of CFA, but these processes do not seem to be economically viable. Actually, CFA is a major source of Si and Al for the synthesis of industrial minerals. Potential novel uses of CFA, e.g., for the synthesis of ceramic materials, ceramic membrane filters, zeolites, and geopolymers, are reviewed in this article with the intention of exploring new areas that will

  6. Ash behavior in the combustion of phosphorus rich biofuels - literature survey and experimental studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Castro, Maria; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    Utilization of biofuels such as grain, bran and rapeseed meal in energy production is considered to have ecological and economical benefits. These seed-originated biofuels usually contain significantly higher phosphorus contents than other biofuels, which may induce some ash related operation...... problems. In this report, the behaviors of inorganic species during the combustion of phosphorus rich biofuels are studied through literature review and experiments. It is found that the majority of P, Mg and K in these biofuels would be present as phytic acid/phytate or other inositol phosphate. During...

  7. Volume reduction of low-level, combustible, transuranic waste at Mound Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.H.; Doty, J.W.; Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Luthy, D.F.

    Low-level combustible waste (<100 nCi per g of waste) generated during plutonium-238 processing is collected and stored in 55-gallon (200-liter) drums. The composition of this waste is approximately 32 wt % paper, 46% plastic, 16% rubber and cloth, and 6% metal. Treatment of this waste is initiated by burning in the Mound Cyclone Incinerator, which consists of a burning chamber, deluge tank, venturi scrubber and blower. During the two years of operating the Cyclone Incinerator, experiments have been performed on particle distribution throughout the system using various mixtures of feed material. Measurements were taken at the incinerator outlet, after the spray tank, and after the venturi scrubber. An average emission of 0.23 g of particles per kg of feed at the venturi outlet was determined. The distribution of chlorine from the combustion of polyvinyl chloride was studied. Analyses of the off-gas and scrubber solution show that approximately 75 wt % of the chlorine was captured by the scrubber solution and approximately 17 wt % remained in the off-gas after the venturi scrubber. Measurements of the amount of NO/sub chi/ present in the off-gas were also made during the chloride studies. An average of approximately 200 ppM NO/sub chi/ was produced during each incineration run. Immobilization of the incinerator ash is being studied with regard to long-term behavior of the product. The immobilization matrix which looks most promising is ash mixed with Portland 1A cement in a 65/35 wt % ash-to-cement ratio. This matrix exhibits good mechanical properties while maintaining a maximum volume reduction

  8. Characteristics of ash and particle emissions during bubbling fluidised bed combustion of three types of residual forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, João Peres; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Alves, Célia; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2017-04-01

    Combustion of residual forest biomass (RFB) derived from eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus), pine (Pinus pinaster) and golden wattle (Acacia longifolia) was evaluated in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor (BFBR). During the combustion experiments, monitoring of temperature, pressure and exhaust gas composition has been made. Ash samples were collected at several locations along the furnace and flue gas treatment devices (cyclone and bag filter) after each combustion experiment and were analysed for their unburnt carbon content and chemical composition. Total suspended particles (TSP) in the combustion flue gas were evaluated at the inlet and outlet of cyclone and baghouse filter and further analysed for organic and elemental carbon, carbonates and 57 chemical elements. High particulate matter collection efficiencies in the range of 94-99% were observed for the baghouse, while removal rates of only 1.4-17% were registered for the cyclone. Due to the sand bed, Si was the major element in bottom ashes. Fly ashes, in particular those from eucalypt combustion, were especially rich in CaO, followed by relevant amounts of SiO 2 , MgO and K 2 O. Ash characteristics varied among experiments, showing that their inorganic composition strongly depends on both the biomass composition and combustion conditions. Inorganic constituents accounted for TSP mass fractions up to 40 wt%. Elemental carbon, organic matter and carbonates contributed to TSP mass fractions in the ranges 0.58-44%, 0.79-78% and 0.01-1.7%, respectively.

  9. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  10. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  11. Fly ash classification efficiency of electrostatic precipitators in fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohenoja, Katja; Körkkö, Mika; Wigren, Valter; Österbacka, Jan; Illikainen, Mirja

    2018-01-15

    The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat results in an increased amount of burning residue, fly ash which disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest in utilizing fly ashes instead of just disposing of it. This study aimed to establish whether the utilization of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues can be improved by electrostatic precipitator separation of sulfate, chloride, and some detrimental metals. Classification selectivity calculations of electrostatic precipitators for three different fuel mixtures from two different power plants were performed by using Nelson's and Karnis's selectivity indices. Results showed that all fly ashes behaved similarly in the electrostatic separation process SiO 2 resulted in coarse fractions with Nelson's selectivity of 0.2 or more, while sulfate, chloride, and the studied detrimental metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) enriched into fine fractions with varying selectivity from 0.2 to 0.65. Overall, the results of this study suggest that it is possible to improve the utilization potential of fly ashes from fluidized bed combustion in concrete, fertilizer, and earth construction applications by using electrostatic precipitators for the fractionating of fly ashes in addition to their initial function of collecting fly ash particles from flue gases. The separation of the finer fractions (ESP 2 and 3) from ESP 1 field fly ash is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  13. 40 CFR 60.1015 - What is a new municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion unit? 60.1015 Section 60.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30, 1999... What is a new municipal waste combustion unit? (a) A new municipal waste combustion unit is a municipal...

  14. Ash behavior during hydrothermal treatment for solid fuel applications. Part 2: Effects of treatment conditions on industrial waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of treatment conditions on composition and solubility of ash. • Ash dissolution and yield governed by liquid pH and calcium carbonate solubility. • Dissolution of calcium carbonate decreases ash fusion temperature during combustion. • Decreasing the ash content of sludge can weaken ash properties for combustion. - Abstract: This second half of our work on ash behavior concentrates on the effects of hydrothermal treatment conditions on paper sludge. Ash composition and solubility were determined based on treatment temperature, reactor solid load and liquid pH using experimental design and univariate regression methods. In addition, ash properties for combustion were evaluated based on recent developments on ash classification. Based on the results, all experimental variables had a statistically significant effect on ash yields. Only reactor solid load was statistically insignificant for char ash content, which increased based on increasing treatment temperature due to the decomposition of organic components. Ash dissolution and ash yield were governed by liquid pH and the generation of acids mainly due to the solubility of calcium carbonate identified as the main mineral species of paper sludge. Dissolution of calcium carbonate however decreased ash fusion temperatures more likely causing problems during char incineration. This indicated that decreasing the ash content of sludge during hydrothermal treatment can actually weaken ash properties for solid fuel applications.

  15. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caton, P.A.; Carr, M.A.; Kim, S.S.; Beautyman, M.J. [US Naval Academy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 590 Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for energy content, and compared with the same analyses of wood (a more typical biomass fuel). Three different samples of food waste showed relative uniformity of properties despite being sampled on different days, with different menus. Food waste had lower oxygen content, higher nitrogen and ash content, and higher energy content than wood. The food waste in this study had approximately 70% water content. Temperatures and emissions from combustion of wood pellets, dried pelletized food waste, and dried non-pelletized food waste were measured and compared using a modified residential pellet stove. Temperatures were higher for food waste due to the higher energy content. Emissions of NO, HC, and soot were slightly higher for food waste. Despite the large water content, thermodynamic analysis showed that regenerative dehydration, in which waste energy from the combustion system is used to remove water from the incoming wet fuel, is possible. An excess enthalpy ratio is defined to formalize the comparison of waste sensible enthalpy with the energy required for dehydration. Analysis of fuel-lean combustion and fuel-rich gasification shows that little, if any, external energy would necessarily be required to remove the water from the incoming fuel. An equilibrium model was used to simulate waste food gasification by extending the simulation to high water content levels. Probable ranges for successful food waste gasification are identified. Energy recovery of waste food could result in cost savings by offsetting traditional fuel-use (e.g. natural gas for heating) and by reducing disposal costs. (author)

  17. Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, P.A.; Carr, M.A.; Kim, S.S.; Beautyman, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for energy content, and compared with the same analyses of wood (a more typical biomass fuel). Three different samples of food waste showed relative uniformity of properties despite being sampled on different days, with different menus. Food waste had lower oxygen content, higher nitrogen and ash content, and higher energy content than wood. The food waste in this study had approximately 70% water content. Temperatures and emissions from combustion of wood pellets, dried pelletized food waste, and dried non-pelletized food waste were measured and compared using a modified residential pellet stove. Temperatures were higher for food waste due to the higher energy content. Emissions of NO, HC, and soot were slightly higher for food waste. Despite the large water content, thermodynamic analysis showed that regenerative dehydration, in which waste energy from the combustion system is used to remove water from the incoming wet fuel, is possible. An excess enthalpy ratio is defined to formalize the comparison of waste sensible enthalpy with the energy required for dehydration. Analysis of fuel-lean combustion and fuel-rich gasification shows that little, if any, external energy would necessarily be required to remove the water from the incoming fuel. An equilibrium model was used to simulate waste food gasification by extending the simulation to high water content levels. Probable ranges for successful food waste gasification are identified. Energy recovery of waste food could result in cost savings by offsetting traditional fuel-use (e.g. natural gas for heating) and by reducing disposal costs.

  18. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Takashi, E-mail: t-okada@u-fukui.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tomikawa, Hiroki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Separation of Pb and Zn from Fe and Cu in ash-melting of municipal solid waste. ► Molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in fly ash affected the metal-separation efficiency. ► The low molar ratio and a non-oxidative atmosphere were better for the separation. - Abstract: In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu.

  19. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION OF RDF WASTE AND MELTING OF FLY ASH OBTAINED FROM THE INCINERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Lázár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to describe innovative solutions of thermal processing of selected components of municipal waste (so-called RDF waste using low-ionized depended plasma arc generated by a progressive and promising technology, which is plasma reactor. Its application can transform hazardous waste into inert waste while significantly reducing the volume of waste. Results given in this paper indicate experimentally achieved outputs with thermal disposal of RDF waste and ash from municipal waste

  20. Novel room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics for stabilizing combustion products and low-level mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, with support from the Office of Technology in the US Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a new process employing novel, chemically bonded ceramic materials to stabilize secondary waste streams. Such waste streams result from the thermal processes used to stabilize low-level, mixed wastes. The process will help the electric power industry treat its combustion and low-level mixed wastes. The ceramic materials are strong, dense, leach-resistant, and inexpensive to fabricate. The room-temperature-setting process allows stabilization of volatile components containing lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and nickel. The process also provides effective stabilization of fossil fuel combustion products. It is most suitable for treating fly and bottom ashes

  1. Characterization of ashes from a 100 kWth pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed with oxy-fuel combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.H.; Wang, C.B.; Tan, Y.W.; Jia, L.F.; Anthony, E.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Oxy-fuel combustion experiments have been carried out on an oxygen-fired 100 kW(th) mini-circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) facility. Coal and petroleum coke were used as fuel together with different limestones (and fixed Ca:S molar ratios) premixed with the fuel, for in situ SO{sub 2} capture. The bed ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) samples produced from this unit were collected and characterized to obtain physical and chemical properties of the ash samples. The characterization methods used included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), char carbon and free lime analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface analysis. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the CFBC ashes from oxy-fuel firing to obtain a better understanding of the combustion process, and to identify any significant differences from the ash generated by a conventional air-fired CFBC. The primary difference in the sulfur capture mechanism between atmospheric air-fired and oxy-fuel FBC, at typical FBC temperatures (similar to 850{sup o}C), is that, in the air-fired case the limestone sorbents calcine, whereas the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in oxy-fuel FBC is high enough to prevent calcination, and hence the sulfation process should mimic that seen in pressurized FBC (PFBC). Here, the char carbon content in the fly ash was much higher than that in the bed ash, and was also high by comparison with ash obtained from conventional commercial air-firing CFBC units. In addition, measurements of the free lime content in the bed and fly ash showed that the unreacted Ca sorbent was present primarily as CaCO{sub 3}, indicating that sulfur capture in the oxy-fuel combustor occurred via direct sulfation.

  2. Combustion Characteristics of Chlorine-Free Solid Fuel Produced from Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than 3000 ppm total chlorine content. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature. A series of thermogravimetric analyses were also conducted to compare the combustion characteristics of the products before and after the washing process. Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter after washing process, there were increases in the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product. Considering the possible chlorine emission, the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment should be necessary only if the furnace temperature is more than 800 °C.

  3. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  4. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 deg. C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  5. Persistent free radicals, heavy metals and PAHs generated in particulate soot emissions and residue ash from controlled combustion of common types of plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Gotsis, George; Fiotakis, Konstantinos

    2008-08-15

    The production and use of polymeric materials worldwide has reached levels of 150 million tonnes per year, and the majority of plastic materials are discarded in waste landfills where are burned generating toxic emissions. In the present study we conducted laboratory experiments for batch combustion/burning of commercial polymeric materials, simulating conditions of open fire combustion, with the purpose to analyze their emissions for chemical characteristics of toxicological importance. We used common types of plastic materials: poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), low and high density poly(ethylene) (LDPE, HDPE), poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Samples of particulate smoke (soot) collected on filters and residue solid ash produced by controlled burning conditions at 600-750 degrees C are used for analysis. Emissions of particulate matter, persistent free radicals embedded in the carbonaceous polymeric matrix, heavy metals, other elements and PAHs were determined in both types of samples. Results showed that all plastics burned easily generating charred residue solid ash and black airborne particulate smoke. Persistent carbon- and oxygen-centered radicals, known for their toxic effects in inhalable airborne particles, were detected in both particulate smoke emissions and residue solid ash. Concentrations of heavy metals and other elements (determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry, ICP, method) were measured in the airborne soot and residue ash. Toxic heavy metals, such as Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd were relatively at were found at low concentrations. High concentrations were found for some lithophilic elements, such as Na, Ca, Mg, Si and Al in particulate soot and residue solid ash. Measurements of PAHs showed that low molecular weight PAHs were at higher concentrations in the airborne particulate soot than in the residue solid ash for all types of plastic. Higher-ringed PAHs were detected at higher

  6. Use of Incineration Solid Waste Bottom Ash as Cement Mixture in Cement Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, N. H.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Jin, T. S.; Kadir, A. A.; Tugui, C. A.; Sandu, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Incineration solid waste bottom ash was use to examine the suitability as a substitution in cement production. This study enveloped an innovative technology option for designing new equivalent cement that contains incineration solid waste bottom ash. The compressive strength of the samples was determined at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days. The result was compared to control cement with cement mixture containing incineration waste bottom ash where the result proved that bottom ash cement mixture able achieve its equivalent performance compared to control cement which meeting the requirement of the standards according to EN 196-1. The pozzolanic activity index of bottom ash cement mixture reached 0.92 at 28 days and 0.95 at 90 and this values can be concluded as a pozzolanic material with positive pozzolanic activity. Calcium hydroxide in Portland cement decreasing with the increasing replacement of bottom ash where the reaction occur between Ca(OH)2 and active SiO2.

  7. Prevention of trace and major element leaching from coal combustion products by hydrothermally-treated coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnadjevic, B.; Popovic, A.; Mikasinovic, B. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    The most important structural components of coal ash obtained by coal combustion in 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant located near Belgrade (Serbia) are amorphous alumosilicate, alpha-quartz, and mullite. The phase composition of coal ash can be altered to obtain zeolite type NaA that crystallizes in a narrow crystallization field (SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; Na{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2}; H{sub 2}O/Na{sub 2}O ratios). Basic properties (crystallization degree, chemical composition, the energy of activation) of obtained zeolites were established. Coal ash extracts treated with obtained ion-exchange material showed that zeolites obtained from coal ash were able to reduce the amounts of iron, chromium, nickel, zinc, copper, lead, and manganese in ash extracts, thus proving its potential in preventing pollution from dump effluent waters.

  8. Decommissioning Combustible Waste Treatment using Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byungyoun; Lee, Yoonji; Yun, Gyoungsu; Lee, Kiwon; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of treatment for the decommissioning combustible waste in KAERI and for the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning combustible wastes generated by the decommissioning projects. The incineration technology has been selected for the treatment of combustible wastes. About 34 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. Temperature, pressure of major components, stack gas concentration, i. e., SOx, NOx, CO, CO{sub 2} and HCl, and the residual oxygen were measured. Measured major parameters during normal operation were sustained on a stable status within a criteria operation condition. Oxygen enriched air, 22vol. % (dry basis) was used for stable incineration. The volume reduction ratio has achieved about 1/117. The incineration with decommissioning radioactive combustible waste is possible with moderate oxygen enrichment of 22 vol.% (dry basis) into the supply air. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas. The pressure, off-gas flow and temperature of major components remained constant within the range specified. The measures gases and particulate materials in stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved volume reduction ratio through incineration is about 1/117.

  9. 40 CFR 60.1010 - Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit? 60.1010 Section 60.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August 30....1010 Does this subpart apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? Yes, if your municipal waste...

  10. Mechanisms contributing to the thermal analysis of waste incineration bottom ash and quantification of different carbon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2013-02-01

    The focus of this study was to identify the main compounds affecting the weight changes of bottom ash (BA) in conventional loss on ignition (LOI) tests and to obtain a better understanding of the individual processes in heterogeneous (waste) materials such as BA. Evaluations were performed on BA samples from a refuse derived fuel incineration (RDF-I) plant and a hospital waste incineration (HW-I) plant using thermogravimetric analysis and subsequent mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of the gaseous thermal decomposition products. Results of TG-MS analysis on RDF-I BA indicated that the LOI measured at 550°C was due to moisture evaporation and dehydration of Ca(OH)(2) and hydrocalumite. Results for the HW-I BA showed that LOI at 550°C was predominantly related to the elemental carbon (EC) content of the sample. Decomposition of CaCO(3) around 700°C was identified in both materials. In addition, we have identified reaction mechanisms that underestimate the EC and overestimate the CaCO(3) contents of the HW-I BA during TG-MS analyses. These types of artefacts are expected to occur also when conventional LOI methods are adopted, in particular for materials that contain CaO/Ca(OH)(2) in combination with EC and/or organic carbon, such as e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom and fly ashes. We suggest that the same mechanisms that we have found (i.e. in situ carbonation) can also occur during combustion of the waste in the incinerator (between 450 and 650°C) demonstrating that the presence of carbonate in bottom ash is not necessarily indicative for weathering. These results may also give direction to further optimization of waste incineration technologies with regard to stimulating in situ carbonation during incineration and subsequent potential improvement of the leaching behavior of bottom ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Loya, E Ivan; Allouche, Erez N; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5

  12. Investigation of additives for preventing ash fouling and sintering during barley straw combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liang; Skreiberg, Øyvind; Becidan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Formation of potassium chloride reduces ash sintering temperature and causes fouling deposits in biomass combustion applications. In the present work, the capacity of two mineral additives zeolite 24A and kaolin to capture KCl were investigated. A series of thermogravimetric experiments were carried out to measure fractions of KCl retained in the two additives as function of reaction temperature and heating time. The residues from additive-KCl mixtures after heating treatment were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). When heated at 900 °C for 1 h, the overall KCl capturing efficiencies of the two additives were 60% and 45% for zeolite 24A and kaolin respectively, which slightly decreased to 50% and 43% as the heating time increased to 12 h. At 1000 °C, the fractions of KCl captured by zeolite 24A and kaolin significantly decreased from 50% and 40% to 26% and 17%, as the KCl-additive mixtures were heated for 1 and 12 h, respectively. The decrease in of the overall KCl capturing efficiencies is mainly attributed to reduction of surface areas and chemically active compounds of the two additives with increasing temperature and heating time. The XRD analysis results showed that both zeolite 24A and kaolin can react with KCl to form different potassium aluminium silicates. It indicates that chemical reactions play an important role in the overall capturing process. The effects of zeolite 24A and kaolin on sintering behaviors of the barley straw ash were also investigated. The residues from sintering tests were analyzed by a combination of X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX). The barley straw ash melted intensively at elevated temperatures. Together with XRD analysis, the SEM-EDX analysis results revealed that severe melting of the barley straw ash was due to formation and fusion of low temperature melting potassium silicates. Addition of kaolin and zeolite 24A significantly

  13. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  14. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O' Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the

  16. Beneficial Use and Recycling of Municipal Waste Combustion Residues - A Comprehensive Resource Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, C.; Shepherd, P.

    1999-04-26

    This document summarizes information from worldwide sources on the beneficial use of residues from the combustion of municipal. The information presented, including results of numerous research projects, field demonstrations, and actual full-scale projects, demonstrates that the ash can be safely used. It includes data on ash characteristics, environmental considerations, guidance on selected ash use applications, and information on federal and state regulations and policies affecting ash use.

  17. Experimental evaluation of main emissions during coal processing waste combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Legros, Jean C; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    The total volume of the coal processing wastes (filter cakes) produced by Russia, China, and India is as high as dozens of millions of tons per year. The concentrations of CO and CO 2 in the emissions from the combustion of filter cakes have been measured directly for the first time. They are the biggest volume of coal processing wastes. There have been many discussions about using these wastes as primary or secondary components of coal-water slurries (CWS) and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP). Boilers have already been operationally tested in Russia for the combustion of CWSP based on filter cakes. In this work, the concentrations of hazardous emissions have been measured at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1000°С. The produced CO and CO 2 concentrations are shown to be practically constant at high temperatures (over 900°С) for all the coal processing wastes under study. Experiments have shown the feasibility to lowering the combustion temperatures of coal processing wastes down to 750-850°С. This provides sustainable combustion and reduces the CO and CO 2 emissions 1.2-1.7 times. These relatively low temperatures ensure satisfactory environmental and energy performance of combustion. Using CWS and CWSP instead of conventional solid fuels significantly reduces NO x and SO x emissions but leaves CO and CO 2 emissions practically at the same level as coal powder combustion. Therefore, the environmentally friendly future (in terms of all the main atmospheric emissions: CO, CO 2 , NO x , and SO x ) of both CWS and CWSP technologies relies on low-temperature combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste using high-calcium fly ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogburn, C.O.; Hodgson, L.M.; Ragland, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of using calcium-rich fly ash from coal-fired power plants in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was examined. The proposed areas of use were: (1) fly-ash cement as a trench lining material; (2) fly ash as a backfill material; and (3) fly ash as a liquid waste solidifier. The physical properties of fly-ash cement were determined to be adequate for trench liner construction, with compressive strengths attaining greater than 3000 psi. Hydraulic conductivities were determined to be less than that for clay mineral deposits, and were on the order of 10 -7 cm/sec, with some observed values as low as 10 -9 cm/sec. Removal of radioisotopes from acidified solutions by fly ash was good for all elements tested except cesium. The removal of cesium by fly ash was similar to that of montmorillonite clay. The corrosive effects on metals in fly ash environments was determined to be slight, if not non-existent. Coatings at the fly-ash/metal interfaces were observed which appeared to inhibit or diminish corrosion. The study has indicated that high-calcium fly ash appears to offer considerable potential for improved retention of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow land disposal sites. Further tests are needed to determine optimum methods of use. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Processing of combustible radioactive waste using incineration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestas, E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Member countries numerous incineration concepts are being studied as potential methods for conditioning alpha-bearing and other types of combustible radioactive waste. The common objective of these different processes is volume reduction and the transformation of the waste to a more acceptable waste form. Because the combustion processes reduce the mass and volume of waste to a form which is generally more inert than the feed material, the resulting waste can be more uniformly compatible with safe handling, packaging, storage and/or disposal techniques. The number of different types of combustion process designed and operating specifically for alpha-bearing wastes is somewhat small compared with those for non-alpha radioactive wastes; however, research and development is under way in a number of countries to develop and improve alpha incinerators. This paper provides an overview of most alpha-incineration concepts in operation or under development in OECD/NEA Member countries. The special features of each concept are briefly discussed. A table containing characteristic data of incinerators is presented so that a comparison of the major programmes can be made. The table includes the incinerator name and location, process type, capacity throughput, operational status and application. (author)

  2. Synergistic effect of fly ash in in-vessel composting of biomass and kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyapu, Vivek; Mandpe, Ashootosh; Kumar, Sunil

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to utilize coal fly ash for its property to adsorb heavy metals and thus reducing the bioavailability of the metals for plant uptake. Fly ash was incorporated into the in-vessel composting system along with organic waste. The in-vessel composting experiments were conducted in ten plastic vessels of 15 L capacity comprising varying proportions of biomass waste, kitchen waste and fly ash. In this study, maximum degradation of organic matter was observed in Vessel 3 having k value of 0.550 d -1 . In vessel 10, 20% fly ash with a combination of 50% biomass waste and 30% kitchen waste along with the addition of 5% jaggery as an additive produced the best outcome with least organic matter (%C) loss and lowest value of rate constant (k). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  4. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  5. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Allen, C.R.; Blasewitz, A.G.

    1977-11-01

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester, a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  6. Municipal solid waste combustion: Fuel testing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushnell, D.J.; Canova, J.H.; Dadkhah-Nikoo, A.

    1990-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen and characterize potential biomass fuels from waste streams. This will be accomplished by determining the types of pollutants produced while burning selected municipal waste, i.e., commercial mixed waste paper residential (curbside) mixed waste paper, and refuse derived fuel. These materials will be fired alone and in combination with wood, equal parts by weight. The data from these experiments could be utilized to size pollution control equipment required to meet emission standards. This document provides detailed descriptions of the testing methods and evaluation procedures used in the combustion testing and characterization project. The fuel samples will be examined thoroughly from the raw form to the exhaust emissions produced during the combustion test of a densified sample.

  7. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Allen, C.R.; Blasewitz, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  8. Experimental Studies on Combustion Characteristics of Mixed Municipal Solid Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Jiang; Zhonggang Pan; Shi Liu; Haigang Wang

    2003-01-01

    In our country, municipal solid wastes (MSW) are always burnt in their original forms and only a few pretreatments are taken. Therefore it is vital to study the combustion characteristics of mixed waste. In this paper,thermogravimetric analysis and a lab scale fluidized bed facility were used as experimental means. The data in two different experimental systems were introduced and compared. It took MSW 3~3.5 rain to burn out in FB, but in thermogravimetric analyzer, the time is 20~25 min. It can be concluded that, in general, the behavior of a mixture of waste in TGA can be expressed by simple combination of individual components of the waste mixtures.Only minor deviations from the rule were observed. Yet, in Fluidized Bed, it was found that, for some mixtures,there was interference among the components during fluidized bed combustion.

  9. Lightweight Brick by Carbon Ash from The Mixed Plastic Waste Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the mixed plastic waste from the production of light carbon ash bricks performance. The mixed waste plastic pyrolysis process generated waste - Carbon ash. After extrusion, a Lightweight brick was made by carbon ash, additive and Cement mortar. In general, the set compressive strength and insulation effect of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set water absorption and thermal conductivity of lightweight bricks with carbon ash proportion for significant impact. The set density of lightweight brick ameliorates with M3824 additive and CM3 cement mortar for significant impact. Under conditions of technology and economic, the results of this study as reference for market-oriented marketing and commercialization of production.

  10. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The resultsare presented of plasma processing slag and ash waste from coal combustion in heating plants. Melting mechanism of ashand slagraw material is considered by an electromagnetic technological reactor. The analysis was conducted of temperature and phase transformations of raw material when it is heated up to the melting point, and also determination of specific energy consumption by using a generalized model of the thermodynamic analysis of TERRA. The study of materials melting temperature conditions and plum of melt was carried with high-temperature thermal imaging method, followed by mapping and 3D-modeling of the temperature fields. The investigations to establish the principal possibilities of using slag waste of local coal as raw material for the production of mineral (ash and slag) fibers found that by chemical composition there are oxides in the following ranges: 45-65% SiO2; 10-25% Al2O3; 10-45% CaO; 5-10% MgO; other minerals (less than 5%). Thus, these technological wastes are principally suitable for melts to produce mineral wool by the plasma method. An analysis of the results shows the melting point of ash and slag waste - 1800-2000 °C. In this case the specific energy consumption of these processes keeps within the limits of 1.1-1.3 kW*h/kg. For comparison it should be noted that the unit cost of electricity in the known high-melting industrial installations 5-6 kW*h/kg. Upon melting ash and slag waste, which contains up to 2-5% of unburned carbon, carbon nanomaterials were discovered.in the form of ultrafine soot accumulating as a plaque on the water-cooled surfaces in the gas cleaning chamber. The process of formation of soot consists in sublimation-desublimation of part of carbon which is in ash and slag, and graphite electrode. Thus, upon melting of ash and slag in the electromagnetic reactor it is possible to obtain melt, and in the subsequent mineral high quality fiber, which satisfies the requirements of normative documents, and

  11. Combustion characteristics and retention-emission of selenium during co-firing of torrefied biomass and its blends with high ash coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Habib; Liu, Guijian; Yousaf, Balal; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Abbas, Qumber; Zhou, Chuncai

    2017-12-01

    The combustion characteristics, kinetic analysis and selenium retention-emission behavior during co-combustion of high ash coal (HAC) with pine wood (PW) biomass and torrefied pine wood (TPW) were investigated through a combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and laboratory-based circulating fluidized bed combustion experiment. Improved ignition behavior and thermal reactivity of HAC were observed through the addition of a suitable proportion of biomass and torrefied. During combustion of blends, higher values of relative enrichment factors in fly ash revealed the maximum content of condensing volatile selenium on fly ash particles, and depleted level in bottom ash. Selenium emission in blends decreased by the increasing ratio of both PW and TPW. Higher reductions in the total Se volatilization were found for HAC/TPW than individual HAC sample, recommending that TPW have the best potential of selenium retention. The interaction amongst selenium and fly ash particles may cause the retention of selenium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low-reactive circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ashes as source material for geopolymer synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Li Qin; Shen Lifeng; Zhang Mengqun; Zhai Jianping

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, low-reactive circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) fly ashes (CFAs) have firstly been utilized as a source material for geopolymer synthesis. An alkali fusion process was employed to promote the dissolution of Si and Al species from the CFAs, and thus to enhance the reactivity of the ashes. A high-reactive metakaolin (MK) was also used to consume the excess alkali needed for the fusion. Reactivities of the CFAs and MK were examined by a series of dissolution tests in sodium hydroxide solutions. Geopolymer samples were prepared by alkali activation of the source materials using a sodium silicate solution as the activator. The synthesized products were characterized by mechanical testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractography (XRD), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of this study indicate that, via enhancing the reactivity by alkali fusion and balancing the Na/Al ratio by additional aluminosilicate source, low-reactive CFAs could also be recycled as an alternative source material for geopolymer production.

  13. Removal of unburned carbon in fly ash produced in coal combustion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez V, Leonardo F; De La Cruz M, Javier F; Sanchez M, Jhon F

    2007-01-01

    The coal unburned in flying ashes obtained in the processes of coal combustion is the main disadvantage for its use in the industry of the construction. This material normally has a size of particle greater than the mineral material, therefore it is possible to be separated in a considerable percentage, obtaining double benefit: the reusability of unburned like fuel or precursor for the activated charcoal production and the use of the mineral material in the industry of the construction since the organic matter has retired him that disables its use. In this work it is experienced with a sifted technique of separation by for three obtained flying ash samples with different technology (travelling Grill, pneumatic injection and overturning grill), were made grain sized analyses with meshes of a diameter of particle greater to 0,589 mm, the short analyses were made to them next to the retained material in each mesh and the unburned percentage of removal was determined of. The technique was compared with other developing.

  14. Investigation of Catalytic effect sewage sludge combustion ash in the formation of HAPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullana, A.; Sidhu, S.; Font, R.; Conesa, A.

    2002-07-01

    Incineration is a very important technique in the treatment of sewage sludge. In 1998 approximately 1,5 million and 2,5 million dry tons of sewage sludge were incinerated in the United States and European Union (EU), respectively. In 1985, only 10% of EU sludge was incinerated, but by 2005 approximately 40% of EU sludge is expected to be incinerated. Use of sewage sludge as agricultural fertilizer was considered the best application for sludge until it was discovered that the presence of heavy metals in sludge could contaminate farmland. The limitations facing landfills and recycling plants and the planned ban on sea disposal has led to the expectation that the role of incineration will increase in the future. The expected increase in sludge incineration has also led to increased scrutiny of the main drawback to the incineration of sewage sludge: the formation of hazard air pollutants (HAP). Sewage sludge incineration has been identified as a very important source of HAPs such as chloro benzenes, chloro phenols, and PCDD/Fs. One of the more important characteristics of sewage sludge incineration is the formation of large amounts of ash, which is rich in known HAP formation catalysts such as Cu and Fe. Thus, the sludge incineration ash is expected to play an important role in the formation of HAPs in the post-combustion zone of a sludge incinerator. in this paper, we present results of our investigation of the catalytic effect of sewage sludge ash on the formation of chloro benzenes and chloro phenols. In this study, pyrolytic gas from sewage sludge was used as reaction gas instead of the synthetic organic mix that has been used in most previous HAPs formation studies. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Characterization and application of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and waste granite powder in alkali activated slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Yuan, B.; Yu, Q. L.; Brouwers, H. J.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of using two solid wastes in alkali activated slag composites as construction and building materials is evaluated. One waste is the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash, and the other one is fine granite powder from aggregate manufacturing. These two

  16. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic solvents by ashes wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gregorio, M.R.; Garcia-Falcon, M.S.; Martinez-Carballo, E. [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gandara, J., E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be formed during the refinery processes of crude petroleum. Their removal is of great importance. The same happens with other organic solvents used for the extraction of PAHs (hexane, acetonitrile...), which can be polluted with PAHs. Kinetic and equilibrium batch sorption tests were used to investigate the effect of wood ashes wastes as compared to activated carbon on the sorption of three representative PAHs from n-hexane and acetonitrile. Mussel shell ashes were discarded for batch sorption experiments because they were the only ashes containing PAHs. The equilibrium time was reached at 16 h. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the PAHs removal process. Our investigation revealed that wood ashes obtained at lower temperature (300 deg. C) did not show any PAHs sorption, while ashes obtained at higher temperature (>500 deg. C) have adsorbent sites readily available for the PAH molecules. An increase in the molecular weight of PAHs has a strong effect on sorption wood ashes wastes. As low the wood ashes particle size as high the sorption of PAHs, as a result of differences in adsorbent sites. The performance of wood ash wastes vs. activated carbon to remove 10 PAHs from organic solvents is competitive in price, and a good way for waste disposal.

  17. Application of thermally activated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines as binder substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    Untreated municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (0–2 mm) have poor pozzolanic properties, and contain substances which can pose an environmental risk (e.g. heavy metals and salts). This study investigates combined treatments applied on bottom ash fines (BAF) to increase their

  18. Properties of municipal solid waste incineration ashes with respect to their separation temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Pavlík, Z.; Tydlitát, V.; Volfová, P.; Švarcová, Silvie; Šyc, Michal; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 10 (2012), s. 1041-1048 ISSN 0734-242X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * fly ash * municipal solid waste incinerator * pozzolanic activity * hydration heat * separation temperature * building industry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.047, year: 2012

  19. Steam generation by combustion of processed waste fats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudel, F.; Lengenfeld, P. [OEHMI Forschung und Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    The use of specially processed waste fats as a fuel oil substitute offers, at attractive costs, an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional disposal like refuse incineration or deposition. For that purpose the processed fat is mixed with EL fuel oil and burned in a standard steam generation plant equipped with special accessories. The measured emission values of the combustion processes are very low.

  20. Prevention of spontaneous combustion of backfilled plant waste material.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adamski, SA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Grootegeluk Coal Mine commenced operation in 1980 all plant discards and inter-burden material have been stacked on discards dumps, a practice that has led to the spontaneous combustion of the waste material on these dumps. From 1980 to 1988...

  1. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Current management practice, existing regulations, and environmental consequences of municipal solid : waste incineration (MSWI) ash utilization were comprehensively reviewed worldwide and nationwide : in the U.S. Efforts were made to physically and ...

  2. Disposal of coal combustion wastes in the hydraulic backfill process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzyna, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of studies regarding the physical properties of selected combustion by-products (CCPs) currently produced in the energy production industry. These properties have been compared with the requirements of the technologies applied in the Polish underground mines. The article gives special consideration to the application of the products in the hydraulic backfill technology. The possibility of using bottom-ashes and slags was considered. The amount of CCPs disposed in Polish hard coal mines is approximately 1.1 million Mg and the tendency is decreasing. In the past two years, approximately 100-150 thousand Mg of CCPs was used in the hydraulic backfill technology. The percentage of the fraction smaller than 0.1 mm is determining for the possibility of using a given type of CCPs in the backfill material. This practically excludes the possibility of using any fly ashes in that technology. In slags from conventional boilers and bottom ashes from fluidized bed boilers the fraction below 0.1 mm constitutes 25% of the total at maximum, which allows for their use in the materials used in hydraulic backfill as a component comprising from 30% to 60%, respectively. Slags (10 01 01) are characterized by the lack of bonding properties, which, in case of open backfill systems that are exposed to atmospheric conditions, constitutes an advantage in comparison to bottom ashes (10 01 24), which in turn definitely exhibit bonding properties. The solution of the problem of using bottom ashes is their supply and application on a current basis.

  3. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 5, Appendix C, Fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This appendix provides information on fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) technology as it has been applied to municipal waste combustion (MWC). A review of the literature was conducted to determine: (1) to what extent FBC technology has been applied to MWC, in terms of number and size of units was well as technology configuration; (2) the operating history of facilities employing FBC technology; and (3) the cost of these facilities as compared to conventional MSW installations. Where available in the literature, data on operating and performance characteristics are presented. Tabular comparisons of facility operating/cost data and emissions data have been complied and are presented. The literature review shows that FBC technology shows considerable promise in terms of providing improvements over conventional technology in areas such as NOx and acid gas control, and ash leachability. In addition, the most likely configuration to be applied to the first large scale FBC dedicated to municipal solid waste (MSW) will employ circulating bed (CFB) technology. Projected capital costs for the Robbins, Illinois 1600 ton per day CFB-based waste-to-energy facility are competitive with conventional systems, in the range of $125,000 per ton per day of MSW receiving capacity.

  4. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  5. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola

    2009-10-15

    The new chemical regulation, REACH (1997/2006/EC), Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals, took effect the 1st of June 2007. The background to this report was the introduction of REACH and the difficulties to understand the implications for ash. The most important consequence of REACH is that all chemical substances that are manufactured, handled and used above one tonne per annum per legal entity shall be registered according to this regulation. The registration includes specifying the chemical, physical, toxicity and ecotoxicity properties of the substance and risk assessing the identified areas of use. The report describes the use of ash in connection to the waste legislation and its planned end-of-waste-criteria, the chemical legislation and the Construction Products Directive. The target audience of this report is companies producing ashes and having a use or seeing a use for its ash. The report describes how to make a REACH registration of ash independent if a company did or did not pre-register ash during 2008. It describes how to change from one ash registration into another if the pre-registration was done for one type of ash but the company changes opinion during the sameness check, i.e. changing SIEF (Appendix A). Taking part in REACH registration projects during 2009-2010 can be advantageous since knowledge and financing are shared. Ash can be REACH registered also in the future but it is important to know that the registration have to be done prior the production and marketing starts. If ash is consider to be a waste the handling is covered by the community and national waste legislation. In Sweden ashes are by and large being regarded as waste, and recycling is risk assessed and permits are given case by case. End-of-waste criteria for different waste material are being elaborated within the EU. Such criteria will among other details cover chemical safety. When a material fulfils the end-of-waste criteria such material

  6. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)

  7. The durability of fired brick incorporating textile factory waste ash and basaltic pumice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binici, Hanifi [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam Univ., Kahramanmaras (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Yardim, Yavuz [Epoka Univ., Tirana (Albania). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2012-07-15

    This study investigates the durability of fired brick produced with additives of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice. The effects of incorporating waste ash and basaltic pumice on durability and mechanical properties of the clay bricks were studied. Samples were produced with different ratios of the textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice added and at different fire temperatures of 700, 900, and 1 050 C for 8 h. The bricks with additives were produced by adding equal amounts of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice, separately and together, with rates of 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The produced samples were kept one year in sodium sulphate and sodium nitrate and tested under freezing - unfreezing and drying - wetting conditions. Then compression strength and mass loss of the samples with and without additives were investigated. The test results were compared with standards and results obtained from control specimens. The results showed that incorporations up to 10 wt.% of textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice is beneficial to the fired brick. Both textile factories' waste ash and basaltic pumice were suitable additives and could be used for more durable clay brick production at 900 C fire temperature. (orig.)

  8. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Crippen, M.D.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10 6 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10 8 ; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450 0 stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N 2 ) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO 2 stack was > 1.5 x 10 6 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  9. Studies of physical behavior, and mechanical rheological mortar and settlement with addition of coating waste of civil construction and fly ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, K.C.; Cardoso, D.N.P.; Souza, J.A. da S.; Felipe, A.M.P.F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of fly ash generated from the combustion of coal in fluidized bed boilers, is being used in construction in partial replacement of Portland cement, due to their pozzolanic activities, thus minimizing the accumulation of such industrial waste generated. We studied the physical, chemical and rheological six mortars in different proportions of cement, construction waste (RCC) and fly ash (CV). For the rheological torque versus time was used viscometer model VT 550, at a temperature of 28 ° C with constant rate 53.4 s-1. Analyses particle size, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and physico-mechanical absorption, porosity, apparent specific gravity and compressive strength. The composition 2 RCC with 90% and 5% CV results showed better resistance and workability. The results revealed an interesting mix in the production of mortars for the construction industry thus minimizing the impacts generated by these wastes. (author)

  10. The synergistic effect in coal/biomass blend briquettes combustion on elements behavior in bottom ash using ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaroiu, G.; Frentiu, T.; Maescu, L.; Mihaltan, A.; Ponta, M.; Frentiu, M.; Cordos, E. [Universitatea Politehnica din Bucuresti, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on the study of the synergistic effect in coal/biomass blend briquettes combustion on behavior of Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co. Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Si, V, W, Zn, Zr and characterization of raw materials and bottom ashes. The manufacturing of coal/biomass briquettes although not commonly used is an attractive approach, as briquettes combustion is more technologically advantageous than the fluidized bed combustion. In the same time this technology is a way to render valuable materials of low calorific power and results in diminishing polluting emission. Raw materials and briquettes from different blends of pitcoal/sawdust were subjected to combustion in a 55 kW-boiler. The total content of elements after digestion in the HNO{sub 3} - HF mixture and the content in water leachate at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:2 were determined both in raw materials and bottom ash by ICP-OES. The total content of elements was higher in pitcoal than in sawdust. The synergistic effect depends both on coal/biomass ratio in blend and element nature. The water leachable fraction of elements from ash decreased along with the increase of sawdust weight excepting macronutrients (K, P) and Si.

  11. Generating a representative signal of coal ash content to anticipate combustion control in a thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Santurio-Diaz, J.M.; Folgueras-Diaz, B.; Lopez-Bobo, M. Rosario; Fernandez-Viar, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal ash in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. An installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, that could faithfully reproduce the operation of a belt feeder. In order to measure the ash content, a natural radioactivity meter was installed and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes were tested, eventually showing the possibility of achieving the objective

  12. Co-combustion of tannery sludge in a commercial circulating fluidized bed boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Jiang, Xuguang; Lv, Guojun; Chi, Yong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-12-01

    Co-combusting hazardous wastes in existing fluidized bed combustors is an alternative to hazardous waste treatment facilities, in shortage in China. Tannery sludge is a kind of hazardous waste, considered fit for co-combusting with coal in fluidized bedboilers. In this work, co-combustion tests of tannery sludge and bituminous coal were conducted in a power plant in Jiaxing, Zhejiang province. Before that, the combustion behavior of tannery sludge and bituminous were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Tannery sludge presented higher reactivity than bituminous coal. During the co-combustion tests, the emissions of harmful gases were monitored. The results showed that the pollutant emissions met the Chinese standard except for NOx. The Concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Pb, Mn) in three exit ash flows (bottom ash in bed, fly ash in filter, and submicrometer aerosol in flue gas) were analyzed. The results of mono-combustion of bituminous coal were compared with those of co-combustion with tannery sludge. It was found that chromium enriched in fly ash. At last, the leachability of fly ash and bottom ash was analyzed. The results showed that most species were almost equal to or below the limits except for As in bottom ashes and Cr in the fly ash of co-combustion test. The concentrations of Cr in leachates of co-combustion ashes are markedly higher than that of coal mono-combustion ashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  14. Emission of nanoparticles during combustion of waste biomass in fireplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drastichová, Vendula; Krpec, Kamil; Horák, Jiří; Hopan, František; Kubesa, Petr; Martiník, Lubomír; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Holubčík, Michal

    2014-08-01

    Contamination of air by solid particles is serious problem for human health and also environment. Small particles in nano-sizes are more dangerous than same weight of larger size. Negative effect namely of the solid particles depends on (i) number, (ii) specific surface area (iii) respirability and (iv) bonding of others substances (e.g. PAHs, As, Cd, Zn, Cu etc.) which are higher for smaller (nano-sizes) particles compared to larger one. For this reason mentioned above this contribution deals with measuring of amount, and distribution of nanoparticles produced form combustion of waste city biomass in small combustion unit with impactor DLPI.

  15. Treatment of Decommissioning Combustible Wastes with Incineration Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y. Min; Yang, D. S.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of management for the decommissioning radioactive combustible and metal waste in KAERI. In Korea, two decommissioning projects were carried out for nuclear research facilities (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and a uranium conversion plant (UCP). Through the two decommissioning projects, lots of decommissioning wastes were generated. Decommissioning waste can be divided into radioactive waste and releasable waste. The negative pressure of the incineration chamber remained constant within the specified range. Off-gas flow and temperature were maintained constant or within the desired range. The measures gases and particulate materials in the stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved average volume reduction ratio during facility operation is about 1/65.

  16. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  17. Combustion of animal or vegetable based liquid waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus

    2002-04-01

    In this project experiences from combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products have been compiled. Legal aspects have also been taken into consideration and the potential for this type of fuel on the Swedish energy market has been evaluated. Today the supply of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products for energy production in Sweden is limited. The total production of animal based liquid fat is about 10,000 tonnes annually. The animal based liquid waste products origin mainly from the manufacturing of meat and bone meal. Since meat and bone meal has been banned from use in animal feeds it is possible that the amount of animal based liquid fat will decrease. The vegetable based liquid waste products that are produced in the processing of vegetable fats are today used mainly for internal energy production. This result in limited availability on the commercial market. The potential for import of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products is estimated to be relatively large since the production of this type of waste products is larger in many other countries compared to Sweden. Vegetable oils that are used as food or raw material in industries could also be imported for combustion, but this is not reasonable today since the energy prices are relatively low. Restrictions allow import of SRM exclusively from Denmark. This is today the only limit for increased imports of animal based liquid fat. The restrictions for handle and combustion of animal and vegetable based liquid waste products are partly unclear since this is covered in several regulations that are not easy to interpret. The new directive for combustion of waste (2000/76/EG) is valid for animal based waste products but not for cadaver or vegetable based waste products from provisions industries. This study has shown that more than 27,400 tonnes of animal based liquid waste products and about 6,000 tonnes of vegetable based liquid waste products were used for combustion in Sweden

  18. Leaching of coal solid waste; Lixiviacion de Residuos de Combustion de Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Combustion process to generate electrical energy in Thermal power Stations causes a big volume of solid wastes. Their store and removal has to be check for possible risks in the Environment. In this study, ashes and slags from eleven Spanish Thermal power Station has been selected. Physical chemical assays have been developed for determining twenty four parameters by; ionic chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometry liquid chromatography. (HPLC): UV and selective electrodes, selective electrodes espectrophotometry. Moreover, six biological tests have been realized: Bioluminescence with Photobacterium phosphoreum, Daphnia magna assay. Inhibition on Algae, Inhibition of respiration of Activated Sludges, Acute Toxicity on Fish and Earth-worm Toxicity tests. Samples treatment has been carrying out by two leaching methods: 1 o EP and DIN 38414-4 No toxic level has been found for physical-chemical parameters. The CE50 values of biological tests have allowed to stablish organisms sensibilities to waste samples, differences between ashes and slags and relationship between the carbon type and his effects on the biological organisms. (Author)

  19. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  20. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  1. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  2. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  3. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit, then...

  4. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...

  5. Mercury emission monitoring on municipal waste combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Gerig, A.

    1991-01-01

    In waste incineration, mercury is the only heavy metal to be released as a gas, mostly as mercury(II) chloride, because of its high volatility. Continuous emission monitoring is possible only when mercury occurs in its elemental form. This paper reports on various possibilities of converting Hg(II) into Hg(0) that has been studied and tested on a laboratory scale and in the TAMARA refuse incineration pilot facility. Continuous mercury emission measurement appears to be possible, provided mercury is converted in the flue gas condensate precipitated. The measuring results obtained on two municipal solid waste and on one sewage treatment sludge incineration plants show that the mercury monitor is a highly sensitive and selective continuously working instrument for mercury emission monitoring

  6. Investigation of a process for the pyrolysis of plutonium contaminated combustible solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longstaff, B.; Cains, P.W.; Elliot, M.N.; Taylor, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Pyrolysis offers an attractive first-stage alternative to incineration as a means of weight and volume reduction of solide combustible waste P.C.M, if it is required to recover plutonium from the final product. The avoidance of turbulent conditions associated with incineration should lead to less carry-over of particulates, and the lower operating temperature approximately 700 0 C should be most advantageous to the choice of constructional materials and to plant life. The char product from pyrolysis may be oxidised to a final ash at similarly acceptable low temperatures by passing air over a stirred bed of materials. The recently received draft designs for a cyclone after-burner (plus associated scrubbers and filters etc) offer an attractive method of dispensing of the volatile products of pyrolysis

  7. Combustion of palm oil solid waste in fluidized bed combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of fluidized bed combustion of palm oil wastes consisting of shell, fibre and empty fruit bunches high heating value of 17450 kJ/kg and low heating value of 14500 kJ/kg. The fluidized bed combuster used has a vessel size of 486 x 10 6 mm 3 , surface area of evaporation tubes and distribution air pipes of 500 mm 2 and 320 mm 2 respectively. It was found that a fuel feeding rate 160 kg/h is required to achieve a steam flow rate of 600 kg/h, with the combustion efficiency 96% and boiler efficiency of 72%, emission level of flue gas NO x at less than 180 ppm, SO 2 at less than 20 ppm are measured in the flue gas. (Author)

  8. Increase in efficiency and reduction of generation cost at hard coal-fired power plants. Post-combustion of combustion residues from co-firing of RDF and biomass during dry ash removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Guenter [Magaldi Power GmbH, Esslingen (Germany); Spindeldreher, Olaf [RWE Generation SE, Werne (Germany); RWE Generation SE, Essen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Secondary as well as substitute fuels are being used in hard coal-fired power plants to improve efficiency and to enlarge fuel flexibility. However, grinding and firing systems of the existing coal-fired plants are not designed for those co-fuels. Any deterioration of the combustion performance would reduce the power output and increase ash disposal costs by increased content of combustion residues. The application of air-cooled ash removal, with simultaneous and controlled post-combustion of unburned residues on the conveyor belt, enlarges the furnace and maintains combustion efficiency even with different fuel qualities. Plant efficiency can also be increased through heat recovery. (orig.)

  9. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  10. Combustion of mediterranean agro-forest biomasses in small and medium scale pellet boilers: strategies for minimizing ash fusion and slagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Nieva, Daniel J.; Dopazo, Raquel; Ortiz, Luis [Forest Engineering Univ. School. Univ. of Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)], e-mail: DanielJVN@gmail.com

    2012-11-01

    The slagging and fouling risk remain as important barriers that are currently limiting the use of various agricultural residues and potential energy crops feedstocks (e.g. [1-3]), which remain largely unutilized, particularly in Mediterranean countries. In this oral communication, the main results from the VI Framework European Project Domoheat on the combustion of mediterranean biomasses and its mixtures on small and medium size domestic pellet boilers, are presented, together with the goals of the ongoing VII Framework European Project AshMelT focusing on the definition of objective criteria and tests for ash slagging in domestic pellet boilers. The utilization of ash slagging indices based on ash composition and the definition of biomass mixtures based on such ash indices are presented as potentially useful tools for minimizing the occurrence of ash fusion and slagging during combustion.

  11. Combustion of cork waste in a circulating fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Boavida, D.; Miranda, M.; Cabrita, I. [Dept. de Tecnologias de Combustao, ITE-INETI, Lisboa (Portugal); Abelha, P. [Coaltec e Ambiente, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1999-07-01

    There is currently an ongoing joint project between Portugal and Spain, which is being funded by the FAIR programme. The principal objective of the FAIR project is to investigate the application of the fluidised bed combustion (FBC) technology to burn cork wastes with the aim of overcoming the difficulties currently experienced in the cork processing industries. The combustion studies at INETI were carried out using the 300 kW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed facility. The combustor is square in cross section with each side being 0.3 m long. The combustor height is 5 m. The temperatures in the bed, the riser and that of the flue gases leaving the reactor were continuously monitored. The combustion gases leaving the reactor passed through the recycling cyclone first to capture most of particulates elutriated out of the combustor. The solid particles were intermittently collected for analysis to determine the amount of carbon present, which helped the combustion efficiency to be calculated. Instantaneous measurements of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, N{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} present levels in the flue gases were also carried out. The combustion tests were done with both the cork waste dust and granular virgin cork. The difference is that cork dust gets contaminated during the process due to the use of various additives. Most of the combustion took place in the riser where the temperature was at times up to 523 K above that of the bed. The unburned carbon level was low ranging from about 1.5 to 2.% suggesting that most of the particles burned to completion in the riser. (orig.)

  12. The rare earth elements in municipal solid waste incinerators ash and promising tools for their prospecting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Vigliotti, Luigi [Istituto di Scienze Marine (ISMAR-CNR)—National Research Council, Via Piero Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry—Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA)—University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The REE concentrations of bottom and fly ashes from municipal incinerators are investigated. • First attempt toward discriminating the magnetic signature (susceptibility) of ashes from incinerators. • New methods and parameters for REE prospecting, which can be determined quickly and with limited costs, are provided. - Abstract: Bottom and fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI) are hazardous products that present concern for their safe management. An attractive option to reduce their impact both on the environment and the financial commitment is turning MSWI ashes into secondary raw materials. In this study we present the REE content and distribution of bottom and fly ashes from MSWI after a highly effective digestion method and samples analysis by ICP–MS. The chondrite-normalised REE patterns of MSWI bottom and fly ash are comparable with that of crustal averages, suggesting a main geogenic source. Deviations from typical crustal pattern (e.g., Eu, Tb) disclose a contribution of likely anthropogenic provenance. The correlation with major elements indicates possible sources for REE and facilitates a preliminary resource assessment. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility measurements can be a useful prospecting method in urban ores made of MSWI ashes. The relationship between REE and some influencing parameters (e.g., Pricing Influence Factor) emphasises the importance of MSWI ash as alternative source of REE and the need of further efforts for REE recovery and purification from low concentrations but high flows waste.

  13. Drying wood waste with a pulse combustion dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkowski, A.G. [Spectrum Engineering Corp., Ltd., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada); Kitchen, J.A. [John A. Kitchen, Ltd., Hastings, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    There is a vast amount of wood waste available to be used as an alternate fuel if its moisture could be reduced efficiently. Tests have been conducted to assess an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste; specifically sawdust and pulverized wet hog fuel. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, and low NO{sub x} emissions. The material is injected into the exhaust gases in the tailpipe of the combustor which uses natural gas or propane as a fuel. The turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The materials is further dried in a rotary drum. The material has been dried without scorching or burning in tests where the inlet moisture content has been as high as 60% on a wet basis. The outlet moisture contents achieved have typically been 10%. Analysis of the test data and cost estimates of the equipment indicate that the pulse combustion drying system is at least comparable to existing systems in terms of operating costs, and offers very significant savings in capital costs. Testing with various other materials such as wood pulp, sludges and peat is continuing to further assess the equipment`s performance.

  14. Bioleaching of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration using kitchen waste saccharified solution as culture medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, S.; Juan, W.; Qunhui, W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Reduced sugar in saccharified solution from kitchen waste was used as the carbon source. Domesticated A. niger AS 3.879C , which can withstand 20% of kitchen waste, was used as the inoculum in the bioleaching process of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The effect of reduced sugar concentration, fly ash concentration, and medium volume on the heavy metal extraction and yield of fly ash as well as the optimum bioleaching conditions; the inoculation amount of AS 3 .879C 1% (v/v), reduced sugar concentration of 80 g/l, fly ash concentration of 20 g/l, medium volume of 200 ml, and the addition of fly ash (20 g/l) after culturing for 4 days at 30 degree C and 140 r/min were obtained. Under the optimum condition, the extraction yield of the seven tested heavy metals are in the order of Cd > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Fe; the extraction yield of Cd and Zn reached 88.7% and 73.1% respectively. Fly ash satisfied the Standard for Pollution Control on the Security Landfill Site for Hazardous Wastes (GB 18598-2001) after heavy metal extraction. (author)

  15. The Impact of Coal Combustion Fly Ash Used as a Supplemental Cementitious Material on the Leaching of Constituents from Cements and Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this report is to compare the leaching of portland cement-based materials that have been prepared with and without coal combustion fly ash to illustrate whether there is evidence that the use of fly ash in cement and concrete products may result in increased leac...

  16. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging.

  17. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-08-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 235U, 238U, 226Ra, 228Ra and 232Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232Th, 228Ra and 40K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

  18. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R.

    2008-01-01

    West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides 40 K, 235 U, 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 232 Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for 232 Th, 228 Ra and 40 K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose

  19. Oxidation kinetics of the combustible fraction of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N B; Lin, K S; Sun, Y P; Wang, H P

    2001-01-01

    Proper disposal of construction and demolition wastes (CDW) has received wide attention recently due to significantly large quantities of waste streams collected from razed or retrofitted buildings in many metropolitan regions. Burning the combustible fractions of CDW (CCDW) and possibly recovering part of the heat content for economic uses could be valuable for energy conservation. This paper explores the oxidation kinetics of CCDW associated with its ash characterization. Kinetic parameters for the oxidation of CCDW were numerically calculated using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the resultant rate equations were therefore developed for illustrating the oxidation processes of CCDW simultaneously. Based on three designated heating rates, each of the oxidation processes can be featured distinctively with five different stages according to the rate of weight change at the temperature between 300 K and 923 K. In addition, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed, associated with a lab-scale fixed-bed incinerator for monitoring the composition of flue gas. Carbon dioxide (CO2) was found as a major component in the flue gas. The fuel analysis also included an ash composition analysis via the use of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). The ash streams were identified as nonhazardous materials based on the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Overall, the scientific findings gained in this study will be helpful for supporting a sound engineering design of real-world CCDW incineration systems.

  20. Sieving of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash; Siktning av askor fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorovic, Jelena

    2010-07-01

    Waste-to-Energy is steadily increasing in Sweden and more than 46 % of municipal solid waste (MSW) is being incinerated. Solid residues from MSW incineration (MSWI) mainly constitute of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Bottom ashes from MSWI amounted to 0.7 millions of tons and APC residues to 0.2 millions of tons in 2008. Bottom ashes from MSWI contain pollutants like metals (e.g. Pb, Zn, Cu), metalloids (e.g. As, Se), elements forming oxyanions (e.g. Sb, Cr, Mo) and easily soluble salts like chlorides and sulphates. These constituents can leach out polluting the environment if ash comes in contact with water. Treatment methods for decreasing the amount of pollutants in ashes or their mobility are therefore needed. Sieving was investigated as a separate or a complementary treatment method for MSWI ashes. Hypothesis was that the large share of pollutant concentrations could be removed from the ashes through separation of the finest fractions. The rest is less harmful to the environment, more acceptable as secondary construction material or less costly to landfill. Investigation included three MSWI ashes, namely bottom ash from Boraas Energy och Miljoe's plant with fluid bad, boiler ash from the same plant and bottom ash from Renova's stocker grate type plant. Ashes were sieved in 2-4 size fractions. Total content of pollutants and their leachability (batch leaching test, L/S=10 l/kg) was assessed for each of the fractions. Leaching results were compared to limit values stipulated by Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for acceptance of waste at landfills as wells as to recommendations for reuse of waste as a construction material. Results from bottom ash from the stocker grate type incinerator and from the boiler ash confirm the hypothesis that pollutants leach out in higher concentrations from the finer fractions. A large amount of pollutant could be removed from the ashes through sieving, but the goal to produce a fraction that

  1. Heavy metal content of combustible municipal solid waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Christian; Fredriksen, Gry S; Christensen, Thomas H

    2005-04-01

    Data on the heavy metal composition of outlets from Danish incinerators was used to estimate the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Hg in combustible waste (wet as received) at 14 Danish incinerators, representing about 80% of the waste incinerated in Denmark. Zn (1020 mg kg(-1)), Cu (620 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (370 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest concentration, whereas Hg (0.6 mg kg(-1)) showed the lowest concentration. The variation among the incinerators was in most cases within a factor of two to three, except for Cr that in two cases showed unexplained high concentrations. The fact that the data represent many incinerators and, in several cases, observations from a period of 4 to 5 years provides a good statistical basis for evaluating the content of heavy metals in combustible Danish waste. Such data may be used for identifying incinerators receiving waste with high concentrations of heavy metals suggesting the introduction of source control, or, if repeated in time, the data must also be used for monitoring the impacts of national regulation controlling heavy metals. It is recommended that future investigations consider the use of sample digestion methods that ensure complete digestion in order to use the data for determining the total heavy metal content of waste.

  2. Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - Experimental part. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2003-08-01

    This final report covers the work that has been performed within the project P 10547-2, 'Catalytic combustion of gasified waste - system analysis ORWARE'. This project is part of the research programme 'Energy from Waste' financed by the Swedish National Energy Administration. The project has been carried out at the division of Industrial Ecology and at the division of Chemical Technology at Royal Inst. of Technology. The aim of the project has been to study the potentials for catalytic combustion of gasified waste. The supposed end user of the technique is a smaller community in Sweden with 15,000-20,000 inhabitants. The project contains of two sub projects: an experimental part carried out at Chemical Technology and a system analysis carried out at Industrial Ecology. This report covers the experimental part of the project carried out at Chemical Technology. The aim for the experimental part has been to develop and test catalysts with long life-time and a high performance, to reduce the thermal-NO{sub x} below 5 ppm and to significantly reduce NO{sub x} formed from fuel-bound nitrogen. Different experimental studies have been carried out within the project: a set-up of catalytic materials have been tested over a synthetic mixture of the gasified waste, the influence of sulfur present in the gas stream, NO{sub x} formation from fuel bound nitrogen, kinetic studies of CO and H{sub 2} with and without the presence of water and the effects of adding a co-metal to palladium catalysts Furthermore a novel annular reactor design has been used to carry out experiments for kinetic measurements. Real gasification tests of waste pellets directly coupled to catalytic combustion have successfully been performed. The results obtained from the experiments, both the catalytic combustion and from the gasification, have been possible to use in the system analysis. The aim of the system analysis of catalytic combustion of gasified waste takes into consideration

  3. Beyond waste: new sustainable fillers from fly ashes stabilization, obtained by low cost raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rodella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www.cosmos-rice.csmt.eu. This process is based on a chemical reaction that occurs properly mixing three waste fly ashes with rice husk ash, an agricultural by-product. COSMOS inert can replace critical raw materials (i.e. silica, fluorspar, clays, bentonite, antimony and alumina as filler. Moreover the materials employed in the stabilization procedure may be not available in all areas. This paper investigates the possibility of substituting silica fume with corresponding condensed silica fume and to substitute flue-gas desulfurization (FGD residues with low-cost calcium hydroxide powder. The removal of coal fly ash was also considered. The results will be presented and a possible substitution of the materials to stabilize fly ash will be discussed.

  4. Solidification/stabilization of ash from medical waste incineration into geopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakos, Konstantinos; Mimilidou, Aliki; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Stratakis, Antonis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, bottom and fly ash, generated from incinerated medical waste, was used as a raw material for the production of geopolymers. The stabilization (S/S) process studied in this paper has been evaluated by means of the leaching and mechanical properties of the S/S solids obtained. Hospital waste ash, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate solution and metakaolin were mixed. Geopolymers were cured at 50°C for 24h. After a certain aging time of 7 and 28 days, the strength of the geopolymer specimens, the leachability of heavy metals and the mineralogical phase of the produced geopolymers were studied. The effects of the additions of fly ash and calcium compounds were also investigated. The results showed that hospital waste ash can be utilized as source material for the production of geopolymers. The addition of fly ash and calcium compounds considerably improves the strength of the geopolymer specimens (2-8 MPa). Finally, the solidified matrices indicated that geopolymerization process is able to reduce the amount of the heavy metals found in the leachate of the hospital waste ash. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-combustible waste vitrification with plasma torch melter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J K; Moon, Y P; Park, B C; Song, M J; Ko, K S; Cho, J M

    2001-05-01

    Non-combustible radioactive wastes generated from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are composed of concrete, glass, asbestos, metal, sand, soil, spent filters, etc. The melting tests for concrete, glass, sand, and spent filters were carried out using a 60 kW plasma torch system. The surrogate wastes were prepared for the tests. Non-radioactive Co and Cs were added to the surrogates in order to simulate the radioactive waste. Several kinds of surrogate prepared by their own mixture or by single waste were melted with the plasma torch system to produce glassy waste forms. The characteristics of glassy waste forms were examined for the volume reduction factor (VRF) and the leach rate. The VRFs were estimated through the density measurement of the surrogates and the glassy waste forms, and were turned out to be 1.2-2.4. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was used to determine the leach resistance for As, Ba, Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, Se, Co, and Cs. The leaching index was calculated using the total content of each element in both the waste forms and the leachant. The TCLP tests resulted in that the leach rates for all elements except Co and Cs were lower than those of the Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limits. There were no UTS limits for Co and Cs, and their leach rate & index from the experiments were resulted in around 10 times higher than those of other elements.

  6. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  8. Lauryl Amine as heavy metal collector of boiler ash from pulp and paper mill waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. P.; Kaban, J.; Bangun, N.; Saputra, E.

    2018-04-01

    Theincreasing of demand of pulp and paper products, will following with the growing the pulp and paper industryand generate significant mill waste. The total waste reached 1/3 of the amount raw materials used and ash boiler is the waste with the largest percentage of 52%. For that it takes effort to manage the existing waste. The boiler ash contained the chemical elements, it can be utilized such as fertilizer, because it also contains transition metals in form of heavy metal such as Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chrome (Cr), Cupprum (Cu), Ferrum (Fe), Nickel (Ni), and Zinc (Zn), the use of boiler ash must follow the threshold specified by the Government. Several studies have been undertaken to reduce and extract heavy metals from ash and sand of the boiler by using carbon dioxide as its ligand. Eelectrochemical method was used to remove and recovery of heavy metals from the incenerator. This study focused on removal of heavy metals using Lauryl Amine as collector and three solvents namely Dichloromethane, Ethanol and n-Hexane. The treatmentswas able to extract the heavy metal and generally reduce the heavy metal content of ash boiler pulp and paper mill waste. The combination treatment used toreduce the heavy metal content of 5 gram Lauryl Amine collector in Dichloromethane solvent for 4 hours process time.

  9. Leaching from waste incineration bottom ashes treated in a rotary kiln

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyks, Jiri; Nesterov, Igor; Mogensen, Erhardt

    2011-01-01

    Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash treated in a rotary kiln was quantified using a combination of lab-scale leaching experiments and geochemical modelling. Thermal treatment in the rotary kiln had no significant effect on the leaching of Al, Ba, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr, Zn, sulfate...... the thermal treatment. Overall, rotary kiln thermal treatment of bottom ashes can be recommended to reduce the leaching of Cu, Pb, Cl and DOC; however, increased leaching of Cr and Mo should be expected....

  10. Impact of Coal Fly Ash Addition on Combustion Aerosols (PM2.5) from Full-Scale Suspension-Firing of Pulverized Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damø, Anne Juul; Wu, Hao; Frandsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    The formation of combustion aerosols was studied in an 800 MWth suspension-fired power plant boiler, during combustion of pulverized wood pellets with and without addition of coal fly ash as alkali capture additive. The aerosol particles were sampled and characterized by a low-pressure cascade im...

  11. The effect of low-NOx combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    been combusted in an entrained flow reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NOx formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash......Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has...... by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA...

  12. The impact of municipal waste combustion in small heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantúch, Martin; Kaduchová, Katarína; Lenhard, Richard

    2016-06-01

    At present there is a tendency to make greater use for heating houses for burning solid fuel, such as pieces of wood, coal, coke, local sources of heat to burn natural gas. This tendency is given both the high price of natural gas as well as the availability of cheaper solid fuel. In many cases, in the context saving heating costs, respectively in the context of the disposal of waste is co-incinerated with municipal solid fuels and wastes of different composition. This co entails increased production emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide), NOx (nitrogen oxides), particulate matter (particulate matter), PM10, HCl (hydrogen chloride), PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and others. The experiment was focused on the emission factors from the combustion of fossil fuels in combination with municipal waste in conventional boilers designed to burn solid fuel.

  13. Solidification/stabilization of fly and bottom ash from medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Christopoulos, Konstantinos; Mousios, Epameinontas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2012-03-15

    In the present work, the stabilization/solidification of fly and bottom ash generated from incinerated hospital waste was studied. The objectives of the solidification/stabilization treatment were therefore to reduce the leachability of the heavy metals present in these materials so as to permit their disposal in a sanitary landfill requiring only a lower degree of environmental protection. Another objective of the applied treatment was to increase the mechanical characteristics of the bottom ash using different amounts of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a binder. The solidified matrix showed that the cement is able to immobilize the heavy metals found in fly and bottom ash. The TCLP leachates of the untreated fly ash contain high concentrations of Zn (13.2 mg/l) and Pb (5.21 mg/l), and lesser amounts of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Ba. Cement-based solidification exhibited a compressive strength of 0.55-16.12 MPa. The strength decreased as the percentage of cement loading was reduced; the compressive strength was 2.52-12.7 MPa for 60% cement mixed with 40% fly ash and 6.62-16.12 MPa for a mixture of 60% cement and 40% bottom ash. The compressive strength reduced to 0.55-1.30 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% fly ash, and to 0.90-7.95 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% bottom ash, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15020 - Can my small municipal waste combustion unit be exempt from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if three requirements are met: (1) Your municipal waste combustion unit combusts a single-item waste stream of tires and...) Plastics/rubber recycling units. Your unit is exempt from this subpart if four requirements are met: (1...

  16. PAH emissions from coal combustion and waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Liu, Mei Chen; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Shu Hao; Chang, Moo Been

    2016-11-15

    The characteristics of PAHs that are emitted by a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and coal-fired power plant are examined via intensive sampling. Results of flue gas sampling reveal the potential for PAH formation within the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system of a coal-fired power plant. In the large-scale MWI, the removal efficiency of PAHs achieved with the pilot-scaled catalytic filter (CF) exceeds that achieved by activated carbon injection with a bag filter (ACI+BF) owing to the effective destruction of gas-phase contaminants by a catalyst. A significantly lower PAH concentration (1640ng/g) was measured in fly ash from a CF module than from an ACI+BF system (5650ng/g). Replacing the ACI+BF system with CF technology would significantly reduce the discharge factor (including emission and fly ash) of PAHs from 251.6 to 77.8mg/ton-waste. The emission factors of PAHs that are obtained using ACI+BF and the CF system in the MWI are 8.05 and 7.13mg/ton, respectively. However, the emission factor of MWI is significantly higher than that of coal-fired power plant (1.56mg/ton). From the perspective of total environmental management to reduce PAH emissions, replacing the original ACI+BF process with a CF system is expected to reduce environmental impact thereof. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the particle size distribution and particle density characteristics of Douglas fir hogged fuel fly ash collected under known combustion conditions. Technical Progress Report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, A.J.; Junge, D.C.

    1978-12-01

    The increased interest in wood as a fuel source, coupled with the increasing demand to control the emission generated by wood combustion, has created a need for information characterizing the emissions that occur for given combustion conditions. This investigation characterizes the carbon char and inorganic fly ash size and density distribution for each of thirty-eight Douglas fir bark samples collected under known conditions of combustion.

  18. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  19. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on fired clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible.

  20. Glass Ceramics Composites Fabricated from Coal Fly Ash and Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angjusheva, B.; Jovanov, V.; Srebrenkoska, V.; Fidancevska, E.

    2014-01-01

    Great quantities of coal ash are produced in thermal power plants which present a double problem to the society: economical and environmental. This waste is a result of burning of coal at temperatures between 1100-14500C. Fly ash available as fine powder presents a source of important oxides SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, but also consist of small amount of ecologically hazardous oxides such as Cr2O3, NiO, MnO. The combination of the fly ash with waste glass under controlled sintering procedure gave bulk glass-ceramics composite material. The principle of this procedure is presented as a multi barrier concept. Many researches have been conducted the investigations for utilization of fly ash as starting material for various glass–ceramics production. Using waste glass ecologically hazardous components are fixed at the molecular level in the silicate phase and the fabricated new glass-ceramic composites possess significantly higher mechanical properties. The aim of this investigation was to fabricate dense glass ceramic composites using fly ash and waste glass with the potential for its utilization as building material

  1. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  2. Behavior of radioactive metal surrogates under various waste combustion conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee Chul; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Jung Guk; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the behavior of radioactive metals under the various waste combustion atmospheres was conducted to predict the parameters that influence their partitioning behavior during waste incineration. Neodymium, samarium, cerium, gadolinium, cesium and cobalt were used as non-radioactive surrogate metals that are representative of uranium, plutonium, americium, curium, radioactive cesium, and radioactive cobalt, respectively. Except for cesium, all of the investigated surrogate metal compounds converted into each of their stable oxides at medium temperatures from 400 to 900 .deg. C, under oxygen-deficient and oxygen-sufficient atmospheres (0.001-atm and 0.21-atm O 2 ). At high temperatures above 1,400 .deg. C, cerium, neodymium and samarium in the form of their oxides started to vaporize but the vaporization rates were very slow up to 1500 .deg. C. Inorganic chlorine (NaCl) as well as organic chlorine (PVC) did not impact the volatility of investigated Nd 2 O 3 , CoO and Cs 2 O. The results of laboratory investigations suggested that the combustion chamber operating parameters affecting the entrainment of particulate and filtration equipment operating parameters affecting particle collection efficiency be the governing parameters of alpha radionuclides partitioning during waste incineration

  3. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy recovery of combustible fraction from shredding of wastes containing metals; Energiaatervinning av braennbar fraktion fraan fragmentering av metallhaltigt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne [Stena Metall, Goeteborg (Sweden); Victoren, Anders; Niemi, Jere [Metso Power, Tammerfors (Finland); Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Combustible products from fragmentation are not allowed to be deposited on landfills any more in Sweden. These products have to be material recovered or energy recovered. The combustible fraction from recovered metal scrap, SLF (shredder light fraction), contains metals and the chlorine content is relatively high. Due to this there could be a risk with deposits and corrosion on convection surfaces in combustion plants. Co-combustion with sewage sludge could be a solution for solving problems with the difficult contents in SLF. The aim of the project was to do a theoretical judgment of how sewage sludge could affect deposit formation and corrosion when co-combusted with SLF. Due to the high amount of water in the sewage sludge the percentage of sewage sludge in the fuel mixture was limited. The maximum percentage of energy used was 3.5 % (ca 13% on weight basis). The thermodynamic calculations showed that at combustion with 100% SLF the lead and zinc chlorides in gaseous form increased 5-6 times in comparative with combustion with ordinary waste combustion in Boraas. But as the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations will not consider the kinetics and just calculate independent of time the results should be considered as indicative and not directly comparative to actual boiler conditions. All lead and zinc were assumed reactive which will probably not be the case in a boiler. In the calculations the aluminum was removed from the calculations (not taken into account) and the alkali-phosphor reactions are incomplete due to lack of reliable thermodynamic data. These defiance's should be considered when evaluating the results from the thermodynamic chemical equilibrium calculations as well as the fact that the calculations cannot yet take into account the possible erosive effect the high ash amount could have on the deposits. The calculations showed that co-combusting with SLF (ca 20%) gave high amounts of gaseous lead chlorides. Also high amount of zinc chlorides

  5. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases...

  6. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  7. Differential pulmonary inflammation and in vitro cytotoxicity of size-fractionated fly ash particles from pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ian Gilmour; Silvia O' Connor; Colin A.J. Dick; C. Andrew Miller; William P. Linak [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

    2004-03-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were examined in CD1 mice after intratracheal instillation of 25 or 100 {mu}g of ultrafine ({lt}0.2 {mu}m), fine ({lt}2.5 {mu}m), and coarse ({gt}2.5 {mu}m) coal fly ash from a combusted Montana subbituminous coal, and of fine and coarse fractions from a combusted western Kentucky bituminous coal. After 18 hr, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar fluid was assessed for cellular influx, biochemical markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The responses were compared with saline and endotoxin as negative and positive controls, respectively. On an equal mass basis, the ultrafine particles from combusted Montana coal induced a higher degree of neutrophil inflammation and cytokine levels than did the fine or coarse PM. The western Kentucky fine PM caused a moderate degree of inflammation and protein levels in bronchoalveolar fluid that were higher than the Montana fine PM. Coarse PM did not produce any significant effects. In vitro experiments with rat alveolar macrophages showed that of the particles tested, only the Montana ultrafine displayed significant cytotoxicity. It is concluded that fly ash toxicity is inversely related with particle size and is associated with increased sulfur and trace element content. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. High plant availability of phosphorus and low availability of cadmium in four biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Sørensen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    and ash significantly increased crop yields and P uptake on the P-depleted soil. In contrast, on the adequate-P soil, the barley yield showed little response to soil amendment, even at 300–500 kg P ha− 1 application, although the barley took up more P at higher applications. The apparent P use efficiency...... of the additive was 20% in ryegrass - much higher than that of barley for which P use efficiencies varied on the two soils. Generally, crop Cd concentrations were little affected by the increasing and high applications of ash, except for relatively high Cd concentrations in barley after applying 25 Mg ha− 1 straw...... ash. Contrarily, even modest increases in the TSP application markedly increased Cd uptake in plants. This might be explained by the low Cd solubility in the ash or by the reduced Cd availability due to the liming effect of ash. High concentrations of resin-extractable P (available P) in the ash...

  9. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Elevated standard metabolic rate in a freshwater shrimp (Palaeomonetes paludosus) exposed to trace element-rich coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, C.L. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1998-12-01

    A transplant experiment was conducted to determine whether standard metabolic rate (SMR) of a freshwater shrimp (Palaeomonetes paludosus) would be affected by exposure to trace element-enriched coal combustion waste (coal ash). Shrimp were transplanted into replicate cages in a coal ash-polluted site and a reference site for 8 months. The coal ash-polluted site was characterized by elevated sediment concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Se compared to sediments in the reference site. After 8 months in the study sites, shrimp in the polluted site appeared to have accumulated As, Cd and Se from the habitat, but there were on differences in survival between the study sites. However, mean SMR of shrimp (measured as O{sub 2} consumption at rest) held in the polluted site was 51% higher than mean SMR of shrimp held in the reference site. The elevation in SMR indicates that the energetic costs of maintenance are greater for shrimp chronically exposed to the coal-ash polluted enviorment than shrimp in the reference site. It is likely, therefore, that other physiological or behavioral processes may be modified in the pollution-exposed individuals to compensate for the increased energy demands for maintenance. Recent studies have reported similar elevations in SMR in an amphibian and a reptile chronically exposed to coal ash. Analogous physiological responses in such taxonomically diverse animals (a crustacean, an amphibian, and a reptile) indicate that elevated SMR may be a general response by many types of organisms exposed to the mixture of trace elements characteristic of coal ash. The relationships among pollution-induced elevations in maintenance expenditures, long-term health of individuals, and population-level parameters require further attention. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Investigation of the potential of coal combustion fly ash for mineral sequestration of CO2 by accelerated carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukwattage, N.L.; Ranjith, P.G.; Wang, S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mineral carbonation of alkaline waste materials is being studied extensively for its potential as a way of reducing the increased level of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Carbonation converts CO 2 into minerals which are stable over geological time scales. This process occurs naturally but slowly, and needs to be accelerated to offset the present rate of emissions from power plants and other emission sources. The present study attempts to identify the potential of coal fly ash as a source for carbon storage (sequestration) through ex-situ accelerated mineral carbonation. In the study, two operational parameters that could affect the reaction process were tested to investigate their effect on mineralization. Coal fly ash was mixed with water to different water-to-solid ratios and samples were carbonated in a pressure vessel at different initial CO 2 pressures. Temperature was kept constant at 40 °C. According to the results, one ton of Hazelwood fly ash could sequester 7.66 kg of CO 2 . The pressure of CO 2 inside the vessel has an effect on the rate of CO 2 uptake and the water-to-solid ratio affects the weight gain after the carbonation of fly ash. The results confirm the possibility of the manipulation of process parameters in enhancing the carbonation reaction. - Highlights: ► Mineral sequestration CO 2 by of coal fly ash is a slow process under ambient conditions. ► It can be accelerated by manipulating the process parameters inside a reactor. ► Initial CO 2 pressure and water to solid mixing ratio inside the reactor are two of those operational parameters. ► According to the test results higher CO 2 initial pressure gives higher on rates of CO 2 sequestration. ► Water to fly ash mixing ratio effect on amount of CO 2 sequestered into fly ash

  12. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal

  13. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    that is least soluble. Hence electrodialytic treatment of the ash suspended in water is not a solution to improve the ash quality in terms of Pb. The water-soluble Cl content per unit weight of the original ash was 12.4%. The removal of water-soluble Cl was efficient and >98% of Cl was removed (calculated......The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  14. Leaching behaviour of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: From granular material to monolithic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates. The concentration of pollutants in the leachate from concrete mixtures was lower than regulation limits for reuse. The crushing process significantly influenced the release of pollutants: this behaviour was due both to the increase in surface area and the release of contaminants from cement. Moreover, the increase in contact time (up to 64 days) involved more heavy metals to be released.

  15. Pozzolanic characteristics of municipal solid waste ash | Sanewu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where conventional stabilizing agents like cement and lime have been used, they have considerably increased the cost of construction. It is with this ... Also the ash has to be finely ground prior to use as a pozzolanic material in soil stabilization, so as to increase both its filler and bonding effect. Key words: bonding effect, ...

  16. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: Waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H.

    2013-01-01

    described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating (14C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy......, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the 14C...... method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7–10% (95% confidence interval) for the 14C method and slightly lower for the balance method....

  17. Combustion Characteristics Of Agricultural Waste-Coal Char Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabio, I. O; Danbature W

    2002-01-01

    Shortage of petroleum products, depletion of huge forest reserves for fuel purposes with its attendant erosion problems and other environmental considerations have necessitated investigations into other sources of fuel. In this wise. a set of seven types of briquettes were prepared from agricultural wastes such as rice husk, maize husk and saw-dust and blends of carbonized coal char. Strong and well-formed briquettes with good combustion characteristics were obtained. The results obtained from water boiling tests show that 2 litres of water could be boiled just under 23 minutes. Moisture contents and strengths of these briquettes were also determined and are discussed. The results show that wastes could be converted into useful fuel

  18. Possible combustion hazards in 3013 plutonium waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Are there combustion hazards in plutonium-contaminated waste containers caused by combustible gas generation? Current gas generation models in which the only reaction considered is radiolysis must inevitably predict eventual complete dissociation of any water present into hydrogen and oxygen. Waste prepared for the 3013 container should be less subject to this problem because organic material and most of the absorbed water should have been removed. Depending on the waste form, moisture content, organic content, temperature, and container material, the pressure rise due to gas generation will be bounded by backreactions, recombination of the hydrogen and oxygen, absorption of the oxygen by plutonium oxide, and possibly other chemical reactions. Examination of a variety of food pack waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shown little pressure rise, indeed often subatmospheric pressures. In a few cases large hydrogen concentrations up to 47% mole fraction were observed, but with negligible oxygen content. The only fuel seen in significant quantities was H 2 and, in one case, CO; the only oxidizer seen in significant quantities was O 2 . Considerable work on measuring gas generation is being done at Westinghouse Savannah River Company and LANL. In a mixture of H 2 , O 2 , and other diluent gases, if the hydrogen concentration is below the value at the lean flammability limit, or if the oxygen concentration is below that at the rich flammability limit, a flame will not propagate from an ignition source. Assuming H 2 is the only fuel present in significant quantities, a mixture leaner than the lean limit will get only leaner if mixed with air and is therefore no combustion hazard. However, when a mixture containing large amounts of H 2 is nonflammable because there is insufficient O 2 , there is a hazard. If the mixture should leak into a volume containing O 2 , or the container is opened into the surrounding air, the mixture will pass through the

  19. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28,...

  20. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oakey John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling. It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Results Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Conclusions Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  1. Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryea-Goldsmith, René; Oakey, John; Simms, Nigel J

    2011-02-01

    Biomass and municipal solid waste offer sustainable sources of energy; for example to meet heat and electricity demand in the form of combined cooling, heat and power. Combustion of biomass has a lesser impact than solid fossil fuels (e.g. coal) upon gas pollutant emissions, whilst energy recovery from municipal solid waste is a beneficial component of an integrated, sustainable waste management programme. Concurrent combustion of these fuels using a fluidised bed combustor may be a successful method of overcoming some of the disadvantages of biomass (high fuel supply and distribution costs, combustion characteristics) and characteristics of municipal solid waste (heterogeneous content, conflict with materials recycling). It should be considered that combustion of municipal solid waste may be a financially attractive disposal route if a 'gate fee' value exists for accepting waste for combustion, which will reduce the net cost of utilising relatively more expensive biomass fuels. Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions. Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.

  2. Encapsulating fly ash and acidic process waste water in brick structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseoglu, K.; Polat, M.; Polat, H.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash contains metals such as cadmium, iron, lead, aluminum and zinc in its structure in appreciable amounts. These metals can leach out into surface and ground waters if fly ash is not properly disposed of. A similar problem also exists for acidic process waste waters discharged by numerous industries. The purpose of this study was to utilize such wastes as additives in the production of construction quality bricks for the purpose of waste elimination. The bricks produced were subjected to flexural strength and water retention capacity tests along with heavy metal leaching experiments in order to determine the applicability of the procedure and the best possible recipes. This paper summarizes the results obtained in these tests along with the possible mechanisms involved in stabilizing the two wastes in the brick structure.

  3. Reuse of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ashes in concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collivignarelli, Carlo; Sorlini, Sabrina

    2002-01-01

    This study is aimed at assessing the feasibility of concrete production using stabilized m.s.w. (municipal solid waste) incineration fly ashes in addition to natural aggregates. The tested fly ashes were washed and milled, then stabilized by a cement-lime process and finally were reused as a "recycled aggregate" for cement mixture production, in substitution of a natural aggregate (with dosage of 200-400 kg m(-3)). These mixtures, after curing, were characterized with conventional physical-mechanical tests (compression, traction, flexure, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage). In samples containing 200 kg(waste) m(-3)(concrete), a good compressive strength was achieved after 28 days of curing. Furthermore, concrete leaching behavior was evaluated by means of different leaching tests, both on milled and on monolithic samples. Experimental results showed a remarkable reduction of metal leaching in comparison with raw waste. In some cases, similar behavior was observed in "natural" concrete (produced with natural aggregates) and in "waste containing" concrete.

  4. Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash by chlorination and thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, B.; Pessl, A.; Aschenbrenner, P.; Szentannai, P.; Mattenberger, H.; Rechberger, H.; Hermann, L.; Winter, F.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is classified as a hazardous material because it contains high amounts of heavy metals. For decontamination, MSW fly ash is first mixed with alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides (e.g. calcium chloride) and water, and then the mixture is pelletized and treated in a rotary reactor at about 1000deg. C. Volatile heavy metal compounds are formed and evaporate. In this paper, the effect of calcium chloride addition, gas velocity, temperature and residence time on the separation of heavy metals are studied. The fly ash was sampled at the waste-to-energy plant Fernwaerme Wien/Spittelau (Vienna, Austria). The results were obtained from batch tests performed in an indirectly heated laboratory-scale rotary reactor. More than 90% of Cd and Pb and about 60% of Cu and 80% of Zn could be removed in the experiments.

  5. [Correlation of Persistent Free Radicals, PCDD/Fs and Metals in Waste Incineration Fly Ash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-jiao; Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiao-dong

    2016-03-15

    Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are relatively highly stable and found in the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Recent studies have concentrated on model dioxin formation reactions and there are few studies on actual waste incineration fly ash. In order to study EPFRs and the correlation with dioxins and heavy metals in waste incineration fly ash, the spins of EPFRs, concentration of PCDD/Fs and metals in samples from 6 different waste incinerators were detected. The medical waste incineration fly ash from Tianjin, municipal solid waste incineration fly ash from Jiangxi Province, black carbon and slag from municipal solid waste incinerator in Lanxi, Zhejiang Province, all contained EPFRs. Above all the signal in Tianjin sample was the strongest. Hydroxyl radicals, carbon-center radicals and semiquinone radicals were detected. Compared with other samples, Jiangxi fly ash had the highest toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of dioxins, up to 7.229 4 ng · g⁻¹. However, the dioxin concentration in the Tianjin sample containing the strongest EPFR signals was only 0.092 8 ng · g⁻¹. There was perhaps little direct numeric link between EPFRs and PCDD/Fs. But the spins of EPFRs in samples presented an increasing trend as the metal contents increased, especially with Al, Fe, Zn. The signal strength of radicals was purposed to be related to the metal contents. The concentration of Zn (0.813 7% ) in the Tianjin sample was the highest and this sample contained much more spins of oxygen-center radicals. We could presume the metal Zn had a greater effect on the formation of EPFRs, and was easier to induce the formation of radicals with a longer half-life period.

  6. Immobilization of Radioactive Waste in Different Fly Ash Zeolite Cement Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management has been raised from the beginning use of nuclear energy for different purposes. The rad waste streams produced were sufficient to cause dangerous effects to man and its environment. The ordinary portland cement is the material more extensively used in the technologies of solidification and immobilization of the toxic wastes, low and medium level radioactive wastes. The production of portland cement is one of the most energy-intensive and polluting. The use of high energy in the production causes high emission due to the nature and processes of raw materials. The cement industry is responsible for 7% of the total CO 2 emission. Thus, the cement industry has a crucial role in the global warming. The formation of alite (Ca 3 SiO 5 ), which is the main component of the Portland cement clinker, produces a greater amount of CO 2 emission than the formation of belite (Ca 2 SiO 4 ). The proportion of alite to belite is about 3 in ordinary Portland clinker. Therefore, by decreasing this proportion less CO 2 would be emitted. Furthermore, if industrial byproducts such as fly ash from thermal power station or from incineration of municipal solid wastes have the potential to reduce CO 2 used as raw materials and alternative hydrothermal calcination routes are employed for belite clinker production, CO 2 emission can be strongly reduced or even totally avoided. The availability of fly ash will help in reducing the CO 2 emissions and will also help in resolving, to a great extent, the fly ash disposal problem. This thesis is based on focusing on the possibility of using fly ash as raw materials to prepare low cost innovation matrices for immobilization of radioactive wastes by synthesizing new kind of cement of low consuming energy. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination route of the fly ash without extra additions.

  7. Chemical characterization of bottom ashes generated during combustion of a Colombian mineral coal in a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q.; Lobo, C.J.S.; Nobre, A.I.S.; Sales, J.C.; Silva, C.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Bottom ashes generated during combustion of a mineral coal from Colombia were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The interest in this particular coal is due to the fact that it will be used by a thermal power plant in Ceara, Northeastern Brazil, where it could produce over 900 tons of different residues/combustion products every day. Results from Xray fluorescence allowed identification and quantification of elements present in the sample: silicon (59,17%), aluminum (13,17%), iron (10,74%), potassium (6,11%), titanium (2,91%), calcium (4,97%), sulphur (0,84%) and others (2,09%). The X-ray diffraction revealed patterns from silica, mullite, calcium sulphate and hydrated sodium. Results obtained so far indicate that the material is a potential raw-material for use in the formulation of ceramic components (author)

  8. Reuse and recycling options for solid prescribed industrial wastes and brown coal fly ash

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum Hailu, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of detailed investigation of the possible use of stabilised sludge and brown coal fly ash as raw material ingredients for road construction and manufacture of building bricks. The thesis is organised into seven chapters including a general introduction chapter. A literature review of solid waste management practices employed in Australia and some selected countries are discussed (chapter 1) together with waste generation from power station...

  9. The evaluation of chosen properties of ashes created by thermal utilization of hazardous and communal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Krawczykowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of methods of the waste neutralization is their thermal transformation in suitable installations or devices in order to achieve the state, which is no longer dangerous for the human health and life or for the environment. In effect of the thermal transformation the “new” wastes are created, which, by law are suppose a to be utilized first. These wastes may be utilized if their properties are suitable. In the paper, the process of thermal utilization of hazardous and municipal wastes is presented, together with the investigation results of the grain composition, surface area, density and of the initial chemical analysis of the created ashes. The research of the grain composition was conducted by using the “Fritsch” apparatus. On the base of the grain composition, the surface area of ashes under investigation was determined, whereas the density was determined by using the helium pycnometer. The purpose of the research was to determine how the properties of ashes are changed and if the differences allow to use these ashes in future.

  10. Waste glass as partial mineral precursor in alkali-activated slag/fly ash system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Keulen, A.; Arbi, K.; Ye, G.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of a waste glass powder residue (GP) from glass recycling as partial mineral precursor to produce alkali-activated materials is investigated. GP served as powder coal fly ash (PCFA) replacement within a reference system composed of 50% PCFA and 50% ground granulated blast furnace

  11. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  12. Properties of concrete modified with waste Low Density Polyethylene and saw dust ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimanikandan, P.; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The increase in industrialization creates need for disposal of large quantity of by-products. To overcome the difficulty of disposal, these by-products can be used as a replacement for raw material. In this concern, non-conventional industrial wastes such as plastic bags, PET bottles, pulverized waste Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and biological waste such as saw-dust ash, coconut coir were used as a replacement in concrete. In this project, saw-dust ash and pulverized waste LDPE were introduced as the partial replacement for cement and fine aggregates respectively. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sand by volume was replaced with LDPE and 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement by volume was replaced with saw dust ash. Standard cube, cylinder and prism specimens were cast to assess the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of modified concrete after 28 days of curing. Optimum percentage of replacement was found by comparing the test results. The mix with 5% of LDPE and 3% of saw dust ash showed a better result among the other mixes.

  13. Sustainable asphalt pavement: Application of slaughterhouse waste oil and fly ash in asphalt binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Ramos, Jorge Luis

    Increasing energy costs, lack of sufficient natural resources and the overwhelming demand for petroleum has stimulated the development of alternative binders to modify or replace petroleum-based asphalt binders. In the United States, the petroleum-based asphalt binder is mainly used to produce the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). There are approximately 4000 asphalt plants that make 500 million tons of asphalt binder valued at roughly 3 billion/year. The instability of the world's oil market has pushed oil prices to more than 80 per barrel in 2012, which increased the cost of asphalt binder up to $570 per ton. Therefore, there is a timely need to find alternative sustainable resources to the asphalt binder. This paper investigates the possibility of the partial replacement of the asphalt binder with slaughterhouse waste and/or fly ash. In order to achieve this objective, the asphalt binder is mixed with different percentages of waste oil and/or fly ash. In order to investigate the effect of these additives to the performance of the asphalt binder, a complete performance grade test performed on multiple samples. The results of the performance grade tests are compared with a control sample to observe how the addition of the waste oil and/or fly ash affects the sample. Considering the increasing cost and demand of asphalt, the use of slaughterhouse waste oil and/or fly ash as a partial replacement may result in environmental and monetary improvements in the transportation sector.

  14. effect of carbide waste on the properties of rice husk ash concrete.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    KEY WORDS: Carbide Waste, Rice Husk Ash, Cement, Concrete and Rigid Pavement. INTRODUCTION .... and alumina components of the RHA, this ... Chemical analysis of CW, ... Kaduna, using X-ray analyzer together with. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). ... determine the compressive strength at each level.

  15. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered...

  16. Effect of Cement–Locust Bean Waste Ash Blend on the Gradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPC) and up to 8% locust bean waste ash (LBWA) by dry weight of soil to investigate its effect on the gradation and plasticity characteristics of the modified soil. Test results generally show that the gradation and plasticity characteristics of the ...

  17. A study of transformation water - soluble forms of hevy metals at waste incenerator for detoxicationof ash.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilets'ka V. А.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex research processes of transformation of soluble forms of heavy metals in sediment interaction with ash. Proved that the adsorption processes of immobilization lead to a significant decrease of soluble forms of heavy metals in the waste.

  18. Speciation and mobility of potentially toxic elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schollbach, K.; Alam, Q.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) is the main residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), which can have some applications in construction materials, but is mostly landfilled in many countries. The main problem is the high concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), particularly in the fine

  19. Properties of ash generated during sewage sludge combustion: A multifaceted analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdziarz, Aneta; Wilk, Małgorzata; Gajek, Marcin; Nowak-Woźny, Dorota; Kopia, Agnieszka; Kalemba-Rec, Izabela; Koziński, Janusz A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents chemical properties of sewage sludge ashes required for determining their thermal characteristics. A novel approach, linking selected advanced analytical techniques with FactSage modelling, was developed and applied to obtain new information on deposit formation mechanisms that contribute to fouling and slagging. The mineral matter and fusion temperatures were investigated using a variety of analytical techniques including XRF, ICP-MS, XRD, SEM-EDX and AFT. The slagging and fouling indices were calculated and the sintering properties were predicted. The studied ashes were rich in P_2O_5, CaO, SiO_2 and Fe_2O_3, but their concentrations slightly differed. Phase analyses suggested the existence of calcium and phosphorus as main phases. Thermal behaviour of ashes was studied focusing on the mass loss, temperature peaks and thermic effects with the increasing of temperature up to 1200 °C under air atmosphere. The changes in concentration of ash compounds contributed to differences in ash fusion temperatures. FactSage thermochemical equilibrium calculations were used to predict the amount of liquid slag and solid phases, giving information about slagging properties of ashes. The general conclusion based on experimental studies is that sewage sludge ashes cause the slagging and fouling hazard while they reveal low corrosive effect. - Highlights: • Characterisation of sewage sludge ashes were given. • Transformation of inorganic components was determined using XRD and FTIR. • The ash fusion behaviour of ashes was studied experimentally. • Empirical indices were calculated indicating slagging and fouling propensities. • Thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was used.

  20. Assessment of Combustion and Potash Production as Options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed combustion and potash production as options for management of wood waste. The percentage reduction in volume by combustion and potash generation potential of wood waste from nine different common species of wood obtained from a wood factory in Ibadan were evaluated. Potash from the ashes ...

  1. Cementitious Spray Dryer Ash-Tire Fiber Material for Maximizing Waste Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Riley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray dryer absorber (SDA material, also known as spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of coal combustion and flue gas scrubbing processes that has self-cementing properties similar to those of class C fly ash. SDA material does not usually meet the existing standards for use as a pozzolan in Portland cement concrete due to its characteristically high sulfur content, and thus unlike fly ash, it is rarely put to beneficial use. This paper presents the results of a study with the objective of developing beneficial uses for SDA material in building materials when combined with tire fiber reinforcement originating from a recycling process. Specifically, spray dryer ash was investigated for use as the primary or even the sole binding component in a mortar or concrete. This study differs from previous research in that it focuses on very high contents of spray dryer ash (80 to 100 percent in a hardened product. The overarching objective is to divert products that are normally sent to landfills and provide benefit to society in beneficial applications.

  2. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  3. Biogenic carbon in combustible waste: waste composition, variability and measurement uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Anna W; Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels H; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Obtaining accurate data for the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon in thermally-treated waste is essential for determination of the environmental profile of waste technologies. Relations between the variability of waste chemistry and the biogenic and fossil carbon emissions are not well described in the literature. This study addressed the variability of biogenic and fossil carbon in combustible waste received at a municipal solid waste incinerator. Two approaches were compared: (1) radiocarbon dating ((14)C analysis) of carbon dioxide sampled from the flue gas, and (2) mass and energy balance calculations using the balance method. The ability of the two approaches to accurately describe short-term day-to-day variations in carbon emissions, and to which extent these short-term variations could be explained by controlled changes in waste input composition, was evaluated. Finally, the measurement uncertainties related to the two approaches were determined. Two flue gas sampling campaigns at a full-scale waste incinerator were included: one during normal operation and one with controlled waste input. Estimation of carbon contents in the main waste types received was included. Both the (14)C method and the balance method represented promising methods able to provide good quality data for the ratio between biogenic and fossil carbon in waste. The relative uncertainty in the individual experiments was 7-10% (95% confidence interval) for the (14)C method and slightly lower for the balance method.

  4. Review: Potential Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste with Substitution of Local Waste Materials with High-Temperature Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, S.; Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Husin, N. A.; Wibowo, B.; Anugraha, B.; Irawan, S.; Dibiantara, D.

    2017-11-01

    This research provided an overview of the potential fly ash based geopolymer paste for application in building construction. Geopolymer paste with various variations of fly ash substitution with local waste material and high-temperature influence exploited with the fresh and hardened condition. The local waste material which utilized for this study were sandblasting waste, carbide waste, shell powder, bagasse ash, rice husk and bottom ash. The findings of this study indicated that fly-based geopolymer paste with local waste material substitution which had high-temperature influence ash showed a similar nature of OPC binders potentially used in civil engineering applications.

  5. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  6. Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Huisheng; Kan Lili

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were damaged, the leaching toxicity is still in a safety range. In early leaching stage, the surface leaching rate is relatively a little high, up to 10 -5 -10 -4 cm d -1 order of magnitude, in the later time of leaching, its rate rapidly declined, down to 10 -7 . Most of leached heavy metals are produced at early ages. The leaching concentration of heavy metals and leaching time has strong positive relationships. In factual utilizing circumstances, heavy metals' leaching from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes is a very slow and gradually diluting process. The leaching toxicity of heavy metals is far lower than that of the National Standard of China, and minimum harmful matters can be contained and released in the environment. Reusing of MSWI fly ash as partial replacement for cement in concrete mixes is potentially feasible.

  7. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  8. The Influence of Particle Size, Fluidization Velocity, and Fuel Type on Ash-Induced Agglomeration in Biomass Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatternig, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gatternig@cbi.uni-erlangen.de; Karl, Jürgen [Chair of Energy Process Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2014-11-19

    Agglomeration of the bed material is one of the main obstacles for biomass utilization in fluidized bed combustors. Especially, high-potential fuels such as fast growing energy crops or biogeneous residues are affected because of their high content of alkaline metals. Despite ongoing research efforts, the knowledge base on what fuels are affected is still limited. This paper describes the design and installation of two lab-scale reactors for the experimental determination of agglomeration temperatures. The reactor concept and measurement method were developed under consideration of experiences from existing test rigs published in literature. Preliminary tests confirmed a reproducibility of ±5°C for both new reactors. The results of an extended measurement campaign (156 test runs of 25 fuel species at a wide range of the operational parameters “bed particle size,” “gas velocity,” and “bed ash accumulation”), based on “design of experiment” (DoE) criteria, showed high-agglomeration tendencies for residues (e.g., dried distillery grains, corn cobs) while woody energy crops (e.g., willow, alder) exhibited very stable combustion behavior. The operating parameters influenced the agglomeration behavior to a lesser degree than different ash compositions of fuel species tested. An interpolation within the DoE factor space allowed for a subsequent comparison of our results with experiments reported in literature. Good agreement was reached for fuels of comparable ash composition considering the interpolation errors of ±32°C on average.

  9. Geochemical modeling and assessment of leaching from carbonated municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes are characterized by high calcium oxide (CaO) content. Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption by MSWI fly ash was discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), minerology analysis, and adapting the Stenoir equation. TG/DTA analysis showed that the weight gain of the fly ash below 440 °C was as high as 5.70 %. An adapted Stenoir equation for MSWI fly ash was discussed. The chloride in MSWI fly ash has a major impact on CO2 adsorption by MSWI fly ash or air pollution control (APC) residues. Geochemical modeling of the critical trace elements copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb) before and after carbonation was performed using a thermodynamic equilibrium model for solubility and a surface complexation model for metal sorption. Leaching of critical trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on the degree of carbonation attained, and their solubility appeared to be controlled by several minerals. Adsorption on ferrum (Fe) and aluminum (Al) colloids was also responsible for removal of the trace elements Cd, Pb, and Sb. We used Hakanson's potential ecological risk index (HPERI) to evaluate the risk of trace element leaching in general. The results demonstrate that the ecological risk showed a V-shaped dependency on pH; the optimum pH of the carbonated fly ash was found to be 10.3-11, resulting from the optimum carbonation (liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio = 0.25, carbonation duration = ∼30-48 h). The dataset and modeling results presented here provide a contribution to assessing the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash under a wide range of conditions.

  10. Decolorization of a textile vat dye by adsorption on waste ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIODRAG ŠMELCEROVIĆ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An adsorption process using cheap adsorbents could be described as a simple, selective and low cost alternative for the treatment of colored waste water compared to conventional physical and chemical processes. In this study the use of a natural waste adsorbent–ash was investigated for the removal of a textile vat dye Ostanthren blue GCD remaining after the dyeing of cotton textile. The ash obtained as a waste material during the burning of brown coal in the heating station of Leskovac (Serbia was used for the treatment of waste waters from the textile industry, i.e., waste water after the dyeing process. The effect of ash quantity, initial dye concentration, pH and agitation time on adsorption was studied. The Langmuir model was used to describe the adsorption isotherm. Based on the analytical expression of the Langmuir model, the adsorption constants, such as adsorption capacity and adsorption energy, were found. Pseudo first and second order kinetic models were studied to evaluate the kinetic data.

  11. Review of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste in the production of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natasya Mazenan, Puteri; Sheikh Khalid, Faisal; Shahidan, Shahiron; Shamsuddin, Shamrul-mar

    2017-11-01

    High demand for cement in the concrete production has been increased which become the problems in the industry. Thus, this problem will increase the production cost of construction material and the demand for affordable houses. Moreover, the production of Portland cement leads to the release of a significant amount of CO2 and other gases leading to the effect on global warming. The need for a sustainable and green construction building material is required in the construction industry. Hence, this paper presents utilization of palm oil fuel ash and ceramic waste as partial cement replacement in the production of concrete. Using both of this waste in the concrete production would benefit in many ways. It is able to save cost and energy other than protecting the environment. In short, 20% usage of palm oil fuel ash and 30% replacement of ceramic waste as cement replacement show the acceptable and satisfactory strength of concrete.

  12. The reaction of acid mine drainage with fly ash from coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The placement of alkaline fly ash in abandoned, reclaimed or active surface coal mines is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites by neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion. A continuing concern with this application is the potential release of trace elements from the fly ash when it is placed in contact with AMD. To investigate the possible release of antimony, arsenic, barium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc from fly ash, a series of column leaching tests were conducted. A one kg fly ash sample, placed in a 5-cm by 1 m acrylic columns, was leached at a nominal rate of 250 mL/d for between 30 and 60 days. The leachant solutions were deionized water, and dilute solutions of sulfuric acid and ferric chloride. Leaching tests have been completed on 28 fly ash samples. leachate data, analyzed as the mass extracted with respect to the concentration in the solid, indicate that the release of trace elements is variable, with only barium and zinc extracted at greater than 50 pct of the amount present in the original sample. As a comparison, water quality changes have been monitored at three sites where fly ash grout was injected after reclamation to control AMD. When compared before and after grouting, small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points were observed. Concentrations of trace metals were found to be comparable in treated and untreated areas. When grouted and ungrouted areas were compared, the effect of the fly ash was shown to be localized in the areas of injection. These studies indicated that when fly ash is used as a reagent to control of AMD, the release of trace elements is relatively small

  13. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion unit at your plant. Include supporting calculations. (b) Records of low carbon feed... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  15. Mix design and properties of fly ash waste lightweight aggregates in structural lightweight concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Manu S. Nadesan; P. Dinakar

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has the ability to consume industrial wastes in high volume. As the demand for concrete is increasing, one of the effective ways to reduce the undesirable environmental impact of the concrete is by the use of waste and by-product materials as cement and aggregate substitutes in concrete. One such waste material is fly ash, which is produced in large quantities from thermal power plants as a by-product. A substantial amount of ...

  16. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funari, Valerio; Meisel, Thomas; Braga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and 187 Os/ 188 Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of 187 Os/ 188 Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m 2 /a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m 2 /a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  17. Wood products in the waste stream: Characterization and combustion emissions. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    Waste wood is wood separated from the solid-waste stream and processed into a uniform-sized product that is reused for other purposes such as fuel. As an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels, it has raised concerns that if it is 'contaminated' with paints, resins, preservatives, etc., unacceptable environmental impacts may be generated during combustion. Given the difficulty of separating contaminated materials from waste wood and the large energy potential existing in the resource, it is important to identify possible problems associated with contaminated waste wood combustion. The study describes research about technical, public policy, and regulatory issues that affect the processing and combustion of waste wood for fuel. The project's purpose was to provide environmental regulators, project developers, and others with data to make informed decisions on the use of waste wood materials as a combustion resource. Potential environmental problems and solutions were identified. A specific project result was the identification of combustion system operation parameters and air pollution control technologies that can minimize emissions of identified air and solid waste contaminants from combustion of wood waste

  18. An experimental study of factors in the recovery of plutonium from combustible wastes treated by incineration, pyrolysis and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.C.; McDonald, L.A.; Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The work described in this report is concerned with the incineration and pyrolysis of plutonium-contaminated combustible wastes, the leaching of the ashes and chars and the subsequent treatment of the leach solutions. A range of ashes and chars have been prepared from a range of plutonium-contaminated materials covering a variety of combustible materials (e.g. PVC, neoprene, Hypalon) and plutonium contaminants [e.g. PuO 2 , Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , (U, Pu)O 2 ]. Treatment temperatures in the range of 550-900 0 C have been investigated, the best results being obtained at or below 700 0 C with pyrolysis followed by char oxidation being the favoured process. A number of methods for treatment of the leach solutions have been considered and some have been investigated experimentally. Extraction of plutonium and americium with tributylphosphate (TBP) from a leach solution conditioned to 0.1 M H/+5 M NO 3 - has been studied. The key stage has been found to be the conditioning step where precautions must be taken to ensure that plutonium-containing precipitates and non-extractable plutonium are not formed. Consideration has also been given to treatment of the americium containing raffinates from a high acid TBP extraction and some methods have been investigated. A range of simple washing experiments have been carried out in order to compare the process with incineration/pyrolysis

  19. Re-use of stabilised flue gas ashes from solid waste incineration in cement-treated base layers for pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zuansi; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2003-01-01

    Fly ash from coal-burning power plants has been used extensively as a pozzolan and fine filter in concrete for many years. Laboratory experiments were performed investigating the effect of substituting the coal-based fly ash with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes (FGA) from waste incineration...... more than 5 MPa after 7 days. The tank leaching tests revealed that leaching of heavy metals was not significantly affected by the use of chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. Assuming that diffusion controls the leaching process it was calculated that less than 1% of the metals...... would teach during a 100-year period from a 0.5 m thick concrete stab exposed to water on one side. Leaching of the common ions Ca, Cl, Na and SO4 was increased 3-20 times from the specimens with chemically stabilised flue gas ashes from waste incineration. However, the quantities leached were still...

  20. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, E.; Allegrini, Elisa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD....../F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten...... sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355. mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355. mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin...

  1. Large scale waste combustion projects. A study of financial structures and sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of the study was to determine the key contractual and financial aspects of large scale energy-from-waste projects, and to provide the necessary background information on financing to appreciate the approach lenders take when they consider financing waste combustion projects. An integral part of the study has been the preparation of a detailed financial model, incorporating all major financing parameters, to assess the economic and financial viability of typical waste combustion projects. (author)

  2. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, I.B. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)]. E-mail: ibsingh58@yahoo.com; Chaturvedi, K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Morchhale, R.K. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India); Yegneswaran, A.H. [Regional Research Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2007-03-06

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 deg. C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 deg. C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 deg. C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  3. Geo-environmental application of municipal solid waste incinerator ash stabilized with cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of soluble salts contained in the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI ash significantly affects the strength development and hardening reaction when stabilized with cement. The present study focuses on the compaction and strength behavior of mixed specimens of cement and MSWI ash. A series of indices such as unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, California bearing ratio (CBR and pH value was examined. Prior to this, the specimens were cured for 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d. The test results depict that the maximum dry density (MDD decreases and the optimum moisture content (OMC increases with the addition of cement. The test results also reveal that the cement increases the strength of the mixed specimens. Thus, the combination of MSWI ash and cement can be used as a lightweight filling material in different structures like embankment and road construction.

  4. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation, an electrochemically assisted separation method, has previ-ously shown potential for removal of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of MSWI fly ash using ammonium citrate as assisting agent...

  5. UASB Treatment of Methanolic Pulp Wastewater with Addition of Waste Starch and Incinerated Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Kobaysashi, Takuro; Li, Yu-You; Harada, Hideki

    The pulp wastewater consists mainly of methanol. It is expected to treat using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process. Paper manufactories also produce waste starch and incinerated ash. The integrated treating for these wastes is desirable. In this study, two UASB reactors were operated to treat pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch and with addition of incinerated ash, receptively. Continuous operations of a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of waste starch (PS reactor) and a UASB reactor treating pulp wastewater with addition of incinerated ash (PA reactor) , were investigated at mesophilic conditions. The PS reactor performed well with an average 93.7% total CODCr and 97.3% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 16.0 kgCOD/m3/d. The PA reactor was also successfully operated with an average 95.3% total CODCr and 97.5% soluble CODCr removal efficiency in average at a maximum VLR of 14.6 kgCOD/m3/d. Successfully developed granules were obtained after over 140 days of operation in both reactors, and the granules were 1 to 2 mm in mean diameter. Microbial analysis revealed the genus Methanomethylovorans was predominant in the granules of both reactors.

  6. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  7. Use of cement-fly ash-based stabilization techniques for the treatment of waste containing aromatic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszkiewicz, Kamil; Marcinkowski, Tadeusz

    2017-11-01

    Research on evaluation of evaporation rate of volatile organic compounds from soil beds during processing is presented. For the experiment, soil samples were prepared with the same amounts of benzene and stabilized using a mixture of CEMI 42.5R cement and fly ash from pit-coal combustion. Solidification of soils contaminated with BTEX hydrocarbons using hydraulic binders involves a risk of releasing vapours of these compounds during homogenization of waste with stabilizing mixture introduced and its dilution with water. The primary purposes of the research were: analysis of benzene volume emitted from soil during stabilization/solidification process and characterization of factors that may negatively affect the quality of measurements/the course of stabilization process. Analysis of benzene emission intensity during the process was based on concentration (C6H6) values, recorded with flame-ionization detector above the surface of reacting mixture. At the same time, gaseous contaminants emitted during waste stabilization were passed through pipes filled with activated carbon (SCK, Anasorb CSC). Benzene vapours adsorbed on activated carbon were subjected to analysis using gas chromatograph Varian 450-GC. Evaporation characteristics of benzene during processing contaminated soils revealed the stages creating the highest danger to workers' health, as well as a need for actions connected with modification of technological line.

  8. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2017-04-01

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu 0 -alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl 2 ). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mix design and properties of fly ash waste lightweight aggregates in structural lightweight concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu S. Nadesan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has the ability to consume industrial wastes in high volume. As the demand for concrete is increasing, one of the effective ways to reduce the undesirable environmental impact of the concrete is by the use of waste and by-product materials as cement and aggregate substitutes in concrete. One such waste material is fly ash, which is produced in large quantities from thermal power plants as a by-product. A substantial amount of fly ash is left unused posing environmental and storage problems. The production of sintered lightweight aggregate with fly ash is an effective method to dispose of fly ash in large quantities. Due to lack of a proper mix design procedure, the production and application of lightweight aggregate in structural concrete are not much entertained. The absorption characteristic of lightweight aggregate is a major concern, while developing the mix proportioning of lightweight concretes. The present study is an attempt to establish a new mix design procedure for the development of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate concretes, which is simple and more reliable than the existing procedures. Also, the proposed methodology has been validated by developing a spectrum of concretes having water cement ratios varying from 0.25 to 0.75. From the study, it is obvious that the development of 70 MPa concrete is possible by using cement alone without any additives. Also, it is ensured that all the concretes have densities less than 2000 kg/m3.

  10. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Slags and ashes from municipal waste incineration in Poland - mineralogical and chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2013-04-01

    In the next few years there will be a large change in the waste management system in Poland. Its primary aim will be reduction of the amount of landfilled waste by enhancing level of recycling, waste segregation, composting of biomass and incineration. The biggest investment during this transformation is construction of nine incinerators with assumed slags production around 200 thousand tons per year. Slag production is accompanied by fly ash generating. This ash can be a valuable raw material as fly ash from the power industry. Waste management system transformation will cause big increase in slag production in comparison to the present amount and will require taking necessary steps to ensure environmental safety. For this purpose, studies of slags and fly ashes in terms of environmental risk and potential impact on human health are significant. The object of the study are fly ashes and slags produced in the biggest municipal waste incineration power plant in Poland. Two series of samples obtained in municipal waste incineration process were studied in order to characterize mineralogical and chemical composition and to determine the concentrations of heavy metals and their possible negative environmental impact. Characteristics of these materials will be the basis for determining their value in application, for example in building industry. Mineralogical characteristic of slags was based on X-ray diffraction. Characteristic of structures and forms of occurrence of mineral phases was based on the optical microscopy and SEM imaging coupled with EDS analysis. Chemical analysis were performed using ICP-MS/ICP-AES methods. They allowed to follow variability between studied samples and gave basic information about metals. Metals in samples of slag and ashes are present as component of mineral phases and in the form of metallic inclusions in glass or minerals. Potentially hazardous concentrations for environment are observed for copper (330-4900ppm), zinc (1500-8100ppm

  12. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor- General combustion and ash behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    .9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The experimental results showed that the fuel burnout, NO and SO2 emission in co-combustion of coal and SRF were decreased...... with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced the NO emission. For SO2 emission, it was found that all...

  13. Nitrogen oxides from combustion of nitrogen-containing polymers in waste-derived fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenhoven, R.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M.; Elomaa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Usually, waste-derived fuels present nitrogen-containing fractions, which produce nitrogen oxides (NO) during combustion. This study was mainly concerned with poly amides (PA) (nylon), poly urethanes (PU), urea formaldehyde (UF) glue, sewage sludge and refuse-derived fuels (RDF). For control purposes, the authors chose a Polish sub-bituminous coal and a Finnish pine wood sample. An almost inverse trend between fuel nitrogen content and NO emissions was revealed through analysis of NO emissions at 850 Celsius, 1 bar, 7 per cent O 2 in N 2 . It was not possible to derive a clear correlation to the amount of ash generated by the samples. PU foam decomposed through a two-step process, as suggested by thermochromatography, and PA6-containing samples yielded epsilon-caprolactam as a major decomposition product. Important decomposition products from PU, PA6, PA6/PE, sewage sludge and UF glue samples were greenhouse gases as demonstrated by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The work was carried out at Abo Akademi University and University of Helsinki, Finland. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  14. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-03-01

    Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO(2)-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of estimated parameters has been tested, while Granger causality tests recommend a short-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption and unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to international tourism. In the long-run, the error correction terms confirm the presence of bidirectional causality relationships between economic growth, CO2 emissions, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and international tourism. Our long-run estimates show that combustible renewables and waste consumption increases international tourism, and both renewables and waste consumption and international tourism increase CO2 emissions and output. We recommend that (i) Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy as this eliminates wastes from touristic zones and increases the number of tourist arrivals, leading to economic growth, and (ii) a fraction of this economic growth generated by the increase in combustible renewables and waste consumption should be invested in clean renewable energy production (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) and energy efficiency projects.

  16. Analysis of unburned carbon in industrial ashes from biomass combustion by thermogravimetric method using Boudouard reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Náhunková, Jana; Žaloudková, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 575, JAN (2014), s. 188-194 ISSN 0040-6031 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : unburned carbon * biomass * ash * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040603113005455

  17. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Aziza Aftab; Noorullah Soomro; Mir Shah Nawaz; Kambiz Vafai

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling c...

  18. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH) 2 , KCl and SiO 2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  19. Import of combustible waste and its impact on emissions of climate gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraldsson, Maarten; Sundberg, Johan (Profu, Moelndal (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Import of combustible waste for waste incineration in Sweden has increased over the last decade and prognosis show that importation will increase even further in the future. The reason for the projected increase is that many new incineration facilities are being built and several of those plan to use a portion of imported combustible waste as fuel. From an environmental perspective import of waste is controversial and some argue that the import short be restricted. Because of this controversial aspect it is essential to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the environmental impacts of the importation of combustible waste to Swedish incineration facilities. This project is a study of the impact of the import of combustible waste on climate emissions. This is a system analysis study which included both direct as well as indirect emissions from the activity of importation of combustible waste. Direct emissions occur from the incineration of waste while indirect emissions occur in systems that interact with the incineration facility. These systems are: transport of waste, alternative waste treatment, alternative electricity production and alternative heat production in the district heating system which the incineration facility is connected with. From the perspective of a system analysis the import of combustible waste to incineration leads to the following consequences regarding emissions of climate gases: - The imported waste is used as fuel in the incineration facility which generates heat and electricity. During the combustion process climate gases are being emitted - As the combustible waste is being imported it has to be transported from the country of origin to the incineration facility. The vehicle used for the transport is emitting climate gases - By importing combustible waste an alternative treatment method in the country of origin is avoided by that country. Emissions from the alternative treatment method are thereby avoided - Import of combustible waste

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Bbbb of... - Model Rule-Class I Nitrogen Oxides Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa,b,c 3 Table 3 to Subpart BBBB of Part... Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 60, Subpt. BBBB, Table 3 Table... Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa,b,c Municipal waste combustion technology Limits for class I municipal...

  1. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, Elisa, E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Holtze, Maria Sommer [Afatek Ltd., Selinevej 18, 2300 Copenhagen S (Denmark); Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were quantified in MSWI bottom ashes. • Metal recovery system efficiencies for bottom ashes were estimated. • Total content of critical elements was determined in bottom ash samples. • Post-incineration recovery is not viable for most critical elements. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2 mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results

  2. Calculation of combustible waste fraction (CWF) estimates used in organics safety issue screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Gao, F.; Toth, J.J.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes how in-tank measurements of moisture (H 2 O) and total organic carbon (TOC) are used to calculate combustible waste fractions (CWF) for 138 of the 149 Hanford single shell tanks. The combustible waste fraction of a tank is defined as that proportion of waste that is capable of burning when exposed to an ignition source. These CWF estimates are used to screen tanks for the organics complexant safety issue. Tanks with a suitably low fraction of combustible waste are classified as safe. The calculations in this report determine the combustible waste fractions in tanks under two different moisture conditions: under current moisture conditions, and after complete dry out. The first fraction is called the wet combustible waste fraction (wet CWF) and the second is called the dry combustible waste fraction (dry CWF). These two fractions are used to screen tanks into three categories: if the wet CWF is too high (above 5%), the tank is categorized as unsafe; if the wet CWF is low but the dry CWF is too high (again, above 5%), the tank is categorized as conditionally safe; finally, if both the wet and dry CWF are low, the tank is categorized as safe. Section 2 describes the data that was required for these calculations. Sections 3 and 4 describe the statistical model and resulting fit for dry combustible waste fractions. Sections 5 and 6 present the statistical model used to estimate wet CWF and the resulting fit. Section 7 describes two tests that were performed on the dry combustible waste fraction ANOVA model to validate it. Finally, Section 8 presents concluding remarks. Two Appendices present results on a tank-by-tank basis

  3. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  4. Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Denys; Duo, Wen Li; Vessey, Michelle

    2006-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste. We found no correlation between PCDD/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible for the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), such as PAHs and PCDD/PCDF precursors, increase PCDD/PCDF emissions. PAH concentrations increased with higher boiler load and/or low oxygen concentrations at the boiler exit, probably because of lower available residence times and insufficient excess air. Our findings are consistent with the current understanding that high ash carbon content generally favours heterogeneous reactions leading to either de novo synthesis of PCDD/PCDFs or their direct formation from precursors. We also found that, in grate-fired boilers, a linear increase in the grate/lower furnace temperature produces an exponential decrease in PCDD/PCDF emissions. Although the extent of this effect appears to be mill-specific, particularly at low temperatures, the results indicate that increasing the combustion temperature may decrease PCDD/PCDF emissions. It must be noted, however, that there are other variables, such as elevated ESP and stack temperatures, a high hog salt content, the presence of large amounts of PICs and a high Cl/S ratio, which contribute to higher PCDD/PCDFs emissions. Therefore, higher combustion temperatures, by themselves, will not necessarily result in low PCDD/PCDFs emissions.

  5. Emissions of toxic pollutants from co-combustion of demolition and construction wood and household waste fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Ortuño, Núria; Persson, Per-Erik; Conesa, Juan A; Jansson, Stina

    2018-07-01

    Four different types of fuel blends containing demolition and construction wood and household waste were combusted in a small-scale experimental set-up to study the effect of fuel composition on the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), chlorobenzenes (PCBzs), chlorophenols (PCPhs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two woody materials, commercial stemwood (ST) and demolition and construction wood (DC) were selected because of the differences in their persistent organic pollutants (POPs), ash and metals content. For household waste, we used a municipal solid waste (MSW) and a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) from MSW with 5-20 wt% and up to 5 wt% food waste content respectively. No clear effect on the formation of pollutants was observed with different food waste content in the fuel blends tested. Combustion of ST-based fuels was very inefficient which led to high PAH emissions (32 ± 3.8 mg/kg fuel ). The use of DC clearly increased the total PCDD and PCDF emissions (71 ± 26 μg/kg fuel ) and had a clear effect on the formation of toxic congeners (210 ± 87 ng WHO 2005 -TEQ/kg fuel ). The high PCDD and PCDF emissions from DC-based fuels can be attributed to the presence of material contaminants such as small pieces of metals or plastics as well as timber treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives and pentachlorophenol in the DC source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Behaviour, capture and inertization of some trace elements during combustion of refuse-derived char from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Braekman-Danheux, C.; Laurent, P.; Thiemann, T.; Fontana, A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    1999-08-01

    An investigation of refuse-derived char (RDC) generated by thermolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) was undertaken to elucidate the behaviour of some toxic and potentially toxic trace elements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) plus Fe during combustion of RDC. About 87% of Sb, 66% of Pb, 60% of Cu and significant parts of Fe{gt}Zn{gt}Ni{gt}Mn{gt}Cr from the RDC are volatile at 1200{degree}C, and their behaviour in the temperature interval 500-1200{degree}C is characterized. The use of sorbents (zeolite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, coals enriched in kaolinite and calcite, and lime plus portlandite) for capture, solidification and inertization of the most volatile elements during combustion of RDC is also described. Perspective sorbents and inertants for a retention of the most volatile Pb, Sb and Cu in RDC ash are kaolinite and montmorillonite or coals enriched in these minerals. In addition, when there is an effective RDC washing (dechlorination and desulphurization), the use of sorbents for capture of some metals could be reduced or even avoided. Recommendations are given for RDC utilization and improvisation of the collection, separation procedures and removal efficiency of some heavy-metal, chloride and sulphate compounds from MSW and RDC prior to their use. The results show that a long-term strategy based on detailed understanding of the source, formation, behaviour and fate of the elements and their modes of occurrence in MSW, RDC and combustion waste residues is required in order to validate a perspective waste pyrolytic processes development. 55 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATOR TARGET ANALYTE LIST OF PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of pilot-scale incineration testing to develop a comprehensive list of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) from hazardous waste combustion (HWC) systems. Project goals were to: (1) identify the total mass of organic compounds sufficiently to estimate...

  8. Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainikka, Pasi; Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilä, Kai; Hupa, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. ► CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. ► N 2 O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. ► Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. ► Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO 2 -eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

  9. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa ER31JA03.009...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class I Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Limits ER31JA03.006...

  12. 40 CFR 60.1200 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1200 Section 60.1200 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1200 What are the operating practice...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Aaaa of... - Emission Limits for New Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Combustion Units 1 Table 1 to Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced... Combustion Units For the following pollutants You must meet thefollowing emission limits a Using the...

  14. 40 CFR 60.1690 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1690 Section 60.1690 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 60.1690 What...

  15. On the experience of the management of solid alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, V.A.; Rakov, N.A.; Romanovskii, V.N.; Yakushev, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel reprocessing is studied in a pilot plant. Low and high level radioactive wastes handling is described. Liquid wastes are solidified. Combustible solid wastes are incinerated. Non-combustible and ashes are send to disposal site. Volume reduction of alpha-bearing wastes is obtained by optimisation of the reprocessing and development of remote control methods

  16. Analytical methods relating to mineral matter in coal and ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A. [Ultra-Systems Technology Pty. Ltd., Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The paper begins by describing the minerals that occur in coal, as well as trace elements. The testing methods that are then described include those that are in the main the standard tools for the examination and assessment of minerals in coal and ash. The techniques discussed include optical and beam techniques, X-ray methods and a variety of other useful methods. 12 refs.

  17. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  18. Co-combustion of waste with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Boavida, D.; Abelha, P.; Lopes, H.; Cabrita, I. [DEECA-INETI, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2002-07-01

    The results of a study of cocombustion of waste with coal is described. Various wastes (biomass, sludge, and refuse derived fuel) were burned with coal in a circulating fluidised bed combustor. Conditions that prevent segregated combustion, reduce production of nitrogen oxides, and attain high combustion efficiency were studied. The effects of variations in air staging in the riser, mixing of air with volatiles, coal/biomass ratio, methods of feeding biomass, and temperature are described. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream

  20. EMISSIONS FROM CO-COMBUSTION OF COAL AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN DOMESTIC CENTRAL HEATING BOILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Maria Cieślik

    2017-04-01

    The results were analyzed in terms of combustion efficiency, emissions of major pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2 and fly ash with adsorbed of PAHs on its surface. The average concentration of emitted particulate matter was 764 mg m-3, and CO - 1944, SO2 - 1256 NOx - 555 mg m-3 (STP, 3% O2, dry gas. The flue gases contain fly ash, with a significant carbon content EC (average 31% and a high proportion of PM10 and PM2.5 - respectively 100 and 75% by volume.

  1. Synthesis of calcium phosphate hydrogel from waste incineration fly ash and bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Kunihiro; Arimitsu, Naoki; Kidoguchi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Hideto

    2009-01-01

    Waste incineration fly ash and bone powder could be successfully recycled into calcium phosphate hydrogel, a type of fast proton conductor. Various properties of the intermediate and calcium phosphate hydrogel from them were characterized and compared with that from calcium carbonate reagent. It was found that the intermediate from the incineration fly ash and calcium phosphate glass was more brittle than that from bone powder and calcium carbonate reagent. The electric conductivity of crystallized hydrogel obtained from all raw materials increases exponentially with temperature. However, the crystallized hydrogel from incineration fly ash has lower electric conductivity and lower crystallinity than that from bone powder and the reagent. Moreover, the difference in electric conductivity between these crystallized hydrogels decreases with temperature. Compared with using the reagent as a raw material, bone powder provides a 25% reduction in the usage of H 3 PO 4 to acquire the crystallized hydrogel which has the highest conductivity. These experimental results suggest that the incineration fly ash and bone powder are useful calcium sources for the synthesis of calcium phosphate hydrogel

  2. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    management, polymer composites and chemical process design. Figure 1 Difference in color of the ash ... The selection of ash is important as the quality of ash determines the total amount as well as quality of silica recoverable Ash which has undergone maximum extent of combustion is highly desirable as it contains ...

  3. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  4. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  5. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Andersen, Myrrha E.; Modak, Nabanita; Winterrowd, Christopher K.; Lee, Chun Wai; Roberts, William L.; Wendt, Jost O L; Linak, William P.

    2016-01-01

    -fired combustion conditions consists primarily of carbonaceous material (50-95%). Carbonaceous components on particles <0.6. μm measured by a thermal optical method showed that large fractions (52-93%) consisted of OC rather than EC, as expected. This observation

  6. Enrichment of trace elements in bottom ash from coal oxy-combustion: Effect of coal types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the enrichment of trace elements in two coals under air and oxy-combustion conditions was studied. Twenty-one trace elements were evaluated. The two coal samples had a different concentration for the 21 trace elements, which was due...

  7. System analysis of environmental impacts of the combustion of waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanterae, R.

    1996-01-01

    Combustion alternatives of different waste paper grades that are unsuitable or difficult to recycle were studied. Environmental impacts of alternative methods of waste paper treatment - combustion, dump disposal and use for fibre raw material - were studied with the aid of system analysis. Use of waste paper for energy production is usually recommended when there is oversupply of waste paper or it is unsuitable for recycled pulp. On the basis of certain studies it has also been suggested that it would be most profitable to use all waste paper as fuel. Refused tight paper rolls, baled brown paper and a mixture of adhesive paper and crushed building waste wood were chosen for waste paper in the combustion tests. The tests were run in the fluidised-bed combustion boiler of Maentaen Energia Oy. The mass flow of paper was about 3 t/h and its proportion of the fuel efficiency on average 20%. Prior to each paper combustion test, a blank trial was run with pure peat. The combustion tests indicated that flue gas emissions are not reduced by using paper instead of peat for energy production, but their composition is changed slightly. When the environmental effects of the use of waste paper for energy were compared with those of landfill dumping, the most significant difference was a reduction in greenhouse gases. The amount of methane emitted from the landfill will reduce. Differences in other emissions, e.g., in acidification due to SO 2 and NO 2 emissions, were rather small. The amount of solid waste was significantly lower in the combustion alternative. (38 refs.)

  8. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kougemitrou, Irene [Harokopio University of Athens, 70 El. Venizelou Str., 17671 Athens (Greece); Godelitsas, Athanasios, E-mail: agodel@geol.uoa.gr [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Tsabaris, Christos [Hellenic Center of Marine Research, 19013 Anavyssos (Greece); Stathopoulos, Vassilis [Technological Educational Institute of Chalkida, 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, Andreas [CERECO S.A. Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, 34100 Chalkida (Greece); Gamaletsos, Platon [University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli Zographou, 15784 Athens (Greece); Economou, George [Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Olympic Village, 13677 Acharnai (Greece); Papadopoulos, Dimitris [APOTEFROTIRAS S.A., Ano Liossia, 19200 Elefsina (Greece)

    2011-03-15

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 57}Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  9. Characterisation and management of ash produced in the hospital waste incinerator of Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kougemitrou, Irene; Godelitsas, Athanasios; Tsabaris, Christos; Stathopoulos, Vassilis; Papandreou, Andreas; Gamaletsos, Platon; Economou, George; Papadopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Bottom and fly ash samples (BASH and FASH) from the APOTEFROTIRAS S.A. medical waste incinerator (Athens, Greece) were investigated. Powder-XRD data and geochemical diagrams showed BASH to be an amorphous material, analogous to basaltic glass, and FASH consisting of crystalline compounds (mainly CaClOH). Bulk analyses by ICP-MS and point analyses by SEM-EDS indicated a high content of heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu and Cr, in both samples. However, BASH was highly enriched in Ni while FASH was additionally enriched in Zn and Pb. Gamma-ray measurements showed that the radioactivity of both ash samples, due to natural and artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 57 Co), was within the permissible levels recommended by IAEA. According to EN-type leaching tests, BASH was practically inert with regard to the mobility of the hazardous elements in aqueous media. FASH, however, showed a relatively high EN (and TCLP) leachability with regard to Pb and Zn. Finally, the stabilisation method, suggested for the treatment of FASH, included compression of the powder into briquettes using an appropriate machine and embedding the briquettes into pozzolanic cement blocks. After this treatment, TCLP and EN-type tests showed minimal release of Pb and Zn, thereby demonstrating a reliable management of ash waste.

  10. The potential impact of municipal solid waste incinerators ashes on the anthropogenic osmium budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, Valerio, E-mail: valerio.funari@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy); Meisel, Thomas [General and Analytical Chemistry, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, Leoben (Austria); Braga, Roberto [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali (BiGeA), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Osmium release from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI), even if acknowledged to occur at least over the last fifteen years, remains overlooked in the majority of recent studies. We present the osmium concentration and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotopic measurements of different kinds of bottom and fly ash samples from MSWI plants and reference materials of incinerator fly ash (BCR176 and BCR176R). The analysis of the unknown ash samples shows a relatively wide range of {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios (0.24–0.70) and Os concentrations (from 0.026 ng/g to 1.65 ng/g). Osmium concentrations and isotopic signatures differ from those of other known Os sources, either natural or manmade, suggesting a mixture of both contributions in the MSWI feedstock material. Furthermore, the comparison between the BCR176 and the renewed BCR176R indicates a decrease in Os concentration of one order of magnitude over the years (from 1 to 0.1 ng/g) due to improved recycling efficiency of Os-bearing waste. The estimated annual amount of Os from a typical incinerator (using average Os values and MSWI mass balance) is 13.4 g/a. The osmium potentially released from MSWI smokestacks is predicted to be from 16 to 38 ng Os/m{sup 2}/a, considering a medium size country having 50 MSWI facilities; therefore much higher than the naturally transported osmium from continental dust in the atmosphere (about 1 pg Os/m{sup 2}/a). MSWI systems are considered one of the best options for municipal solid waste management in industrialised countries, but their contribution to the Os budget can be significant. - Highlights: • Bottom and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incinerators are investigated. • Their Os levels and Os isotopic signatures are discussed. • An estimate of Os release from incinerators and incinerated ashes is given. • Os contamination from incineration plants impacts the geochemical Os cycle.

  11. Effect of fluidization number on the combustion of simulated municipal solid waste in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar Johari; Mutahharah, M.M.; Abdul, A.; Salema, A.; Kalantarifard, A.; Rozainee, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of fluidization number on the combustion of simulated municipal solid was in a fluidized bed was investigated. Simulated municipal solid waste was used a sample and it was formulated from major waste composition found in Malaysia which comprised of food waste, paper, plastic and vegetable waste. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the simulated were conducted and results showed its composition was similar to the actual Malaysian municipal solid waste composition. Combustion study was carried out in a rectangular fluidized bed with sand of mean particle size of 0.34 mm as a fluidising medium. The range of fluidization numbers investigated was 3 to 11 U mf . The combustion was carried out at stoichiometric condition (Air Factor = 1). Results showed that the best fluidization number was in the range of 5 to 7 U mf with 5 U mf being the most optimum in which the bed temperature was sustained in a much longer period. (author)

  12. State-of-the-art of the European regulation on wood wastes and wood ashes valorization. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, S.

    2007-01-01

    This study has the objective of comparing the regulations of 10 European countries with that of France, in relation to the classification and recycling of wood waste, in particular lightly treated wood, as well as recycling of wood ash. The first part relating to wood waste presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary, on the one hand, of the various sectors for recycling waste wood and, on the other, the emission limits for their energy recovery. Generally, there is a distinction between waste covered by the incineration directive, and the others, without any particular category for lightly treated wood. However, recommendations emerge from this that are based essentially on the regulations or guidelines observed in Germany, Austria and the United Kingdom. The second part relating to wood ash also a presents a detailed analysis by country as well as a summary of the various sectors of recycling and limit values for spreading. Ash is generally considered as waste, and is recycled on a case-by case basis. Only Germany and Austria have clearly integrated wood ash in their regulatory framework. Overall this study shows the need for uniform regulation at European level, establishing environment requirements for recycling wood waste and wood ash, in order to encourage development of the use of biomass

  13. Characterization of flue gas, fly ash, aerosol and deposit compositions as a function of waste composition and grate operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Frandsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    The Danish strategy for waste management is still to increase recycling and on the same time to reduce the volume of land-filled waste, in order to avoid loss of resources, and waste incineration is an important part of this strategy. In 2004, 26 % of the total reported Danish waste production...... metals, was then mixed with the reference fuel in the individual test runs. The dedicated waste fractions comprised NaCl (road salt), batteries, automotive shredder waste, CCA (Copper-Chromate-Arsenate)-impregnated wood, PVC plastics, and (leather) shoes. Test runs with varying operational parameters, e...... times increase in concentration in fly ash compared to the reference experiments), and for Hg when firing batteries (10 times increase in concentration in fly ash). These observations were in consistence with an increased concentration of the respective elements in the specific waste fractions...

  14. Quantification of the resource recovery potential of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Maresca, Alberto; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Holtze, Maria Sommer; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plays an important role in many European waste management systems. However, increasing focus on resource criticality has raised concern regarding the possible loss of critical resources through MSWI. The primary form of solid output from waste incinerators is bottom ashes (BAs), which also have important resource potential. Based on a full-scale Danish recovery facility, detailed material and substance flow analyses (MFA and SFA) were carried out, in order to characterise the resource recovery potential of Danish BA: (i) based on historical and experimental data, all individual flows (representing different grain size fractions) within the recovery facility were quantified, (ii) the resource potential of ferrous (Fe) and non-ferrous (NFe) metals as well as rare earth elements (REE) was determined, (iii) recovery efficiencies were quantified for scrap metal and (iv) resource potential variability and recovery efficiencies were quantified based on a range of ashes from different incinerators. Recovery efficiencies for Fe and NFe reached 85% and 61%, respectively, with the resource potential of metals in BA before recovery being 7.2%ww for Fe and 2.2%ww for NFe. Considerable non-recovered resource potential was found in fine fraction (below 2mm), where approximately 12% of the total NFe potential in the BA were left. REEs were detected in the ashes, but the levels were two or three orders of magnitude lower than typical ore concentrations. The lack of REE enrichment in BAs indicated that the post-incineration recovery of these resources may not be a likely option with current technology. Based on these results, it is recommended to focus on limiting REE-containing products in waste for incineration and improving pre-incineration sorting initiatives for these elements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors.

  16. Power plant ash and slag waste management technological direction when Kansk-Achinsk brown coal is burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today resource efficiency technology development in all industries where conventional raw material is being replaced by local natural resources and industrial waste is an essential matter. Along with that most producing operations are overload with wide range of waste produced during technological process. Thermal power stations are real world evidence. Their main waste is ash and slag which accumulated in great amounts in often overfull ash dumps. The goal of present work is to find perspective ash dump waste utilization methods. The study will be based on experimentally obtained data: elementary compound and properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal. Research methods: experimental, chemical silicate analysis, mineralogical forms identification within samples by using ASM X-ray diffraction analysis. Experiments resulted with the following conclusions: silica is ash main component, and ash has the form of ore concentrate analogy in a number of elements. We think that ASM main properties which make it useful for utilization are: high content of calcium oxide; high ash sorption properties; ASM radiation safety class which makes them safe to be used in materials, goods, and structures production for residence and public buildings construction and reconstruction; sufficiently high content of individual elements.

  17. Effect of COSMOS technologies in detoxifying municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Elsa; Lasagni, Marina; Collina, Elena; Bonaiti, Stefania; Bontempi, Elza

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of technologies for heavy metal stabilization on the concentration of PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDF), abbreviated PCDD/F, in Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash. We determined the variation of the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and PCDD/F concentration between raw and stabilized material. The technologies, that already proved to be very promising for heavy metal entrapment, showed encouraging results also for PCDD/F detoxification. This result could be very impacting on the management of MSWI fly ash: at the best of our knowledge, there are no methods, in literature, that can provide good results in stabilization of heavy metals, and abatement of chlorinated organic pollutants contained in the same matrix.

  18. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  19. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the study of simulated radwaste, spent ion-exchange resins, borates/evaporator-concentrates and animal ashes, in bituminized form, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidized bitumen were used for characterizing the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weight composition 30, 40, 50, 60% by weight the dry waste material. The asphaltine and parafin contents in the bitumens were determined. Some additives and clays were used aiming best characteristics of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were loaded with Cs 134 and mixtures of resins-bitumens were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. It was used a conventional screw-extruder, used in plastic industry, to determine operational conditions and process difficulties. Mixtures resins-bitumen and concentrate-bitumen in differents operational condition were prepared and analysed. (Author) [pt

  20. Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Dezhen; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jianyi; Li, Xian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The first study to apply Fe-sulfate in hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. ► The first study to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on dioxin decomposition and heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. ► Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation, and to support the experimental data by the calculation results. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash was performed in this paper with a purpose to reduce its dioxin content. First a hydrothermal reactor was set up with a mixture of ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate serviced as the reactant, then the effects caused by reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pre-treatment by water-washing and reactant dosage were checked; the results showed that as a promising technology, hydrothermal treatment exhibited considerable high efficiencies in decomposition of PCDDs/PCDFs and good stabilization of heavy metals as well. Experimental results also showed that for dioxin destruction, higher reaction temperature is the most important influencing factor followed by Fe addition, and pre-treatment of raw fly ash by water-washing increased the destruction efficiencies of dioxins only very slightly. Finally with help of Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation. The calculation results were supported by the experimental data. The leaching toxicities of hydrothermal products were higher than upper limits defined in the latest Chinese standard GB 16889-2008 for sanitary landfill disposal, thus an auxiliary process is suggested after the hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal stabilization.

  1. Co-combustion of agricultural wastes in a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseyin Topal; Aysel T. Atimtay [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    In this study a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) of 125 mm inside diameter and 1800 mm height was used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics of peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry, and sunflower stems produced as a waste from the edible oil industry with a lignite coal. Lignite coal is a coal most widely used in Turkey. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NOx and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m}H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. By changing the operating parameters the variation of emissions of various pollutants were studied. During combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from agro-wastes quickly volatilizes and mostly burn in the riser. The temperature profiles along the bed and the rise also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter content of agro-waste increases, the combustion efficiency increases and the combustion takes place more in the upper region of the riser. These results suggest that agro-wastes are potential fuels that can be utilized for clean energy production by using CFBC in countries where agricultural activities are heavy. 3 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1555 - Are any small municipal waste combustion units exempt from my State plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... qualifies for the exemption. (d) Municipal waste combustion units that combust only tires. Units are exempt... single-item waste stream of tires and no other municipal waste (the unit can co-fire coal, fuel oil.../rubber recycling units. Units are exempt from your State plan if four requirements are met: (1) The...

  4. Thermal properties of fly ash substituted slag cement waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant salt waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Kaushal, S.; Licastro, P.H.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will involve reconstitution of the salts (NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , NaOH, etc.) into a concentrated solution (32 weight percent salts) followed by solidification in a cement-based waste form for burial. The stability and mechanical durability of such a 'saltstone monolith' will depend largely on the temperature reached due to heat of hydration and the thermal properties of the waste form. Fly ash has been used as an inexpensive constituent and to moderate the hydration and setting processes so as to avoid reaching prohibitively high temperatures which could cause thermal stresses. Both high-calcium and low-calcium fly ashes have been studied for this purpose. Other constituents of these mixes include granulated blast furnace slag and finely crushed limestone. Adiabatic temperature increase and thermal conductivity of these mixes have been studied and related x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies carried out to understand the hydration process

  5. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incineration and co-combustion of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Møller, Jacob; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2009-01-01

    Important greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to waste incineration and co-combustion of waste were identified and considered relative to critical aspects such as: the contents of biogenic and fossil carbon, N2O emissions, fuel and material consumptions at the plants, energy recovery, and soli...

  7. Ash related bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion, further development of the classification method based on CCSEM; CCSEM-luokitusmenetelmaen jatkokehittaeminen tuhkan aiheuttaman agglomeroitumisen tutkimisessa leiju- ja kiertopetipoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, R; Patrikainen, T; Heikkinen, R; Tiainen, M; Virtanen, M [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The scope of this project is to use the information and experience gained from the development of classification method to predict ash related problems like bed agglomeration during fluidised combustion. If boilers have to be shut down due to slagging or agglomeration of the bed material may cause significant economic losses for the entire energy production chain. Mineral classification methods based on the scanning electron microscopy are commonly used for coal ash investigation. In this work different biomass, peat, and peat-wood ash, fluidised-bed materials, and bed agglomerates were analysed with SEM-EDS combined with automatic image analysis software. The properties of ash particles are different depending on the fuel type. If biomass like wood or bark are added to peat the resulting ash has different properties. Due to the low mineral content in the original peat and to the fact that the majority of inorganic material is bound to the organic matrix, the classification has turned out to be less informative than was hoped. However, good results are obtained the by use of quasiternary diagrams. With these diagrams the distribution of particle composition is easily illustrated and thus meaningful prediction can be made of the slagging and agglomerating properties of ash. The content of ten different elements are determined for each particle by SEM-EDS combined with Link AIA software. The composition of the diagram corners can be varied Freely within these ten elements. (orig.)

  8. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  9. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Glassman, Irvin

    1987-01-01

    Combustion, Second Edition focuses on the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and flame temperatures to chemical kinetics, detonation, ignition, and oxidation characteristics of fuels. Diffusion flames, flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases, and combustion of nonvolatile fuels are also discussed. This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy and the equilibrium constants, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactio

  11. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and crop by-product for producing lightweight aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giro-Paloma, J.; Ribas-Manero, V.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the growing amount of residues in Europe, it is mandatory to provide a viable alternative for managing wastes contributing to the efficient use of resources. Besides, it is also essential to move towards a low carbon economy, priority EU by 2050. Among these, it is important to highlight the development of sustainable alternatives capable of incorporating different kind of wastes in their formulations.Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) is estimated to increase in Europe, where the accessibility of landfill is restricted. Bottom ash (BA) is the most significant by-product from MSWI as it accounts for 85 - 95 % of the solid product resulting from combustion. BA is a mixture of calcium-rich compounds and others silicates enriched in iron and sodium. In addition, it is categorized as non-hazardous waste which can be revalorized as secondary material in construction or civil engineering fields, previous weathering stabilization during 2 - 3 months. Taking into account the relative proportion of each size fraction and the corresponding material characterization, the content of glass (primary and secondary) is estimated to be around 60 wt%. Furthermore, as a renewable resource and according to waste management European policies, residual agricultural biomass has attracted attention in preparation of advanced materials for various applications, due to their low cost, abundance, and environment friendliness. Among this residual biomass, rice husk is a by-product of rice milling industry which has high content of silica and has been widely used in buildings as natural thermal insulation material.Weathered BA (WBA) with a particle size less than 30 mm was milled under 100 μm, mixed with 2.0 - 5.0 mm rice husk, formed into ball-shaped pellets and sintered by different thermal treatments, which remove the organic matter content generating a large porosity. Physico-chemical analysis and mechanical behavior of the manufactured lightweight aggregates were tested

  12. Integral recycling of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (0–2 mm) and industrial powder wastes by cold-bonding pelletization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2017-01-01

    The cold-bonding pelletizing technique is applied in this study as an integrated method to recycle municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash fines (BAF, 0–2 mm) and several other industrial powder wastes. Artificial lightweight aggregates are produced successfully based on the combination

  13. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluidized bed combustion of refuse-derived fuel in presence of protective coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, Eduardo [CIRCE, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, Zaragoza (Spain); Aho, Martti [VTT Processes, P.O. Box 1603, 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silvennoinen, Jaani; Nurminen, Riku-Ville [Kvaerner Power, P.O.Box 109, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2005-12-15

    Combustion of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) alone or together with other biomass leads to superheater fouling and corrosion in efficient power plants (with high steam values) due to vaporization and condensation of alkali chlorides. In this study, means were found to raise the portion of RDF to 40% enb without risk to boilers. This was done by co-firing RDF with coal and optimizing coal quality. Free aluminum silicate in coal captured alkalies from vaporized alkali chlorides preventing Cl condensation to superheaters. Strong fouling and corrosion were simultaneously averted. Results from 100 kW and 4 MW CFB reactors are reported. (author)

  15. Microwave radiation improves biodiesel yields from waste cooking oil in the presence of modified coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Xiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the effects of using modified coal fly ash as a catalyst to convert waste cooking oil (WCO into biodiesel under microwave-strengthened action. Coal fly ash was modified with sodium sulphate and sodium hydroxide, and the obtained catalyst was characterized using FT-IR and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The experimental results showed that the modified coal fly ash catalyst improved biodiesel yields under the microwave-assisted system, and the maximum biodiesel yield from waste cooking oil reached 94.91% at a molar ratio of methanol to WCO of 9.67:1 with 3.99% wt% of modified coal fly ash catalyst (based on oil weight at a 66.20 °C reaction temperature. The reusability of the modified coal fly ash catalyst was excellent, and the conversion yield remained greater than 90% after the catalyst was reused 8 times. The produced biodiesel met the main parameters of the ASTM D-6751 and EN14214 standards. Keywords: Biodiesel, Modified coal fly ash, Microwave assisted system, Waste cooking oil

  16. Development of plasma melting technology for treatment of low level radioactive waste. Pt. 9. Treatment method for combustible wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Shinji; Adachi, Kazuo; Amakawa, Masashi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the incineration method for the miscellaneous solid waste containing the low level radioactive combustibles (wood, PE, PVC) in a plasma furnace. The maximum weights of the respective combustibles to be fed into the plasma furnace and the incineration conditions for continuous feeding of the respective combustibles were examined experimentally. As a result, a experimental equation which expresses the maximum weights of the respective combustibles to be fed in reference to the residence time in the plasma furnace was obtained by using apparent reaction rate constants. Furthermore, a calculation method for the feeding intervals in reference to the weights of the combustibles fed each time was obtained for the continuous feeding in the plasma furnace, and the method was found to be consistent with experimental results. (author)

  17. Waste incinerating plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-12-01

    This plant is provided with a NKK-Ferunst type reciprocating stage fire lattice which has a good ventilating effect and a proper stirring and loosening effect, achieving a high combustion rate, and has also a gas flow system by which gas can flow in the reverse direction to adjust its flow for seasonal variations in the quality of waste. Also, a room in which the exhaust gas is mixed is provided in this plant as a help for the complete neutralization and combustion of acid gas such as hydrogen chloride and imperfect combustion gas from plastic waste contained in wastes. In this system, waste can accept a sufficient radiant heat from the combustion gas, the furnace wall, and the ceiling; even on the post combustion fire lattice the ashes are given heat enough to complete the post combustion, so that it can be completely reduced to ashes. For these reasons, this type of incinerator is suitable for the combustion of low-calorie wastes such as city wastes. The harmful gases resulting from the combustion of wastes are treated completely by desulfurization equipment which can remove the oxides of sulfur. This type of plant also can dispose of a wide variety of wastes, and is available in several capacities from 30 tons per 8 hr to 1,200 tons per 24 hr.

  18. Combustion of agro-waste with coal in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atimtay, Aysel T. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, a review of the studies done on the co-combustion of some agro-waste in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) having an inside diameter of 102 mm and a height of 900 mm is given. The agro-waste used to investigate the co-combustion characteristics were peach and apricot stones produced as a waste from the fruit juice industry, and olive cake produced as a waste from the olive oil industry. These are typical wastes for a Mediterranean country. A lignite coal was used for co-combustion. On-line concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and total hydrocarbons (C{sub m} H{sub n}) were measured in the flue gas during combustion experiments. Variations of emissions of various pollutants were studied by changing the operating parameters (excess air ratio, fluidization velocity and fuel feed rate). Temperature distribution along the bed was measured with thermocouples. Emissions were also monitored from the exhaust. Various combinations of coal and biomass mixtures were tested. During the combustion tests, it was observed that the volatile matter from the biomass quickly volatilizes and mostly burns in the freeboard. The temperature profiles along the bed and the freeboard also confirmed this phenomenon. It was found that as the volatile matter of the biomass increases, combustion takes place more in the freeboard region. Better combustion conditions occur at higher excess air ratios. The results showed that co-combustion with these three proposed biomasses lowers the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions considerably. CO and hydrocarbon emissions are lower at the higher excess air ratios. (orig.)

  19. Speciation of zinc in secondary fly ashes of municipal solid waste at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Meijuan; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Dongliang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Tian, Shulei [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering; Wang, Qi [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing (China); Wu, Ziyu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China). National Synchrotron Radiation Lab.; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities

    2009-07-15

    The evaporation aerosols produced during the vitrification process of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) fly ash represent a potential environmental risk owing to their high content of heavy metals. In this research, high-temperature heating processes were carried out on fly ashes collected from bag houses in a Chinese MSWI plant and the secondary fly ashes (SFA) were separately collected at three high temperatures (1273 K, 1423 K and 1523 K) below the melting range. Elemental analysis showed that high contents of both zinc and chlorine were present in these SFA samples and, according to the standard of the heavy metals industrial grade of ore, SFAs can be re-used as metallurgical raw materials or rich ore. Moreover, as shown by XAS analysis and for different high temperatures, zinc environments in the three SFA samples were characterized by the same local structure of the zinc chloride. As a consequence, a zinc recycling procedure can be easily designed based on the configuration information. (orig.)

  20. Speciation of zinc in secondary fly ashes of municipal solid waste at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Meijuan; Chu, Wangsheng; Chen, Dongliang; Wu, Ziyu; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2009-01-01

    The evaporation aerosols produced during the vitrification process of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) fly ash represent a potential environmental risk owing to their high content of heavy metals. In this research, high-temperature heating processes were carried out on fly ashes collected from bag houses in a Chinese MSWI plant and the secondary fly ashes (SFA) were separately collected at three high temperatures (1273 K, 1423 K and 1523 K) below the melting range. Elemental analysis showed that high contents of both zinc and chlorine were present in these SFA samples and, according to the standard of the heavy metals industrial grade of ore, SFAs can be re-used as metallurgical raw materials or rich ore. Moreover, as shown by XAS analysis and for different high temperatures, zinc environments in the three SFA samples were characterized by the same local structure of the zinc chloride. As a consequence, a zinc recycling procedure can be easily designed based on the configuration information. (orig.)

  1. Elution behavior of heavy metals from cement solidified products of incinerated ash waste - 59102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Yoshimi; Nakayama, Takuya; Tomioka, Osamu; Mitsuda, Motoyuki

    2012-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose radioactive incinerated ash waste. In order to bury the solidified product, it is required that elution of hazardous heavy metals included in the ash from the solidified products is inhibited. In this study, the elution behavior of the heavy metals from the synthetic solidified products, which included Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cr(VI) and were prepared using ordinary portland cement (OPC), blast furnace slag cement (BFS), or a cement material that showed low alkalinity (LA-Cement), was investigated. Several chemicals and materials were added as additive agents to prevent the elution of the heavy metals. When OPC was used, Cd elution was inhibited, but Pb and Cr were not enough even using the additive agent examined. FeSO 4 and Na 2 S additive agents worked effective to inhibit elution of Cr. When BFS was used, the elution of Pb, Cd and Cr was inhibited for the all products prepared. In the case of LA-Cement, the elution of Pb and Cd was inhibited for the all products, but only the product that was added FeSO 4 showed good result of the elution of Cr. (authors)

  2. Phosphorus leaching from soils amended with thermally gasifie