WorldWideScience

Sample records for waste chemicals

  1. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  2. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  3. Chemical Stabilization of Hanford Tank Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy N.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in-situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of the three most significant mobile contaminants of concern from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. For uranium, all three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective MCLs for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  4. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J., E-mail: kirk.cantrell@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH){sub 2}], an in situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and Ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of uranium from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. All three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste. This innovative approach has the potential to revolutionize Hanford’s tank retrieval process, by allowing larger volumes of residual waste to be left in tanks while providing an acceptably low level of risk with respect to contaminant release that is protective of the environment and human health. Such an approach could enable DOE to realize significant cost savings through streamlined retrieval and closure operations.

  5. Chemical stabilization of Hanford tank residual waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Um, Wooyong; Williams, Benjamin D.; Bowden, Mark E.; Gartman, Brandy; Lukens, Wayne W.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mausolf, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Three different chemical treatment methods were tested for their ability to stabilize residual waste from Hanford tank C-202 for reducing contaminant release (Tc, Cr, and U in particular). The three treatment methods tested were lime addition [Ca(OH)2], an in situ Ceramicrete waste form based on chemically bonded phosphate ceramics, and a ferrous iron/goethite treatment. These approaches rely on formation of insoluble forms of the contaminants of concern (lime addition and Ceramicrete) and chemical reduction followed by co-precipitation (ferrous iron/goethite incorporation treatment). The results have demonstrated that release of uranium from tank residual wastes can be dramatically reduced after treatment compared to contact with simulated grout porewater without treatment. All three treatments methods reduced the leachable uranium concentrations by well over three orders of magnitude. In the case of uranium and technetium, released concentrations were well below their respective Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for the wastes tested. For tank C-202 residual waste, chromium release concentrations were above the MCL but were considerably reduced relative to untreated tank waste.

  6. Integral Chemical Waste Management in Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Loayza P., Jorge; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Silva M., Marina; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Galarreta D., Hugo; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química - Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The suitable management and handling of the chemical wastes origínatíng from laboratories allow the saving of reagents and materíals; as well as the reductíon of costs assocíated wíth their handling and final disposal. lt also prevents detriment to the health of the people who have to conduct an academic activity in the laboratory (professors, assistants and students) ora professíonal activity related to service consulting dealíng with chemical analyses (analysts, assistants and auxiliary per...

  7. Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes from ... Journal Home > Vol 36, No 2 (2017) > ... The results are indications that the wood wastes are suitable as feedstock for renewable energy generation with little or no ...

  8. Citric waste saccharification under different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Second generation ethanol from lignocellulose materials has been used in applications for food processing wastes. Since Brazil has a leading position in orange juice exports, the influence of acid and alkali pretreatments on liquor saccharification, solubilization of solid fraction and mass yield was evaluated. Time and Cacid or Calkaline at different concentrations of solids (low to moderate, 1 to 9% and high catalyst concentrations were analyzed. A hydrothermal pretreatment was conducted under the same conditions of acid and alkaline treatments to investigate the relative selectivity increase in using the catalysts. The chemical analyses of wastes indicated a 70% total carbohydrate level denoting a promising raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatment caused acid saccharifications between 25 and 65% in total reducing sugars (TRS and mass yields (MY between 30 and 40%. In alkaline pretreatment, these rates ranged between 2 and 22.5% and between 30 and 80, respectively. In hydrothermal pretreatment, solubilized TRS varied between 3 and 37%, whereas MY remained between 45 and 60%, respectively. Cbiomass strongly influenced the three variables; in the same way, time affected MY.

  9. Performance of evaporators in high level radioactive chemical waste service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear fuels and targets at Savannah River Site resulted in generation of millions of gallons of liquid wastes. The wastes were further processed to reduce volume and allow for extended temporary storage of a more concentrated material. Waste evaporators have been a central point for waste reduction for many years. Currently, the transfer and processing of the concentrated wastes for permanent storage requires dilution and results in generation of significant quantities of additional liquid wastes. A new round of volume reduction is required to fit existing storage capacity and to allow for removal of older vessels from service. Evaporator design, performance and repairs are discussed in this report.

  10. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  11. Chemical composition of material fractions in Danish household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of Danish household waste was determined by two approaches: a direct method where the chemical composition (61 substances) of 48 material fractions was determined after hand sorting of about 20 tonnes of waste collected from 2200 households; and an indirect method where...... batches of 80-1200 tonnes of unsorted household waste was incinerated and the content of the waste determined from the content of the outputs from the incinerator. The indirect method is believed to better represent the small but highly contaminated material fractions (e,g., batteries) than the direct...... method, because of the larger quantities included and the more homogenous material to sample from. Differences between the direct and the direct methods led to corrections in the of heavy metal concentration of a few fractions. The majority of the energy content of the waste originates from organic waste...

  12. Alternative Waste Forms for Electro-Chemical Salt Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Brian J.; Matyas, Josef; Arreguin, Shelly A.; Vienna, John D.

    2009-10-28

    This study was undertaken to examine alternate crystalline (ceramic/mineral) and glass waste forms for immobilizing spent salt from the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) electrochemical separations process. The AFCI is a program sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a process for recycling spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The electrochemical process is a molten salt process for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in an electrorefiner and generates spent salt that is contaminated with alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanide fission products (FP) that must either be cleaned of fission products or eventually replaced with new salt to maintain separations efficiency. Currently, these spent salts are mixed with zeolite to form sodalite in a glass-bonded waste form. The focus of this study was to investigate alternate waste forms to immobilize spent salt. On a mole basis, the spent salt is dominated by alkali and Cl with minor amounts of alkaline earth and lanthanides. In the study reported here, we made an effort to explore glass systems that are more compatible with Cl and have not been previously considered for use as waste forms. In addition, alternate methods were explored with the hope of finding a way to produce a sodalite that is more accepting of as many FP present in the spent salt as possible. This study was done to investigate two different options: (1) alternate glass families that incorporate increased concentrations of Cl; and (2) alternate methods to produce a mineral waste form.

  13. Hazardous Waste Processing in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, Dianne; Baria, Dorab N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a sequence of two courses included in the chemical engineering program at the University of Minnesota, Duluth that deal with the processing of hazardous wastes. Covers course content and structure, and discusses developments in pollution prevention and waste management that led to the addition of these courses to the curriculum.…

  14. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art environmental assessment of waste management systems rely on data for the physico-chemical composition of individual material fractions comprising the waste in question. To derive the necessary inventory data for different scopes and systems, literature data from different sources...... and backgrounds are consulted and combined. This study provides an overview of physico-chemical waste characterisation data for individual waste material fractions available in literature and thereby aims to support the selection of data fitting to a specific scope and the selection of uncertainty ranges related...... to the data selection from literature. Overall, 97 publications were reviewed with respect to employed characterisation method, regional origin of the waste, number of investigated parameters and material fractions and other qualitative aspects. Descriptive statistical analysis of the reported physico...

  16. Chemical healthcare waste management in small Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João A; Bila, Danielle M; Ritter, Elisabeth; Braga, Ana Cs

    2012-12-01

    The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) seems to have been solved in developed countries, while in most developing countries the problem persists because the disposal methods are expensive and larger than the budget of small- and medium-sized municipalities. The current study evaluates the encapsulation process for the disposal of medical chemical waste. The experiment was developed in the Piraí municipality (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and the chemical wastes were produced in the local public hospital, as well as the 12 units of primary care health services. Chemical waste generated at health services units may include the liquid waste from cleaning materials and disinfectants, expired and unused pharmaceutical products, and cytotoxins. These are all considered hazardous waste products and they must be disposed of via an authorised system at approved sites (e.g. industrial landfills). The process of encapsulating chemical medical waste in concrete (cement, crushed stones and sand) followed by their disposal at sanitary landfills is a procedure that is not considered in Brazilian Legislation. Despite the oversight, this method of disposal was used in the municipality of Piraí, with the approval of the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Environmental Control. The safety aspects of this method and the limits of its applicability, particularly in small municipalities, were evaluated in this study. The results indicate that, within certain parameters, this method may provide a viable solution for the disposal of HCW in small municipalities.

  17. Bioactives from fruit processing wastes: Green approaches to valuable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jhumur; Singh, Ramkrishna; Vijayaraghavan, R; MacFarlane, Douglas; Patti, Antonio F; Arora, Amit

    2017-06-15

    Fruit processing industries contribute more than 0.5billion tonnes of waste worldwide. The global availability of this feedstock and its untapped potential has encouraged researchers to perform detailed studies on value-addition potential of fruit processing waste (FPW). Compared to general food or other biomass derived waste, FPW are found to be selective and concentrated in nature. The peels, pomace and seed fractions of FPW could potentially be a good feedstock for recovery of bioactive compounds such as pectin, lipids, flavonoids, dietary fibres etc. A novel bio-refinery approach would aim to produce a wider range of valuable chemicals from FPW. The wastes from majority of the extraction processes may further be used as renewable sources for production of biofuels. The literature on value addition to fruit derived waste is diverse. This paper presents a review of fruit waste derived bioactives. The financial challenges encountered in existing methods are also discussed.

  18. [Nursing workers' perceptions regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taiza Florêncio; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Baptista, Patrícia Campos Pavan

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the perceptions of nursing workers regarding the handling of hazardous chemical waste at the University of São Paulo University Hospital (HU-USP), and develop a proposal to improve safety measures. This study used a qualitative approach and a convenience sample consisting of eighteen nursing workers. Data collection was performed through focal groups. Thematic analysis revealed four categories that gave evidence of training deficiencies in terms of the stages of handling waste. Difficulties that emerged included a lack of knowledge regarding exposure and its impact, the utilization of personal protective equipment versus collective protection, and suggestions regarding measures to be taken by the institution and workers for the safe handling of hazardous chemical waste. The present data allowed for recommending proposals regarding the safe management of hazardous chemical waste by the nursing staff.

  19. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water | Sahu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water. ... used and lot of wastewater generated from industries due their processes and washing purpose. A large number of chemicals are used for the production of potable water and ... powdered activated carbon (PAC) can remove taste and odour compounds and micro ...

  20. Combined Chemical Activation and Fenton Degradation to Convert Waste Polyethylene into High-Value Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Cheuk-Fai; Wong, Wing-Leung; Ho, Keith Yat-Fung; Chan, Chung-Sum; Gong, Cheng-Bin

    2016-07-04

    Plastic waste is a valuable organic resource. However, proper technologies to recover usable materials from plastic are still very rare. Although the conversion/cracking/degradation of certain plastics into chemicals has drawn much attention, effective and selective cracking of the major waste plastic polyethylene is extremely difficult, with degradation of C-C/C-H bonds identified as the bottleneck. Pyrolysis, for example, is a nonselective degradation method used to crack plastics, but it requires a very high energy input. To solve the current plastic pollution crisis, more effective technologies are needed for converting plastic waste into useful substances that can be fed into the energy cycle or used to produce fine chemicals for industry. In this study, we demonstrate a new and effective chemical approach by using the Fenton reaction to convert polyethylene plastic waste into carboxylic acids under ambient conditions. Understanding the fundamentals of this new chemical process provides a possible protocol to solve global plastic-waste problems.

  1. Physical and chemical evaluation of furniture waste briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Isabel; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-03-01

    Furniture waste is mainly composed of wood and upholstery foam (mostly polyurethane foam). Both of these have a high calorific value, therefore, energy recovery would be an appropriate process to manage these wastes. Nevertheless, the drawback is that the energy content of these wastes is limited due to their low density mainly that of upholstery foam. Densification of separate foam presents difficulties due to its elastic character. The significance of this work lies in obtaining densified material by co-densification of furniture wood waste and polyurethane foam waste. Densification of furniture wood and the co-densification of furniture wood waste with polyurethane foam have been studied. On the one hand, the parameters that have an effect on the quality of the furniture waste briquettes have been analysed, i.e., moisture content, compaction pressure, presence of lignin, etc. The maximum weight percentage of polyurethane foam that can be added with furniture wood waste to obtain durable briquettes and the optimal moisture were determined. On the other hand, some parameters were analysed in order to evaluate the possible effect on the combustion. The chemical composition of waste wood was compared with untreated wood biomass; the higher nitrogen content and the concentration of some metals were the most important differences, with a significant difference of Ti content.

  2. Chemical Dewatering Technique of waste Polymer Drilling Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Zhu Muo

    1997-01-01

    @@ On the basis of the compositional analysis of waste polymer drilling fluid, we adopt chemical dewatering technique and thoroughly break down the colloid system of the drilling fluid. Having changed the surface properties of the clay particles and made the waste mud flocculate, the floc lost mud making ability and the phemeonenon of the floc returning mud is completely dispelled when it is buried. The recovered water can be reused in the mud system.

  3. CORROSION AND CHEMICAL WASTE IN SAWBLADES STEEL USED IN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the chemical waste provoked by the wood on the sheets of steel used in the making of the mountains and cut tools. It was certain the correlationbetween the chemical waste and the extractive soluble in cold water, hot water and in the sequencetoluene and ethanol content. Two types of steel and twenty-seven species different from wood wereused. The corrosive agent, constituted of 50 g of fresh sawdust (moist mixed to 50 ml of distilledwater, it was prepared and placed inside of the plastic box, hermetically closed, on the samples ofsteel, which were totally immersed. The box was placed in a water bath pre-heated to 75°C, that themedium temperature of reaction is considered, that affects the sheet of the sawblade in operation. Thisgroup was operated to 80 rotations per minute (rpm. The time of reaction was of four hours. Afterthat time the corrosive agent was discarded and the samples were washed, dried and weighed. At theend, each sample was processed by a total period of forty hours. The chemical waste was evaluated by the weight difference suffered from beginning at the end of the experiment. For theresults it was observed that the Eucalyptus tradryphloia and the Eucalyptus phaeotricha the speciesthat provoked were, respectively, the largest and smaller chemical waste for the two types of steelappraised. Great variation exists in the chemical waste due to the effect of the species. The corrosionand chemical waste are especially related with the quality of the material solved in ethanol. The 1070steel were more attached than the 6170 steel.

  4. CORROSION AND CHEMICAL WASTE IN SAWBLADES STEEL USED IN WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The objective this work was to evaluate the chemical waste provoked by the wood on the sheets of steel used in the making of the mountains and cut tools. It was certain the correlationbetween the chemical waste and the extractive soluble in cold water, hot water and in the sequencetoluene and ethanol content. Two types of steel and twenty-seven species different from wood wereused. The corrosive agent, constituted of 50 g of fresh sawdust (moist) mixed to 50 ml of distilledwater, it was prepa...

  5. Computer simulation for designing waste reduction in chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, S.K. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Technology, TN (United States); Cabezas, H.; Bare, J.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A new methodology has been developed for implementing waste reduction in the design of chemical processes using computer simulation. The methodology is based on a generic pollution balance around a process. For steady state conditions, the pollution balance equation is used as the basis to define a pollution index with units of pounds of pollution per pound of products. The pollution balance has been modified by weighing the mass of each pollutant by a chemical ranking of environmental impact. The chemical ranking expresses the well known fact that all chemicals do not have the same environmental impact, e.g., all chemicals are not equally toxic. Adding the chemical ranking effectively converts the pollutant mass balance into a balance over environmental impact. A modified pollution index or impact index with units of environmental impact per mass of products is derived from the impact balance. The impact index is a measure of the environmental effects due to the waste generated by a process. It is extremely useful when comparing the effect of the pollution generated by alternative processes or process conditions in the manufacture of any given product. The following three different schemes for the chemical ranking have been considered: (i) no ranking, i.e., considering that all chemicals have the same environmental impact, (ii) a simple numerical ranking of wastes from 0 to 3 according to the authors judgement of the impact of each chemical, and (iii) ranking wastes according to a scientifically derived combined index of human health and environmental effects. Use of the methodology has been illustrated with an example of production of synthetic ammonia. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  7. Chemical recycling of mixed waste plastics by selective pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsumoto, K.; Meglen, R.; Evans, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The goal of this work is to use selective pyrolysis to produce high-value chemicals from waste plastics mixtures. Selectivity is achieved by exploiting differences in reaction rates, catalysis, and coreactants. Target wastes are molecular mixtures such as; blends or composites, or mixtures from manufactured products such as; carpets and post-consumer mixed-plastic wastes. The experimental approach has been to use small-scale experiments using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS), which provides rapid analysis of reaction products and permits rapid screening of process parameters. Rapid screening experiments permit exploration of many potential waste stream applications for the selective pyrolysis process. After initial screening, small-scale, fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors are used to provide products for conventional chemical analysis, to determine material balances, and to test the concept under conditions that will be used at a larger scale. Computer assisted data interpretation and intelligent chemical processing are used to extract process-relevant information from these experiments. An important element of this project employs technoeconomic assessments and market analyses of durables, the availability of other wastes, and end-product uses to identify target applications that have the potential for economic success.

  8. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  9. Chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic agroindustrial waste for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellera, Frantseska-Maria; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2017-04-26

    This study investigates the effect of different chemical pretreatments on the solubilization and the degradability of different solid agroindustrial waste, namely winery waste, cotton gin waste, olive pomace and juice industry waste. Eight different reagents were investigated, i.e. sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl), citric acid (H3Cit), acetic acid (AcOH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), acetone (Me2CO) and ethanol (EtOH), under three condition sets resulting in treatments of varying intensity, depending on process duration, reagent dosage and temperature. Results indicated that chemical pretreatment under more severe conditions is more effective on the solubilization of lignocellulosic substrates, such as those of the present study and among the investigated reagents, H3Cit, H2O2 and EtOH appeared to be the most effective to this regard. At the same time, although chemical pretreatment in general did not improve the methane potential of the substrates, moderate to high severity conditions were found to generally be the most satisfactory in terms of methane production from pretreated materials. In fact, moderate severity treatments using EtOH for winery waste, H3Cit for olive pomace and H2O2 for juice industry waste and a high severity treatment with EtOH for cotton gin waste, resulted in maximum specific methane yield values. Ultimately, the impact of pretreatment parameters on the different substrates seems to be dependent on their characteristics, in combination with the specific mode of action of each reagent. The overall energy balance of such a system could probably be improved by using lower operating powers and higher solid to liquid ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical waste treatment and recovery laboratory: an alternative for industrial waste of southern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Tavares da Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript consisted to obtain data, such as costs, equipments and investments necessary for the implementation of a Waste Treatment and Recovery Laboratory at UNIFAL-MG, campus II in Alfenas. In order to give support for the implementation and operation of this laboratory, in a way to guarantee a sustainable investment from the economic point of view, the EVTE was applied. This work was performed following the steps: identification and quantification of the wastes, EVTE elaboration, draft of the physical laboratory architecture and the analysis of the potential financial resources. It was verified that the implementation and management of the Chemical Waste Treatment Laboratory get to support an initial waste volume of 372 L/month and 3.5 kg/month of inorganic salts, beyond other industrial wastes from the neighborhood region. The implementation and maintenance of this laboratory are economic viable depending on the treated, recovered and recycled waste volume as well as on the provided service for the industry client. It is necessary to highlight the environmental benefits, especially due to the chemical waste disposal reduction, the academic formation opportunity and the social awareness promoted by the action of the laboratory. It can be add on the principle related to the Sustainable Logistic Plan in the Federal Public Administration.JEL-Code | Q01; QR3; L65.

  11. What to do with your chemical waste ?

    CERN Multimedia

    Roland Magnier/SC

    2004-01-01

    For any type and quantity of chemical waste, please contact phone number 16 0879 or 16 3315 for the collection and safe elimination. The quality and the safety of our environment is our own responsibility. Let's do it. Roland Magnier/SC-GS

  12. Chemical recycle of plastics waste; Hai purasuchikku no kemikaru risaikuru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, A. [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    Chemical recycling of the wasted plastics contains from regeneration to monomer as a constructing component in the case of single element polymer to conversion to fuel oil through thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics and application to chemical raw material. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) decomposes to methylmethacrylate (MMA) monomer with high selection rate at max temperature of 400{+-}50degC. The Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd. Signed a cooperative development contract on the recycling technique of PMMA The ICI., Ltd., Great Britain. Depolymerization technique of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is already used actually on methanolysis with Coca-Cola Corp. (Hoechst-Celanese Corp.) and glycolysis with Pepsi-Cola Corp. (Goodyear Inc.). The chemical recycle due to thermal decomposition of the mixed wasted plastics is established as a technique of gasification of the mixed wasted plastics to generate methanol in Japan by the Mitsubishi Heavy Ind., Ltd., and is operated in a pilot plant of 2 ton/day. Here was summarized on these trends in and out of Japan. 29 refs., 5 figs., 4 tab.

  13. Method for fractional solid-waste sampling and chemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Rodushkin, I.; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    to repeated particle-size reduction, mixing, and mass reduction until a sufficiently small but representative sample was obtained for digestion prior to chemical analysis. The waste-fraction samples were digested according to their properties for maximum recognition of all the studied substances. By combining...... four subsampling methods and five digestion methods, paying attention to the heterogeneity and the material characteristics of the waste fractions, it was possible to determine 61 substances with low detection limits, reasonable variance, and high accuracy. For most of the substances of environmental...... concern, the waste-sample concentrations were above the detection limit (e.g. Cd gt; 0.001 mg kg-1, Cr gt; 0.01 mg kg-1, Hg gt; 0.002 mg kg-1, Pb gt; 0.005 mg kg-1). The variance was in the range of 5-100%, depending on material fraction and substance as documented by repeated sampling of two highly...

  14. Chemical Disposition of Plutonium in Hanford Site Tank Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This report examines the chemical disposition of plutonium (Pu) in Hanford Site tank wastes, by itself and in its observed and potential interactions with the neutron absorbers aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and sodium (Na). Consideration also is given to the interactions of plutonium with uranium (U). No consideration of the disposition of uranium itself as an element with fissile isotopes is considered except tangentially with respect to its interaction as an absorber for plutonium. The report begins with a brief review of Hanford Site plutonium processes, examining the various means used to recover plutonium from irradiated fuel and from scrap, and also examines the intermediate processing of plutonium to prepare useful chemical forms. The paper provides an overview of Hanford tank defined-waste–type compositions and some calculations of the ratios of plutonium to absorber elements in these waste types and in individual waste analyses. These assessments are based on Hanford tank waste inventory data derived from separately published, expert assessments of tank disposal records, process flowsheets, and chemical/radiochemical analyses. This work also investigates the distribution and expected speciation of plutonium in tank waste solution and solid phases. For the solid phases, both pure plutonium compounds and plutonium interactions with absorber elements are considered. These assessments of plutonium chemistry are based largely on analyses of idealized or simulated tank waste or strongly alkaline systems. The very limited information available on plutonium behavior, disposition, and speciation in genuine tank waste also is discussed. The assessments show that plutonium coprecipitates strongly with chromium, iron, manganese and uranium absorbers. Plutonium’s chemical interactions with aluminum, nickel, and sodium are minimal to non-existent. Credit for neutronic interaction of plutonium with these absorbers

  15. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  16. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  17. Rheological properties of kaolin and chemically simulated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selby, C.L.

    1981-12-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is conducting tests to determine the best operating conditions of pumps used to transfer insoluble radioactive sludges from old to new waste tanks. Because it is not feasible to conduct these tests with real or chemically simulated sludges, kaolin clay is being used as a stand-in for the solid waste. The rheology tests described herein were conducted to determine whether the properties of kaolin were sufficiently similar to those of real sludge to permit meaningful pump tests. The rheology study showed that kaolin can be substituted for real waste to accurately determine pump performance. Once adequately sheared, kaolin properties were found to remain constant. Test results determined that kaolin should not be allowed to settle more than two weeks between pump tests. Water or supernate from the waste tanks can be used to dilute sludge on an equal volume basis because they identically affect the rheological properties of sludge. It was further found that the fluid properties of kaolin and waste are insensitive to temperature.

  18. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  19. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  20. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  1. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  2. Chitosan on Reducing Chemical Oxygen Demands in Laundry Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Laundry liquid waste contains several chemical substances in detergent raw materials such as phosphate, surfactants, ammonia, and total suspended solids. The existence of detergent in high concentrations and exceeds the quality standards that have been estabilished in a body of water can lead to cases of enviromental pollution in the form of increased turbidity an Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD levels. Therefore in order to maintain and to ensure the availabillity of water in terms of quality, it requires coagulation-flocculation process to laundry liquid waste before discharging into water bodies. This study aims to determine the decrease of COD levels and turbidity level in laundry liquid waste using chitosan coagulant in “X” laundry, Tembalang District, Semarang. The research is a quasi experimental study with pretest-posttest with control group research design with 6 times replication. The total samples are 60 in wich 24 tested for the levels of turbidity and 6 controls. The test results of Kruskal-Wallis with significance p-value < 0,05 indicates that dosage variation (p=0,000 gives different levels of COD and dosage variation (p=0,000 provide 755,97 mg/l and the advantage levels of turbidity before treatment was 516,20 NTU. The optimum dosage of chitosan coagulant is on the dose of 200 mg/l with the effectiveness decrease of COD levels and turbidity levels on 72,67% an 98,67% respectively.

  3. Results of Hazardous and Mixed Waste Excavation from the Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S. G.; Schofield, D. P.; Kwiecinski, D.; Edgmon, C. L.; Methvin, R.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the results of the excavation of a 1.9-acre hazardous and mixed waste landfill operated for 23 years at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Excavation of the landfill was completed in 2 1/2 years without a single serious accident or injury. Approximately 50,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organics, metals, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and radioactive constituents was removed. In addition, over 400 cubic yards of buried debris was removed, including bulk debris, unknown chemicals, compressed gas cylinders, thermal and chemical batteries, explosive and ordnance debris, pyrophoric materials and biohazardous waste. Removal of these wastes included negotiation of multiple regulations and guidances encompassed in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and risk assessment methodology. RCRA concepts that were addressed include the area of contamination, permit modification, emergency treatment provision, and listed waste designation. These regulatory decisions enabled the project to overcome logistical and programmatic needs such as increased operational area, the ability to implement process improvements while maintaining a record of decisions and approvals.

  4. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores. ZrO{sub 2} - Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets

  5. The Use of Chemical Modification of Polymer Waste for Obtaining Polymer Flocculants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.W.Sulkowski; K.Nowak; A.Sulkowska; A.Wolin; ska; S.Malanka; W.M.Baldur; D.Pentak

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Chemical modification of polymer plastic wastes to useful products can be one of the way of effective waste plastics management (chemical recycling). Chemical modification of polymers and polymer plastic wastes can yield products with suitable physical and chemical properties. In consequence they can be used as polyelectrolytes[1]. The variety of pollutants, universality of various water and sewage treatment technologies, introduction of new water quality improved technologies have caused a gr...

  6. Direct chemical oxidation of mixed or toxic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G B; Cooper, J F; Farmer, J C; Lewis, P

    1999-05-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is an ambient-pressure, low-temperature (<100 C), and aqueous-based process for general-purpose destruction of the organic fraction of hazardous or mixed waste. It uses the peroxydisulfate anion (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}) in acid or base solutions. The byproduct of the oxidation reaction, typically sodium or ammonium hydrogen sulfate, may be recycled electrolytically to produce the oxidant. The oxidation kinetic reaction is first order with respect to the peroxydisulfate concentration, expressed in equivalents. The rate constant is constant for nearly all dissolved organic compounds: k{sub a} = 0.01 {+-} 0.005 min{sup {minus}1}. This reflects a common rate-determining step, which is the decomposition of the peroxydisulfate anion into the chemically active derivative, the sulfate radical anion, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. This decomposition is promoted in DCO by raising the operating temperature into the range of 80-100 C. Rates are given for approximately 30 substances with diverse functional groups at low concentrations, and for a number of solid and liquid wastes typical of nuclear and chemical industries. The process has been scale up for treatment studies on chlorinated hydrocarbons, in which the hydrolysis of solvent mixtures was followed by oxidation of products in a series of stirred tank reactors. Cost estimates, safety considerations, and a comprehensive bibliography are given.

  7. Supercritical Water Process for the Chemical Recycling of Waste Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Motonobu

    2010-11-01

    The development of chemical recycling of waste plastics by decomposition reactions in sub- and supercritical water is reviewed. Decomposition reactions proceed rapidly and selectively using supercritical fluids compared to conventional processes. Condensation polymerization plastics such as PET, nylon, and polyurethane, are relatively easily depolymerized to their monomers in supercritical water. The monomer components are recovered in high yield. Addition polymerization plastics such as phenol resin, epoxy resin, and polyethylene, are also decomposed to monomer components with or without catalysts. Recycling process of fiber reinforced plastics has been studied. Pilot scale or commercial scale plants have been developed and are operating with sub- and supercritical fluids.

  8. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste.

  9. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs.

  10. Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaert, Kim; Delva, Laurens; Van Geem, Kevin

    2017-08-17

    This review presents a comprehensive description of the current pathways for recycling of polymers, via both mechanical and chemical recycling. The principles of these recycling pathways are framed against current-day industrial reality, by discussing predominant industrial technologies, design strategies and recycling examples of specific waste streams. Starting with an overview on types of solid plastic waste (SPW) and their origins, the manuscript continues with a discussion on the different valorisation options for SPW. The section on mechanical recycling contains an overview of current sorting technologies, specific challenges for mechanical recycling such as thermo-mechanical or lifetime degradation and the immiscibility of polymer blends. It also includes some industrial examples such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling, and SPW from post-consumer packaging, end-of-life vehicles or electr(on)ic devices. A separate section is dedicated to the relationship between design and recycling, emphasizing the role of concepts such as Design from Recycling. The section on chemical recycling collects a state-of-the-art on techniques such as chemolysis, pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrogen techniques and gasification. Additionally, this review discusses the main challenges (and some potential remedies) to these recycling strategies and ground them in the relevant polymer science, thus providing an academic angle as well as an applied one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  12. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83 mg kg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification

  14. Low carbon fuel and chemical production from waste gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, S.; Liew, F.M.; Daniell, J.; Koepke, M. [LanzaTech, Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

    2012-07-01

    LanzaTech has developed a gas fermentation platform for the production of alter native transport fuels and commodity chemicals from carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide containing gases. LanzaTech technology uses these gases in place of sugars as the carbon and energy source for fermentation thereby allowing a broad spectrum of resources to be considered as an input for product synthesis. At the core of the Lanzatech process is a proprietary microbe capable of using gases as the only carbon and energy input for product synthesis. To harness this capability for the manufacture of a diverse range of commercially valuable products, the company has developed a robust synthetic biology platform to enable a variety of novel molecules to be synthesised via gas fermentation. LanzaTech initially focused on the fermentation of industrial waste gases for fuel ethanol production. The company has been operating pilot plant that uses direct feeds of steel making off gas for ethanol production for over 24 months. This platform technology has been further successfully demonstrated using a broad range of gas inputs including gasified biomass and reformed natural gas. LanzaTech has developed the fermentation, engineering and control systems necessary to efficiently convert gases to valuable products. A precommercial demonstration scale unit processing steel mill waste gases was commissioned in China during the 2{sup nd} quarter of 2012. Subsequent scale-up of this facility is projected for the 2013 and will represent the first world scale non-food based low carbon ethanol project. More recently LanzaTech has developed proprietary microbial catalysts capable of converting carbon dioxide in the presence of hydrogen directly to value added chemicals, where-in CO{sub 2} is the sole source of carbon for product synthesis. Integrating the LanzaTech technology into a number of industrial facilities, such as steel mills, oil refineries and other industries that emit Carbon bearing

  15. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL`s research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste.

  16. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  17. Technology Evaluation Workshop Report for Tank Waste Chemical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, S.J.

    1994-04-01

    A Tank Waste Chemical Characterization Technology Evaluation Workshop was held August 24--26, 1993. The workshop was intended to identify and evaluate technologies appropriate for the in situ and hot cell characterization of the chemical composition of Hanford waste tank materials. The participants were asked to identify technologies that show applicability to the needs and good prospects for deployment in the hot cell or tanks. They were also asked to identify the tasks required to pursue the development of specific technologies to deployment readiness. This report describes the findings of the workshop. Three focus areas were identified for detailed discussion: (1) elemental analysis, (2) molecular analysis, and (3) gas analysis. The technologies were restricted to those which do not require sample preparation. Attachment 1 contains the final workshop agenda and a complete list of attendees. An information package (Attachment 2) was provided to all participants in advance to provide information about the Hanford tank environment, needs, current characterization practices, potential deployment approaches, and the evaluation procedure. The participants also received a summary of potential technologies (Attachment 3). The workshop opened with a plenary session, describing the background and issues in more detail. Copies of these presentations are contained in Attachments 4, 5 and 6. This session was followed by breakout sessions in each of the three focus areas. The workshop closed with a plenary session where each focus group presented its findings. This report summarizes the findings of each of the focus groups. The evaluation criteria and information about specific technologies are tabulated at the end of each section in the report. The detailed notes from each focus group are contained in Attachments 7, 8 and 9.

  18. Measurements of physical-chemical characteristics of dairy plant waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović Dragoslav; Vojnović-Miloradov Mirjana; Lemić Jovan; Kurajica Milorad; Kovačević Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of waste waters of the dairy industry are specific and differ essentially from waste waters of other branches of the food industry. The complexity of production in dairy plants with several units for different products render the problem of waste waters of this industry particularly complex. Waste waters of the AD Imlek dairy plant were sampled and their chemical characteristics were determined at different seasons of the year and at different times of the day in the years 200...

  19. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to [approximately]50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  20. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for radioactive and mixed waste solidification and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Singh, D.; Reed, D.T.; Armstrong, S.; Subhan, W.; Chawla, N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of an initial investigation of low temperature setting chemically bonded magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) ceramics as waste form materials, for solidification and stabilization of radioactive and mixed waste, are reported. The suitability of MAP for solidifying and encapsulating waste materials was tested by encapsulating zeolites at loadings up to {approximately}50 wt%. The resulting composites exhibited very good compressive strength characteristics. Microstructure studies show that zeolite grains remain unreacted in the matrix. Potential uses for solidifying and stab wastes are discussed.

  1. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Implementation of Chemical Evaluation Requirements for Transuranic Waste Disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Alison [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Barkley, Michelle [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States); Poppiti, James [USDOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report summarizes new controls designed to ensure that transuranic waste disposed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) does not contain incompatible chemicals. These new controls include a Chemical Compatibility Evaluation, an evaluation of oxidizing chemicals, and a waste container assessment to ensure that waste is safe for disposal. These controls are included in the Chapter 18 of the Documented Safety Analysis for WIPP (1).

  3. Determination of physico-chemical properties of fine-grained waste from the cleaning of iron casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union one of the most important activities is the recovery and recycling of waste including foundry waste. In the article waste arising from production of iron casting was presented. Selected physic-chemical properties of iron-bearing waste were defined. Opportunities of waste management are related to their chemical construction as well as some physical properties. On the basic the results of research the solutions of foundry waste management were proposed.

  4. Determination of physico-chemical properties of fine-grained waste from the cleaning of iron casting

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    In the European Union one of the most important activities is the recovery and recycling of waste including foundry waste. In the article waste arising from production of iron casting was presented. Selected physic-chemical properties of iron-bearing waste were defined. Opportunities of waste management are related to their chemical construction as well as some physical properties. On the basic the results of research the solutions of foundry waste management were proposed.

  5. Chemical composition and methane potential of commercial food wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victoria M; De la Cruz, Florentino B; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in anaerobic digestion in the U.S. However, there is little information on the characterization of commercial food waste sources as well as the effect of waste particle size on methane yield. The objective of this research was to characterize four commercial food waste sources: (1) university dining hall waste, (2) waste resulting from prepared foods and leftover produce at a grocery store, (3) food waste from a hotel and convention center, and (4) food preparation waste from a restaurant. Each sample was tested in triplicate 8L batch anaerobic digesters after shredding and after shredding plus grinding. Average methane yields for the university dining, grocery store, hotel, and restaurant wastes were 363, 427, 492, and 403mL/dry g, respectively. Starch exhibited the most complete consumption and particle size did not significantly affect methane yields for any of the tested substrates. Lipids represented 59-70% of the methane potential of the fresh substrates.

  6. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  7. Diffusion of inorganic chemical wastes in compacted clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackelford, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The factors that were investigated included the water content/dry unit weight, the method of compaction, the mineralogy of the soil, and the concentration of the ions. The effective diffusion coefficients (D{asterisk}) of three anions (Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, and I{sup {minus}}) and three cations (K{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+}) in a simulated waste leachate were measured. Two clay soils (kaolinite and Lufkin clay) and a sand were used in the study. The clay samples were compacted and pre-soaked to minimize hydraulic gradients due to negative pore pressures. Mass balance calculations were performed to indicate possible sinks/sources in the diffusion system. The results of the diffusion tests were analyzed using two analytical solutions to Fick's second law and a commercially available semi-analytical solution. The D{asterisk} values for tests using high-concentration (0.04 N) leachate generally fell in the narrow range of about 4.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} to 2.0 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm{sup 2}/s, and were relatively insensitive to compaction water content/dry unit weight and to compaction method. The variability in the results from the tests with low-concentration (0.013 N) leachate precluded any definite conclusions from these tests. The values of D{asterisk} measured in this study were compared to values from previous studies, and the D{asterisk} values from this study were found to be slightly conservative (i.e., high). However, the results of the tests may be affected by several chemical and physical factors, and care should be taken to ensure that the soils used in the tests are representative of those used in the application of the test results. Recommendations are made for estimating D{asterisk} values for use in the design of compacted clay barriers for the containment of inorganic chemical wastes.

  8. Characterisation of chemical composition and energy content of green waste and municipal solid waste from Greater Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, San Shwe; Roberts, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The development and deployment of thermochemical waste-to-energy systems requires an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of waste streams. Despite Australia's growing interest in gasification of waste streams, no data are available on their thermochemical properties. This work presents, for the first time, a characterisation of green waste and municipal solid waste in terms of chemistry and energy content. The study took place in Brisbane, the capital city of Queensland. The municipal solid waste was hand-sorted and classified into ten groups, including non-combustibles. The chemical properties of the combustible portion of municipal solid waste were measured directly and compared with calculations made based on their weight ratios in the overall municipal solid waste. The results obtained from both methods were in good agreement. The moisture content of green waste ranged from 29% to 46%. This variability - and the tendency for soil material to contaminate the samples - was the main contributor to the variation of samples' energy content, which ranged between 7.8 and 10.7MJ/kg. The total moisture content of food wastes and garden wastes was as high as 70% and 60%, respectively, while the total moisture content of non-packaging plastics was as low as 2.2%. The overall energy content (lower heating value on a wet basis, LHVwb) of the municipal solid waste was 7.9MJ/kg, which is well above the World Bank-recommended value for utilisation in thermochemical conversion processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Olsson, M E; Götze, R; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2016-05-01

    Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper. However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both residual and source-segregated materials, which were disposed of (e.g., through incineration) and recycled, respectively. The concentration of selected chemicals was quantified for all of the samples. The quantified chemicals included mineral oil hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, and selected toxic metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb). The results suggest large variations in the concentration of chemicals depending on the waste paper fraction analysed. Research on the fate of chemicals in waste recycling and potential problem mitigation measures should be focused on in further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of chemical contaminants in the paper and board fractions of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Olsson, Mikael Emil; Götze, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    on the production technology or the potential end-use of the material. Paper has been previously shown to potentially contain a large variety of chemicals. Quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper are necessary for appropriate waste paper management, including the recycling and re-processing of paper......Chemicals are used in materials as additives in order to improve the performance of the material or the production process itself. The presence of these chemicals in recyclable waste materials may potentially affect the recyclability of the materials. The addition of chemicals may vary depending....... However, a lack of quantitative data on the presence of chemicals in paper is evident in the literature. The aim of the present work is to quantify the presence of selected chemicals in waste paper derived from households. Samples of paper and board were collected from Danish households, including both...

  11. Opportunity for high value-added chemicals from food supply chain wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, Avtar S; de Melo, Eduardo M; Houghton, Joseph A

    2016-09-01

    With approximately 1.3 billion tonnes of food wasted per annum, food supply chain wastes (FSCWs) may be viewed as the contemporary Periodic Table of biobased feedstock chemicals (platform molecules) and functional materials. Herein, the global drivers and case for food waste valorisation within the context of global sustainability, sustainable development goals and the bioeconomy are discussed. The emerging potential of high value added chemicals from certain tropical FSCW is considered as these are grown in three major geographical areas: Brazil, India and China, and likely to increase in volume. FSCW in the context of biorefineries is discussed and two case studies are reported, namely: waste potato, and; orange peel waste. Interestingly, both waste feedstocks, like many others, produce proteins and with the global demand for vegetable proteins on the rise then proteins from FSCW may become a dominant area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Study on Chemical Components and Uranium Content of Calcium Fluoride Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Xiao-hu; YANG; Lei; YANG; Jin-ling; SONG; Zhi-jun

    2013-01-01

    In the uranium conversion process,UF4 reduction is needed using calcium as reduction regent,so a great deal of calcium fluoride are generated,in which a no negligible amount of uranium(about 5%alleged)can be left in the calcium fluoride wastes by the entrainment effect.It is meaningful to extract and purify the uranium from these wastes,but chemical components of these waste is needed primarily.

  13. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. physico-chemical properties and energy potential of wood wastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    energy calculations revealed that the wood wastes used in this study contain relatively low ... European solid biomass and biogas sectors generated a ... processing industries generate a huge volume of wood wastes ... produced to water for the purpose of generating steam in ..... Conversion: The Interface of Biotechnology,.

  15. EVALUATION OF CHEMICALLY BONDED PHOSPHATE CERAMICS FOR MERCURY STABILIZATION OF A MIXED SYNTHETIC WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the stabilization and encapsulation technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory, called the Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics technology for Hg- and HgCl2-contaminated synthetic waste materials. Leachability ...

  16. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Almeida, João R M; Fávaro, Léia C L; Quirino, Betania F

    2012-01-01

    ... and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated...

  17. GREENER CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN ALTERNATIVES ARE REVEALED USING THE WASTE REDUCTION DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (WAR DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Waste Reduction Decision Support System (WAR DSS) is a Java-based software product providing comprehensive modeling of potential adverse environmental impacts (PEI) predicted to result from newly designed or redesigned chemical manufacturing processes. The purpose of this so...

  18. Composition and production rate of pharmaceutical and chemical waste from Xanthi General Hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudrias, Evangelos; Goudakou, Lambrini; Kermenidou, Marianthi; Softa, Aikaterini

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the composition and production rates of pharmaceutical and chemical waste produced by Xanthi General Hospital in Greece (XGH). This information is important to design and cost management systems for pharmaceutical and chemical waste, for safety and health considerations and for assessing environmental impact. A total of 233 kg pharmaceutical and 110 kg chemical waste was collected, manually separated and weighed over a period of five working weeks. The total production of pharmaceutical waste comprised 3.9% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Total pharmaceutical waste was classified in three categories, vial waste comprising 51.1%, syringe waste with 11.4% and intravenous therapy (IV) waste with 37.5% w/w of the total. Vial pharmaceutical waste only was further classified in six major categories: antibiotics, digestive system drugs, analgesics, hormones, circulatory system drugs and "other". Production data below are presented as average (standard deviation in parenthesis). The unit production rates for total pharmaceutical waste for the hospital were 12.4 (3.90) g/patient/d and 24.6 (7.48) g/bed/d. The respective unit production rates were: (1) for vial waste 6.4 (1.6) g/patient/d and 13 (2.6) g/bed/d, (2) for syringe waste 1.4 (0.4) g/patient/d and 2.8 (0.8) g/bed/d and (3) for IV waste 4.6 (3.0) g/patient/d and 9.2 (5.9) g/bed/d. Total chemical waste was classified in four categories, chemical reagents comprising 18.2%, solvents with 52.3%, dyes and tracers with 18.2% and solid waste with 11.4% w/w of the total. The total production of chemical waste comprised 1.8% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. Thus, the sum of pharmaceutical and chemical waste was 5.7% w/w of the total hazardous medical waste produced by the hospital. The unit production rates for total chemical waste for the hospital were 5.8 (2.2) g/patient/d and 1.1 (0.4) g/exam/d. The respective

  19. Hanford enhanced waste glass characterization. Influence of composition on chemical durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    This report provides a review of the complete high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) data sets for the glasses recently fabricated at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and characterized at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The review is from the perspective of relating the chemical durability performance to the compositions of these study glasses, since the characterization work at SRNL focused on chemical analysis and ASTM Product Consistency Test (PCT) performance.

  20. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  1. Chemical analysis of simulated high level waste glasses to support stage III sulfate solubility modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms within the DOE complex. These wastes can contain relatively high concentrations of sulfate, which has low solubility in borosilicate glass. This is a significant issue for low-activity waste (LAW) glass and is projected to have a major impact on the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Sulfate solubility has also been a limiting factor for recent high level waste (HLW) sludge processed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The low solubility of sulfate in glass, along with melter and off-gas corrosion constraints, dictate that the waste be blended with lower sulfate concentration waste sources or washed to remove sulfate prior to vitrification. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerate mission completion.The objective of the current scope being pursued by SHU is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DWPF and WTP, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput at these facilities. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the model and is identified as Stage III. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to SRNL for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for the Stage III, simulated HLW glasses fabricated by SHU in support of the sulfate solubility model development.

  2. Biological-chemical ways in the treatment of selected wastes types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fečko

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The mineral biotechnologies, a domain of the primary raw material processing, are increasingly diversifying into some metallurgical areas. The presented results of research carried out with metallurgical wastes from aluminium production, lead waste remaking of use of bio-chemical methods. The results obtained and the proposed technologies applying bio-chemical processes enable a complex processing and an use of the waste sludge from the aluminium production and the matte-based copper production for the production of hematite pigments.

  3. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning: A New Process for Chemically Cleaning Savannah River Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, Edward; Spires, Renee; Davis, Neil

    2009-02-11

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS) there are 49 High Level Waste (HLW) tanks that eventually must be emptied, cleaned, and closed. The current method of chemically cleaning SRS HLW tanks, commonly referred to as Bulk Oxalic Acid Cleaning (BOAC), requires about a half million liters (130,000 gallons) of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to clean a single tank. During the cleaning, the oxalic acid acts as the solvent to digest sludge solids and insoluble salt solids, such that they can be suspended and pumped out of the tank. Because of the volume and concentration of acid used, a significant quantity of oxalate is added to the HLW process. This added oxalate significantly impacts downstream processing. In addition to the oxalate, the volume of liquid added competes for the limited available tank space. A search, therefore, was initiated for a new cleaning process. Using TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadatch or roughly translated as the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination with Ultraviolet Light (CORD-UV{reg_sign}), a mature technology used in the commercial nuclear power industry was identified as an alternate technology. Similar to BOAC, CORD-UV{reg_sign} also uses oxalic acid as the solvent to dissolve the metal (hydr)oxide solids. CORD-UV{reg_sign} is different, however, since it uses photo-oxidation (via peroxide/UV or ozone/UV to form hydroxyl radicals) to decompose the spent oxalate into carbon dioxide and water. Since the oxalate is decomposed and off-gassed, CORD-UV{reg_sign} would not have the negative downstream oxalate process impacts of BOAC. With the oxalate destruction occurring physically outside the HLW tank, re-precipitation and transfer of the solids, as well as regeneration of the cleaning solution can be performed without adding additional solids, or a significant volume of liquid to the process. With a draft of the pre-conceptual Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) flowsheet, taking full

  4. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of additional alpha contaminated and mixed low-level waste for treatment at the advanced mixed waste treatment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This document provides physical, chemical, and radiological descriptive information for a portion of mixed waste that is potentially available for private sector treatment. The format and contents are designed to provide treatment vendors with preliminary information on the characteristics and properties for additional candidate portions of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and offsite mixed wastes not covered in the two previous characterization reports for the INEL-stored low-level alpha-contaminated and transuranic wastes. This report defines the waste, provides background information, briefly reviews the requirements of the Federal Facility Compliance Act (P.L. 102-386), and relates the Site Treatment Plans developed under the Federal Facility Compliance Act to the waste streams described herein. Each waste is summarized in a Waste Profile Sheet with text, charts, and tables of waste descriptive information for a particular waste stream. A discussion of the availability and uncertainty of data for these waste streams precedes the characterization descriptions.

  5. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-13

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li{sub 2}O and 8.1 wt% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction.

  6. Indirect Determination of Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Solid Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    Determination of chemical composition of solid waste can be performed directly or indirectly by analysis of combustion products. The indirect methodology instrumented by a full scale incinerator is the only method that can conclude on elements in trace concentrations. These elements are of great...... interest in evaluating waste management options by for example LCA modeling. A methodology description of indirect determination of chemical composition and fuel properties of waste is provided and validated by examples. Indirect analysis of different waste types shows that the chemical composition...... of toxic elements is shown exemplified by Hg. The average concentration is evaluated to be affected by three occurrences; background, rare items and very rare items (1/800 tonnes), that are all important to the Hg average concentration....

  7. Utilizing environmental management information systems to monitor chemical usage and facilitate waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazer, T.L.; Kinney, R.W. [Modern Technologies Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Waste minimization and pollution prevention activities have proven to be valuable to the chemical industry`s and the chemical user`s bottom line. Many companies have found that, with a modest initial capital investment and product modifications, mounds of bureaucratic liability can be removed and substantial cost savings can be realized.

  8. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Chemical Waste Management, Inc. , Emelle, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1982-08-01

    A walk through survey was conducted to assess hazardous waste disposal operations at Chemical Waste Management, Incorporated (SIC-4953), Emelle, Alabama in February 1982. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal operations included landfilling, fixation, solar evaporation, and incineration. The incinerator was a liquid injection unit used for combustible liquids containing up to 10 percent chlorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorine containing wastes not treated on site were temporarily stored before shipment for at sea incineration. In-situ fixation was carried out on corrosive, acidic, and heavy metal containing liquids. Liquid wastes were removed and eventually pumped into a pit where they were mixed with cement kiln dust. Drum stored wastes intended for landfilling were transported by front end loaders to the site. Heavy equipment operators were protected from exposure to dust by environmental cabs. Air and medical monitoring were performed on landfill, laboratory, and maintenance shop workers. Hard hats, goggles, and safety shoes were required at the landfill. Respirators and other protective equipment and clothing were available. The author concludes that the company management is concerned about the health and safety of the employees. An in depth survey is recommended.

  9. Chemical compatibility screening results of plastic packaging to mixed waste simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a chemical compatibility program for evaluating transportation packaging components for transporting mixed waste forms. We have performed the first phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant mixed wastes on packaging materials. This effort involved the screening of 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to {approximately}3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14 day exposures to the waste simulants of 60 C. The seal materials or rubbers were tested using VTR (vapor transport rate) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criteria of {approximately}1 g/m{sup 2}/hr for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. It was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only VITON passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. It is anticipated that those materials with the lowest VTRs will be evaluated in the comprehensive phase of the program. For specific gravity testing of liner materials the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  10. Solid waste disposal in the soil: effects on the physical, chemical, and organic properties of soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Regina Lasaro Mangieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is growing concern over the final destination of the solid waste generated by society. Landfills should not be considered the endpoint for substances contained or generated in solid waste. The sustainable use of natural resources, especially soil and water, has become relevant, given the increase in anthropogenic activities. Agricultural use is an alternative to solid waste (leachate, biosolid disposal, considering the hypothesis that the agricultural use of waste is promising for reducing waste treatment costs, promoting nutrient reuse and improving the physical and chemical conditions of soil. Thus, this literature review, based on previously published data, seeks to confirm or disprove the hypothesis regarding the promising use of solid waste in agriculture to decrease the environmental liability that challenges public administrators in the development of efficient management. The text below addresses the following subtopics after the introduction: current solid waste disposal and environmental issues, the use of solid waste in agriculture, and the effect on the physical and chemical properties of soil and on organic matter, ending with final considerations.

  11. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  12. Public concerns and the public role in siting nuclear and chemical waste facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Branden B.

    1987-09-01

    Nuclear and chemical waste facilities can be successfully sited, despite nimby responses, if siting programs account for the sources of public concern. Irrational fear is not the main source; instead, waste managers must deal with perceived inequities in the distribution of benefits and costs, and concern about facility safety. Benefit-cost inequities may be dealt with in part by keeping wastes where they are generated, through political restrictions, or by providing economic compensation and political incentives (for example, a local veto). Assuring people of facility safety includes allowing local control (monitoring, health assessment, regulation), and enhancing trust of facility managers through such means as rectifying past mistakes, individual-oriented education campaigns, and negotiation of compensation packages with local residents. These means should reduce —without eliminating—public opposition to local siting of nuclear and chemical waste facilities.

  13. Preliminary analysis of potential chemical environments inside failed waste containers at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colten-Bradley, V. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States); Walton, J.C. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Prediction of radionuclide release rates for high-level waste requires estimates of the rates of waste form alteration and formation of secondary minerals inside the failed canister. Unsaturated repository sites may promote development of a variety of chemical environments related to two phase (liquid/vapor) transport and temperature gradients caused by radiogenic decay. A mass balance (shell balance) approach is used to estimate the effects of dripping water, evaporation, and condensation on the waste canister and the presence of saline water inside the failed waste canister. The simplified calculations predict large variability of water chemistry over spatial scales of a few centimeters. The effects of the predicted aqueous chemistry on waste form alteration, secondary mineral formation, and radionuclide solubility are examined.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  15. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Staff exchange with Chemical Waste Management. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Barak, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Original objective was transfer of PNL technology and expertise in computational chemistry and waste flow/treatment modeling to CWM. Identification and characterization of a broader portfolio of PNL`s environmental remediation technologies with high potential for rapid application became the focus of the exchange, which included E-mail exchanges. Of the 14 technologies discussed, the following were identified as being of high interest to CWM: six phase soil heating (in-situ heating), high energy electrical corona, RAAS/ReOpt{trademark} (remedial, expert system), TEES{trademark} (catalytic production of methane from biological wastes), PST (process for treating petroleum sludge). CWM`s reorganization and downsizing reduced the potential benefits to industry, but a proposal for transfer and application of PST to Wheelabrator was made.

  17. Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    This manual provides test procedures approved for the monitoring of water supplies, waste discharges, and ambient waters, under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, and Ambient Monitoring Requirements of Section 106 and 208 of Public Law 92-500. The test methods have been selected to meet the needs of federal legislation and to provide guidance to laboratories engaged in the protection of human health and the aquatic environment.

  18. Organic chemical aging mechanisms: An annotated bibliography. Waste Tank Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Nelson, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    An annotated bibliography has been compiled of the potential chemical and radiological aging mechanisms of the organic constituents (non-ferrocyanide) that would likely be found in the UST at Hanford. The majority of the work that has been conducted on the aging of organic chemicals used for extraction and processing of nuclear materials has been in conjunction with the acid or PUREX type processes. At Hanford the waste being stored in the UST has been stabilized with caustic. The aging factors that were used in this work were radiolysis, hydrolysis and nitrite/nitrate oxidation. The purpose of this work was two-fold: to determine whether or not research had been or is currently being conducted on the species associated with the Hanford UST waste, either as a mixture or as individual chemicals or chemical functionalities, and to determine what areas of chemical aging need to be addressed by further research.

  19. Synthesis of advanced chemically bonded ceramics for solidification of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seneda, Jose A.; Dellamano, Jose C.; Queiroz, Carlos A.S.; Genova, Luis A.; Rocha, Soraya M.R. da; Vicente, Roberto, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.b, E-mail: jcdellam@ipen.b, E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.b, E-mail: lgenova@ipen.b, E-mail: smrrocha@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study on the synthesis of advanced chemically bounded ceramics for use to immobilize radioactive wastes. A monolithic, crystalline, ceramic-like material, in the form of MgKPO{sub 4}.6H{sub 2}O, is obtained by reaction of magnesium oxide with potassium monophosphate, at room temperature. The thermodynamics of the reaction indicates the need of a previous treatment of the MgO above 1200 deg C to avoid the formation of magnesium phosphate salts, as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The different crystalline phases and microstructure of reaction products are analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, indicating that the material has the characteristics of a matrix for immobilization of radioactive waste. Results obtained thus far indicate the possibility of using this material to replace Portland cement in waste immobilization, offsetting the higher cost of raw material input with a larger fraction of waste in the waste form. More research on characterization of the waste form with mechanical strength tests of specimens incorporating varying waste compositions, and on the leaching potential of the material for a series of radioactive as well hazardous industrial wastes is being planned. (author)

  20. Chemical Waste Landfill Annual Post-Closure Care Report Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Michael Marquand [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Little, Bonnie Colleen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The CWL is a 1.9-acre remediated interim status landfill located in the southeastern corner of SNL/NM Technical Area III (Figures 2-1 and 2-2) undergoing post-closure care in accordance with the PCCP (NMED October 2009 and subsequent revisions). From 1962 until 1981, the CWL was used for the disposal of chemical and solid waste generated by SNL/NM research activities. Additionally, a small amount of radioactive waste was disposed of during the operational years. Disposal of liquid waste in unlined pits and trenches ended in 1981, and after 1982 all liquid waste disposal was terminated. From 1982 through 1985, only solid waste was disposed of at the CWL, and after 1985 all waste disposal ended. The CWL was also used as a hazardous waste drum-storage facility from 1981 to 1989. A summary of the CWL disposal history is presented in the Closure Plan (SNL/NM December 1992) along with a waste inventory based upon available disposal records and information.

  1. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Okos, M.; Burgos, N. [and others

    1997-06-15

    High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.

  2. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.M., E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt); Tawfik, M.E. [Department of Polymers and Pigments, National Research Center, Dokki (Egypt); Bayoumi, T.A. [Radioisotope Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki (Egypt)

    2011-04-15

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 deg. C {+-} 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area...). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  3. Chemical stability of seven years aged cement-PET composite waste form containing radioactive borate waste simulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H. M.; Tawfik, M. E.; Bayoumi, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    Different samples of radioactive borate waste simulate [originating from pressurized water reactors (PWR)] have been prepared and solidified after mixing with cement-water extended polyester composite (CPC). The polymer-cement composite samples were prepared from recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste and cement paste (water/cement ratio of 40%). The prepared samples were left to set at room temperature (25 °C ± 5) under humid conditions. After 28 days curing time the obtained specimens were kept in their molds to age for 7 years under ambient conditions. Cement-polymer composite waste form specimens (CPCW) have been subjected to leach tests for both 137Cs and 60Co radionuclides according to the method proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Leaching tests were justified under various factors that may exist within the disposal site (e.g. type of leachant, surrounding temperature, leachant behavior, the leachant volume to CPCW surface area…). The obtained data after 260 days of leaching revealed that after 7 years of aging the candidate cement-polymer composite (CPC) containing radioactive borate waste samples are characterized by adequate chemical stability required for the long-term disposal process.

  4. Waste-to-Chemicals for a Circular Economy: The Case of Urea Production (Waste-to-Urea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Elena; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Salladini, Annarita; Spadaccini, Luca; Perathoner, Siglinda; Centi, Gabriele

    2017-03-09

    The economics and environmental impact of a new technology for the production of urea from municipal solid waste, particularly the residue-derived fuel (RdF) fraction, is analyzed. Estimates indicate a cost of production of approximately €135 per ton of urea (internal rate of return more than 10 %) and savings of approximately 0.113 tons of CH4 and approximately 0.78 tons of CO2 per ton of urea produced. Thus, the results show that this waste-to-urea (WtU) technology is both economically valuable and environmentally advantageous (in terms of saving resources and limiting carbon footprint) for the production of chemicals from municipal solid waste in comparison with both the production of urea with conventional technology (starting from natural gas) and the use of RdF to produce electrical energy (waste-to-energy). A further benefit is the lower environmental impact of the solid residue produced from RdF conversion. The further benefit of this technology is the possibility to realize distributed fertilizer production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  6. [Hygienic, chemical and ecotoxicological aspects of the disinfection of biologically treated waste water by ozone and UV light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iske, U; Nelle, T; Oberg, C; Rudolph, K U; Zander-Hauck, S

    1996-02-01

    Biologically treated waste water from two different municipal treatment plants with mainly domestic waste water on the one hand and industrial influenced waste water on the other hand was disinfected by UV-irradiation and ozonation. Hygienic, chemical and eco-toxic effects of the disinfection step were examined. It was found that by ozonation as well as by UV-irradiation the required guide and imperative values for fecal and total coliform bacteria were fulfilled. The UV-irradiation induces no changes concerning chemical waste water quality and toxic effects. In contrast to these results ozonation can lead to alterations in chemistry and toxicity depending on the waste water composition.

  7. Polymeric cracking of waste polyethylene terephthalate to chemicals and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brems, Anke; Baeyens, Jan; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Dewil, Raf

    2011-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a widely used thermoplastic. PET residues represent on average 7.6 wt% of the different polymer wastes in Europe. Pyrolysis of these wastes is attracting increasing interest, and PET is a potential candidate for this thermal process. The paper measures and discusses the kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction in terms of the reaction rate constants as determined by dynamic thermogravimetric analysis, with special emphasis on the required heating rate to obtain relevant results. The product yields and compositions are also determined. Gaseous products represent 16-18 wt%. The amounts of condensables and carbonaceous residue are a function of the operating mode, with slow pyrolysis producing up to 24 wt% of carbonaceous residue. Major condensable components are benzoic acid, monovinyl terephthalate, divinyl terephthalate, vinyl benzoate, and benzene. The present paper complements previous literature findings by (1) the study of the influence of the heating rate on the reaction kinetics in dynamic pyrolysis tests, (2) the isothermal investigation in a fluidized bed reactor to pyrolyze PET, and (3) the assessment of upgrading and recovery of the products. The paper concludes with a proposed reactor recommendation for PET pyrolysis, in either the bubbling or circulating fluidized bed operating mode.

  8. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13 item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70 companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and analyze data and information on the their waste management situation. Forty-seven, representing 67.1%, of the distributed questionnaires were completed and returned. The responses were analyzed using tables, percentages and bar charts. The results revealed that while 80.9% of the respondents generate waste as a result of the operation of the plants, 23.3% directly dump their waste into the environment without any prior treatment. Only one company was found that incinerate its waste, and only four (8.5% had comprehensive waste water treatment plants. The low numbers of companies treating the waste they generate prior to disposal means that the chemical and allied industry is contributing to the environmental pollution and degradation in the country.

  9. Practical management of chemicals and hazardous wastes: An environmental and safety professional`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhre, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    This book was written to help the environmental and safety student learn about the field and to help the working professional manage hazardous material and waste issues. For example, one issue that will impact virtually all of these people mentioned is the upcoming environmental standardization movement. The International Standards Organization (ISO) is in the process of adding comprehensive environmental and hazardous waste management systems to their future certification requirements. Most industries worldwide will be working hard to achieve this new level of environmental management. This book presents many of the systems needed to receive certification. In order to properly manage hazardous waste, it is important to consider the entire life cycle, including when the waste was a useful chemical or hazardous material. Waste minimization is built upon this concept. Understanding the entire life cycle is also important in terms of liability, since many regulations hold generators responsible from cradle to grave. This book takes the life-cycle concept even further, in order to provide additional insight. The discussion starts with the conception of the chemical and traces its evolution into a waste and even past disposal. At this point the story continues into the afterlife, where responsibility still remains.

  10. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  11. Annual Report, Fall 2016: Alternative Chemical Cleaning of Radioactive High Level Waste Tanks - Corrosion Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-01

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel exposed to two proposed chemical cleaning solutions: acidic permanganate (0.18 M nitric acid and 0.05M sodium permanganate) and caustic permanganate. (10 M sodium hydroxide and 0.05M sodium permanganate). These solutions have been proposed as a chemical cleaning solution for the retrieval of actinides in the sludge in the waste tanks, and were tested with both HM and PUREX sludge simulants at a 20:1 ratio.

  12. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content.

  13. Soil chemical properties and nutrients in maize fertilized with urban waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban waste compost has a potential to be used as an organic fertilizer in agriculture, but field studies are required to define the recommendable rates for crops. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of fertilization with urban waste compost on the soil chemical properties, yield, nutrient and heavy metal contents, in maize leaves and grains. The field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design, with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of six urban waste compost doses (0 Mg ha-1, 5 Mg ha-1, 10 Mg ha-1, 20 Mg ha-1, 30 Mg ha-1 and 40 Mg ha-1, applied in the planting furrow, plus an additional control treatment, with NPK mineral fertilization and no waste compost application. Fertilization with up to 40 Mg ha-1 of urban waste compost improves soil fertility. Fertilization with urban waste compost increases grain yield and the N, P and K contents in leaf tissue and maize grains, without inducing plant contamination with heavy metals. The application of 30 Mg ha-1 of urban waste compost can replace mineral fertilization in maize cultivation.

  14. A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies.

  15. Isobutyrate biosynthesis via methanol chain elongation: converting organic wastes to platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Huang, Shengle; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND
    Isobutyrate is a platform chemical that is currently produced from a non-renewable fossil-based feedstock. This study aimed at developing a renewable isobutyrate production process by using methanol chain elongation, a novel bioprocess that uses organic waste as primary feedstocks and

  16. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Environmentally acceptable incineration of chlorinated chemical waste: review of theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zeeuw, M.A.; Lemkowitz, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the form of chemical waste, represent a threat to the environment and public health of the world. Their proper handling, removal and destruction is critical to long term safety. Increasingly strict government legislation is leading to an increase in the quantity of chlori

  18. A MIXED CHEMICAL REDUCTANT FOR TREATING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN A CHROMITE ORE PROCESSING SOLID WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a method for delivering ferrous iron into the subsurface to enhance chemical reduction of Cr(VI) in a chromite ore processing solid waste (COPSW). The COPSW is characterized by high pH (8.5 -11.5), high Cr(VI) concentrations in the solid phase (up to 550 mg kg-1) and...

  19. Isobutyrate biosynthesis via methanol chain elongation: converting organic wastes to platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.S.; Huang, Shengle; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND
    Isobutyrate is a platform chemical that is currently produced from a non-renewable fossil-based feedstock. This study aimed at developing a renewable isobutyrate production process by using methanol chain elongation, a novel bioprocess that uses organic waste as primary feedstocks and

  20. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  1. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FISH WASTE ACIDIFIED USING FERMENTED VEGETABLES WASTE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sulistiyanto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish waste (“ikan rucah” is part of discarded fishing product, which is composed by non-foodcategorized fish (NFC-fish. Quality of NFC-fish meal that was made by dipping in extract of fermentedvegetable’s waste has been reported better than commercial fish meal, but the effect after storingremained in question. Experiment was conducted to study the effect of different time of storing onphysic-organoleptical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the acidified NFC-fish meal thatwas made by dipped in extract of fermented vegetable’s waste (FVW-exctract. The NFC-Fish wassoaked in the FVW-exctract by the ratio 1:1 (w/v for 4 hours, and then it was dripped out and dried. Thedried fish was ground passed through 20 mesh, kept into plastic bags and stored at the room temperature(23-25 °C and 70-80% RH for 0, 1, 2 and 4 months. Physic-organoleptical, chemical and biologycalcharacteristics were parameters observed. Experiment was conducted by completely randomized design(CRD. Data were analysed by the GLM of SAS. Actual number of moisture, crude protein, extractether, and proteolytic bacteria of fish meal were significantly influenced by time of storing (P<0.05.Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract effectively maintain the physical characteristics, pH, moisture,crude protein, extract ether and the number of proteolytic bacteria of fish meal up to 2 months ofstorage. Dipping NFC-fish in the FVW-exctract provide better characteristics on physical, chemical andmicrobiologycal than the commercial fish meal at the same condition of storage.

  2. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES TO SUPPORT SULFATE SOLUBILITY MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2014-08-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms both within the DOE complex and to some extent at U.K. sites. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerated cleanup missions. Much of the previous work on improving sulfate retention in waste glasses has been done on an empirical basis, making it difficult to apply the findings to future waste compositions despite the large number of glass systems studied. A more fundamental, rather than empirical, model of sulfate solubility in glass, under development at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), could provide a solution to the issues of sulfate solubility. The model uses the normalized cation field strength index as a function of glass composition to predict sulfate capacity, and has shown early success for some glass systems. The objective of the current scope is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DOE waste vitrification efforts, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the current model. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for simulated waste glasses fabricated SHU in support of sulfate solubility model development. A review of the measured compositions revealed that there are issues with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL AND ENZYMATIC DEINKING OF PHOTOCOPIER WASTE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Pathak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of post-consumer papers in the production of new paper products is increasing all over the world in recent years. Recycling of photocopier paper is a major problem due to difficulty in removal of non-impact ink. Enzymes offer potential advantages in ecofriendly deinking of recovered paper. In this study the deinking of photocopier paper was examined using chemicals and a commercial cellulase enzyme. Parameters of deinking experiments were optimized for hydrapulping. The ink was removed by flotation and washing processes. Then these parameters were compared in terms of ink removal ability of the process, as well as optical and strength properties of the deinked paper. The application of enzymatic deinking improved ink removal efficiency by 24.6% and freeness by 21.6% with a reduction in drainage time of 11.5% in comparison to those obtained with chemical deinking. The physical properties, namely burst index and tensile index, were observed to improve by 15.3% and 2.7%, respectively and brightness and tear index decreased by 2.1% and 21.9%, respectively. Results of deinking efficiency of photocopier paper showed that the enzyme used in the present work performed better than the conventional chemicals used for deinking.

  4. Biosorption of Methylene Blue by Chemically Modified Cellulose Waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yanqiao; ZHANG Yizhuan; Lü Qiufeng; CHENG Xiansu

    2014-01-01

    Citric acid modified cellulose waste (CMCW) was prepared via esterification and used as a low-cost biosorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. The effects of biosorbent concentration, initial pH of MB solution, biosorption temperature, contact time, and initial MB concentration on the biosorption of MB were investigated using batch biosorption technique under static conditions. The experimental results showed that CMCW exhibited excellent biosorption characteristics for MB. The maximum biosorption capacity of MB was up to 214.5 mg/g at an adsorption temperature of 293 K. The removal rate of MB onto CMCW reached the maximum at pH>4 and the biosorption reached an equilibrium at about 50 min. The kinetic data can be described well with the pseudo-second-order model and the isotherm data was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 211.42 mg/g. The biosorption appears to be controlled by chemisorption and may be involved in surface adsorption and pore diffusion during the whole biosorption process.

  5. Study of chemical additives in the cementation of radioactive waste of PWR reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    In this research it has been studied the effects of chemical admixtures in the cementation process of radioactive wastes. These additives are used to improve the properties of waste cementation process, both of the paste and of the solidified product. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market. Then it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their effects. The tests were carried out with a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste coming from PWR nuclear reactors. It was cemented using two formulations, A and B, incorporating higher or lower amount of waste, respectively. It was added chemical admixtures from two manufacturers (S and H), which were: accelerators, set retarders and superplasticizers. The experiments were organized by a factorial design 23. The measured parameters were: the viscosity, the setting time, the paste and product density and the compressive strength. The parameter evaluated in this study was the compressive strength at age of 28 days, is considered essential security issues relating to the handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented products. (author)

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  7. Study of chemical additives in the cementation of radioactive waste of PWR reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Cementation is a very useful process to solidify radioactive wastes. Depending on the waste it can be necessary to use of chemical additives (admixtures) to improve the cementation process and its product. Admixtures are materials, other than cement, aggregate and water, that are added either before or during the mixing to alter some properties, such as workability, curing temperature range, and setting time. However there are a large variety of these materials that are frequently changed or taken out of the market. In this changeable scenario it is essential to know the commercially available materials and their characteristics. In this research the effects of chemical admixtures in the solidification process has been studied. For the tests it was prepared a solution simulating the evaporator concentrate waste, cemented by two different formulations, and three chemical admixtures from two manufacturers. The tested admixtures were accelerators, set retarders and super plasticizers. The experiments were organized by a planning factorial 23 to quantify the effects of formulations, of the admixtures, its quantity and manufacturer in properties of the paste and products. The measured parameters were the density, the viscosity and the setting time of the paste, and the product compressive strength. The parameter evaluated in this study was the compressive strength at age of 28 days, is considered essential security issues relating to the handling, transport and storage of cemented waste product. The results showed that the addition of accelerators improved the compressive strength of the cemented products. (author)

  8. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Actual Waste Testing with SRS Tank 5F Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, William D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, Michael S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-30

    Solubility testing with actual High Level Waste tank sludge has been conducted in order to evaluate several alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge sluicing efforts. Tests were conducted with archived Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive sludge solids that had been retrieved from Tank 5F in order to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. Solubility tests were performed by direct sludge contact with the oxalic/nitric acid reagent and with sludge that had been pretreated and acidified with dilute nitric acid. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid following current baseline tank chemical cleaning methods. One goal of testing with the optimized reagent was to compare the total amounts of oxalic acid and water required for sludge dissolution using the baseline and optimized cleaning methods. A second objective was to compare the two methods with regard to the dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for SRS tank closure Performance Assessments (PA). Additionally, solubility tests were conducted with Tank 5 sludge using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species.

  9. Chemical characteristics and methane potentials of source-separated and pre-treated organic municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Svärd, Å; Angelidaki, Irini

    2003-01-01

    A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical composit......A research project has investigated the biogas potential of pre-screened source-separated organic waste. Wastes from five Danish cities have been pre-treated by three methods: screw press; disc screen; and shredder and magnet. This paper outlines the sampling procedure used, the chemical...

  10. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  11. Effect of Chemical Corrosion on the Mechanical Characteristics of Parent Rocks for Nuclear Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tielin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term immersion was adopted to explore the damage deterioration and mechanical properties of granite under different chemical solutions. Here, granite was selected as the candidate of parent rocks for nuclear waste storage. The physical and mechanical properties of variation regularity immersed in various chemical solutions were analyzed. Meanwhile, the damage variable based on the variation in porosity was used in the quantitative analysis of chemical damage deterioration degree. Experimental results show that granite has a significant weakening tendency after chemical corrosion. The fracture toughness KIC, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength all demonstrate the same deteriorating trend with chemical corrosion time. However, a difference exists in the deterioration degree of the mechanical parameters; that is, the deterioration degree of fracture toughness KIC is the greatest followed by those of splitting tensile strength and compressive strength, which are relatively smaller. Strong acid solutions may aggravate chemical damage deterioration in granite. By contrast, strong alkaline solutions have a certain inhibiting effect on chemical damage deterioration. The chemical solutions that feature various compositions may have different effects on chemical damage degree; that is, SO42- ions have a greater effect on the chemical damage in granite than HCO3- ions.

  12. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effects of bioleaching on the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sheng-Hua; Wu, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Yong; Ai, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Bioleaching processes cause dramatic changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks, and play an important role in metal recovery and dump stability. This study focused on the characteristics of waste rocks subjected to bioleaching. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of rock properties during the bioleaching process. Mechanical behaviors of the leached waste rocks, such as failure patterns, normal stress, shear strength, and cohesion were determined through mechanical tests. The results of SEM imaging show considerable differences in the surface morphology of leached rocks located at different parts of the dump. The mineralogical content of the leached rocks reflects the extent of dissolution and precipitation during bioleaching. The dump porosity and rock size change under the effect of dissolution, precipitation, and clay transportation. The particle size of the leached rocks decreased due to the loss of rock integrity and the conversion of dry precipitation into fine particles.

  14. Conversion of Hazardous Motor Vehicle Used Tire and Polystyrene Waste Plastic Mixture into useful Chemical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Sarker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic mixture into fuel recovery using thermal degradation process in laboratory batch process. Motor vehicle used tire and polystyrene waste plastic was use 75 gm by weight. Motor vehicle tire was 25 gm and polystyrene waste plastic was 50 gm. In presence of oxygen experiment was performed under laboratory fume hood. Thermal degradation temperature range was 100 - 420 oC and experiment run time was 5 hours. Product fuel density is 0.84 gm/ml and liquid fuel conversion rate was 54.93 %. Fuel was analysis by GC/MS and compounds are present aliphatic group, aromatic group, alcoholic group, oxygen content and nitrogen content.Fuel can use refinery process as a refinery feed.Keywords: Tire, polystyrene, conversion, chemical product, vehicle, hydrocarbon

  15. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, R; Pivnenko, K; Boldrin, A; Scheutz, C; Astrup, T Fruergaard

    2016-08-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable fractions within one material type were observed. This indicates that careful planning and performance evaluation of recycling schemes are important to ensure a high quality of collected recyclables. Rare earth elements (REE) were quantified in all waste fractions analysed, with the highest concentrations of REE found in fractions with high content of mineral raw materials, soil materials and dust. The observed REE concentrations represent the background concentration level in non-hazardous waste materials that may serve as a reference point for future investigations related to hazardous waste management. The detailed dataset provided here can be used for assessments of waste management solutions in Denmark and for the evaluation of the quality of recyclable materials in waste.

  16. Chemical Hydrolysis and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosvany Díaz Domínguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis of the macromolecules that compose the organic fraction of municipal solid waste canbe taken for chemical, physical and biological methods, having all as aim the unfolding of the complexmolecules in simplier monomer. Thereby the degradation of organic matter is enhanced and resultsmore efficient the process of biogas via anaerobic. Chemical pretreatments were employed in the workusing sodium hydroxide (NaOH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as reagents.The soluble chemicaloxygen demand (COD, the maximum methane yield and the methane rates production were used toevaluate the pretreatment actions. The degradation of the waste was able to be increased by allowinga comparative analysis to determine the best working conditions for this stage and subsequently itsimpact in the generation of biogas, methane specifically.

  17. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-01-01

    The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus), purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shr...

  18. Physico-chemical characterisation of material fractions in residual and source-segregated household waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Physico-chemical waste composition data are paramount for the assessment and planning of waste management systems. However, the applicability of data is limited by the regional, temporal and technical scope of waste characterisation studies. As Danish and European legislation aims for higher...... recycling rates evaluation of source-segregation and recycling chains gain importance. This paper provides a consistent up-to-date dataset for 74 physico-chemical parameters in 49 material fractions from residual and 24 material fractions from source-segregated Danish household waste. Significant...... differences in the physico-chemical properties of residual and source-segregated waste fractions were found for many parameters related to organic matter, but also for elements of environmental concern. Considerable differences in potentially toxic metal concentrations between the individual recyclable...

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  20. Chemical compatibility study of Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat with Hanford tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, J.E.

    1998-06-23

    An independent chemical compatibility review of various wrapping and absorbent/padding materials was conducted to evaluate resistance to chemicals and constituents present in liquid waste from the Hanford underground tanks. These materials will be used to wrap long-length contaminated equipment when such equipment is removed from the tanks and prepared for transportation and subsequent disposal or storage. The materials studied were Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat. The study concludes that these materials are appropriate for use in this application.

  1. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  2. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference.

  3. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10[sup 4] to 10[sup 6] and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference.

  4. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  5. The Excavation and Remediation of the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KWIECINSKI,DANIEL ALBERT; METHVIN,RHONDA KAY; SCHOFIELD,DONALD P.; YOUNG,SHARISSA G.

    1999-11-23

    The Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is a 1.9-acre disposal site that was used for the disposal of chemical wastes generated by many of SNL/NM research laboratories from 1962 until 1985. These laboratories were primarily involved in the design, research and development of non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons and the waste generated by these labs included small quantities of a wide assortment of chemical products. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure Plan for the Chemical Waste Landfill was approved by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) in 1992. Subsequent site characterization activities identified the presence of significant amounts of chromium in the soil as far as 80 feet below ground surface (fbgs) and the delineation of a solvent plume in the vadose zone that extends to groundwater approximately 500 fbgs. Trichloroethylene (TCE) was detected in some groundwater samples at concentrations slightly above the drinking water limit of 5 parts per billion. In 1997 an active vapor extraction system reduced the size of the TCE vapor plume and for the last six quarterly sampling events groundwater samples have not detected TCE above the drinking water standard. A source term removal, being conducted as a Voluntary Corrective Measure (VCM), began in September 1998 and is expected to take up to two years. Four distinct disposal areas were identified from historical data and the contents of disposal pits and trenches in these areas, in addition to much of the highly contaminated soil surrounding the disposal cells, are currently being excavated. Buried waste and debris are expected to extend to a depth of 12 to 15 fbgs. Excavation will focus on the removal of buried debris and contaminated soil in a sequential, area by area manner and will proceed to whatever depth is required in order to remove all pit contents. Up to 50,000 cubic yards of soil and debris will be removed and managed during

  6. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  7. Evaluation of physical, chemical and heavy metal concentration of food waste composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food waste composting with rice husk and coconut fibre as compost medium were carried out. Two types of different fermentation liquids were prepared which were fermented liquid (banana peel and fermented liquid from fermented soybeans. During the composting process, a compost samples for a twenty week duration at an interval time of two weeks. Among the physico-chemical parameters that were tested were temperature, moisture content, pH value, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, Potassium and Total Organic Carbon and Carbon Nitrogen ratio. Heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and arsenic were observed and analysed. From this study, it was found that, the temperature increased during the thermophilic phase while there was gradually increase of Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous and Potassium from the beginning till the end of the composting process. It was also found that the total organic carbon (TOC and the carbon nitrogen ratio decreased significantly during the decomposition process. Traces amounts of heavy metals were also detected and remains below the standard Malaysian Environmental regulations. It was concluded that, the composting process was faster with processed food waste followed by combination of processed food waste and raw. Raw food waste were demonstrated the lowest degradation rate.

  8. The attenuation of chemical elements in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Lawrence E.; Jones, Marianne M.

    1984-09-01

    The chemical attenuation of acidity and selected elements (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluorine, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc) in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by four natural subsurface soils has been investigated using laboratory column methods Leachate solutions were allowed to percolate through the soils under simulated natural flow conditions, and the elemental concentrations in the influents and effluents were measured periodically Elemental retentions were substantial for all species except managanese, which was eluted in excess from all soils except the most calcareous Two processes appeared to operate in decreasing influent concentrations: (1) precipitation of solid phases caused by increased pH of the leachate as it percolated through the soil, and (2) adsorption of elements onto exchange and sorption sites naturally present in the soil and on iron and aluminum oxide precipitates formed in situ from leachate components because of the increased pH The soil property most important in retention was its alkalinity Thus, carbonaceous soils provide the best control material for acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes. Results show that natural soils can substantially reduce pollutant fluxes to the environment from acidic coal waste dumps and should be considered when selecting waste disposal sites

  9. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-06-30

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  10. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  11. Technosols Made of Wastes to Improve Physico-Chemical Characteristics of a Copper Mine Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.ASENSIO; F.A.VEGA; M.L.ANDRADE; E.F.COVELO

    2013-01-01

    Mine tailing soils created from the copper extraction in Touro Mine (Northwest Spain) are very degraded both physically and chemically.Three plots in this mine tailing were amended with Technosols in different proportions in each one to know if this mixture improved the physico-chemical characteristics of the mine soil and contaminated it with heavy metals.The Technosols were made of organic wastes,including mussel residues,wood fragments,sewage sludges and paper mill ashes.An unamended area was used as a control soil.Pseudototal and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable contents of Al,Cr,Cu,Fe,Mn,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined in soil samples.The untreated soil had significant limitations for vegetation growth.All the Technosols improved the properties of the mine soil by increasing organic carbon and pH value,but they added Ni,Pb or Zn to the soil.It is advisable to check whether the heavy metal concentrations of the wastes are hazardous or not before adding to soils.It is also necessary to study the effect of these wastes over time and in more areas to conclude if they are actually favourable to restore degraded mine soils.

  12. Characterization of plutonium-bearing wastes by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, R.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Van Deventer, E.; Chaiko, D.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization studies of plutonium-bearing wastes produced at the US Department of Energy weapons production facilities. Several different solid wastes were characterized, including incinerator ash and ash heels from Rocky Flats Plant and Los Alamos National Laboratory; sand, stag, and crucible waste from Hanford; and LECO crucibles from the Savannah River Site. These materials were characterized by chemical analysis and analytical electron microscopy. The results showed the presence of discrete PuO{sub 2}PuO{sub 2{minus}x}, and Pu{sub 4}O{sub 7} phases, of about 1{mu}m or less in size, in all of the samples examined. In addition, a number of amorphous phases were present that contained plutonium. In all the ash and ash heel samples examined, plutonium phases were found that were completely surrounded by silicate matrices. Consequently, to achieve optimum plutonium recovery in any chemical extraction process, extraction would have to be coupled with ultrafine grinding to average particle sizes of less than 1 {mu}m to liberate the plutonium from the surrounding inert matrix.

  13. Chemical composition measurements of the low activity waste (LAW) EPA-Series glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for a series of simulated low activity waste glasses provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 100.2 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %.

  14. Conversion of Wastes into Bioelectricity and Chemicals by Using Microbial Electrochemical Technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, B. E.

    2012-08-09

    Waste biomass is a cheap and relatively abundant source of electrons for microbes capable of producing electrical current outside the cell. Rapidly developing microbial electrochemical technologies, such as microbial fuel cells, are part of a diverse platform of future sustainable energy and chemical production technologies. We review the key advances that will enable the use of exoelectrogenic microorganisms to generate biofuels, hydrogen gas, methane, and other valuable inorganic and organic chemicals. Moreover, we examine the key challenges for implementing these systems and compare them to similar renewable energy technologies. Although commercial development is already underway in several different applications, ranging from wastewater treatment to industrial chemical production, further research is needed regarding efficiency, scalability, system lifetimes, and reliability.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-04-24

    The 100-B-1 waste site was a dumping site that was divided into two areas. One area was used as a laydown area for construction materials, and the other area was used as a chemical dumping area. The 100-B-1 Surface Chemical and Solid Waste Dumping Area site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. A Waste of a Desert: Nevada and the Cold War Chemical Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the lead from Don DeLillo’s epic novel Underworld (1997 – with its overarching theme of “waste” functioning as its unifying metaphor and its picture of the American deserts turned into hazardous waste dumps or missile depots – this essay provides a close reading of the empty spaces of the Nevada desert, spaces that bear the mark left by the nuclear exploitation and the hazardous waste which have plagued Nevada since the Fifties. By linking the history of Nevada to the Cold War, and to the chemical legacy of those years, with its notions of “containment” and “weather control”, Scarpino argues that they be read as interwoven threads of the same discourse.

  17. Chemical speciation and mobility of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feng; LIU Jian-guo; YU Qian-feng; NIE Yong-feng

    2004-01-01

    Chemical speciation is a significant factor that governs the toxicity and mobility of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash. Sequential extraction procedure is applied to fractionate heavy metals(Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, and Cr) into five defined groups: exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual fractions. The mobility of heavy metals is also investigated with the aid of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. In the fly ash sample, Pb is primarily presented in the carbonate(51%) and exchangeable(20%) fractions; Cd and Zn mainly exist as the exchangeable(83% and 49% respectively); Cu is mostly contained in the last three fractions(totally 87%); and Cr is mainly contained in the residual fraction(62%). Pb, Zn and Cd showed the high mobility in the investigation, thus might be of risk to the natural environment when municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is landfilled or reutilized.

  18. Assessing the Amount of Chemical Elements in Biodegradable Agricultural Wastes and ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Kvasauskienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable agricultural wastes such as manure, has long been used as an organic fertilizer that improves soil structure, enriches the soil with micro-organisms and micro-elements necessary for plants and promotes humus formation. Manure can also be successfully used as a renewable energy source directly combusting and extracting energy. The carried out investigation showed that the incineration of manure remaining in ashes could also be used as a fertilizer. Waste combustion reduces its volume to 80–90%. Also, the investigation revealed that the amount of chemical elements (Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe decreased after combustion. However, the concentration of these elements in ashes is higher than that in raw manure. Article in Lithuanian

  19. The performance of supercapacitor electrodes developed from chemically activated carbon produced from waste tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, I. Isil Gurten; Holmes, Stuart M.; Banford, Anthony; Aktas, Zeki

    2015-12-01

    Highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea for application as supercapacitor electrodes, utilising a chemical activation method involving treatment with either K2CO3 or H3PO4. The area, pore structure characteristics and surface functionality of the activated carbons were evaluated to investigate the influence on electrochemical performance. The performance of the activated carbons as supercapacitor electrodes was tested by cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) measurements, in an aqueous electrolyte. The results showed that the pore structure and type of the activated carbon have significant impact on the supercapacitor performance. Both waste tea-based activated carbon electrodes showed good cyclic stability. However, despite its lower specific surface area the highly microporous activated carbon produced with K2CO3, exhibited much better capacitive performance than that of the mesoporous activated carbon produced with H3PO4.

  20. Standard practices for dissolving glass containing radioactive and mixed waste for chemical and radiochemical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover techniques suitable for dissolving glass samples that may contain nuclear wastes. These techniques used together or independently will produce solutions that can be analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), radiochemical methods and wet chemical techniques for major components, minor components and radionuclides. 1.2 One of the fusion practices and the microwave practice can be used in hot cells and shielded hoods after modification to meet local operational requirements. 1.3 The user of these practices must follow radiation protection guidelines in place for their specific laboratories. 1.4 Additional information relating to safety is included in the text. 1.5 The dissolution techniques described in these practices can be used for quality control of the feed materials and the product of plants vitrifying nuclear waste materials in glass. 1.6 These pr...

  1. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida João R M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a “waste-stream” instead of a valuable “coproduct”. The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.

  2. REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OPTIONS FOR SRS WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Koopman, D.

    2009-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to support the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan for Alternative Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (AECC) for sludge heel removal funded as part of the EM-21 Engineering and Technology program. The goal was to identify potential technologies or enhancements to the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process for chemically dissolving or mobilizing Savannah River Site (SRS) sludge heels. The issues with the potentially large volume of oxalate solids generated from the baseline process have driven an effort to find an improved or enhanced chemical cleaning technology for the tank heels. This literature review builds on a previous review conducted in 2003. A team was charged with evaluating the information in these reviews and developing recommendations of alternative technologies to pursue. The new information in this report supports the conclusion of the previous review that oxalic acid remains the chemical cleaning agent of choice for dissolving the metal oxides and hydroxides found in sludge heels in carbon steel tanks. The potential negative impact of large volumes of sodium oxalate on downstream processes indicates that the amount of oxalic acid used for chemical cleaning needs to be minimized as much as possible or the oxalic acid must be destroyed prior to pH adjustment in the receipt tank. The most straightforward way of minimizing the volume of oxalic acid needed for chemical cleaning is through more effective mechanical cleaning. Using a mineral acid to adjust the pH of the sludge prior to adding oxalic acid may also help to minimize the volume of oxalic acid used in chemical cleaning. If minimization of oxalic acid proves insufficient in reducing the volume of oxalate salts, several methods were found that could be used for oxalic acid destruction. For some waste tank heels, another acid or even caustic treatment (or pretreatment) might be more appropriate than the baseline oxalic acid cleaning process. Caustic treatment of high

  3. Contributions to cleaner chemical waste treatment and production processes; Beitraege zu zukuenftigen chemischen Entsorgungs- und Produktionsverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, H.; Bleyl, H.J.; Boukis, N.; Ederer, H.; Galla, U.; Goldacker, H.; Grimm, R.; Henrich, E.; Kluth, M.; Petrich, G.; Schoen, J.; Weirich, F.

    1992-09-01

    Ways and chances for the development of cleaner chemical waste treatment and production processes are discussed. Supercritical fluids as reaction media and as separation solvents and the application of indirect electroredox processes were selected for process developments. The R and D activities are described in detail. (orig.). [Deutsch] Wege und Chancen zur Entwicklung oekologisch vertraeglicher Entsorgungs- und Produktionsverfahren werden diskutiert. Fuer die Verfahrensentwicklungen wurde die Nutzung von ueberkritischen Fluiden als Reaktionsmedium und Solvent zur Trennung sowie die Anwendung von indirekten Elektroredox-Verfahren ausgewaehlt. Die einzelnen Entwicklungsarbeiten werden detailliert beschrieben. (orig.).

  4. Migration and Retardation of Chemical Toxic Components from Radioactive Waste - Hydrochemical Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedinakova-Krizova, V.; Hanslik, E.

    2003-02-24

    A systematic analysis of nuclear power plant (NPP) operation and radioactive wastes disposal (near-surface disposal and geologic disposal) in underground repositories has provided the basis for a comparison between the radiotoxicity and chemotoxicity as part of an EIA (environmental impact assessment) procedure. This contribution summarizes the hydrochemical mechanisms of transport and retardation processes, chemistry and migration behavior of radionuclides and chemical toxics in natural sorbents, especially bentonites. The effect of solubility and dissolution reactions, diffusion and sorption/desorption, complexation and variations in the aqueous phase composition, pH-value and oxidation-reduction properties and other phenomena affecting distribution coefficients (Kd values) is discussed.

  5. Physical chemical studies of dispersed aluminosilicate wastes for obtaining the burned building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuriev, I. Y.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, G. G.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Kosmachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results of the studies that determined that grinding can be one of the ways to modify aluminosilicate wastes. The optimal grinding modes were defined in laboratory conditions. Physical and chemical studies of modified ashes were carried out by means of X-ray phase analysis, differential thermal analysis and microscopy. The results have shown that modified ashes of thermal power stations when being applied in production of ceramic brick influence positively the processing properties of raw materials and the ready products.

  6. Chemically Functionalized Arrays Comprising Micro and Nano-Electro-Mechanizal Systems for Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Sepaniak

    2008-10-08

    Innovative technology of sensory and selective chemical monitoring of hazardous wastes present in storage tanks are of continued importance to the environment. This multifaceted research program exploits the unique characteristics of micro and nano-fabricated cantilever-based, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMES) and nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) in chemical sensing.

  7. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  8. Estimation of biological kinetic parameters from an analysis of the BOD curve of waste waters - effects of a chemical preoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlan, F.J.; Garcia-Araya, J.F.; Alvarez, P. [Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica

    1997-12-31

    Urban waste waters were treated with pure ozone or combinations of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and/or UV radiation to study the course of resulting BOD (biological oxygen demand)-time profiles and to propose a kinetic model. BOD-time profiles of chemically treated waste waters show an initial lag period that first order kinetic models cannot describe. A second order kinetic model is then proposed that satisfactorily fits experimental BOD-time profiles, except when hydrogen peroxide has been used. In these cases, BOD-time profiles present the highest lag periods observed. By applying this model, three parameters are determined: the biokinetic constant (k) which is an index of the biological removal rate; the potential amount of biodegradable matter (BOD{sub T}), and the measure of the size of inocula and microbial activities of microorganisms ({lambda}). The model was checked with experimental results of BOD-time profiles corresponding to both untreated and chemically ozonated urban waste waters. Ozonated waste waters showed the highest values of k and BOD{sub T}, which implies an improvement of waste water biodegradability after ozonation. However, values of {lambda} corrsponding to ozonated waste waters presented lower values than those of untreated waste waters. This was due to the lag period observed in the BOD-time profile, which was a consequence of a lack of micro-organism acclimation to ozonated waste waters. The effect of the ozone dose, pH and carbonates during oxonation on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and the above indicated parameters was also studies. The results suggest that ozonolysis, the direct molecular ozone way of reaction, due to its selective character, increases the biodegradability of waste water more than other chemically advancec oxidation processes based on hydroxyl radical reactions. (orig./SR)

  9. Arsenic stability and mobilization in soil at an amenity grassland overlying chemical waste (St. Helens, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)], E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.uk; Dickinson, Nicholas M. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 4195, 30080 Murcia (Spain); French, Christopher [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Piearce, Trevor G. [Biological Sciences Division, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun; Lepp, Nicholas W. [School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A 6.6 ha grassland, established on a former chemical waste site adjacent to a residential area, contains arsenic (As) in surface soil at concentrations 200 times higher than UK Soil Guideline Values. The site is not recognized as statutory contaminated land, partly on the assumption that mobility of the metalloid presents a negligible threat to human health, groundwater and ecological receptors. Evidence for this is evaluated, based on studies of the effect of organic (green waste compost) and inorganic (iron oxides, lime and phosphate) amendments on As fractionation, mobility, plant uptake and earthworm communities. Arsenic mobility in soil was low but significantly related to dissolved organic matter and phosphate, with immobilization associated with iron oxides. Plant uptake was low and there was little apparent impact on earthworms. The existing vegetation cover reduces re-entrainment of dust-blown particulates and pathways of As exposure via this route. Minimizing risks to receptors requires avoidance of soil exposure, and no compost or phosphate application. - Stabilization of alkali industry waste requires careful management to minimise soil arsenic mobilization and dispersal to the wider environment.

  10. Characterisation of waste derived biochar added biocomposites: chemical and thermal modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Zujovic, Zoran [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Bhattacharyya, Debes [Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2016-04-15

    A step towards sustainability was taken by incorporating waste based pyrolysed biochar in wood and polypropylene biocomposites. The effect of biochar particles on the chemistry and thermal makeup of the composites was determined by characterising them through an array of characterisation techniques such as 3D optical profiling, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin/nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. It was observed that addition of biochar increased the presence of free radicals in the composite while also improving its thermal conductivity. Biochar particles did not interfere with the melting behaviour of polymer in the thermal regime. However, wood and biochar acted as nucleation agents consequently increasing the crystallisation temperature. The crystal structure of polypropylene was not disrupted by biochar inclusion in composite. Transmission electron microscopy images illustrated the aggregated nature of the biochar particles at higher loading levels. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed the aromatic nature of biochar and the broadening of peak intensities of composites with increasing biochar levels due to its amorphous nature and presence of free radicals. Thus, this insight into the chemical and thermal modification of biochar added composites would allow effective engineering to optimise their properties while simultaneously utilising wastes. - Highlights: • Waste derived biochars were used to make polymer based biocomposites. • Composites were characterised by NMR, ESR, DSC, XRD, TEM etc. • Biochar increased the thermal conductivity of composites. • Biochar did not disrupt the crystal structure of polypropylene. • NMR revealed aromatic nature of biochar in composites.

  11. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis.

  12. Chemical modeling of acid-base properties of soluble biopolymers derived from municipal waste treatment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Marinos, Janeth Alicia Tafur; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-02-04

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  13. Treatment of ammonia in waste air using packed column coupling with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepchai, R.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a common chemical used in various industries. Emission of air contaminated with ammonia to the atmosphere without any treatment causes several effects on human health and environment.A high efficiency method for ammonia removal from waste air is then necessary. In this research, an absorption coupling with chemical reaction was investigated for ammonia removal from waste air using a packedcolumn. The packed column of 10 cm diameter and 200 cm height was packed with 1.4x1.4 cm Raschig rings. Three liquids including water, NaOCl and H2SO4 solution were used as an absorbent for the investigation.The objectives of this research were to determine a suitable absorbent and the optimum condition for ammonia removal from waste air. The packed column was operated at room temperature and atmosphericpressure. The tested conditions were as follows: the gas to liquid ratio (G:L ratio was 35-90 m3 gas/m3 liquid, the inlet concentration of ammonia was 150-500 ppm and the air flow rate was 18 m3/h. The results showedthat the ammonia removal efficiency depends on type of the absorbent and the operating condition. The efficiencies increased with decreasing of G:L ratio and with increasing absorbent concentration. They were70%, 80-92%, and 95-100% for pure water, sodium hypochlorite solution and sulphuric acid solution, respectively. The efficiency decreased with time when water was used as an absorbent while it was almostconstant when NaOCl and H2SO4 solution were applied. The ammonia removal efficiency when using H2SO4 as the absorbent was not dependent on G:L ratio and inlet ammonia concentration, in the range used in thisinvestigation. Since H2SO4 solution gave the highest removal efficiency and can reduce ammonia concentration in waste air to levels which meet the TLV-TWA standard, it is recommended as an absorbent solution forammonia removal from waste air.

  14. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

    2004-05-14

    A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes

  15. Integrated chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using waste hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    Dilemmas like water shortage, rapid industrialization, growing human population and related issues have seriously affected human health and environmental sustainability. For conservation and sustainable use of our water resources, innovative methods for wastewater treatment are continuously being explored. Advance Oxidation Processes (AOPs) show a promising approach to meet specific objectives of municipal wastewater treatment (MWW). The MWW samples were pretreated with Al 2(SO 4) 4·8H 2O (Alum) at different doses 4, 8, 12-50 mg/L to enhance the sedimentation. The maximum COD removal was observed at alum treatments in range of 28-32 mg/L without increasing total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS were found to increase when the alum dose was increased from 32-40 mg/L. In the present study, the optimum alum dose of 30 mg/L for 3 h of sedimentation and subsequent integrated H 2O 2/UV treatment was applied (using 2.5 mL/L of 40% waste H 2O 2 and 35% fresh H 2O 2 separately). Organic and inorganic pollutants, contributing towards chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and total dissolved solids were degraded by H 2O 2/UV. About 93% COD, 90% BOD and 83% turbidity reduction occurred when 40% waste H 2O 2 was used. When using fresh H 2O 2, 63% COD, 68% BOD and 86% turbidity reduction was detected. Complete disinfection of coliform bacteria occurred by using 40% H 2O 2/UV. The most interesting part of this research was to compare the effectiveness of waste H 2O 2 with fresh H 2O 2. Waste H 2O 2 generated from an industrial process of disinfection was found more effective in the treatment of MWW than fresh 35% H 2O 2.

  16. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Oisik [Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman 99164-6120, WA (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass. - Highlights: • Pre-treatments reduce ash, extractives, alkalines and hemicellulose from biomass. • Torrefaction of Douglas fir yields more solid product than hybrid poplar. • Salt pretreatment significantly increases the activation energy of biomass. • Acid and salt pretreatment bestows thermal stability in biomass.

  17. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  18. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus, purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20oC. The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 oC not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.

  19. Selective recovery of precious metals by persimmon waste chemically modified with dimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Adhikari, Chaitanya Raj; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke; Inoue, Katsutoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki

    2009-09-01

    Persimmon waste was chemically modified with dimethylamine (DMA) to obtain a tertiary-amine-type gel, named DMA persimmon waste gel (DMA-PW). It was found to be effective for the adsorption of Au(III), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) in hydrochloric acid medium. In contrast, base metals such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), and Ni(II) were not practically adsorbed. The formation of ion pairs of the metal chloro complex anions with the protonated adsorption gels was proposed as the main adsorption process. The gel exhibited selectivity only for precious metals with a remarkably high capacity for Au(III), i.e., 5.63 mol/kg dry gel and comparable capacities, i.e., 0.42 and 0.28 mol/kg for Pd(II) and Pt(IV), respectively. According to the kinetic and electrochemical studies, the adsorption rate of Au(III) was greatly enhanced by the chemical modification. Also, its excellent adsorption characteristics for the precious metals were confirmed by adsorption and elution tests using a column packed with the DMA-PW gel.

  20. Mechanism of waste biomass pyrolysis: Effect of physical and chemical pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    To impart usability in waste based biomass through thermo-chemical reactions, several physical and chemical pre-treatments were conducted to gain an insight on their mode of action, effect on the chemistry and the change in thermal degradation profiles. Two different waste biomasses (Douglas fir, a softwood and hybrid poplar, a hardwood) were subjected to four different pre-treatments, namely, hot water pre-treatment, torrefaction, acid (sulphuric acid) and salt (ammonium phosphate) doping. Post pre-treatments, the changes in the biomass structure, chemistry, and thermal makeup were studied through electron microscopy, atomic absorption/ultra violet spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, and thermogravimetry. The pre-treatments significantly reduced the amounts of inorganic ash, extractives, metals, and hemicellulose from both the biomass samples. Furthermore, hot water and torrefaction pre-treatment caused mechanical disruption in biomass fibres leading to smaller particle sizes. Torrefaction of Douglas fir wood yielded more solid product than hybrid poplar. Finally, the salt pre-treatment increased the activation energies of the biomass samples (especially Douglas fir) to a great extent. Thus, salt pre-treatment was found to bestow thermal stability in the biomass.

  1. Conditioning of sludge produced through chemical treatment of radioactive liquid waste - Operating experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, D. Anji, E-mail: anji@igcar.gov.i [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Khandelwal, S.K.; Muthiah, R.; Shanmugamani, A.G.; Paul, Biplob; Rao, S.V.S.; Sinha, P.K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    At Centralised Waste Management Facility (CWMF) 160 m{sup 3} of radioactive chemical sludge, generated from treatment of several batches of category-II and category-III radioactive liquid wastes by chemical precipitation method was stored in clariflocculator (CF) for downstream processing. The sludge needed conditioning before disposal. The analysis of the sludge samples collected at different radial locations and depths from the CF showed suspended solid content of 2.37-13.07% and radioactive content of gross {beta}-{gamma} 5000-27,000 Bq/g and {alpha} 100-600 Bq/g. After comparing different options available for conditioning of the sludge based on their technological and economical aspects, it was decided to dewater it using centrifuge before fixing in cement matrix with additives. Process Control Laboratory of CWMF studied the process in detail to optimize the relevant parameters for fixation of the concentrate obtained from centrifuge. Based on these results, conditioning of the stored sludge was undertaken. The process consisted of diluting the sludge with low active effluents/water for homogenisation and facilitating the transfer of sludge, dewatering of the slurry utilising decanter centrifuge, fixation of dewatered concentrate in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with vermiculite as an additive using in-drum mixing method, providing sufficient time for hardening of fixed mass, transportation and safe disposal into Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF). Total 150 m{sup 3} of conditioned waste was produced (750 numbers of drums containing cement fixed concentrate). The paper includes the results of the studies conducted on cement fixed concentrate blocks for finding out their compressive strength and leaching characteristics. It also describes the experiences gained from the above operations.

  2. Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Thomas Dickinson; Michael L. Alexander

    2001-11-30

    Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis.

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  4. Proceedings of the 3. International conference on waste management in the chemical and petrochemical industries. Volume 1 and 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Francisco F.; Pereira Filho, Francisco A.; Almeida, Sergio A.S. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    To produce without pollution is today a mandate for the preservation of our society. To produce cleaner means to conserve energy and natural resources, to reduce the use of toxic substances, to invest in the evolution of products and production processes towards a minimum of residues. The Third International Conference on Waste Minimization in the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries addresses these challenging questions regarding waste minimization

  5. Compression Molding of Chemical/Thermal Resistant Composite Materials Using Wastes of Glass Fiber Reinforced PTFE and Carbon Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    This report proposed the compression molding method of chemical/thermal resistant composite materials reinforced by the carbon fiber extracted from CFRP waste and the waste of glass fiber coated by PTFE. The FEP resin was used for the matrix material. The contents of carbon fiber and FEP resin were varied in the experiments, and the machanical properties of composite materials were discussed in detail. As a result, the bending strength and modulus increased with increasing the content of carb...

  6. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  7. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  8. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PCT DATA FOR THE INITIAL SET OF HANFORD ENHANCED WASTE LOADING GLASSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2014-06-02

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test results for 20 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation ranges of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. Two components of the study glasses, fluorine and silver, were not measured since each of these species would have required the use of an additional preparation method and their measured values were likely to be near or below analytical detection limits. Some of the glasses were difficult to prepare for chemical analysis. A sodium peroxide fusion dissolution method was successful in completely dissolving the glasses. Components present in the glasses in minor concentrations can be difficult to measure using this dissolution method due to dilution requirements. The use of a lithium metaborate preparation method for the minor components (planned for use since it is typically successful in digesting Defense Waste Processing Facility HLW glasses) resulted in an unacceptable amount of undissolved solids remaining in the sample solutions. An acid dissolution method was used instead, which provided more thorough dissolution of the glasses, although a small amount of undissolved material remained for some of the study glasses. The undissolved material was analyzed to determine those components of the glasses that did not fully dissolve. These components (e.g., calcium and chromium) were present in sufficient quantities to be reported from the measurements resulting from the sodium peroxide fusion preparation method, which did not leave undissolved material. Overall, the analyses resulted in sums of

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 116-C-3, 105-C Chemical Waste Tanks, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2008-01-31

    The 116-C-3 waste site consisted of two underground storage tanks designed to receive mixed waste from the 105-C Reactor Metals Examination Facility chemical dejacketing process. Confirmatory evaluation and subsequent characterization of the site determined that the southern tank contained approximately 34,000 L (9,000 gal) of dejacketing wastes, and that the northern tank was unused. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling and modeling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Metal removal from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration fly ash: A comparison between chemical leaching and bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funari, V; Mäkinen, J; Salminen, J; Braga, R; Dinelli, E; Revitzer, H

    2017-02-01

    Bio- and hydrometallurgical experimental setups at 2-l reactor scale for the processing of fly ash from municipal waste incinerators were explored. We aimed to compare chemical H2SO4 leaching and bioleaching; the latter involved the use of H2SO4 and a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria. The leaching yields of several elements, including some of those considered as critical (Mg, Co, Ce, Cr, Ga, Nb, Nd, Sb and Sm), are provided. At the end of the experiments, both leaching methods resulted in comparable yields for Mg and Zn (>90%), Al and Mn (>85%), Cr (∼65%), Ga (∼60%), and Ce (∼50%). Chemical leaching showed the best yields for Cu (95%), Fe (91%), and Ni (93%), whereas bioleaching was effective for Nd (76%), Pb (59%), and Co (55%). The two leaching methods generated solids of different quality with respect to the original material as we removed and significantly reduced the metals amounts, and enriched solutions where metals can be recovered for example as mixed salts for further treatment. Compared to chemical leaching the bioleaching halved the use of H2SO4, i.e., a part of agent costs, as a likely consequence of bio-produced acid and improved metal solubility.

  14. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  15. Anti-corrosion paint and varnish coatings employing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.B. Pavlovich; N.M. Alekseeva; V.P. Dolgopolov; A.A. Popov [West Siberian Metallurgical Combine, Siberia (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-01

    The various shops of the West Siberian Metallurgical Combine operate 392 gas-cleaning units, and the combine annually spends 1.5 million rubles a year on major repairs to this equipment. The need to increase the service life of the air ducts is obvious. At the same time, the production of phthalic anhydride (PA) from commercial grades of naphthalene made at coke and coal chemicals plants also yields large quantities of waste products formed in oxidation reactions - still residues from the distillation of PA. These residues are currently used in coking charges. It is important that a way be found to recycle wastes from the production of phthalic anhydride, which is the main raw material used to make corrosion-resistant paints and lacquers. The goal of the research was to use PA production wastes to help develop promising new environmentally clean materials to protect metal from corrosion. The Combine has developed and mastered the production of two types of powdered polymer-based paint: quick-drying epoxide paint PEFAN-501; decorative epoxide-polyester paint NOVOLAN-1605. A section to make these paints has been set up and equipped with three units that apply the paints in an electrostatic field. The Combine has also developed a technology for using PA still residues to obtain an alkyl-epoxide primer for protecting gas pipes from corrosion. Experimental batches of the primer have been successfully tested on a section of gas pipe connected to the car dumper in the crushing-sorting plant operated by the sinter-lime department.

  16. Thermo-chemical extraction of fuel oil from waste lubricating grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilusa, Tsietsi Jefrey; Muzenda, Edison; Shukla, Mukul

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of oil from waste grease through the process of thermal degradation in an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH) followed by solvent extraction. Waste high temperature metal bearing grease was dissolved in a 15 w/w% KOH solution at 80°C while being agitated at 2000 rpm using a shear action agitator for a period of 15 min. Two distinct layers were observed after 8 min of settling time. The top layer being of dark brown oil and the bottom layer was a heterogeneous mixture. The two layers were separated by decantation. The bottom layer was cooled down to 45°C followed by slow addition of toluene (C7H8) while agitating at 1200 rpm for 15 min to prevent solids settling and minimise rapid volatilisation of the organic compounds in the mixture. Two distinct layers were also formed, the top homogeneous mixture of light brown oil-toluene mixture and the bottom sludge layer. The solvent was recovered from the oil for re-use by fractional distillation of the homogenous mixture. It was observed that 15 w/w% potassium hydroxide solution can chemically degrade the soap matrix in the grease and extract up to 49 w/w% of the fuel oil when subjected to high shear stress at a temperature of 80°C. The 26 w/w% extraction of oil in the remaining sludge was obtained by solvent extraction process with mass ratios of sludge to solvent of 2:1. Solvent recovery of 88% by mass was obtained via fractional distillation method. The combined extraction processes brought an overall oil yield of 75 w/w% from the waste grease. The fuel oil obtained from this process has similar properties to paraffin oil and can be blended with other oils as an alternative energy source.

  17. A comparative chemical-structural study of fossil humic acids and those extracted from urban wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F.; Ceccanti, B.; Polo, A. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, Murcia (Spain))

    1992-05-01

    Chemical-structural features of commercial humic acids (HAs) from leonardite or lignite were studied and the data obtained were compared with those of humic acids extracted from composted urban wastes. The greatest differences showed by the elemental analysis between the three HAs were in N and H contents, both of which diminished with the oxidation degree of the starting materials. FTIR spectra did not show differences between HAs from evolved materials such as leonardite or lignite. However, differences were found between these HAs and those extracted from composts of urban wastes, which showed a greater aliphatic character and a more pronounced peak in the absorption band attributed to secondary amides and in that of carbohydrates. The {sup 13}C-NMR spectra were similar for both HAs from leonardite regardless of their oxidation degree. The percentage of aromaticity of these HAs was 45%. The spectra of compost HAs showed a low aromaticity degree for these HAs as a consequence of the pronounced peak appearing at 73 ppm corresponding to carbon of carbohydrates and/or polyalcohols and aminoacids. Py-GC revealed a high content of benzene and toluene in all the commercial HAs. The values of these fragments as well as those of the ratios between pyrolitic fragments, used as humification index for soils, were the highest in the HA extracted from the more oxidized leonardite. 17 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Concept for Recycling Waste Biomass from the Sugar Industry for Chemical and Biotechnological Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelska, Magdalena; Berlowska, Joanna; Kregiel, Dorota; Cieciura, Weronika; Antolak, Hubert; Tomaszewska, Jolanta; Binczarski, Michał; Szubiakiewicz, Elzbieta; Witonska, Izabela A

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the thermally-assisted acidic hydrolysis of waste biomass from the sugar industry (sugar beet pulp and leaves) for chemical and biotechnological purposes. The distillates, containing furfural, can be catalytically reduced directly into furfurayl alcohol or tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The sugars present in the hydrolysates can be converted by lactic bacteria into lactic acid, which, by catalytic reduction, leads to propylene glycol. The sugars may also be utilized by microorganisms in the process of cell proliferation, and the biomass obtained used as a protein supplement in animal feed. Our study also considered the effects of the mode and length of preservation (fresh, ensilage, and drying) on the yields of furfural and monosaccharides. The yield of furfural in the distillates was measured using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The content of monosaccharides in the hydrolysates was measured spectrophotometrically using enzymatic kits. Biomass preserved under all tested conditions produced high yields of furfural, comparable to those for fresh material. Long-term storage of ensiled waste biomass did not result in loss of furfural productivity. However, there were significant reductions in the amounts of monosaccharides in the hydrolysates.

  19. Diester Derivatives from Chemically Modiifed Waste Cooking Oil as Substitute for Petroleum Based Lubricating Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Shuo; Chen Ligong; Xu Lan; Li Liang; Yang Xin; Zhu Liye

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a new way for waste cooking oil (WCO) resource utilization, several diester derivatives were obtained from WCO through a three-step chemical modifications, viz.:transesterification, epoxidation and oxirane ring opening with carboxylic acids. The effects of the chain length of side chain groups on the viscosity, acid value, low temper-ature lfuidity, thermo-oxidative stability, tribological properties and surface tension of diester derivatives were investigated. The results showed that increasing the chain length of side chain groups had a positive inlfuence on the viscosity, viscosity index, acid value, pour point, friction coefifcient and wear scar diameter along with a negative inlfuence on the oxidation onset temperature, volatile loss, insoluble deposit, maximum non-seizure load and surface tension. These diester derivatives exhibited improved physicochemical and tribological properties that make themselves promising environmentally friendly biolubricant basestocks.

  20. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Chemical properties of heavy metals in typical hospital waste incinerator ashes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Wang, Kaisheng; Zhu, Jianxin

    2009-03-01

    Incineration has become the main mechanism for hospital waste (HW) disposal in China after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In the present study, 22HW ash samples, including 14 samples of bottom ash and eight samples of fly ash, were collected from four typical HW incineration plants located across China. Chemical analysis indicated that the HW ashes contained large amounts of metal salts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na with a concentration range of 1.8-315gkg(-1). Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Sb, Sn, Sr, Zn with a vast range of 1.1-121,411mgkg(-1), with higher concentrations found in the fly ash samples. Sequential extraction results showed that Ba, Cr, Ni and Sn are present in the residual fraction, while Cd existed in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. As, Mn, Zn existed in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Pb was present in the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, and Cu was present in the organic matter fraction. Furthermore, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that leached amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from almost all fly ash samples exceeded the USEPA regulated levels. A comparison between the HW ashes and municipal solid waste (MSW) ash showed that both HW bottom ash and fly ash contained higher concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, and Zn. This research provides critical information for appropriate HW incineration ash management plans.

  2. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTING OF ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TO AUGMENT THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-07-10

    In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC), an alternative to the baseline 8 wt% oxalic acid (OA) chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. ECC utilizes a more dilute OA solution (2 wt%) and an oxalate destruction technology using ozonolysis with or without the application of ultraviolet (UV) light. SRNL conducted tests of the ECC process using actual SRS waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. The previous phase of testing involved testing of all phases of the ECC process (sludge dissolution, OA decomposition, product evaporation, and deposition tank storage) but did not involve the use of UV light in OA decomposition. The new phase of testing documented in this report focused on the use of UV light to assist OA decomposition, but involved only the OA decomposition and deposition tank portions of the process. Compared with the previous testing at analogous conditions without UV light, OA decomposition with the use of UV light generally reduced time required to reach the target of <100 mg/L oxalate. This effect was the most pronounced during the initial part of the decomposition batches, when pH was <4. For the later stages of each OA decomposition batch, the increase in OA decomposition rate with use of the UV light appeared to be minimal. Testing of the deposition tank storage of the ECC product resulted in analogous soluble concentrations regardless of the use or non-use of UV light in the ECC reactor.

  3. Environmentally-Induced Malignancies: An In Vivo Model to Evaluate the Health Impact of Chemicals in Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Pallavicini

    2001-05-04

    Occupational and environmental exposure to organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls are linked with increased risk of hematologic malignancies. DOE facilities and waste sites in the U.S. are contaminated with mixtures of potentially hazardous chemicals such as metals, organic ligands, solvents, fuel hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and radioactive isotopes. A major goal of this project was to establish linkage between chemical/radiation exposure and induction of genomic damage in target populations with the capability to undergo transformation.

  4. Impact of Salt Waste Processing Facility Streams on the Nitric-Glycolic Flowsheet in the Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-08

    An evaluation of the previous Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) testing was performed to determine whether the planned concurrent operation, or “coupled” operations, of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) has been adequately covered. Tests with the nitricglycolic acid flowsheet, which were both coupled and uncoupled with salt waste streams, included several tests that required extended boiling times. This report provides the evaluation of previous testing and the testing recommendation requested by Savannah River Remediation. The focus of the evaluation was impact on flammability in CPC vessels (i.e., hydrogen generation rate, SWPF solvent components, antifoam degradation products) and processing impacts (i.e., acid window, melter feed target, rheological properties, antifoam requirements, and chemical composition).

  5. Development of biological and chemical methods for environmental monitoring of DOE waste disposal and storage facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    Hazardous chemicals in the environment have received ever increasing attention in recent years. In response to ongoing problems with hazardous waste management, Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976. In 1980, Congress adopted the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund to provide for emergency spill response and to clean up closed or inactive hazardous waste sites. Scientists and engineers have begun to respond to the hazardous waste challenge with research and development on treatment of waste streams as well as cleanup of polluted areas. The magnitude of the problem is just now beginning to be understood. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) National Priorities List as of September 13 1985, contained 318 proposed sites and 541 final sites (USEPA, 1985). Estimates of up to 30,000 sites containing hazardous wastes (1,200 to 2,000 of which present a serious threat to public health) have been made (Public Law 96-150). In addition to the large number of sites, the costs of cleanup using available technology are phenomenal. For example, a 10-acre toxic waste site in Ohio is to be cleaned up by removing chemicals from the site and treating the contaminated groundwater. The federal government has already spent more than $7 million to remove the most hazardous wastes and the groundwater decontamination alone is expected to take at least 10 years and cost $12 million. Another example of cleanup costs comes from the State of California Commission for Economic Development which predicts a bright economic future for the state except for the potential outlay of $40 billion for hazardous waste cleanup mandated by federal and state laws.

  6. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-04-21

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated.

  7. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  8. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabasso, Silvia; Berto, Silvia; Rosato, Roberta; Tafur Marinos, Janeth Alicia; Ginepro, Marco; Zelano, Vincenzo; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe; Montoneri, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials. PMID:25658795

  9. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  10. Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitric- Glycolic Flowsheet Chemical Process Cell Chemistry: Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-06

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from 2011 to 2016. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlation models to predict these values from measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge or simulant composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Previous work on these correlations was documented in a technical report covering data from 2011-2015. This current report supersedes this previous report. Further refinement of the models as additional data are collected is recommended.

  11. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  12. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  13. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  14. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  15. The removal of mercury from solid mixed waste using chemical leaching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, D.D.; Chao, K.K.; Cameron, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    The focus of this research was to evaluate chemical leaching as a technique to treat soils, sediments, and glass contaminated with either elemental mercury or a combination of several mercury species. Potassium iodide/iodine solutions were investigated as chemical leaching agents for contaminated soils and sediments. Clean, synthetic soil material and surrogate storm sewer sediments contaminated with mercury were treated with KI/I{sub 2} solutions. It was observed that these leaching solutions could reduce the mercury concentration in soil and sediments by 99.8%. Evaluation of selected posttreatment sediment samples revealed that leachable mercury levels in the treated solids exceeded RCRA requirements. The results of these studies suggest that KI/I{sub 2} leaching is a treatment process that can be used to remove large quantities of mercury from contaminated soils and sediments and may be the only treatment required if treatment goals are established on Hg residual concentrations in solid matrices. Fluorescent bulbs were used to simulate mercury contaminated glass mixed waste. To achieve mercury contamination levels similar to those found in larger bulbs such as those used in DOE facilities a small amount of Hg was added to the crushed bulbs. The most effective agents for leaching mercury from the crushed fluorescent bulbs were KI/I{sub 2}, NaOCl, and NaBr + acid. Radionuclide surrogates were added to both the EPA synthetic soil material and the crushed fluorescent bulbs to determine the fate of radionuclides following chemical leaching with the leaching agents determined to be the most promising. These experiments revealed that although over 98% of the dosed mercury solubilized and was found in the leaching solution, no Cerium was measured in the posttreatment leaching solution. This finding suggest that Uranium, for which Ce was used as a surrogate, would not solubilize during leaching of mercury contaminated soil or glass.

  16. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  17. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Torres-Climent

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques, to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure. The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1 and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively, indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  18. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  19. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  20. Chemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Methods to Assess Biodegradation of Winery-Distillery Wastes during Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Climent, A; Gomis, P; Martín-Mata, J; Bustamante, M A; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Paredes, C; Moral, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the co-composting process of wastes from the winery and distillery industry with animal manures, using the classical chemical methods traditionally used in composting studies together with advanced instrumental methods (thermal analysis, FT-IR and CPMAS 13C NMR techniques), to evaluate the development of the process and the quality of the end-products obtained. For this, three piles were elaborated by the turning composting system, using as raw materials winery-distillery wastes (grape marc and exhausted grape marc) and animal manures (cattle manure and poultry manure). The classical analytical methods showed a suitable development of the process in all the piles, but these techniques were ineffective to study the humification process during the composting of this type of materials. However, their combination with the advanced instrumental techniques clearly provided more information regarding the turnover of the organic matter pools during the composting process of these materials. Thermal analysis allowed to estimate the degradability of the remaining material and to assess qualitatively the rate of OM stabilization and recalcitrant C in the compost samples, based on the energy required to achieve the same mass losses. FT-IR spectra mainly showed variations between piles and time of sampling in the bands associated to complex organic compounds (mainly at 1420 and 1540 cm-1) and to nitrate and inorganic components (at 875 and 1384 cm-1, respectively), indicating composted material stability and maturity; while CPMAS 13C NMR provided semi-quantitatively partition of C compounds and structures during the process, being especially interesting their variation to evaluate the biotransformation of each C pool, especially in the comparison of recalcitrant C vs labile C pools, such as Alkyl /O-Alkyl ratio.

  1. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong

    2017-08-22

    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO4) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl2). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m(3)) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m(3)) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m(3)). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  3. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  4. Biosorption of Cu (II onto chemically modified waste mycelium of Aspergillus awamori: Equilibrium, kinetics and modeling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZDRAVKA VELKOVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption potential of chemically modified waste mycelium of industrial xylanase-producing strain Aspergillus awamori for Cu (II removal from aqueous solutions was evaluated. The influence of pH, contact time and initial Cu (II concentration on the removal efficiency was evaluated. Maximum biosorption capacity was reached by sodium hydroxide treated waste fungal mycelium at pH 5.0. The Langmuir adsorption equation matched very well the adsorption equilibrium data in the studied conditions. The process kinetic followed the pseudo-firs order model.

  5. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modeling needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DST’s is given at the end of this report.

  6. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmora, Adilson C. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Institute for Environmental Assessment and Water Studies (IDÆA), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ramos, Claudete G.; Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Teixeira, Elba C. [Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luis Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M.; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração. Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500. Bairro Agronomia. CEP: 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during “stonemeal” soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano

  7. Chemical characterization, nano-particle mineralogy and particle size distribution of basalt dust wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmora, Adilson C; Ramos, Claudete G; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Taffarel, Silvio R; de Brum, Irineu A S; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the geochemistry of basalt alteration is central to the study of agriculture systems. Various nano-minerals play an important role in the mobilization of contaminants and their subsequent uptake by plants. We present a new analytical experimental approach in combination with an integrated analytical protocol designed to study basalt alteration processes. Recently, throughout the world, ultra-fine and nano-particles derived from basalt dust wastes (BDW) during "stonemeal" soil fertilizer application have been of great concern for their possible adverse effects on human health and environmental pollution. Samples of BDW utilized were obtained from companies in the Nova Prata mining district in southern Brazil for chemical characterization and nano-mineralogy investigation, using an integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS)/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM/EDS), and granulometric distribution analysis. The investigation has revealed that BDW materials are dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3, with a complex micromineralogy including alkali feldspar, augite, barite, labradorite, hematite, heulandrite, gypsum, kaolinite, quartz, and smectite. In addition, we have identified a number of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, and Zn, that are preferentially concentrated into the finer, inhalable, dust fraction and, thus, could present a health hazard in the urban areas around the basalt mining zone. The implication of this observation is that use of these nanometric-sized particulates as soil fertilizer may present different health challenges to those of conventional fertilizers, inviting future work regarding the relative toxicities of these materials. Our investigation on the particle size distribution, nano-particle mineralogy and chemical composition in

  8. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  9. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  10. Chemical and Microbial Dynamics during Composting of Herbal Pharmaceutical Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Zameer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed to analyze the dynamics of chemical, biochemical and microbial parameters during composting of herbal pharmaceutical waste. All the parameters were analyzed at three different intervals of composting (1st, 15th and 60th days. Temperature of the compost pile was initially high (46.2 °C and on 60th day it dropped to 33.3 °C. The pH of the sample was initially acidic (2.39 and with the progress of decomposition gradually changed to neutrality (7.55. Electrical conductivity (EC value was high (3.8 mS during last day of composting compared to other stages. The activity of degradative enzymes namely amylase, invertase and urease were initially high (4.1, 4.79 mg of glucose/g/h and 0.19 mg of ammonia/g/h respectively while it decreased with composting. The beneficial microbial load was initially low and very high at the last stages of decomposition. The bioassay studies using compost extracts revealed that the 60th day old sample was not phytotoxic in nature.

  11. Testing of the Defense Waste Processing Facility Cold Chemical Dissolution Method in Sludge Batch 9 Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Young, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brown, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-10

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tests the applicability of the digestion methods used by the DWPF Laboratory for elemental analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt samples and SRAT Product process control samples. DWPF SRAT samples are typically dissolved using a method referred to as the DWPF Cold Chemical or Cold Chem Method (CC), (see DWPF Procedure SW4- 15.201). Testing indicates that the CC method produced mixed results. The CC method did not result in complete dissolution of either the SRAT Receipt or SRAT Product with some fine, dark solids remaining. However, elemental analyses did not reveal extreme biases for the major elements in the sludge when compared with analyses obtained following dissolution by hot aqua regia (AR) or sodium peroxide fusion (PF) methods. The CC elemental analyses agreed with the AR and PF methods well enough that it should be adequate for routine process control analyses in the DWPF after much more extensive side-by-side tests of the CC method and the PF method are performed on the first 10 SRAT cycles of the Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) campaign. The DWPF Laboratory should continue with their plans for further tests of the CC method during these 10 SRAT cycles.

  12. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous phases using chemically modified waste Lyocell fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, John Kwame; Wei, Wei; Kim, Sok; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2015-12-15

    In this study, an outstanding performance of chemically modified waste Lyocell for heavy metals treatment is reported. The sorbent, which was prepared by a simple and concise method, was able to bind heavy metals such as Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II), with very high efficiencies. The binding mechanisms were studied through adsorption and standard characterization tests such as scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses. Adsorption kinetics was very fast and attained equilibrium within 5 min in all metals studied. The maximum single metal uptakes were 531.29±0.28 mg/g, 505.64±0.21 mg/g, and 123.08±0.26 mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively. In ternary metal systems, Cu(II) selectivity was observed and the underlying factors were discussed. The sorbent by its nature, could be very effective in treating large volumes of wastewater with the contact of very little amount.

  13. Physico-chemical properties of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of waste mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, M; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Fonseca, I; Lopes, H

    2012-06-15

    The present work aims to perform a multistep upgrading of chars obtained in the co-pyrolysis of PE, PP and PS plastic wastes, pine biomass and used tires. The quality of the upgraded chars was evaluated by measuring some of their physico-chemical properties in order to assess their valorisation as adsorbents' precursors. The crude chars were submitted to a sequential solvent extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, mixture 1:1 v/v hexane:acetone and acetone) followed by an acidic demineralization procedure with 1M HCl solution. The results obtained showed that the upgrading treatment allow the recovery of 63-81% of the pyrolysis oils trapped in the crude chars and a reduction in the char's ash content in the range of 64-86%. The textural and adsorption properties of the upgraded chars were evaluated and the results indicate that the chars are mainly mesoporous and macroporous materials, with adsorption capacities in the range of 3.59-22.2 mg/g for the methylene blue dye. The upgrading treatment allowed to obtain carbonaceous materials with quality to be reused as adsorbents or as precursors for activated carbon.

  14. Identification of lead chemical form in mine waste materials by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Raijeli L.; Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Ng, Jack; Harris, Hugh H.; Noller, Barry

    2010-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides a direct means for measuring lead chemical forms in complex samples. In this study, XAS was used to identify the presence of plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12) by lead L3-edge XANES spectra in mine waste from a small gold mining operation in Fiji. The presence of plumbojarosite in tailings was confirmed by XRD but XANES gave better resolution. The potential for human uptake of Pb from tailings was measured using a physiologically based extract test (PBET), an in-vitro bioaccessibility (BAc) method. The BAc of Pb was 55%. Particle size distribution of tailings indicated that 40% of PM10 particulates exist which could be a potential risk for respiratory effects via the inhalation route. Food items collected in the proximity of the mine site had lead concentrations which exceed food standard guidelines. Lead within the mining lease exceeded sediment guidelines. The results from this study are used to investigate exposure pathways via ingestion and inhalation for potential risk exposure pathways of Pb in that locality. The highest Pb concentration in soil and tailings was 25,839 mg/kg, exceeding the Australian National Environment Protection Measure (NEPM) soil health investigation levels.

  15. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  16. Request for interim approval to operate Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground as a chemical waste landfill for disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl waste in submarine reactor compartments. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, G.D.

    1994-06-01

    This request is submitted to seek interim approval to operate a Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976 chemical waste landfill for the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste. Operation of a chemical waste landfill for disposal of PCB waste is subject to the TSCA regulations of 40 CFR 761. Interim approval is requested for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of approval. This request covers only the disposal of small 10 quantities of solid PCB waste contained in decommissioned, defueled submarine reactor compartments (SRC). In addition, the request applies only to disposal 12 of this waste in Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground (Trench 94) in the 13 200 East Area of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Facility. Disposal of this waste will be conducted in accordance with the Compliance 15 Agreement (Appendix H) between the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and 16 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10. During the 5-year interim approval period, the DOE-RL will submit an application seeking final 18 approval for operation of Trench 94 as a chemical waste landfill, including 19 any necessary waivers, and also will seek a final dangerous waste permit from 20 the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) for disposal of lead 21 shielding contained in the SRCS.

  17. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work.

  18. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO OPERATING AN ON-SITE LABORATORY AT THE SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES CHEMICAL WASTE LANDFILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.G.; Creech, M.N.

    2003-02-27

    During the excavation of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL), operations were realized by the presence of URS' (formerly known as United Research Services) On-site Mobile Laboratory (OSML) and the close proximity of the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration Chemical Laboratory (ERCL). The laboratory was located adjacent to the landfill in order to provide soil characterization, health and safety support, and waste management data. Although the cost of maintaining and operating an analytical laboratory can be higher than off-site analysis, there are many benefits to providing on site analytical services. This paper describes the synergies between the laboratory, as well as the advantages and disadvantages to having a laboratory on-site during the excavation of SNL/NM CWL.

  19. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities; Hochrisikoanlagen. Notfallschutz bei Kernkraft-, Chemie- und Sondermuellanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, Michael (ed.) [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  20. [Distribution and activity of microorganisms in the deep repository for liquid radioactive waste at the Siberian Chemical Combine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazina, T N; Luk'ianova, E A; Zakharova, E V; Ivoĭlov, V S; Poltaraus, A B; Kalmykov, S N; Beliaev, S S; Zubkov, A A

    2006-01-01

    The physicochemical conditions, composition of microbial communities, and the rates of anaerobic processes in the deep sandy horizons used as a repository for liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at the Siberian Chemical Combine (Seversk, Tomsk oblast), were studied. Formation waters from the observation wells drilled into the production horizons of the radioactive waste disposal site were found to be inhabited by microorganisms of different physiological groups, including aerobic organotrophs, anaerobic fermentative, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic bacteria. The density of microbial population, as determined by cultural methods, was low and usually did not exceed 10(4) cells/ml. Enrichment cultures of microorganisms producing gases (hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide) and capable of participation in the precipitation of metal sulfides were obtained from the waters of production horizons. The contemporary processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were assayed; the rates of these terminal processes of organic matter destruction were found to be low. The denitrifying bacteria from the underground repository were capable of reducing the nitrates contained in the wastes, provided sources of energy and biogenic elements were available. Biosorption of radionuclides by the biomass of aerobic bacteria isolated from groundwater was demonstrated. The results obtained give us insight into the functional structure of the microbial community inhabiting the waters of repository production horizons. This study indicates that the numbers and activity of microbial cells are low both inside and outside the zone of radioactive waste dispersion, in spite of the long period of waste discharge.

  1. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  2. Effect of NiO/SiO2 on thermo-chemical conversion of waste cooking oil to hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, J; Sokoto, A M; Tambuwal, A D; Garba, N A

    2017-05-01

    Increase in organic waste generation, dwindling nature of global oil reserves coupled with environmental challenges caused by waste oil disposal and burning of fossil fuels necessitated the need for alternative energy resources. Waste cooking oil obtained from the frying fish outlet was analyzed for its physicochemical properties using ASTM D-975 methods. Acid and Iodine values of the oil were 30.43 ± 0.32 mgKOH/g and 57.08 ± 0.43 mgI2/100 g respectively. Thermo-chemical conversion of the oil using NiO/SiO2 at different reaction conditions (pressure, temperature, and catalyst concentration) at a residence time of 3 h yielded 33.63% hydrocarbons. Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil at 400 °C, H2 pressure of 15 bars, and catalyst to oil ratio of 0.25 g/100 cm(3) resulted in highest hydrocarbon yield (41.98%). The fuel properties of the product were: cetane number (71.16), high heating value (41.43 MJ/kg), kinematic viscosity (2.01 mm(2)/s), density (0.94 g/ml), saponification value (185.1 ± 3.96 mgKOH/g), and iodine value (20.57 ± 0.20 I2/100 g) respectively. These results show that the NiO/SiO2 could be a suitable catalyst for conversion of waste vegetable oil to hydrocarbons.

  3. Effect of NiO/SiO2 on thermo-chemical conversion of waste cooking oil to hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increase in organic waste generation, dwindling nature of global oil reserves coupled with environmental challenges caused by waste oil disposal and burning of fossil fuels necessitated the need for alternative energy resources. Waste cooking oil obtained from the frying fish outlet was analyzed for its physicochemical properties using ASTM D-975 methods. Acid and Iodine values of the oil were 30.43 ± 0.32 mgKOH/g and 57.08 ± 0.43 mgI2/100 g respectively. Thermo-chemical conversion of the oil using NiO/SiO2 at different reaction conditions (pressure, temperature, and catalyst concentration at a residence time of 3 h yielded 33.63% hydrocarbons. Hydro-catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil at 400 °C, H2 pressure of 15 bars, and catalyst to oil ratio of 0.25 g/100 cm3 resulted in highest hydrocarbon yield (41.98%. The fuel properties of the product were: cetane number (71.16, high heating value (41.43 MJ/kg, kinematic viscosity (2.01 mm2/s, density (0.94 g/ml, saponification value (185.1 ± 3.96 mgKOH/g, and iodine value (20.57 ± 0.20 I2/100 g respectively. These results show that the NiO/SiO2 could be a suitable catalyst for conversion of waste vegetable oil to hydrocarbons.

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  5. Review of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.

    2004-12-31

    This report was prepared to fulfill the Phase I deliverable for HLW/DWPF/TTR-98-0018, Rev. 2, ''Hydrogen Generation in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell'', 6/4/2001. The primary objective for the preliminary phase of the hydrogen generation study was to complete a review of past data on hydrogen generation and to prepare a summary of the findings. The understanding was that the focus should be on catalytic hydrogen generation, not on hydrogen generation by radiolysis. The secondary objective was to develop scope for follow-up experimental and analytical work. The majority of this report provides a summary of past hydrogen generation work with radioactive and simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste sludges. The report also includes some work done with Hanford waste sludges and simulants. The review extends to idealized systems containing no sludge, such as solutions of sodium formate and formic acid doped with a noble metal catalyst. This includes general information from the literature, as well as the focused study done by the University of Georgia for the SRS. The various studies had a number of points of universal agreement. For example, noble metals, such as Pd, Rh, and Ru, catalyze hydrogen generation from formic acid and formate ions, and more acid leads to more hydrogen generation. There were also some points of disagreement between different sources on a few topics such as the impact of mercury on the noble metal catalysts and the identity of the most active catalyst species. Finally, there were some issues of potential interest to SRS that apparently have not been systematically studied, e.g. the role of nitrite ion in catalyst activation and reactivity. The review includes studies covering the period from about 1924-2002, or from before the discovery of hydrogen generation during simulant sludge processing in 1988 through the Shielded Cells qualification testing for Sludge Batch 2. The review of prior studies is followed by a

  6. Application of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical and chemometrics analyses to the characterization of agro-industrial waste

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Merlin; Barbara Arruda Nogueira; Vanderlei Aparecido de Lima; Larissa Macedo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Agroindustrial waste in general presents significant levels of nutrients and organic matter and has therefore been frequently put to agricultural use. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and carbon content, as well as the qualitative characteristics through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of four samples of poultry litter and one sample of cattle manure, from the southwestern region...

  7. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOLID AND LIQUID WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED ENERGY CROPS GASIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic physico-chemical properties of solid (ash and liquid (tar waste products of the gasification process of the heavy metal contaminated energy crops. The gasification process has carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. Three types of energy crops: Miscanthus x giganteus, Sida hermaphrodita and Spartina Pectinata were used. The experimental plots were established on heavy metal contaminated arable land located in Bytom (southern part of Poland, Silesian Voivodship.

  8. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models: Results for the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-03

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the January, March, and April 2015 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  9. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support Enhanced Hanford Waste Glass Models. Results for the Augusta and October 2014 LAW Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Best, D. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-07

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for several simulated low activity waste (LAW) glasses (designated as the August and October 2014 LAW glasses) fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions.

  10. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  11. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel.

  12. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  13. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  14. Gravity packaging final waste recovery based on gravity separation and chemical imaging control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Potenza, Fabio; Luciani, Valentina; Di Maio, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Plastic polymers are characterized by a high calorific value. Post-consumer plastic waste can be thus considered, in many cases, as a typical secondary solid fuels according to the European Commission directive on End of Waste (EoW). In Europe the practice of incineration is considered one of the solutions for waste disposal waste, for energy recovery and, as a consequence, for the reduction of waste sent to landfill. A full characterization of these products represents the first step to profitably and correctly utilize them. Several techniques have been investigated in this paper in order to separate and characterize post-consumer plastic packaging waste fulfilling the previous goals, that is: gravity separation (i.e. Reflux Classifier), FT-IR spectroscopy, NIR HyperSpectralImaging (HSI) based techniques and calorimetric test. The study demonstrated as the proposed separation technique and the HyperSpectral NIR Imaging approach allow to separate and recognize the different polymers (i.e. PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC), PolyStyrene (PS), PolyEthylene (PE), PoliEtilene Tereftalato (PET), PolyPropylene (PP)) in order to maximize the removal of the PVC fraction from plastic waste and to perform the full quality control of the resulting products, can be profitably utilized to set up analytical/control strategies finalized to obtain a low content of PVC in the final Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF), thus enhancing SRF quality, increasing its value and reducing the "final waste". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasar Habib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG. Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 oC at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG, Elemental Analyzer (E.A and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 oC (53 and 37wt% bio-oil from wheat and barley SG. Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460oC, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals.

  16. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2016-12-19

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu(0)-alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl2). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs.

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility Simulant Chemical Processing Cell Studies for Sludge Batch 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received a technical task request from Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Saltstone Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) and to develop the flowsheet for SB9 in the DWPF. These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). CPC experiments were performed using SB9 simulant (SB9A) to qualify SB9 for sludge-only and coupled processing using the nitric-formic flowsheet in the DWPF. Two simulant batches were prepared, one representing SB8 Tank 40H and another representing SB9 Tank 51H. The simulant used for SB9 qualification testing was prepared by blending the SB8 Tank 40H and SB9 Tank 51H simulants. The blended simulant is referred to as SB9A. Eleven CPC experiments were run with an acid stoichiometry ranging between 105% and 145% of the Koopman minimum acid equation (KMA), which is equivalent to 109.7% and 151.5% of the Hsu minimum acid factor. Three runs were performed in the 1L laboratory scale setup, whereas the remainder were in the 4L laboratory scale setup. Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were performed on nine of the eleven. The other two were SRAT cycles only. One coupled flowsheet and one extended run were performed for SRAT and SME processing. Samples of the condensate, sludge, and off-gas were taken to monitor the chemistry of the CPC experiments.

  18. Heat-deproteinated xenogeneic bone from slaughterhouse waste: Physico-chemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; K Panduranga Rao; T S Sampath Kumar

    2003-08-01

    Xenogeneic bone procured from the slaughterhouse waste was deproteinated by heat treatment method intended for use as a bone substitute. The effect of heat treatment was investigated by thermal analysis and by physico-chemical methods such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The heat treatment temperatures for the bovine bone samples were predetermined by thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The XRD results revealed that the process of heat treatment promoted the crystallinity of bone samples, particularly at 700 and 900°C. There was no secondary phase transformation detected for heat-deproteinated bone except the presence of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase, which indicated its phase purity even at a higher temperature. The FTIR spectra of raw bone and bone heated at 300°C indicated the presence of organic macromolecules whereas these disappeared in the samples heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which suggested the removal of antigenic organic matters around 500°C. The same results were also confirmed quantitatively by calculating the amount of collagen using hydroxyproline estimation. There was no significant change in the TG-thermogram of bone heated at 500, 700 and 900°C, which indicated their thermal stability. These findings implied that the heat treated bone at 500°C had properties similar to carbonated HA with low crystallinity, while 700 and 900°C samples had the same with higher crystallinity. As low temperature treatment does not alter morphological and structural properties, we propose that the 500°C heat treated xenogeneic bone may act as an excellent osteogenic bone substitute.

  19. Microsensors for in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological characterization of mixed waste. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thundat, T.G.; Warmack, R.J.; Dabestani, R.; Britt, P.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Brown, G.M.

    1998-06-01

    'A widespread need exists for portable, real-time, in-situ chemical, physical, and radiological sensors for characterization of mixed wastes, groundwater, contaminated solids, and process streams. None of the currently available technologies offer a clear path to the development of sensors that are miniature, cost-effective, selective, highly sensitive with a wide dynamic range, and have the ability to work in air or liquid while providing chemical, physical, and radiological information. The objective of this research program is to conduct the fundamental research necessary to develop microcantilever-based micromechanical sensors for in-situ characterization of groundwater, sediments, and mixed wastes. Chemical selectivity will be achieved by coupling surface modification chemistry with molecular recognition agents. Physical measurements of adsorption (absorption) induced deflection (bending) and resonance frequency variation of microcantilevers can be achieved with extreme precision resulting in ppb-ppt sensitivity. Good progress has been made in the first nine months of this project. Progress has been made in three focus areas: radiation detection, detection of heavy metals in water, modification of microcantilever surfaces for chemical selectivity, and pH measurement.'

  20. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrwas, R. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  1. Chemical fractionation of the waste fuels - A comparison of methods; Kemisk fraktionering av avfallsbraenslen - En jaemfoerelse av metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Claesson, Frida

    2009-07-01

    Striving to improve the waste handling in an energy and environmental manner has led to an increased flow of waste fractions interesting for energy recovery by combustion, both for heat and power production. The increased flow of various waste fractions with varying chemical compositions results in new demands on the combustion plants. This because operational problems, such as bed sintering, corrosion and deposit formation resulting in expensive shut downs can be caused by relatively small changes in the fuel stream. It is primarily alkali metals in combination with chlorine that cause problems like fouling and corrosion. To avoid these problems, tools for characterization of these fuels to predict combustion processes are needed. Two such tools are the Aabo- and the CEN/TS 15105 methods which both are chemical characterization methods based on leaching. The Aabo-method is a more advanced method and also more time consuming compared to the CEN/TS 15105-method. These methods aim to dissolve and identify the compounds that are reactive during combustion and therefore able to cause combustion problems. Both these methods are developed for the characterization of biofuels but only the Aabo-method has been evaluated for waste fuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the two methods by characterization of six waste fuels with different composition. In addition also four more homogeneous fuels: coal, straw, wood pellets and municipal sewage sludge. The analyses showed that the Aabo-method gave a more clear picture of the reactive elements in the waste fuel in comparison to the CEN/TS 15105-method. An advantage with the Aabo-method is also that the solid rest obtained after the leaching is analysed giving an element balance of the sample without having to make assumptions. The comparison of the methods showed that the CEN/TS 15105-method does not dissolve large parts of the available calcium in the waste fuel resulting in a large underestimation of the reactive

  2. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  3. Final Report: Fiscal Year 1997 demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation of organic solids and liquids using peroxydisulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment, chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992. The process uses solutions of the peroxydisulfate ion (typically sodium or ammonium salts) to completely mineralize the organics to carbon dioxide and water. The expended oxidant may be electrolytically regenerated to minimize secondary waste. The paper briefly describes: free radical and secondary oxidant formation; electrochemical regeneration; offgas stream; and throughput.

  4. Fuel spray combustion of waste cooking oil and palm oil biodiesel: Direct photography and detailed chemical kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Kuti, Olawole

    2013-10-14

    This paper studies the ignition processes of two biodiesel from two different feedstock sources, namely waste cooked oil (WCO) and palm oil (PO). They were investigated using the direct photography through high-speed video observations and detailed chemical kinetics. The detailed chemical kinetics modeling was carried out to complement data acquired using the high-speed video observations. For the high-speed video observations, an image intensifier combined with OH* filter connected to a high-speed video camera was used to obtain OH* chemiluminscence image near 313 nm. The OH* images were used to obtain the experimental ignition delay of the biodiesel fuels. For the high-speed video observations, experiments were done at an injection pressure of 100, 200 and 300 MPa using a 0.16 mm injector nozzle. Also a detailed chemical kinetics for the biodiesel fuels was carried out using ac chemical kinetics solver adopting a 0-D reactor model to obtain the chemical ignition delay of the combusting fuels. Equivalence ratios obtained from the experimental ignition delay were used for the detailed chemical kinetics analyses. The Politecnico di Milano\\'s thermochemical and reaction kinetic data were adopted to simulate the ignition processes of the biodiesels using the five fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) major components in the biodiesel fuels. From the high-speed video observations, it was observed that at increasing injection pressure, experimental ignition delay increased as a result of improvement in fuel and air mixing effects. Also the palm oil biodiesel has a shorter ignition delay compared to waste cooked oil biodiesel. This phenomenon could be attributed to the higher cetane number of palm biodiesel. The fuel spray ignition properties depend on both the physical ignition delay and chemical ignition delay. From the detailed chemical kinetic results it was observed that at the low temperature, high ambient pressure conditions reactivity increased as equivalent ratio

  5. CHEMICALLY BONDED CEMENTS FROM BOILER ASH AND SLUDGE WASTES. PHASE II REPORT, SEPT.1998-JULY 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.YAGER,K.A.BLANKENHORN,D.(KEYSPAN R AND D INITIATIVE)

    1999-08-01

    Based upon the previous Phase I research program aimed at looking for ways of recycling the KeySpan-generated wastes, such as waste water treatment sludge (WWTS) and bottom ash (BA), into the potentially useful cementitious materials called chemically bonded cement (CBC) materials, the emphasis of this Phase II program done at Brookhaven National Laboratory, in a period of September 1998 through July 1999, was directed towards the two major subjects: One was to assess the technical feasibility of WWTS-based CBC material for use as Pb-exchange adsorbent (PEA) which remediates Pb-contaminated soils in the field; and the other was related to the establishment of the optimum-packaging storage system of dry BA-based CBC components that make it a promising matrix material for the steam-cured concrete products containing sand and coarse aggregate. To achieve the goal of the first subject, a small-scale field demonstration test was carried out. Using the PEA material consisting of 30 wt% WWTS, 13 wt% Type I cement and 57 wt% water, the PES slurry was prepared using a rotary shear concrete mixer, and then poured on the Pb-contaminated soil. The PEA-to-soil ratio by weight was a factor of 2.0. The placed PEA slurry was blended with soil using hand mixing tools such as claws and shovels. The wettability of soils with the PEA was very good, thereby facilitating the soil-PEA mix procedures. A very promising result was obtained from this field test; in fact, the mount of Pb leached out from the 25-day-aged PEA-treated soil specimen was only 0.74 mg/l, meeting the requirement for EPA safe regulation of < 5 mg/l. In contrast, a large amount (26.4 mg/l) of Pb was detected from the untreated soil of the same age. Thus, this finding demonstrated that the WWTS-based CBC has a potential for use as PEA material. Regarding the second subject, the dry-packed storage system consisting of 68.7 wt% BA, 13.0 wt% calcium aluminate cement (CAC), 13.0 wt% Type I portland cement and 5.3 wt

  6. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  7. Chemical and Charge Imbalance Induced by Radionuclide Decay: Effects on Waste Form Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jaffe, John E.; Jiang, Weilin; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-04-01

    This is a milestone document covering the activities to validate theoretical calculations with experimental data for the effect of the decay of 90Sr to 90Zr on materials properties. This was done for a surragate waste form strontium titanate.

  8. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  9. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  10. Adaptive sampling strategy support for the unlined chromic acid pit, chemical waste landfill, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Adaptive sampling programs offer substantial savings in time and money when assessing hazardous waste sites. Key to some of these savings is the ability to adapt a sampling program to the real-time data generated by an adaptive sampling program. This paper presents a two-prong approach to supporting adaptive sampling programs: a specialized object-oriented database/geographical information system (SitePlanner{trademark} ) for data fusion, management, and display and combined Bayesian/geostatistical methods (PLUME) for contamination-extent estimation and sample location selection. This approach is applied in a retrospective study of a subsurface chromium plume at Sandia National Laboratories` chemical waste landfill. Retrospective analyses suggest the potential for characterization cost savings on the order of 60% through a reduction in the number of sampling programs, total number of soil boreholes, and number of samples analyzed from each borehole.

  11. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S, Class F fly ash (FFA, and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA. To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B, curing regime, and FFA addition significantly affected the engineering performances and shrinkage/expansion of the SFC pastes and mortars. The SFC mortars had higher workability than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. With similar workability, the SFC mortars had compressive strengths and expansions comparable to OPC mortars. The main hydration products of the hardened SFC cement were ettringite (AFt and C-S-H/C-A-S-H. The transformation of the AFt to the monosulfates was observed as the hydration time increased.Este trabajo estudia las características fisicoquímicas de pastas y morteros con un ligante eco-amigable llamado cemento SFC, producido por una mezcla ternaria de materiales a partir de residuos industriales tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno (S, ceniza volante clase F (FFA, y cenizas volantes de combustión en lecho fluidizado circulante (CFA. Para desencadenar la hidratación, el CFA que actuó como un activador alcalino-sulfato se añadió a la mezcla combinada de escoria y FFA. La relación de agua/ligante (W/B, el tipo de curado, y la adición de FFA afectaron significativamente a las prestaciones mecánicas así como a la retracción/expansión de pastas y morteros de SFC. Los morteros SFC presentaron una trabajabilidad mayor que los correspondientes de cemento de Portland (OPC. Con una trabajabilidad similar, los morteros SFC presentaron resistencias mecánicas y expansión comparables a los morteros de OPC. Los principales productos de hidratación del

  12. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED SOLUBILITY CONTROLS ON RADIONUCLIDES IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Millings, M.

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  13. ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE MATERIALS FROM HARD COAL BURNING IN VIEW OF THEIR AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Czech

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Production of electric power in Poland bases on burning brown and hard coal. Currently over 90 % of electricity originates from this source. Generating electric power, like many other human activities, inevitably involves production of wastes. Considering the previous trends of these waste materials utilisation, one should analyse also potential use of biogenic components which they contain as fertilizers. The main objective of conducted investigations was an assessment of potential application of selected waste materials, i.e. fly ashes from production, fly ashes from the landfill site and slag sand from “KRAKÓW S.A.” heat and power plant for agricultural and environmental purposes. The assessment was made on the basis of analyses of the following physical and chemical properties of studied materials: pH, granulometric composition determined by Bouyoucose-Casagrande method in Prószyński’s modification, total alkalinity, total nitrogen content assessed by means of Kjeldahl’s method, organic carbon by Tiurin’s method, total contents of trace elements and the content of available forms of trace elements soluble in 1 mol · dm-3 HCl solution. On the basis of conducted laboratory analyses it should be stated that the amounts of heavy metals determined in the studied materials did not exceed the content allowable for waste materials designed for soil liming. The analysed materials reveal physical and chemical properties which do not exclude their potential application for soil liming. In this respect, fly ash from production seems the best. However, it contains about twice lower amounts of CaO in comparison with other calcium fertilizers available on the market.

  14. Chemical and chemically-related considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1997-04-04

    New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes. All chemistry-associated and other compatibility Information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106, in accord with appropriate controls, will pose no unacceptable risk to workers, public safety, or the environment. In addition, it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety Issue for tank C-106.

  15. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and chemically enhanced primary-treated sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-12-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with primary sewage sludge is beneficial for urban centers, while the optimized conditions reported in the literature are not locally suitable for Hong Kong. Therefore, the present study was aimed to develop an optimized mixing ratio of food waste to chemically enhanced primary-treated sewer sludge (CEPT) for co-digestion using batch tests under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The mixing ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1 (v v(-1)) of food waste to CEPT sludge was tested under the following conditions: temperature - 35°C and 55°C; pH - not regulated; agitation - 150 rpm and time - 20 days. The thermophilic incubations led a good hydrolysis rate and 2-12-fold higher enzyme activities than in mesophilic incubations for different mixing ratios. While the acidogenesis were found retarded that leading to 'sour and stuck' digestion for all mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge from thermophilic incubations. The measured zeta potential was most favourable (-5 to -16.8 mV) for methane production under thermophilic incubations; however the CH4 recovery was less than that in mesophilic incubations. The results suggested that the quick hydrolysis and subsequent acid accumulation under thermophilic incubation lead to inhibited methanogenesis at the early stage than in mesophilic systems. It is concluded that buffer addition is therefore required for any mixing ratio of food waste to CEPT sludge for improved CH4 recovery for both mesophilic and thermophilic operations.

  16. CHEMICALLY BONDED CEMENTS FROM BOILER ASH AND SLUDGE WASTES. PHASE I REPORT AUGUST 1997 - JULY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.; YAGER,K.A.

    2002-08-05

    In exploring methods to recycle boiler ash (BA) and waste water treatment sludge (WWTS), by-products generated from Keyspan's power plants, into commercially viable materials, we synthesized chemically bonded cements (CBC) offering the following three specific characteristics; (1) immobilization of hazardous heavy metals, such as Pb, Ni, and V, (2) rapid hardening and setting properties, and (3) development of high mechanical strength. The CBCs were prepared through an acid-base reaction between these by-products acting as the solid base reactants and the sodium polyphosphate solution as the cement-forming acid reactant, followed by a hydrating reaction. Furthermore, two additives, the calcium aluminate cements (CAC) and the calcium silicate cements (CSC) were incorporated into the CBC systems to improve their properties. Using a CBC formulation consisting of 53.8 wt% WWTS, 23.1 wt% CSC, and 23.1 wt% [40 wt% -(-NaPO{sub 3}-)-{sub n}]{sub 2} the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests showed that the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and V metals leached out from the specimens were minimal. This formulation originally contained {approx} 28800 mg/kg of Pb, {approx} 6300 mg/kg of Ni, and {approx} 11130 mg/kg of V; the amounts leaching into the acid extraction fluid were only 0.15 mg/L of Pb, 0.15 mg/L of Ni, and 4.63 mgiL of V. On the other hand, CBC specimens derived from a formulation consisting of 42 wt% BA, 18 wt% CAC and 40 wt% [40 wt% -(-NaPO{sub 3}-)-{sub n}] displayed an excellent compressive strength of 10.8 MPa at an early curing age of 2 hours after mixing at room temperature. The reason for its rapid hardening was due to a high exothermic energy evolved by the acid-base reaction. Furthermore, when these specimens were immersed for 28 days in water at 25 C, and exposed for 20 hours to steam at 80 C, a very high compressive strength of 3.32 MPa developed. Two physico-chemical factors played an important role in improving the mechanical strength

  17. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the defense waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, Matthew S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Luther, Michelle C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Brandenburg, Clayton H. [Univ.of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  18. Implementation of flowsheet change to minimize hydrogen and ammonia generation during chemical processing of high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Dan P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Woodham, Wesley H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, Matthew S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Luther, Michelle C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Brandenburg, Clayton H. [Univ.of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Testing was completed to develop a chemical processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), designed to vitrify and stabilize high level radioactive waste. DWPF processing uses a reducing acid (formic acid) and an oxidizing acid (nitric acid) to rheologically thin the slurry and complete the necessary acid base and reduction reactions (primarily mercury and manganese). Formic acid reduces mercuric oxide to elemental mercury, allowing the mercury to be removed during the boiling phase of processing through steam stripping. In runs with active catalysts, formic acid can decompose to hydrogen and nitrate can be reduced to ammonia, both flammable gases, due to rhodium and ruthenium catalysis. Replacement of formic acid with glycolic acid eliminates the generation of rhodium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogen and ammonia. In addition, mercury reduction is still effective with glycolic acid. Hydrogen, ammonia and mercury are discussed in the body of the report. Ten abbreviated tests were completed to develop the operating window for implementation of the flowsheet and determine the impact of changes in acid stoichiometry and the blend of nitric and glycolic acid as it impacts various processing variables over a wide processing region. Three full-length 4-L lab-scale simulations demonstrated the viability of the flowsheet under planned operating conditions. The flowsheet is planned for implementation in early 2017.

  19. Development of a chemical process using nitric acid-cerium(IV) for decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.

    1988-06-01

    A simple and effective method was developed for contamination of high-level waste containers. This method of chemical decontamination is applicable to a wide variety of contaminated equipment found in the nuclear industry. The process employs a oxidant system (Ce(IV)) in nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/) solution to chemically mill a thin layer from the canister surface. Contaminated canisters are simply immersed in the solution at a controlled temperature and Ce(IV) concentration level. The spent solution is discarded to the high-level waste stream and added to subsequent glass batches. The Ce(IV)/HNO/sub 3/ solution has been shown to be effective in chemically milling the surface of stainless steel, similar to the electropolishing process, but without the need for an applied electrical current. West Valley (WV) staff had previously evaluated several canister decontamination methods, including electropolishing, liquid abrasive blast, high-pressure water wash, and ultrasonic cleaning, before the Ce(IV)/HNO/sub 3/ redox solution on treatment was selected. The initial concept involved continuous electrochemical regeneration of the ceric ion. Extensive in-cell pumping and close-coupled heat transfer and electrochemical equipment were required. The objective of this study, was to simplify the original concept. 2 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods.

  1. Physical-Chemical Solid Waste Processing for Space Missions at Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark; Wignarajah, K.; Tleimat, Maher; Pace, Greg

    2001-01-01

    As space missions become longer in duration and reach out to more distant locations such as Mars, solids waste processing progresses from storage technologies to reclamation technologies. Current low Earth orbit technologies consist of store-and dispose to space or return to Earth. Fully regenerative technologies recycle wastes. The materials reclaimed from waste can be used to provide the basic materials to support plant growth for food including carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. Other products can also be reclaimed from waste such as hydrocarbons and activated carbon. This poster describes development at Ames Research Center of a process to make activated carbon from space mission wastes and to make an incineration system that produces clean flue gas. Inedible biomass and feces contain hydrocarbons in a form that can be pyrolyzed and converted to activated carbon. The activated carbon can then be used to clean up contaminants from various other life support systems; in particular, the activated carbon can be used regeneratively to remove NOx from incinerator flue gas. Incinerator flue gas can also be cleaned up by the use of reductive and oxidative catalysts. A catalytic incinerator flue gas cleanup system has been developed at ARC that produces flue gas clean enough (with the exception of carbon dioxide) to meet the Space Minimum Allowable Concentration limits for human exposure.

  2. Chemical Recycling of Expanded Polystyrene Waste: Synthesis of Novel Functional Polystyrene-Hydrazone Surface for Phenol Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Siyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanded polystyrene (EPS waste was chemically recycled to a novel functional polystyrene-hydrazone (PSH surface by acetylation of polystyrene (PS and then condensation with phenyl hydrazine. The synthesized surface was characterized by the FT-IR and elemental analysis. Synthesized novel functional PSH surface was successfully applied for the treatment of phenol-contaminated industrial wastewater by solid-phase extraction. Multivariant sorption optimization was achieved by factorial design approach. 99.93% of phenol was removed from aqueous solution. FT-IR study showed the involvement of nitrogen of hydrazone moiety of synthesized surface for the uptake of phenol through the hydrogen bonding.

  3. Efficient conversion of polyamides to ω-hydroxyalkanoic acids: a new method for chemical recycling of waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akio; Ikeda, Kosuke; Suzuki, Shuzo; Kato, Kazunari; Akinari, Yugo; Sugimoto, Tsunemi; Kashiwagi, Kohichi; Kaiso, Kouji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    An efficient transformation of polyamides to ω-hydroxy alkanoic acids was achieved. Treatment of nylon-12 with supercritical MeOH in the presence of glycolic acid gave methyl ω-hydroxydodecanoate in 85% yield and the alcohol/alkene selectivity in the product was enhanced to up to 9.5:1. The use of (18)O-enriched acetic acid for the reaction successfully introduced an (18)O atom at the alcoholic OH group in the product. This strategy may provide a new and economical solution for the chemical recycling of waste plastics.

  4. Harvest and utilization of chemical energy in wastes by microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Zhai, Lin-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-05-21

    Organic wastes are now increasingly viewed as a resource of energy that can be harvested by suitable biotechnologies. One promising technology is microbial fuel cells (MFC), which can generate electricity from the degradation of organic pollutants. While the environmental benefits of MFC in waste treatment have been recognized, their potential as an energy producer is not fully understood. Although progresses in material and engineering have greatly improved the power output from MFC, how to efficiently utilize the MFC's energy in real-world scenario remains a challenge. In this review, fundamental understandings on the energy-generating capacity of MFC from real waste treatment are provided and the challenges and opportunities are discussed. The limiting factors restricting the energy output and impairing the long-term reliability of MFC are also analyzed. Several energy storage and in situ utilization strategies for the management of MFC's energy are proposed, and future research needs for real-world application of this approach are explored.

  5. Análise sistemática de reagentes e resíduos sem identificação Systematic analysis of unidentified chemicals and wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Afonso

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a detailed routine applied to the identification of unknown chemicals and wastes. 786 specimens were analyzed during 20 months. Unknown materials fell into three basic classes: (i commercial chemicals without labels or illegible ones; (ii laboratory synthesis products; (iii used solvents (including mixtures. Uranium and thorium were recovered form their wastes. Unknown chemicals were mainly inorganic compounds, many of which had never been opened. Alkaline salts were dominant, but also precious metal compounds were identified. Laboratory synthesis products were organic compounds. The final destination depended on the nature of the chemical. Most organic compounds were sent to incineration; inorganic salts were distributed among several public organizations, including secondary and technical schools. The work described in this paper greatly reduced the amount of wastes that had to be sent to disposal.

  6. The physico-chemical treatment of laundry waste water; Tratamiento fisicoquimica de aguas residuales de lavanderias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susial, P.; Jato, I. G.; Larranaga, I.

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the washing of clot her is treated with aluminium sulphate + acrylamide to achieve coagulation/flocculation. The analytical data obtained in a jar-test using the FTU as the control parameter demonstrate the efficacy of the process, as reductions in the FTU approaching 100% and elimination rates of 80% in detergents and 85% in the COD were achieved. These results show that coagulation and flocculation are sufficient to treat laundry waste water, even though it contains a high pollutant load, since both organic and inorganic pollutants can be significantly reduced by such operations. (Author) 17 refs.

  7. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  8. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  9. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  10. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H. [Keppel Seghers, Center of Excellence, Hoofd 1, B-2830 Willebroek (Belgium); Van Caneghem, J., E-mail: jo.vancaneghem@cit.kuleuven.be [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Group T Leuven Engineering College, Association of the University of Leuven, Andreas Vesaliusstraat 13, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Vandecasteele, C. [University of Leuven, Department of Chemical Engineering, ProcESS (Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems) Division, Willem De Croylaan 46, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  11. Influence of thermal pretreatment on physical and chemical properties of kitchen waste and the efficiency of anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yiying; Li, Yangyang; Li, Jinhui

    2016-09-15

    The effects of thermal pretreatment at moderate temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) and high temperatures (120, 140 and 160 °C) over heating durations of 10-120 min on the physical and chemical properties of kitchen waste and on anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results show that thermal pretreatment significantly enhances the solubilisation of organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand, crude proteins, crude fats and volatile fatty acids) and their biodegradability during subsequent anaerobic digestion. High temperature and long heating duration are beneficial for the release and reduction of organic compounds, and the efficiency of subsequent anaerobic digestion is improved markedly under these conditions. Moreover, both the methane production rate and methane yield were observed to increase significantly at moderate treatment temperatures when the anaerobic digestion time was longer than 50 h.

  12. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  13. Directed Evolution Strategies for Enantiocomplementary Haloalkane Dehalogenases : From Chemical Waste to Enantiopure Building Blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Jan G. E.; Wijma, Hein J.; Floor, Robert J.; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Janssen, Dick B.

    2012-01-01

    We used directed evolution to obtain enantiocomplementary haloalkane dehalogenase variants that convert the toxic waste compound 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) into highly enantioenriched (R)- or (S)-2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol, which can easily be converted into optically active

  14. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Benestad, C.

    1992-01-01

    We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify the poten......We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents'. These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify...... and one has to accept a certain small risk by accepting the concentration limit. This is in line with the establishment of limits for radiation. Waste products from coal combustion have the highest potential risk among the fossil fuel alternatives. The highest risk is caused by metals, and the fly ash...... represents the effluent stream giving the largest contribution to the potential risk. The waste from nuclear power production has a lower potential risk than coal if today's limit values are used. If one adjusts the limits for radiation dose and the concentration limit values so that a similar risk...

  15. Modeling of physico-chemical characteristics of concrete for filling trenches in radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, Ilija [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Arbutina, Dalibor [Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Public Company ' Nuclear Facilities of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-05-01

    An optimization of concrete used for immobilization of radionuclides {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, is presented. A relatively simple mathematical model is given, which permits minimization of leach rate and permeability and maximization of compressive strength. An optimal solution, based on experimental data, is given. These results will be used for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.

  16. Chemical and biological processes for multi-metal extraction from waste printed circuit boards of computers and mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2014-11-01

    E-waste printed circuit boards (PCB) of computers, mobile-phones, televisions, LX (LongXiang) PCB in LED lights and bulbs, and tube-lights were crushed to ≥250 µm particle size and 16 different metals were analysed. A comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) and mobile-phone printed circuit boards (m-PCB) by chemical and biological methods. Chemical process showed the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni by ferric sulphate was best among the studied chemical lixiviants. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with the iron oxidising consortium, which showed that when E-waste and inoculum were added simultaneously in the medium (one-step process); 60.33% and 87.50% Cu, 75.67% and 85.67% Zn and 71.09% and 81.87% Ni were extracted from 10 g L(-1) of c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, within 10-15 days of reaction time. Whereas, E-waste added after the complete oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) iron containing medium (two-step process) showed 85.26% and 99.99% Cu, 96.75% and 99.49% Zn and 93.23% and 84.21% Ni extraction from c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, only in 6-8 days. Influence of varying biogenerated Fe(3+) and c-PCB concentrations showed that 16.5 g L(-1) of Fe(3+) iron was optimum up to 100 g L(-1) of c-PCB. Changes in pH, acid consumed and redox potential during the process were also studied. The present study shows the ability of an eco-friendly process for the recovery of multi-metals from E-waste even at 100 g L(-1) printed circuit boards concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Study on physico - chemical properties of Korean anthracite for utilization development - application to filtering materials for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI : 38.38) and crushed two granule size. One is 1-2 mm size (effective size : 0.77 mm, uniformity coefficient : 1.70) and the other is 2-4 mm size (2.04 mm, 1.37) First, we had application test to find out the possibility of 2-4 mm sample for using water filtering material instead of silica sand in Sandflo filter. The result were unsuitable for treatment efficiency and micron size granule. But it will be solution with control of granule size and washing of coal. For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Lotte-chilsung beverage Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrogen Nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N), Organophosphorus and trace elements content (Zn, Al, Fe, Mg, K) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (1-2 mm : 15.08 %, 2-4 mm : 11.58 %), COD (1-2 mm : 5.76 %, 2-4 mm : 5.49 %) and increasing degree in DO (1-2 mm : 11.25 %, 2-4 mm : 10 %). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 30 % for Fe and 5 % for K. (author). 32 refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P; Vanoli, R

    2010-07-01

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10(3)+/-3.7 x 10(2)part.cm(-3) and 31.1+/-9.0 microg m(-3) were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m(-3). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, B; Thatoi, H N; Das, N N; Pandey, B D

    2013-04-15

    Chromium is a highly toxic non-essential metal for microorganisms and plants, and its occurrence is rare in nature. Lower to higher chromium containing effluents and solid wastes released by activities such as mining, metal plating, wood preservation, ink manufacture, dyes, pigments, glass and ceramics, tanning and textile industries, and corrosion inhibitors in cooling water, induce pollution and may cause major health hazards. Besides, natural processes (weathering and biochemical) also contribute to the mobility of chromium which enters in to the soil affecting the plant growth and metabolic functions of the living species. Generally, chemical processes are used for Cr- remediation. However, with the inference derived from the diverse Cr-resistance mechanism displayed by microorganisms and the plants including biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux, bioremediation is emerging as a potential tool to address the problem of Cr(VI) pollution. This review focuses on the chemistry of chromium, its use, and toxicity and mobility in soil, while assessing its concentration in effluents/wastes which becomes the source of pollution. In order to conserve the environment and resources, the chemical/biological remediation processes for Cr(VI) and their efficiency have been summarised in some detail. The interaction of chromium with various microbial/bacterial strains isolated and their reduction capacity towards Cr(VI) are also discussed.

  20. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  1. Evolution of cement based materials in a repository for radioactive waste and their chemical barrier function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Bernhard; Metz, Volker; Schlieker, Martina; Bohnert, Elke [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE)

    2015-07-01

    The use of cementitious materials in nuclear waste management is quite widespread. It covers the solidification of low/intermediate-level liquid as well as solid wastes (e.g. laboratory wastes) and serves as shielding. For both high-level and intermediate-low level activity repositories, cement/concrete likewise plays an important role. It is used as construction material for underground and surface disposals, but more importantly it serves as barrier or sealing material. For the requirements of waste conditioning, special cement mixtures have been developed. These include special mixtures for the solidification of evaporator concentrates, borate binding additives and for spilling solid wastes. In recent years, low-pH cements were strongly discussed especially for repository applications, e.g. (Celine CAU DIT COUMES 2008; Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). Examples for relevant systems are Calcium Silicate Cements (ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based) or Calcium Aluminates Cements (CAC). Low-pH pore solutions are achieved by reduction of the portlandite content by partial substitution of OPC by mineral admixtures with high silica content. The blends follow the pozzolanic reaction consuming Ca(OH){sub 2}. Potential admixtures are silica fume (SF) and fly ashes (FA). In these mixtures, super plasticizers are required, consisting of polycarboxilate or naphthalene formaldehyde as well as various accelerating admixtures (Garcia-Sineriz, et al. 2008). The pH regime of concrete/cement materials may stabilize radionuclides in solution. Newly formed alteration products retain or release radionuclides. An important degradation product of celluloses in cement is iso-saccharin acid. According to Glaus 2004 (Glaus and van Loon 2004), it reacts with radionuclides forming dissolved complexes. Apart from potentially impacting radionuclide solubility limitations, concrete additives, radionuclides or other strong complexants compete for surface sites for sorbing onto cement phases. In

  2. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  3. Using different catalysts in the chemical recycling of waste from flexible polyurethane foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their versatility, polyurethane (PU foams have many different applications, such as sponges, filling materials in furniture, automotive seats and clothes, among others. It is also one of the main refrigerator components serving as a heat insulating material. As PUs find different application niches, they must be largely produced and, consequently, lots of waste are generated. In this work we intend to contribute to the recycle of this waste. The recovery of polyol from flexible polyurethane foams was carried out using the glycolysis process and testing different catalysts. Grounded polyurethane and a solvent, diethyleneglycol (DEG, were kept at 200 ºC and under nitrogen atmosphere during three hours in the presence of a catalyst. All catalysts tested promoted the polyol mixture formation, with Zinc acetate producing the best depolymerization rate. The catalysts efficiency for the depolymerization reaction follows the order: DBTDL< BTO< HBTO< DEA ≈ Ba(Ac2< MEA ≈ KAc< Zn(Ac2.

  4. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activities of waste liquid extract from Apostichopus japonicus Selenka processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chaofeng; LI Xiancui; LI Hong; GUO Shuju; ZHU Xiaobin

    2013-01-01

    Apostichopus japonicus Selenka is an ideal tonic food that is used traditionally in many Asian countries,and it contains many bioactive substances,such as antioxidant,antimicrobial,and anticancer materials.To convert waste liquid generated during production into a useful resource,extract from waste liquid was isolated by column chromatography and studied by the pyrogallol autoxidation and 1,10-phenanthroline-Fe2+ oxidation methods.Results show that the extract scavenged about 91% of the superoxide anion radical at a concentration of 1.4 mg/mL and 24% of the hydroxyl radical at 3.3 mg/mL.Four compounds were isolated and identified from the extract:2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-azine; 2,4-dihydroxy-1,3-diazine; 3-O-[β-D-quinovopranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium sulfate-β-D-xylopranosyl]-holosta-9(11)-ene-3β,12t,17α-triol; and 24-ethyl-5t-cholesta-7-ene-3β-O-β-D-xylopyranoside.All of these compounds are known in A.japonicus,and were found in the waste liquid for the first time.

  5. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  6. Application of Chemically Modified and Unmodified Waste Biological Sorbents in Treatment of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kanayochukwu Nduka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein wastes (feathers, goat hair and cellulosic wastes (corn cob, coconut husks were collected and washed with detergent solution, thoroughly rinsed and sun dried for 2 days before drying in an oven, and then ground. One-half of ground material was carbonized at a maximum temperature of 500°C after mixing with H2SO4. The carbonized parts were pulverized; both carbonized and uncarbonized sorbents were sieved into two particle sizes of 325 and 625 μm using mechanical sieve. Sorbents of a given particle size were packed into glass column.Then, textile wastewater that had its physicochemical parameters previously determined was eluted into each glass column and a contact time of 60 and 120 mins was allowed before analysis. Results showed 48.15–99.98 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 34.67–99.93 percentage reduction of NO3−, EC, Cl−, BOD, COD, DO, TSS, and TDS, 52.83–97.95 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+ and 34.59–94.87 percentage reduction of Pb2+, Ni2+, Cr3+ and Mn2+. Carbonization, small particle, size and longer contact time enhanced the sorption capabilities of the sorbents. These show that protein and cellulosic wastes can be used to detoxify wastewater.

  7. Characterization of chemical waste site contamination and its extent using bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.M.; Callahan, C.A.; Cline, J.F.; Greene, J.C.; McShane, M.C.; Miller, W.E.; Peterson, S.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Skalski, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    Bioassays were used in a three-phase research project to assess the comparative sensitivity of test organisms to known chemicals, determine if the chemical components in field soil and water samples containing unknown contaminants could be inferred from our laboratory studies using known chemicals, and to investigate kriging (a relatively new statistical mapping technique) and bioassays as methods to define the areal extent of chemical contamination. The algal assay generally was most sensitive to samples of pure chemicals, soil elutriates and water from eight sites with known chemical contamination. Bioassays of nine samples of unknown chemical composition from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) site showed that a lettuce seed soil contact phytoassay was most sensitive. In general, our bioassays can be used to broadly identify toxic components of contaminated soil. Nearly pure compounds of insecticides and herbicides were less toxic in the sensitive bioassays than were the counterpart commercial formulations. This finding indicates that chemical analysis alone may fail to correctly rate the severity of environmental toxicity. Finally, we used the lettuce seed phytoassay and kriging techniques in a field study at RMA to demonstrate the feasibility of mapping contamination to aid in cleanup decisions. 25 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  8. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  9. Changes in the chemical composition of an acidic soil treated with marble quarry and marble cutting wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozsin, Gulsen; Oztas, Taskin; Arol, Ali Ihsan; Kalkan, Ekrem

    2015-11-01

    Soil acidity greatly affects the availability of plant nutrients. The level of soil acidity can be adjusted by treating the soil with certain additives. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of marble quarry waste (MQW) and marble cutting waste (MCW) on the chemical composition and the acidity of a soil. Marble wastes at different rates were applied to an acid soil. Their effectiveness in neutralizing the soil pH was compared with that of agricultural lime. The changes in the chemical composition of the soil were also evaluated with column test at the end of a 75-day incubation period. The results indicated that the MQW and MCW applications significantly increased the soil pH (from 4.71 up to 6.54), the CaCO3 content (from 0.33% up to 0.75%), and the exchangeable Ca (from 14.79 cmol kg(-1) up to 21.18 cmol kg(-1)) and Na (from 0.57 cmol kg(-1) up to 1.07 cmol kg(-1)) contents, but decreased the exchangeable K (from 0.46 cmol kg(-1) down to 0.28 cmol kg(-1)), the plant-available P (from 25.56 mg L(-1) down to 16.62 mg L(-1)), and the extractable Fe (from 259.43 mg L(-1) down to 55.4 mg L(-1)), Cu (from 1.97 mg L(-1) down to 1.42 mg L(-1)), Mn (from 17.89 mg L(-1) down to 4.61 mg L(-1)) and Zn (from 7.88 mg L(-1) down to 1.56 mg L(-1)) contents. In addition, the Cd (from 0.060 mg L(-1) down to 0.046 mg L(-1)), Ni (from 0.337 mg L(-1) down to 0.092 mg L(-1)) and Pb (from 28.00 mg L(-1) down to 20.08 mg L(-1)) concentrations decreased upon the treatment of the soil with marble wastes.

  10. ACTUAL-WASTE TESTS OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING FOR RETRIEVAL OF SRS HLW SLUDGE TANK HEELS AND DECOMPOSITION OF OXALIC ACID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C.; King, W.; Ketusky, E.

    2012-01-12

    Savannah River National Laboratory conducted a series of tests on the Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process using actual Savannah River Site waste material from Tanks 5F and 12H. Testing involved sludge dissolution with 2 wt% oxalic acid, the decomposition of the oxalates by ozonolysis (with and without the aid of ultraviolet light), the evaporation of water from the product, and tracking the concentrations of key components throughout the process. During ECC actual waste testing, the process was successful in decomposing oxalate to below the target levels without causing substantial physical or chemical changes in the product sludge.

  11. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED SOLUBILITY CONTROLS ON RADIONUCLIDES IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.; Millings, M.

    2012-08-28

    This document provides information specific to H-Area waste tanks that enables a flow and transport model with limited chemical capabilities to account for varying waste release from the tanks through time. The basis for varying waste release is solubilities of radionuclides that change as pore fluids passing through the waste change in composition. Pore fluid compositions in various stages were generated by simulations of tank grout degradation. The first part of the document describes simulations of the degradation of the reducing grout in post-closure tanks. These simulations assume flow is predominantly through a water saturated porous medium. The infiltrating fluid that reacts with the grout is assumed to be fluid that has passed through the closure cap and into the tank. The results are three stages of degradation referred to as Reduced Region II, Oxidized Region II, and Oxidized Region III. A reaction path model was used so that the transitions between each stage are noted by numbers of pore volumes of infiltrating fluid reacted. The number of pore volumes to each transition can then be converted to time within a flow and transport model. The bottoms of some tanks in H-Area are below the water table requiring a different conceptual model for grout degradation. For these simulations the reacting fluid was assumed to be 10% infiltrate through the closure cap and 90% groundwater. These simulations produce an additional four pore fluid compositions referred to as Conditions A through D and were intended to simulate varying degrees of groundwater influence. The most probable degradation path for the submerged tanks is Condition C to Condition D to Oxidized Region III and eventually to Condition A. Solubilities for Condition A are estimated in the text for use in sensitivity analyses if needed. However, the grout degradation simulations did not include sufficient pore volumes of infiltrating fluid for the grout to evolve to Condition A. Solubility controls for use

  12. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS WASTE TANKS TO IMPROVE ACTINIDE SOLUBILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudisill, T.; Thompson, M.

    2011-09-20

    Processes for the removal of residual sludge from SRS waste tanks have historically used solutions containing up to 0.9 M oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining material following sludge removal. The selection of this process was based on a comparison of a number of studies performed to evaluate the dissolution of residual sludge. In contrast, the dissolution of the actinide mass, which represents a very small fraction of the waste, has not been extensively studied. The Pu, Np, and Am in the sludge is reported to be present as hydrated and crystalline oxides. To identify aqueous solutions which have the potential to increase the solubility of the actinides, the alkaline and mildly acidic test solutions shown below were selected as candidates for use in a series of solubility experiments. The efficiency of the solutions in solubilizing the actinides was evaluated using a simulated sludge prepared by neutralizing a HNO{sub 3} solution containing Pu, Np, and Am. The hydroxide concentration was adjusted to a 1.2 M excess and the solids were allowed to age for several weeks prior to starting the experiments. The sludge was washed with 0.01 M NaOH to prepare the solids for use. Following the addition of an equal portion of the solids to each test solution, the concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am were measured as a function of time over a 792 h (33 day) period to provide a direct comparison of the efficiency of each solution in solubilizing the actinide elements. Although the composition of the sludge was limited to the hydrated actinide oxides (and did not contain other components of demonstrated importance), the results of the study provides guidance for the selection of solutions which should be evaluated in subsequent tests with a more realistic surrogate sludge and actual tank waste.

  13. Study of the pyrolisis of municipal solid waste for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments of municipal solid waste (MSW) are carried out in a semi-batch reactor under inert nitrogen atmosphere. Slow pyrolysis – characterized by long residence time (2 hours), heating rate of 4°C/min with sand acted as heat transfer medium- is performed at 550°C. Fast pyrolysis - characterized by short residence time (few minutes), high heating rate with sand acted as heat transfer medium- is performed at 450, 480, 510 and 550°C and different input transfer rates (12 or 24g mat...

  14. Thermodynamic investigation of waste cooking oil based hydrogen generation system with chemical looping process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Faleh

    2016-07-01

    The results show that coke formation can be thermodynamically inhibited by increasing the S/C ratio and/or the NiO/C ratio. The conditions that maximize hydrogen production, minimize methane and carbon monoxide content as well as avoid coke formation at thermoneutral conditions were found to be S/C = 5, T = 600 °C and NiO/C = 0.493. Under these conditions, a hydrogen yield of 144.3 mol/kg of soybean waste cooking oil can be obtained, which appears to be an attractive result for starting experimental research.

  15. Biological and chemical removal of Cr(VI) from waste water: cost and benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Aynur; Arisoy, Münevver

    2007-08-17

    The objective of the present study is cost and benefit analysis of biological and chemical removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions. Cost and benefit analysis were done with refer to two separate studies on removal of Cr(VI), one of heavy metals with a crucial role concerning increase in environmental pollution and disturbance of ecological balance, through biological adsorption and chemical ion-exchange. Methods of biological and chemical removal were compared with regard to their cost and percentage in chrome removal. According to the result of the comparison, cost per unit in chemical removal was calculated 0.24 euros and the ratio of chrome removal was 99.68%, whereas those of biological removal were 0.14 and 59.3% euros. Therefore, it was seen that cost per unit in chemical removal and chrome removal ratio were higher than those of biological removal method. In the current study where chrome removal is seen as immeasurable benefit in terms of human health and the environment, percentages of chrome removal were taken as measurable benefit and cost per unit of the chemicals as measurable cost.

  16. Chemical and plasma surface modification of lignocellulose coconut waste for the preparation of advanced biobased composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Suheyla; Karaman, Mustafa; Gursoy, Mehmet; Ahmetli, Gulnare

    2017-03-01

    In this study, surface-modified grinded coconut waste (CW) particles were used as bio-fillers to prepare polymeric composite materials with enhanced properties. Epoxy resin modified with acrylated and epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as the polymer matrix. Two different strategies, namely chemical treatment and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) were utilized to modify the surface of CW particles for using them as compatible bio-fillers in composite preparation. Chemical modification involved the treatment of CW particles in a highly alkali NaOH solution, while PECVD modification involved coating of a thin film of hydrophobic poly(hexafluorobutyl acrylate) (PHFBA) around individual CW particle surfaces. Untreated and surface-modified CW particles were used in 10-50wt% for preparation of epoxy composites. FTIR analysis was performed to study the effect of modification on the structures of particles and as-prepared composites. The composite morphologies were investigated by XRD and SE. TGA test was conducted to study the thermal behavior of the composites. Also, the effects of CW particle surface modification on the mechanical and water sorption properties of epoxy resin composites were investigated in detail. It was observed that PECVD-treated CW particles had much more positive effects on the thermal, mechanical, wettability and flammability properties of composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  18. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  19. Optimization and validation of a chemical process for uranium, mercury and cesium leaching from cemented radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynier, N.; Lastra, R.; Laviolette, C.; Bouzoubaa, N., E-mail: nicolas.reynier@canada.ca [Natural Resources Canada, CanmetMINING, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Chapman, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) is developing a treatment and long-term management strategy for a legacy cemented radioactive waste that contains uranium, mercury, and fission products. Extracting the uranium would be advantageous for decreasing the waste classification and reducing the cost of long-term management. The chemical leachability of 3 key elements (U, Hg, and Cs) from a surrogate cemented waste (SCW) was studied with several lixiviants. The results showed that the most promising approach to leach and recover U, Hg, and Cs is the direct leaching of the SCW with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in strong saline media. Operating parameters such as particle size, temperature, pulp density, leaching time, acid and salt concentrations, number of leaching/washing steps, etc. were optimized to improve key elements solubilization. Sulfuric leaching in saline media of a SCW (U5) containing 1182 ppm of U, 1598 ppm of Hg, and 7.9 ppm of Cs in the optimized conditions allows key elements solubilisation of 98.5 ± 0.4%, 96.6 ± 0.1%, and 93.8 ± 1.1% of U, Hg, and Cs, respectively. This solubilization process was then applied in triplicate to 7 other SCWs prepared with different cements, liquid ratios, and at different aging times and temperatures. Concentrated sulfuric acid is added to the slurry until the pH is about 2, which causes the complete degradation of cement and the formation of CaSO{sub 4}. Sulfuric acid is particularly useful because it produces a leachate that is amenable to conventional ion exchange technology for the separation and recovery of uranium. (author)

  20. Use of wastes in high-temperature processes of the chemical industry; Verwertung von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Domschke, T.; Steinebrunner, K. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The examples presented in this paper from diverse application areas of the chemical industry serve as an illustration of the many different ways in which wastes can be used for high-temperature processes in this branch. A review of the environmentally friendly concepts implemented at BASF AG in Ludwigshafen in the course of the past five years gives an idea of the immense potential opened up by a consistent application of the four-stage model for the prevention, reduction, and utilisation of wastes. In this period it was possible to reduce waste arisings by 34%, down from a potential 2 million tons, physically recycle 51%, and convert 11.5% to energy. This left a comparatively small fraction of 3.5%, or 70,000 tons, to be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way. Furthermore, the amount of pollutants produced per tonne of products sold fell from 40.6 kg in 1987 to 6.7 kg in 1997. [Deutsch] Die Beispiele aus den unterschiedlichsten Anwendungsbereichen der chemischen Industrie koennen als Auswahl der vielfaeltigen Verwertungsmoeglichkeiten von Abfaellen in Hochtemperaturprozessen der Chemie betrachtet werden. Das immense Potential, das sich durch konsequente Anwendung des 4-Stufen-Modells zur Vermeidung, Verminderung und Verwertung von Abfaellen eroeffnet, zeigt sich in einer Fuenfjahresbilanz der umgesetzten Umweltschutzbetrachtungen in der BASF AG in Ludwigshafen. So konnten in diesem Zeitraum von potentiellen 2 Mio t Abfall/a ca. 34% vermieden und vermindert, 51% stofflich und 11,5% energetisch verwertet werden, so dass nur noch ein geringer Anteil von 3,5%, entsprechend ca. 70000 t/a, umweltgerecht entsorgt werden musste. Dies fuehrte auch zu einer drastischen Reduktion der auf der Tonne Verkaufsprodukt bezogenen Menge an umweltbelastenden Stoffen von 40,6 kg im Jahre 1987 auf 6,7 kg im Jahre 1997. (orig.)

  1. Variation in some chemical parameters and organic matter in soils regenerated by the addition of municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Hernandez, T.; Costa, F. (Centro de Edafologia y Biologia, Murcia (Spain))

    The organic fraction of a municipal solid waste was added in different doses to an eroded soil formed of loam and with no vegetal cover. After three years, the changes in macronutrient content and the chemical-structural composition of its organic matter were studied. The addition of the organic fraction from a municipal solid waste had a positive effect on soil regeneration, the treated soils being covered with spontaneous vegetation from 1 yr onwards. An increase in electrical conductivity and a fall in pH were noted in the treated soils as were increases in macronutrients, particularly N and available P and the different carbon fractions. Optical density measurements of the organic matter extracted with sodium pyrophosphate showed that the treated soils contained an organic matter with less condensed compounds and with a greater tendency to evolve than the control. A pyrolysis-gas chromatography study of the organic matter extracted with pyrophosphate showed large quantities of benzene both in the treated soils and control; pyrrole was also relatively abundant, although this fragment decreased as the dose rose. Xylenes and pyridine were present in greater quantities in the control and furfural in the treated soils.

  2. Chemical-mineralogical characterization of C&D waste recycled aggregates from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, S C; Ulsen, C; John, V M; Kahn, H; Cincotto, M A

    2009-02-01

    This study presents a methodology for the characterization of construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycled aggregates based on a combination of analytical techniques (X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soluble ions, semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) selective dissolution). These combined analytical techniques allow for the estimation of the amount of cement paste, its most important hydrated and carbonated phases, as well as the amount of clay and micas. Details of the methodology are presented here and the results of three representative C&D samples taken from the São Paulo region in Brazil are discussed. Chemical compositions of mixed C&D aggregate samples have mostly been influenced by particle size rather than the visual classification of C&D into red or grey and geographical origin. The amount of measured soluble salts in C&D aggregates (0.15-25.4mm) is lower than the usual limits for mortar and concrete production. The content of porous cement paste in the C&D aggregates is around 19.3% (w/w). However, this content is significantly lower than the 43% detected for the C&D powders (waste, as well as poorly burnt red ceramic. Since only about 50% of the measured CaO is combined with CO(2), the powders have potential use as raw materials for the cement industry.

  3. Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilias, D S; Roupakias, C; Megalokonomos, P; Lappas, A A; Antonakou, Epsilon V

    2007-11-19

    The recycling of either model polymers or waste products based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polypropylene (PP) is examined using the dissolution/reprecipitation method, as well as pyrolysis. In the first technique, different solvents/non-solvents were examined at different weight percent amounts and temperatures using as raw material both model polymers and commercial products (packaging film, bags, pipes, food-retail outlets). The recovery of polymer in every case was greater than 90%. FT-IR spectra and tensile mechanical properties of the samples before and after recycling were measured. Furthermore, catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in a laboratory fixed bed reactor with an FCC catalyst using again model polymers and waste products as raw materials. Analysis of the derived gases and oils showed that pyrolysis gave a mainly aliphatic composition consisting of a series of hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes), with a great potential to be recycled back into the petrochemical industry as a feedstock for the production of new plastics or refined fuels.

  4. Waste dumps rehabilitation measures based on physico-chemical analyses in Zăghid mining area (Sălaj County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko M. Varga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with an abandoned coal mine from Zăghid area, North-WesternTransylvanian Basin (Sălaj County. The mining activity was stopped in 2005, without any attempt ofecological rehabilitation of the mined area and especially of the waste dumps left behind. The proposedrehabilitation models are based on some physical-chemical analyses of soil and waste samples (e.g. pH,EC, Salinity, humidity, porosity, density, plasticity, organic substances, mineralogical composition, heavymetals. Erosion map has been drawn based on the determined mineralogical composition (accordingSTAS 1913/5-85 – using Galton curve of tailings and the soil type. The values obtained for moisture andplasticity have been used to determine the ideal general inclination angle of the landfill systems in thestudied perimeter. Through chemical analysis, heavy metals like Ni and Cu have been identified, as themain pollution factors for surface and underground water. Therefore, the concentration of heavy metalsin the waters from Zăghid area is high in the water bodies, which are formed on waste dumps, but alsoin the mine water. This analysis is useful in establishing the actual state of the waste dumps and theircontent and the negative effects, which exercise on the environment in order to select the rehabilitationmodel for the waste dumps from Zăghid mining area. The main measures consist in: waste dumpsleveling, soil remediation, perennial plants culture and acid mine water decontamination.

  5. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Afifi, E.M. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Awwad, N.S. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)], E-mail: nsawwad20@yahoo.com; Hilal, M.A. [Analytical Chemistry and Environmental Control Department, Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center (HLWMC), Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78 {+-} 2.8, 64.8 {+-} 4.1 and 76.4 {+-} 5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to {approx}91 {+-} 3.5, 87 {+-} 4.1 and 90 {+-} 6.2%, respectively.

  6. Sequential chemical treatment of radium species in TENORM waste sludge produced from oil and natural gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Awwad, N S; Hilal, M A

    2009-01-30

    This paper is dedicated to the treatment of sludge occurring in frame of the Egyptian produced from oil and gas production. The activity levels of three radium isotopes: Ra-226 (of U-series), Ra-228 and Ra-224 (of Th-series) in the solid TENORM waste (sludge) were first evaluated and followed by a sequential treatment for all radium species (fractions) presented in TENORM. The sequential treatment was carried out based on two approaches 'A' and 'B' using different chemical solutions. The results obtained indicate that the activity levels of all radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224) of the environmental interest in the TENORM waste sludge were elevated with regard to exemption levels established by IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. GOV/2715/Vienna, 1994]. Each approach of the sequential treatment was performed through four steps using different chemical solutions to reduce the activity concentration of radium in a large extent. Most of the leached radium was found as an oxidizable Ra species. The actual removal % leached using approach B was relatively efficient compared to A. It is observed that the actual removal percentages (%) of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-224 using approach A are 78+/-2.8, 64.8+/-4.1 and 76.4+/-5.2%, respectively. Whereas in approach A, the overall removal % of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Ra-228 was increased to approximately 91+/-3.5, 87+/-4.1 and 90+/-6.2%, respectively.

  7. Regeneration of bleaching clay waste by chemical activation with chloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W T; Chen, H P; Hsieh, M F; Sun, H F; Lai, C W

    2003-04-01

    Spent bleaching earth (SBE) was regenerated by chemical activation with low cost and low pollution chlorides as activating agents. Under the conditions of activation temperature of 600d egrees C and holding time of 1 h investigated, results show that fresh bleaching earth and regenerated bleaching earth are type IV with hysteresis loops corresponding to type H3 from nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, indicating slit-shaped mesoporous structure. It is also found that the effect of the regeneration treatment studied in the present work on the pore structures and chemical properties of the resulting solids is negligible compared to the fresh bleaching earth. On the other hand, the pore properties of these chemically activated solids are higher than those of the sample regenerated from heat regeneration, but only approximate 45% of surface area are reclaimed. It implies that the carbon residues could be retained within pores and/or clogs the entrance of pores, resulting in a decrease in pore properties.

  8. Energy from poultry waste: An Aspen Plus-based approach to the thermo-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalaglio, Gianluca; Coccia, Valentina; Cotana, Franco; Gelosia, Mattia; Nicolini, Andrea; Petrozzi, Alessandro

    2017-05-31

    A particular approach to the task of energy conversion of a residual waste material was properly experienced during the implementation of the national funded Enerpoll project. This project is a case study developed in the estate of a poultry farm that is located in a rural area of central Italy (Umbria Region); such a farm was chosen for the research project since it is almost representative of many similar small-sized breeding realties of the Italian regional context. The purpose of the case study was the disposal of a waste material (i.e. poultry manure) and its energy recovery; this task is in agreement with the main objectives of the new Energy Union policy. Considering this background, an innovative gasification plant (300KW thermal power) was chosen and installed for the experimentation. The novelty of the investigated technology is the possibility to achieve the production of thermal energy burning just the produced syngas and not directly the solid residues. This aspect allows to reduce the quantity of nitrogen released in the atmosphere by the exhaust flue gases and conveying it into the solid residues (ashes). A critical aspect of the research program was the optimization of the pretreatment (reduction of the water content) and the dimensional homogenization of the poultry waste before its energy recovery. This physical pretreatment allowed the reduction of the complexity of the matrix to be energy enhanced. Further to the real scale plant monitoring, a complete Aspen Plus v.8.0 model was also elaborated for the prediction of the quality of the produced synthesis gas as a function of both the gasification temperature and the equivalence ratio (ER). The model is an ideal flowchart using as input material just the homogenized and dried material. On the basis of the real monitored thermal power (equal to about 200kW average value in an hour) the model was used for the estimation of the syngas energy content (i.e. LHV) that resulted in the range of 3-5MJ/m(3

  9. Influence of chemical composition of civil construction waste in the cement paste; Influencia da composicao quimica dos residuos da construcao civil a pasta de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The construction and demolition waste when disposed inappropriately might cause serious public health problems. Its reutilization focusing on the development of new products using simple production techniques, assuring a new product life cycle and not damaging the environment is inserted in sustainable concept. The aim of this work was identifying the characteristics of types of waste generated in a residential reform (glassy ceramic and fill dirt leftovers) verifying separately its influence on cement pastes mechanical behavior. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions with an approximately 0,35 water/cement relation and, glue time determination, water absorption, resistance to compression and X-ray fluorescence assays were taken. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the waste causes changes in the behavior of cement pastes, reflecting on their resistance to compression. (author)

  10. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes.

  11. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation Of N Reactor (U-Metal) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2001-02-27

    The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the N Reactor, a graphite moderated reactor at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site (ref. 1). The N Reactor core was fueled with slightly enriched (0.947 wt% and 0.947 to 1.25 wt% {sup 235}U in Mark IV and Mark IA fuels, respectively) U-metal clad in Zircaloy-2 (Ref. 1, Sec. 3). Both types of N Reactor SNF have been considered for disposal at the proposed Yucca Mountain site. For some WPs, the outer shell and inner shell may breach (Ref. 3) allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing two multi-canister overpacks (MCO) with either six baskets of Mark IA or five baskets of Mark IV intact N Reactor SNF rods (Ref. 1, Sec. 4) and two high-level waste (HLW) glass pour canisters (GPCs) arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which fissile uranium will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (2) The extent to which fissile uranium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this calculation, the chemical compositions (and subsequent criticality evaluations) of the simulations, is limited

  12. Agro-waste biosorbents: Effect of physico-chemical properties on atrazine and imidacloprid sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhishek; Singh, Neera; Nain, Lata

    2017-07-05

    Low cost agro-waste biosorbents namely eucalyptus bark (EB), corn cob (CC), bamboo chips (BC), rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were characterized and used to study atrazine and imidacloprid sorption. Adsorption studies suggested that biosorbents greatly varied in their pesticide sorption behaviour. The EB was the best biosorbent to sorb both atrazine and imidacloprid with KF values of 169.9 and 85.71, respectively. The adsorption isotherm were nonlinear in nature with slope (1/n) values lacunarity and relative C-O band intensity parameters of biosorbents. Probably, both physisorption and electrostatic interactions were responsible for the pesticide sorption. The eucalyptus bark can be exploited as low cost adsorbent for the removal of these pesticides as well as a component of on-farm biopurification systems.

  13. Harvester ant bioassay for assessing hazardous chemical waste sites. [Pogonomyrmex owhyeei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; Carlile, D.W.; Rogers, L.E.

    1985-05-01

    A technique was developed for using harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owhyeei, in terrestrial bioassays. Procedures were developed for maintaining stock populations, handling ants, and exposing ants to toxic materials. Relative toxicities were determined by exposing ants to 10 different materials. These materials included three insecticides, Endrin, Aldrin, and Dieldrin; one herbicide, 2,4-D; three complex industrial waste residuals, wood preservative sludge, drilling fluid, and slop oil; and three heavy metals, copper zinc, and cadium. Ants were exposed in petri dishes containing soil amended with a particular toxicant. Under these test conditions, ants showed no sensitivity to the metals or 2,4-D. Ants were sensitive to the insecticides and oils in repeated tests, and relative toxicity remained consistent throughout. Aldrin was the most toxic material followed by Dieldrin, Endrin, wood preservative sludge, drilling fluid, and slop oil. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Processing of waste material of radix physochlainae for preparation of fine chemicals after extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, A.; Yohannes, A.; Feng, X. T.; Yao, S.

    2017-02-01

    Waste residues of Chinese traditional medicine radix physochlainae (Huashanshen) contain a large amount of hemicelluloses after extraction. After the removal of the cellulose and lignin, main components of the solution are different degree of hydrolysis products of hemicelluloses. In the degradation process, hemicelluloses firstly become pentose, and then pentose loses 3 molecules of water and turns into furfural. This study explored a series of conditions of the method; finally the yield of furfural can reach 8.5% (calculated with the weight of raw residues) under the condition of pH of 0.2-0.3, temperature of 104-106°C, hydrolysis duration for 10 minutes. Furfural can be further processed to be resin materials.

  15. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  16. Waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry%浅析精细化工行业废水污染及控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟民

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the issues of waste water pollution and control in fine chemical industry to provide some solutions for reference.%本文分析了精细化工废水的污染和控制问题,并提出了具体的解决策略.

  17. Chemical durability and structural analysis of PbO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses and testing for simulated radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdogan, Cem [Ege University Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Bengisu, Murat [Izmir University of Economics, Department of Industrial Design, Sakarya Cad., No. 156, 35330 Balcova, Izmir (Turkey); Erenturk, Sema Akyil, E-mail: erenturk@itu.edu.tr [Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: Secondary electron SEM images of lead borate glass including 80 mol% PbO before (top) and after chemical durability tests (bottom) - Abstract: Lead borate based glass formulations with high chemical durability and lower melting temperatures compared to the currently used glasses were developed as candidates for the vitrification of radioactive waste. Properties including chemical durability, glass transformation temperature, and melting temperature were analyzed. The chemical durability of PbO–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses with PbO contents ranging from 30 to 80 mol% was determined. An average dissolution rate of 0.2 g m{sup −2} day{sup −1} was obtained for the composition 80PbO⋅20B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These glasses were studied under simulation conditions and showed good potential as a vitrification matrix for radioactive waste management. Clear vitrified waste products containing up to 30 mol% SrO and 25 mol% Cs{sub 2}O could be obtained. Leaching rates are about hundred times higher in low PbO glasses compared to high PbO glasses. These results are encouraging since they open up new horizons in the development of low melting temperature lead borate glass for waste immobilization applications.

  18. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  19. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L(-1) for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  20. Chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Renewable platform chemicals from directional microwave-assisted liquefaction coupling stepwise extraction of waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junfeng Feng; Chungyun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    Directional microwave-assisted liquefaction and stepwise extraction are introduced for producing platform chemicals: aromatics and monosaccharides. When sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst, a 45% monosaccharides yield and a 29% aromatics yield were obtained from bamboo with 0.3 g catalyst per 18 g methanol and 2 g bamboo at 160 °C with 10 min. Approximately 78–86 wt%...

  2. Chemically stable proton conducting doped BaCeO₃ -no more fear to SOFC wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Ramaiyan; Singh, Kalpana; Gill, Sukhdeep; Fürstenhaupt, Tobias; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2013-01-01

    Development of chemically stable proton conductors for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) will solve several issues, including cost associated with expensive inter-connectors, and long-term durability. Best known Y-doped BaCeO3 (YBC) proton conductors-based SOFCs suffer from chemical stability under SOFC by-products including CO2 and H2O. Here, for the first time, we report novel perovskite-type Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.6Zr0.2Gd0.1Y0.1O3-δ by substituting Sr for Ba and co-substituting Gd + Zr for Ce in YBC that showed excellent chemical stability under SOFC by-products (e.g., CO2 and H2O) and retained a high proton conductivity, key properties which were lacking since the discovery of YBCs. In situ and ex- situ powder X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis demonstrate superior structural stability of investigated perovskite under SOFC by-products. The electrical measurements reveal pure proton conductivity, as confirmed by an open circuit potential of 1.15 V for H2-air cell at 700°C, and merits as electrolyte for H-SOFCs.

  3. DOSE MEASURMENT IN ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION OF WATER AND WASTE WATER BY CHEMICAL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Vaezi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical methods ( actinometry depend on the measurement of the extent to which a chemical reaction occurs under the influence of UV light. Two chemical actinometers have been used in this research. In one method, the mixtures of potassium peroxidisuiphate butanol solutions were irradiated for various time intervals, and pH-changes were determined. A linear relationship was observed between these changes and UV-dose applied. In another method, the acidic solutions of ammonium molybdate and ethyl alcohol were irradiated and the intensity of blue color developed was determined by titration with potassium permanganate solutions. The volumes of titrant used were then plotted versus the UV-doses. This showed a linear relationship which could be used for dosimeiry. Both of these actometers proved to be reliable. The first is the method of choice with a view to have much accuracy and the second method is preferred because of its feasibility and having advantages of no need to any equipment and non-accessible raw materials.

  4. Chemical transformation of CO2 during its capture by waste biomass derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Kan, Yue; Zhao, Ling; Cao, Xinde

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is a porous carbonaceous material with high alkalinity and rich minerals, making it possible for CO2 capture. In this study, biochars derived from pig manure, sewage sludge, and wheat straw were evaluated for their CO2 sorption behavior. All three biochars showed high sorption abilities for CO2, with the maximum capacities reaching 18.2-34.4 mg g(-1) at 25 °C. Elevating sorption temperature and moisture content promoted the transition of CO2 uptake from physical to chemical process. Mineral components such as Mg, Ca, Fe, K, etc. in biochar induced the chemical sorption of CO2 via the mineralogical reactions which occupied 17.7%-50.9% of the total sorption. FeOOH in sewage sludge biochar was transformed by sorbed CO2 into Fe(OH)2CO3, while the sorbed CO2 in pig manure biochar was precipitated as K2Ca(CO3)2 and CaMg(CO3)2, which resulted in a dominant increase of insoluble inorganic carbon in both biochars. For wheat straw biochar, sorbed CO2 induced CaCO3 transformed into soluble Ca(HCO3)2, which led to a dominant increase of soluble inorganic carbons. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that biochar as a unique carbonaceous material could distinctly be a promising sorbent for CO2 capture in which chemical sorption induced by mineralogical reactions played an important role.

  5. Thermal treatment of electronic waste in a fluidised bed and chemical digestion of solid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynarowska, Amelia; Żukowski, Witold; Żelazny, Sylwester

    2016-07-01

    The article presents the results of e-waste thermal treatment in a fluidised bed reactor and solid products digestion under acidic conditions. During the processes, measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, phenol, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen fluoride and phosgene were carried out. Several digestion tests of the solid residue in sulphuric acid (VI) at 25 °C-65 °C, for 55 min-24 h were conducted. In each case, the dilution method was used, i.e. preliminary digestion in concentrated sulphuric acid (VI) (95%) for 40 min, and then dilution to expected concentrations (30%-50%). Most preferred results were obtained using sulphuric acid (VI) with a target concentration of 40% at 65 °C, where the leaching degrees were 76.56% for copper, 71.67% for iron, 91.89% for zinc and 97.40% for tin. The time necessary to effectively carry out the digestion process was 220 min.

  6. Chemical characterization of emissions from a municipal solid waste treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A I; Arnáiz, N; Font, R; Carratalá, A

    2014-11-01

    Gaseous emissions are an important problem in municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plants. The sources points of emissions considered in the present work are: fresh compost, mature compost, landfill leaks and leachate ponds. Hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analysed in the emissions from these sources. Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia were important contributors to the total emission volume. Landfill leaks are significant source points of emissions of H2S; the average concentration of H2S in biogas from the landfill leaks is around 1700 ppmv. The fresh composting site was also an important contributor of H2S to the total emission volume; its concentration varied between 3.2 and 1.7 ppmv and a decrease with time was observed. The mature composting site showed a reduction of H2S concentration (<0.1 ppmv). Leachate pond showed a low concentration of H2S (in order of ppbv). Regarding NH3, composting sites and landfill leaks are notable source points of emissions (composting sites varied around 30-600 ppmv; biogas from landfill leaks varied from 160 to 640 ppmv). Regarding VOCs, the main compounds were: limonene, p-cymene, pinene, cyclohexane, reaching concentrations around 0.2-4.3 ppmv. H2S/NH3, limonene/p-cymene, limonene/cyclohexane ratios can be useful for analysing and identifying the emission sources.

  7. Chemical constituents and technological functional properties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. waste flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rezende Marques

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acerola is a fruit that can be consumed in the form of juice and pulp. However, during its processing, a large amount of waste is generated (seed and bagasse. Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich foods with nutrients and fiber. In this study, we performed phytochemical screening, determined the proximate and mineral composition, bioactive compounds and the technological functional properties of acerola seed flour and acerola bagasse flour. Seeds were dried in a ventilated oven at ± 45 °C and the bagasse was lyophilized. Samples were ground, stored in flasks protected from light. Phytochemical screening revealed metabolites of nutritional and pharmacological interest and no potentially toxic substances in the flours. Seed flour and bagasse flour showed high levels (g 100 g- 1 of dry matter - DM of soluble fiber: 4.76 and 8.74; insoluble fiber: 75.76 and 28.58, and phenolic compounds: 4.73 and 10.82, respectively. The flours also showed high absorption of water, oil and emulsion stability, presenting potential for inclusion in meat products and bakery products.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of biodiesel manufactured from waste frying oil using domestic adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samir Abd-elmonem A.; Ali, Rehab Farouk M.

    2015-06-01

    We have evaluated the efficiency of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), date palm seed carbon (DPSC), and rice husk ash (RHA) as natural adsorbents and compared them with the synthetic adsorbent Magnesol XL for improving the quality of waste frying oil (WFO) and for the impact on the physicochemical properties of the obtained biodiesel. We measured moisture content, refractive index (RI), density, acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), and saponification value (SV), as well as fatty acid profile. Purification treatments with various levels of adsorbents caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in free fatty acids (FFAs), PVs, and IVs. The highest yields (86.45 and 87.80%) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with 2% Magnesol and 3% of RHA, respectively, followed by samples treated with 2 and 3% of DPSC or RHA. Pre-treatments caused a significant decrease in the content of C 18:2 linoleic acids, consistent with a significant increase in the content of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the treated samples. The highest oxidation value (COX) (1.30) was observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO without purification treatments. However, the lowest values (0.44-0.73) were observed for biodiesel samples produced from WFO treated with different levels of adsorbents. Our results indicate that pre-treatments with different levels of adsorbents regenerated the quality of WFO and improved the quality of the obtained biodiesel.

  9. Chemical and cellular antioxidant activity of phytochemicals purified from olive mill waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Blasa, Manuela; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Ninfali, Paolino

    2011-03-09

    The isolation and identification of a phytocomplex from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) was achieved. The isolated phytocomplex is made up of the following three phenolic compounds: hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), tyrosol (p-HPEA) and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, linked with (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA). The purification of this phytocomplex was reached by partial dehydration of the OMWW, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and middle pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The phytocomplex accounted for 6% of the total phenolic content of the OMWW. The phytocomplex and individual compounds were tested for antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC phytocomplex produced 10,000 ORAC units/g dry weight, whereas the cellular antioxidant activity, measured by the cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cell (CAA-RBC) method, demonstrated that the phytocomplex and all of the components are able to permeate the cell membrane thus exhibiting antioxidant activity inside the red blood cells. Our phytocomplex could be employed in the formulation of fortified foods and nutraceuticals, with the goal to obtain substantial health protective effects due to the suitable combination of the component molecules.

  10. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  11. 废弃聚酯化学回收再生利用的方法%Research on Chemical Recycling of Waste PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭亦武

    2011-01-01

    简要介绍了废弃聚酯(PET)化学回收利用方法的发展现状,重点介绍了糖解、醇解、水解等化学回收方法及其优缺点,以及目前商业化的化学回收法--复合降解法工艺,对利用市场需求来推动化学法回收PET的商业化发展进行了展望.%The development and present situation of chemical recycling method of waste PET was introduced briefly. The focus was on the ways of glycolysis, methanolysis and hydrolysis as well as their advantage and disadvantage. The commercial chemical recycling method-composite process of glycolysis and hydrolysis was described to push the industrial development of chemical recycling of waste PET.

  12. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-15

    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  13. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Watanabe

    Full Text Available Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C, and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G. Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer.

  14. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Taiji; Shino, Amiu; Akashi, Kinya; Kikuchi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf) were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C), and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S) degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G). Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer.

  15. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption: caprolactam production. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    A biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated: microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. Four microorganisms were isolated from natural soil and water, that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of C and energy for growth. They were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants were developed; those are used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, are unable to metabolize the caprolactone further. Because of a new nylon carpet reycle process and the long time frame for a totally new bioprocess, a limited study was done to evaluate whether a simplified bioprocess to convert cyclohexanol into cyclohexanone or caprolactone was feasible; growth rates and key enzyme levels were measured in a collection of microorganisms that metabolize cyclohexanol to determine if the bioactivity is high enough to support an economical cyclohexanol bioprocess. Although these microorganisms had sufficient bioactivity, they could tolerate only low levels (<1%) of cyclohexanol and thus are not suitable for developing a cost effective bioprocess because of the high cost of dilute product recovery.

  16. Optimization Making Glucosamine Hydrochloride (HCl GlcN of Crab Shell Waste through Chemical Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfiana Nurjannah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Processing of glucosamine from crab shell chitin can be done by chemical hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid (HCl. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of chitin immersion by various concentrations of HCL toward glucosamine generated and the selected concentration of HCL to glucosamine chemical hydrolysis process. The material used in this study is crab shells from Betahwalang village, Demak, and the solvent is HCl and NaOH. Parameters are glucosamine yield, melting point, loss on drying (LoD, PH and spectrum analysis with FTIR method. Research using experimental design completely randomized design three times treatment with repetition. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the differences between treatments concentration of 27%, 32% and 37%. The selected were tested with honestly significant difference test. The results showed differences in the concentration of HCl used cause differences in the characteristics of the resulting glucosamine. The higher HCl concentrations used, the lower the rendemen results and melting point. The selected HCL treatment concentration was at 27% observed from glucosamine yield (18.39% and the melting point (192-195oC. The treatment of 37% produces LoD (0.647%, pH (4.01 and spectrum glucosamine is an O-H group (3297.75/cm, the group of N-H (1617.53/cm, the group of C-N (1394.94/cm.

  17. Physical and chemical characterisation of crude meat and bone meal combustion residue: "waste or raw material?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deydier, Eric; Guilet, Richard; Sarda, Stéphanie; Sharrock, Patrick

    2005-05-20

    As a result of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the European beef industry, the use of animal by-product is now severely controlled. Meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. Main disposal option is incineration, producing huge amounts of ashes the valorisation of which becomes a major concern. The aim of this work is to characterise MBM combustion residue in order to evaluate their physical and chemical properties to propose new valorisation avenues. The thermal behaviour of crude meat and bone meal was followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (24 wt.%) inorganic residue was collected. The resulting ashes were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution, specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) couple with energy disperse X-ray analysis (EDX). Elemental analysis revealed the presence of chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium with high level of phosphate (56 wt.%) and calcium (31 wt.%), two major constituents of bone, mainly as a mixture of Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 and Ca3(PO4)2 phases. The impact of combustion temperature (from 550 to 1000 degrees C) on the constitution of ashes was followed by TGA, XRD and specific surface measurements. We observed a strong decrease of surface area for the ashes with crystallisation of calcium phosphates phases without major changes of chemical composition.

  18. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael L.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Johnson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    During July and August of 2006, 117 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in the San Rafael Swell, in southeastern Utah. The objective of this sampling program was to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a field leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U, V, and Zn at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah and for Hg at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential of suspect uranium waste dumps, leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards and the ratio of samples that exceeded standards to the total number of samples was determined for each element having a water-quality standard for aquatic life and drinking-water. Approximately 56 percent (48/85) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps had one or more chemical constituents that exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were along Reds Canyon Road between Tomsich Butte and Family Butte. Twelve of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates contained three or more constituents that exceeded drinking-water-quality standards. Eighteen of the uranium waste dump sites had three or more constituents that exceeded trace

  19. A Natural Analogue for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Coupled Processes at the Proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Carey; Gordon Keating; Peter C. Lichtner

    1999-08-01

    Dike and sill complexes that intruded tuffaceous host rocks above the water table are suggested as natural analogues for thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scoping thermal-hydrologic calculations of temperature and saturation profiles surrounding a 30-50 m wide intrusion suggest that boiling conditions could be sustained at distances of tens of meters from the intrusion for several thousand years. This time scale for persistence of boiling is similar to that expected for the Yucca Mountain repository with moderate heat loading. By studying the hydrothermal alteration of the tuff host rocks surrounding the intrusions, insight and relevant data can be obtained that apply directly to the Yucca Mountain repository and can shed light on the extent and type of alteration that should be expected. Such data are needed to bound and constrain model parameters used in THC simulations of the effect of heat produced by the waste on the host rock and to provide a firm foundation for assessing overall repository performance. One example of a possible natural analogue for the repository is the Paiute Ridge intrusive complex located on the northeastern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The complex consists of dikes and sills intruded into a partially saturated tuffaceous host rock that has stratigraphic sequences that correlate with those found at Yucca Mountain. The intrusions were emplaced at a depth of several hundred meters below the surface, similar to the depth of the proposed repository. The tuffaceous host rock surrounding the intrusions is hydrothermally altered to varying extents depending on the distance from the intrusions. The Paiute Ridge intrusive complex thus appears to be an ideal natural analogue of THC coupled processes associated with the Yucca Mountain repository. It could provide much needed physical and chemical data for understanding the influence of heat

  20. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, Browns Hole, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry

    2012-01-01

    During August of 2008, 35 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, undisturbed geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Browns Hole in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were (1) to assess impacts on human health due to exposure to radium, uranium, and thorium during recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management lands; (2) to compare concentrations of trace elements associated with mine waste dumps to natural background concentrations; (3) to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps; and (4) to assess contamination from waste dumps to the local perennial stream water in Muleshoe Creek. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. Solid samples were digested and analyzed for major and trace elements. Analytical values for radium and uranium in digested samples were compared to multiple soil screening levels developed from annual dosage calculations in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act's minimum cleanup guidelines for uranium waste sites. Three occupancy durations for sites were considered: 4.6 days per year, 7.0 days per year, and 14.0 days per year. None of the sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 96 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 4.6 days per year exposure. Two sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 66 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 7.0 days per year exposure. Seven sites exceeded the radium soil screening level of 33 picocuries per gram, corresponding to a 14.0 days per year exposure. A perennial stream that flows next to the toe of a uranium waste dump was sampled, analyzed for major and trace elements, and compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. None of the water-quality standards were exceeded in the stream samples.

  1. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE NUCLEAR WASTE CLEANING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.

    2011-10-20

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  2. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE NUCLEAR WASTE CLEANING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.

    2011-10-20

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  3. A study of chemical and microbiological characteristics of olive mill waste water in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouncif, M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill waste water samples from different traditional mills were analyzed for their microbiota and the physicochemical characteristic. A survey of the most frequent microorganisms including standard plate count (SPG, counts of the indicator microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms and enterococci staphylococci, Salmonella, sporeforming bacteria (Clostridium and Bacillus, yeasts and molds and the lipolytic microorganisms. The physicochemical analysis grouped the determination of pH, salinity, density, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, total dry matter, non volatile dry matter, suspended solids, organic carbon, ammoniacal nitrogen, organic nitrogen, fat, polyphenols, polyphosphates, sodium and potassium and the BOD and COD. Results showed that the physicochemical factors were higher than the reported values in other countries. The microbial load was low and mainly made of yeasts and molds as well as the lactic acid bacteria. A net difference between the traditional mill samples and the industrial samples was observed for both analyses.

    Se ha realizado un estudio bacteriológico y físico químico de alpechín de diferentes almazaras tradicionales. Se han investigado los siguientes parámetros físico químicos: pH, salinidad, densidad, conductividad, alcalinidad, acidez, materia seca total, materia seca volátil, materia en suspensión, carbono orgánico, nitrógeno amoniacal, nitrógeno orgánico, grasa, polifenoles, fosfatos, sodio, potasio, BOD y COD. Las determinaciones microbiológicas efectuadas son: recuento de aerobios mesofilos, conliformes totales y fecales, enterococos, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, esporulados (Clostridium y Bacillus, levaduras, mohos y microorganismos lipolíticos. Los valores de los parámetros físico químicos son superiores comparados con los obtenidos por otros autores en otros países. La carga microbiana es débil y está representada principalmente por

  4. Trends in food waste valorization for the production of chemicals, materials and fuels: Case study South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Khai Lun; Kaur, Guneet; Pensupa, Nattha; Uisan, Kristiadi; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2017-06-16

    Staggering amounts of food waste are being generated in Asia by means of agricultural processing, food transportation and storage, and human food consumption activities. This along with the recent sustainable development goals of food security, environmental protection, and energy efficiency are the key drivers for food waste valorization. The aim of this review is to provide an insight on the latest trends in food waste valorization in Asian countries such as India, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia. Landfilling, incineration, and composting are the first-generation food waste processing technologies. The advancement of valorisation alternatives to tackle the food waste issue is the focus of this review. Furthermore, a series of examples of key food waste valorization schemes in this Asian region as case studies to demonstrate the advancement in bioconversions in these countries are described. Finally, important legislation aspects for food waste disposal in these Asian countries are also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regression models of ultimate methane yields of fruits and vegetable solid wastes, sorghum and napiergrass on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaseelan, V.N. [PSG College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (India). Department of Zoology

    2007-04-15

    Several fractions of fruits and vegetable solid wastes (FVSW), sorghum and napiergrass were analyzed for total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), total organic carbon, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total soluble carbohydrate, extractable protein, acid-detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, cellulose and ash contents. Their ultimate methane yields (B{sub o}) were determined using the biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay. A series of simple and multiple regression models relating the B{sub o} to the various substrate constituents were generated and evaluated using computer statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of simple regression analyses revealed that, only weak relationship existed between the individual components such as carbohydrate, protein, ADF, lignin and cellulose versus B{sub o}. A regression of B{sub o} versus combination of two variables as a single independent variable such as carbohydrate/ADF and carbohydrate + protein/ADF also showed that the relationship is not strong. Thus it does not appear possible to relate the B{sub o} of FVSW, sorghum and napiergrass with single compositional characteristics. The results of multiple regression analyses showed promise and the relationship appeared to be good. When ADF and lignin/ADF were used as independent variables, the percentage of variation accounted for by the model is low for FVSW (r{sup 2}=0.665) and sorghum and napiergrass (r{sup 2}=0.746). Addition of nitrogen, ash and total soluble carbohydrate data to the model had a significantly higher effect on prediction of B{sub o} of these wastes with the r{sup 2} values ranging from 0.9 to 0.99. More than 90% of variation in B{sub o} of FVSW could be accounted for by the models when the variables carbohydrate, lignin, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash (r{sup 2}=0.904), carbohydrate, ADF, lignin/ADF, nitrogen and ash (r{sup 2}=0.90) and carbohydrate/ADF, lignin/ADF, lignin and ash (r{sup 2}=0.901) were used. All the models have

  6. Chemical Composition of Vermicompost Made from Organic Wastes through the Vermicomposting and Composting with the Addition of Fish Meal and Egg Shells Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition of compost is an important indicator that determines the quality of compost. This study compared the chemical composition of vermicompost resulting from the process of vermicomposting alone with combined vermicomposting and composting with addition of egg shells flour and fish meal. Organic wastes used were the mixture of spent mushrooms waste, coconut husks, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter. Lumbricus rubellus was the species of earthworm used in the vermicomposting process. In the composting process, egg shells flour and fish meal are added into the vermicompost as additives materials. The results indicate that the combined vermicomposting and composting process with addition the additives materials improves the chemical composition of vermicompost compared to using vermicomposting process alone. The change of chemical composition was indicated by a decrease in C-organic content and C/N ratio by 29% and 99%, respectively, while the content of N, P, K and S increased by 52%, 67.5%, 29% and 25%, respectively due to the addition of additives material in the composting process. The largest increase of vermicompost nutrient content occurred in the Ca content by an average of up to 7-fold. While polyphenols, lignin and cellulose content of vermicompost decreased slightly. The treatment of two mixture (a spent mushrooms waste, cow dung and vegetables residue, and (b spent mushroom waste, cow dung, vegetables residue, and leaf litter gave the best chemical composition. However, to determine the quality, we need to test the product in a plant growth bioassay as a follow-up study.

  7. Optimization Making Glucosamine Hydrochloride (HCl GlcN of Crab Shell Waste through Chemical Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfiana Nurjannah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Processing of glucosamine from crab shell chitin can be done by chemical hydrolysis with hydrochloricacid (HCl. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of chitin immersion by variousconcentrations of HCL toward glucosamine generated and the selected concentration of HCL to glucosaminechemical hydrolysis process. The material used in this study is crab shells from Betahwalang village, Demak,and the solvent is HCl and NaOH. Parameters are glucosamine yield, melting point, loss on drying (LoD,PH and spectrum analysis with FTIR method. Research using experimental design completely randomizeddesign three times treatment with repetition. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVAto determine the differences between treatments concentration of 27%, 32% and 37%. The selected weretested with honestly significant difference test. The results showed differences in the concentration of HClused cause differences in the characteristics of the resulting glucosamine. The higher HCl concentrationsused, the lower the rendemen results and melting point. The selected HCL treatment concentration was at27% observed from glucosamine yield (18.39% and the melting point (192-195oC. The treatment of 37%produces LoD (0.647%, pH (4.01 and spectrum glucosamine is an O-H group (3297.75/cm, the group ofN-H (1617.53/cm, the group of C-N (1394.94/cm.Keywords: crab shells, chitin, melting point, glucosamine

  8. Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon; Park, Jeung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recovery of metal values from GaN, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) waste of GaN based power device and LED industry is investigated by acidic leaching. Leaching kinetics of gallium rich MOCVD waste is studied and the process is optimized. The gallium rich waste MOCVD dust is characterized by XRD and ICP-AES analysis followed by aqua regia digestion. Different mineral acids are used to find out the best lixiviant for selective leaching of the gallium and indium. Concentrated HCl is relatively better lixiviant having reasonably faster kinetic and better leaching efficiency. Various leaching process parameters like effect of acidity, pulp density, temperature and concentration of catalyst on the leaching efficiency of gallium and indium are investigated. Reasonably, 4 M HCl, a pulp density of 50 g/L, 100 °C and stirring rate of 400 rpm are the effective optimum condition for quantitative leaching of gallium and indium.

  9. Conceptual modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in bentonite buffer for high-level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Young; Park, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, thermal-hydrological-chemical modeling for the alteration of a bentonite buffer is carried out using a simulation code TOUGHREACT. The modeling results show that the water saturation of bentonite steadily increases and finally the bentonite is fully saturated after 10 years. In addition, the temperature rapidly increases and stabilizes after 0.5 year, exhibiting a constant thermal gradient as a function of distance from the copper tube. The change of thermal-hydrological conditions mainly results in the alteration of anhydrite and calcite. Anhydrite and calcite are dissolved along with the inflow of groundwater. They then tend to precipitate in the vicinity of the copper tube due to its high temperature. This behavior induces a slight decrease in porosity and permeability of bentonite near the copper tube. Furthermore, this study finds that the diffusion coefficient can significantly affect the alteration of anhydrite and calcite, which causes changes in the hydrological properties of bentonite such as porosity and permeability. This study may facilitate the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  10. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  11. Treatment and Disposal of Status and Analysis for Chemical Waste%废弃化学品处理处置现状与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓创周; 丁灵; 李洁; 夏俊玲; 安晓英; 赵美敬

    2015-01-01

    我国工业经济的迅速发展,带来了工业三废量的急剧增长,不加处理随意排放,将对周边大气、水体、土壤及生态系统带来了严重破坏,造成有回收利用价值的废弃化学品资源的浪费。加强废弃化学品处理处置标准化工作,进行资源化科技创新,深入实施节能减排、资源综合再利用,促进循环经济、绿色产业、低碳技术发展,符合我国的产业政策发展规划的总体要求。%Along with the rapid development of industry in our country, three industrial wastes are increasing quickly. If these untreated substances are discharged arbitrarily it will cause serious environmental pollution and waste of resources for chemical waste. It was conformed that the overall requirement of the industrial policy of development was planed in our country, such as strengthening the standardization work of treatment and disposaling for chemical waste, proceeding technological innovation, implementation energy - saving and utilization of resources, promoting the development of the circular economy, green industries and low-carbon technologies.

  12. Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Application Biochar and Compost of Plant Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita Barus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available he importance to return organic matter to the soil has been widely recognized, especially to agricultural lands that are low in organic matter and nutrients contents that will decrease the productivity of food crops. This study aimed to study the effect of biochar (rice husk and corn cob biochar and straw compost on soil chemical properties and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. The experiments were done in the laboratory and the field experiment at February–July 2015. The first study was laboratory test using a randomized block design with three replicates. Soil samples were ground and sieved to obtain the less than 4 mm fraction for the incubation experiment. A five kg soil was mixtured with amandement treatments (A: control; B: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 ; C: corn cob 10 Mg ha-1; D: straw compost 10 Mg ha-1; and E. Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 were filled into plastic pots. The treatments were incubated for 1 and 2 months. Soil samples measured were pH, Organic-C, Total-N, P2O5 (Bray-1, K2O (Morgan, Na, Ca, Mg, S, and CEC. The field experiment was conducted at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Batanghari Nuban sub district, East Lampung Regency. The treatments (similar too laboratory experiment were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Plot size was 10 m × 20 m, and soybean as crop indicators. The parameters observed were plant heigh, number of branches , number of pods per plant , number of seeds per plant, grain weight, and stover. The results of laboratory experiment showed that application of biochar and compost improve soil fertility due to the increase in soil pH and nutrient availability for plant especially P2O5 and K2O available. The treatment of a rice husk biochar and compost mixture was better than single application to improve soil fertility and soybean yield. Apllication mixture husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1and straw compost

  13. Soil Chemical Properties and Soybean Yield Due to Application of Biochar and Compost of Plant Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junita Barus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance to return organic matter to the soil has been widely recognized, especially to agricultural lands that are low in organic matter and nutrients contents that will decrease the productivity of food crops. This study aimed to study the effect of biochar (rice husk and corn cob biochar and straw compost on soil chemical properties and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. The experiments were done in the laboratory and the field experiment at February–July 2015. The first study was laboratory test using a randomized block designwith three replicates. Soil samples were ground and sieved to obtain the less than 4 mm fraction for the incubation experiment. A five kg soil was mixtured with amandement treatments (A: control; B: Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 ; C: corn cob 10 Mg ha-1; D: straw compost 10 Mg ha-1; and E. Rice husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 ; F. corn cob biochar 10 Mg ha-1 + straw compost 10 Mg ha-1 were filled into plastic pots. The treatments were incubated for 1 and 2 months. Soil samples measured were pH, Organic-C, Total-N, P2O5 (Bray-1, K2O (Morgan, Na, Ca, Mg, S, and CEC. The field experiment was conducted at Sukaraja Nuban Village, Batanghari Nuban sub district, East Lampung Regency. The treatments (similar too laboratory experiment were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Plot size was 10 m× 20 m, and soybean as crop indicators. The parameters observed were plant heigh, number of branches , number of pods per plant , number of seeds per plant, grain weight, and stover. The results of laboratory experiment showed that application of biochar and compost improve soil fertility due to the increase in soil pH and nutrient availability for plant especially P2O5 and K2O available. The treatment of a rice husk biochar and compost mixture was better than single application to improve soil fertility and soybean yield. Apllication mixture husk biochar 10 Mg ha-1and straw compost 10

  14. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  15. 化学业污水二次处理利用机制分析%Analysis on mechanism of chemical waste water secondary treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈应栋

    2015-01-01

    文章从化学业污水二次处理的方式出发,总结二次处理的利用机制,对提升水质有一定的帮助。%The mechanism of waste water secondary treatment are presented in this paper in terms of chemical industry to provide reference for understanding of improving water quality.

  16. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  17. 天津化工厂废渣综合利用工程%Waste residue utilization projects of Tianjin Chemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳慧

    2001-01-01

    120 kt/a cement production project and 30 thiu,nd m3/a small hollow load-carrying brick project from waste residue of Tianjin Chemical Plant of Bohai Chemical Industry Group Inc. are introduced, including process, key equipment and process characteristics. Although currently the cement production process with waste residue of calcium carbide as main material and liquid waste residue as acessory material has the advantage of energy conservation,the capacity should be expanded to largescale production. The small hollow load-carrying brick from liquid waste residue,fly-ash containing much calcia,and fine coal fly-ash has high strength up to 14.4 MPa, low water absorption and low rate of water content,and is in accord with GB- 8239-87. Considerable benefit was obtained from the process,and the aim was achieved that waste treated waste,and waste supported waste.%从工艺流程、主要设备、工艺特点等方面介绍了渤海化工(集团)股份有限公司天津化工厂利用废渣生产12万t/a水泥、3万m3/a承重小型空心砌块项目。虽然目前以废电石渣为主要原料、配以液态渣辅料生产水泥已具有节能优势,但宜扩大生产规模以达到经济规模。利用液态渣、增钙飞灰、粉煤灰生产的承重小型空心砌块强度可高达14.4 MPa,吸水率低,含水率低,不仅符合GB8239-87的要求,而且效益可观,由此做到了"以废养废、以废治废"。

  18. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely

  19. Digital modeling of radioactive and chemical waste transport in the aquifer underlying the Snake River Plain at the National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    Industrial and low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) in Idaho have been disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer since 1952. Monitoring studies have indicated that tritium and chloride have dispersed over a 15-square mile (39-square kilometer) area of the aquifer in low but detectable concentrations and have only migrated as far as 5 miles (8 kilometers) downgradient from discharge points. The movement of cationic waste solutes, particularly 90Sr and 137Cs, has been significantly retarded due to sorption phenomena, principally ion exchange. 137Cs has shown no detectable migration in the aquifer and 90Sr has migrated only about 1.5 miles (2 kilometers) from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) discharge well, and is detectable over an area of only 1.5 square miles ( 4 square kilometers) of the aquifer. Digital modeling techniques have been applied successfully to the analysis of the complex waste-transport system by utilizing numerical solution of the coupled equations of groundwater motion and mass transport. The model includes the effects of convective transport, flow divergence, two-dimensional hydraulic dispersion, radioactive decay, and reversible linear sorption. The hydraulic phase of the model uses the iterative, alternating direction, implicit finite-difference scheme to solve the groundwater flow equations, while the waste-transport phase uses a modified method of characteristics to solve the solute transport equations simulated by the model. The modeling results indicate that hydraulic dispersion (especially transverse) is a much more significant influence than previously suggested by earlier studies. The model has been used to estimate future waste migration patterns for varied assumed hydrological and waste conditions up through the year 2000. The hydraulic effects of recharge from the Big Lost River have an important (but not predominant) influence on the simulated future migration patterns. For the

  20. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  1. Treatment and Recycling of Laboratory Chemical Waste in Universities%高校化学实验室废物处理与循环利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 张丽娟; 曹魁; 徐冰

    2012-01-01

    高等学校基础化学实验一般包括大学化学实验、无机化学实验、分析化学实验、有机化学实验以及物理化学实验等。由于实验属性的不同,实验过程中产生的废物(废气、废液、废渣)也不同,需要废物处理及循环利用的手段、途径也各有差异。经过处理可减少污染来源,而进行循环利用可以节约、弥补实验经费的不足,提高经济效益。另外,进行废物处理与循环利用,可强化学生的环境保护意识,培养学生良好的实验习惯和实验操作能力。%The basic chemical experiments in universities generally include university chemistry experiment, inorganic chem- istry experiment, analytical chemistry experiment, organic chemistry experiment and physical chemistry experiment. The waste materials( including waste gas, waste water and waste solid)generated during the experimental process are different due to varying experimental properties. Therefore, the methods for waste disposal and recycling are different. Harmless treatment can reduce pol- lution sources and recycling can save funds and improve the economic benefits. In addition, the waste disposal and recycling can strengthen consciousness of environmental protection and form good experimental habits and experimental abilities of students.

  2. Study on adverse impact of e-waste disassembly on surface sediment in East China by chemical analysis and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lei; Zhang Congkai; Chen Yingxu [Inst. of Environmental Science and Techn., Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Key Lab. of Non-point Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Yu Chunna [Centre for Biomedicine and Health, Hangzhou Normal Univ., Hangzhou (China); Shen Chaofeng [Inst. of Environmental Science and Techn., Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Key Lab. for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou, ZJ (China); Liu Lei; Shen Kaili [Inst. of Environmental Science and Techn., Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China); Tang Xianjin [Key Lab. of Non-point Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The primitive recycling of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing serious environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the contamination and toxicity of surface sediment of Nanguan River, which runs through the e-waste recycling area of Taizhou, East China. Materials and methods Surface sediments were collected from Nanguan River, including one from the control site, four near the household workshops, and two near the industrial parks. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals/metalloid (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Hg, and As), which are most widely detected in e-waste contaminated surroundings, were determined. Acute toxicity and genetic toxicity were evaluated by luminescence inhibition assay in luminescent bacterium Vibrio qingaiensis sp. nov. (Q67) and Vicia faba roots tip micronucleus assay, respectively. Results and discussion The surface sediment has been seriously contaminated by PCBs, PAHs, and heavy metals/metalloid due to the e-waste disassembly process. Significant acute and genetic toxicity of the sediments presented a big threat to the aquatic life and human health through food chain, as the river is an extent water source for local residents. Conclusions The environmental issue of e-waste recycling is emergent and measures should be taken to mitigate the adverse impacts of e-waste disassembly. (orig.)

  3. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  4. Chemical Equilibrium of Aluminate in Hanford Tank Waste Originating from Tanks 241-AN-105 and 241-AP-108

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoskey, Jacob K. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Cooke, Gary A. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Herting, Daniel L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The purposes of the study described in this document follow; Determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of gibbsite in contact with two real tank waste supernatant liquids through both dissolution of gibbsite (bottom-up approach) and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids (top-down approach); determine or estimate the thermodynamic equilibrium of a mixture of gibbsite and real tank waste saltcake in contact with real tank waste supernatant liquid through both dissolution of gibbsite and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids; and characterize the solids present after equilibrium and precipitation of aluminum-bearing solids.

  5. Gas Fermentation – A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low Carbon Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FungMin eLiew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues or industrial off gasses (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants. Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  6. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  7. Experimental determination of the speciation, partitioning, and release of perrhenate as a chemical surrogate for pertechnetate from a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Fitts, Jeff. P.; Jantzen, Carol. M.; Tang, G.

    2013-12-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk X-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 ?C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  8. Experimental Determination of the Speciation, Partitioning, and Release of Perrhenate as a Chemical Surrogate for Pertechnetate from a Sodalite-Bearing Multiphase Ceramic Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Lukens, Wayne W [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Fitts, Jeffrey P [Princeton University; Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Jantzen, C M [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2013-01-01

    A key component to closing the nuclear fuel cycle is the storage and disposition of nuclear waste in geologic systems. Multiphase ceramic waste forms have been studied extensively as a potential host matrix for nuclear waste. Understanding the speciation, partitioning, and release behavior of radionuclides immobilized in multiphase ceramic waste forms is a critical aspect of developing the scientific and technical basis for nuclear waste management. In this study, we evaluated a sodalite-bearing multiphase ceramic waste form (i.e., fluidized-bed steam reform sodium aluminosilicate [FBSR NAS] product) as a potential host matrix for long-lived radionuclides, such as technetium (99Tc). The FBSR NAS material consists primarily of nepheline (ideally NaAlSiO4), anion-bearing sodalites (ideally M8[Al6Si6O24]X2, where M refers to alkali and alkaline earth cations and X refers to monovalent anions), and nosean (ideally Na8[AlSiO4]6SO4). Bulk x-ray absorption fine structure analysis of the multiphase ceramic waste form, suggest rhenium (Re) is in the Re(VII) oxidation state and has partitioned to a Re-bearing sodalite phase (most likely a perrhenate sodalite Na8[Al6Si6O24](ReO4)2). Rhenium was added as a chemical surrogate for 99Tc during the FBSR NAS synthesis process. The weathering behavior of the FBSR NAS material was evaluated under hydraulically unsaturated conditions with deionized water at 90 C. The steady-state Al, Na, and Si concentrations suggests the weathering mechanisms are consistent with what has been observed for other aluminosilicate minerals and include a combination of ion exchange, network hydrolysis, and the formation of an enriched-silica surface layer or phase. The steady-state S and Re concentrations are within an order of magnitude of the nosean and perrhenate sodalite solubility, respectively. The order of magnitude difference between the observed and predicted concentration for Re and S may be associated with the fact that the anion

  9. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  10. Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: indepth survey report of Tennessee Eastman Company, Kingsport, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.

    1984-01-01

    An in depth survey was conducted to assess control technology at the hazardous waste disposal operations of Tennessee Eastman Company (SIC-2800), Kingsport, Tennessee in November 1982. Personal and general air samples were analyzed for organic solvents at various sites. Low concentrations of acetic acid (64197), toluene (108883), and acetone (67641) were detected. The design of the incineration facility contained features for the prevention of spills and leaks, fires, and explosions. The features consisted of interlocks and alarms, specialized instrumentation and equipment that detected leaks and spills of liquid wastes, general ventilation in solid wastes storage area, a kiln overpressure relief vent, and a safety belt for workers disposing of fiberglass and sample bottles. Workers at the kiln routinely maintained records on all hazardous wastes that were stored or disposed of. Record

  11. Influence of the application of two types of industrial waste on the chemical properties of soil planted with coffea Arabica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natiélia Oliveira Nogueira; Marcelo Antônio Tomaz; Felipe Vaz Andrade; Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis; Sebastião Vinícius Batista Brinate

    2012-01-01

      The large amount of industrial waste which currently causes serious environmental problems has demonstrated the need for the appropriate use of those materials which not only reduce environmental...

  12. Net mineralization nitrogen and soil chemical changes with application of organic wastes with ‘Fermented Bokashi Compost’ - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i2.15133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cácio Luiz Boechat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agricultural soils is one of the possible ways to employ these materials. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of organic wastes and Fermented Bokashi Compost (FBC, to establish the most efficient use of organic wastes for a soil, changing the net nitrogen mineralization and soil chemical properties. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 6 x 2 x 5 factorial, being five organic wastes plus an control (soil without waste, with or without FBC, evaluated at 0, 7, 42, 70 and 91 days of incubation, with three replicates, under laboratory conditions. The organic wastes enhanced the soil chemical properties and increased nitrogen concentration in soil. However, the net nitrogen mineralization was affected by C/N ratio of wastes and incubation time. The FBC mixed with the wastes accelerated and enhanced organic matter degradation, resulting in quickly available quantity of net nitrogen. The wastes can be considered potentially useful as organic fertilizer but their usefulness appears to depend on knowing the C/N ratio of each one. The FBC can be used when one wants a more accelerated degradation, resulting in a quicker quantity of available nutrients to the plants.

  13. CHEMICALS

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  14. FY 2000 Report on the results of development of technology to establish economic chemical recycling system for waste polyester resin; 2000 nendo hai polyester jushi no keizaitekina chemical recycle system kakuritsu no gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY 2000 efforts for establishing a chemical recycling system for waste PET bottles, including construction of 100t/y demonstration plant, development of economic decomposition and re-synthesis process, and demonstration of a low-cost recovery and recycling system with the cooperation of surrounding municipalities. The program for development of an economic treatment process for waste polyester resin achieves reduction in decomposition and re-synthesis time. The program for re-synthesized resin quality produces buttons of the recycled resin and evaluates their properties, to demonstrate that they satisfy the quality standards. The program for demonstration of the recovery system with the cooperation of surrounding municipalities recovers 4t/month of waste PET bottles by 9 municipalities, and estimates/evaluates final economic efficiency of the total recycling system, including plant operating cost and recycled resin selling cost. The program for development of applicable areas for the recycled resin produces various products on a trial basis with the cooperation of chemical makers, and opens the exhibitions. (NEDO)

  15. Estimating evolution of δ13CH4 during methanization of cellulosic waste based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, microbial dynamics and stable carbon isotope fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A

    2012-04-01

    A change in δ(13)CH(4) during mesophilic methanization of cellulosic waste (paper and cardboard) was described using a mathematical model based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, microbial dynamics and the equation for the (13)C isotope accumulation in products including isotope fractionation. In this study, experimental data, previously obtained by Qu et al. (2009), was used to model metabolic pathways of cellulose transformation. A significant change in δ(13)CH(4) occurred in time during cellulosic waste methanization which was in accordance with the model. It was explained by the change in input of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as well as by fractionation of stable carbon isotopes (13)C and (12)C which was much higher for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis when compared to acetoclastic methanogenesis.

  16. Chemical properties of urban waste ash produced by open burning on the Jos Plateau: implications for agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, M W; Alexander, M J

    2004-02-05

    Urban centres produce most of the world's waste and between a third and a half goes uncollected. The answer to the problem of waste disposal lies partly in agriculture, as waste can be extremely nutrient-rich. In the last decade there has been a tremendous increase in the developing world in total city area under informal food production and there are many examples of waste recycling onto the urban or peri-urban plots. Farmers on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, have developed a successful soil fertility management strategy based on the combination of inorganic fertilisers, manure and urban waste ash. This study sought to provide some preliminary data on urban waste ash produced by open burning and used in farming in a developing country. Ash samples were collected from different locations around Jos and tested for C, N, pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb. It was found that ash is an effective liming material (because of the high pH, and high Ca, Mg and K contents), and has the potential to contribute significant quantities of micro-nutrients such as Mn, Zn and Cu. Ash, however, is far from being a homogenous material and its variability means that its fertilising potential will vary between batches and that, even if mean and median levels are low, there is the risk of the formation of localised areas of soil with excessive heavy metal contents (this is particularly the case with Pb). Further research is required to determine the plant-availability of these elements in the ash and to assess the wider environmental and health implications of uncontrolled, open burning of waste as a means of producing ash for agricultural purposes.

  17. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes for Bentonite in a Clay-rock Repository for Heat-generating Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) that include a bentonite-based buffer are designed to isolate the high-level radioactive waste emplaced in tunnels in deep geological formations. The heat emanated from the waste can drive the moisture flow transport and induce strongly coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes within the bentonite buffer and may also impact the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone and the sealing between the buffer and walls of an emplacement tunnel The flow and contaminant transport potential along the disturbed zone can be minimized by backfilling the tunnels with bentonite, if it provides enough swelling stress when hydrated by the host rock. The swelling capability of clay minerals within the bentonite is important for sealing gaps between bentonite block, and between the EBS and the surrounding host rock. However, a high temperature could result in chemical alteration of bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials through illitization, which may compromise the function of these EBS components by reducing their plasticity and capability to swell under wetting. Therefore, an adequate THMC coupling scheme is required to understand and to predict the changes of bentonite for identifying whether EBS bentonite can sustain higher temperatures. More comprehensive links between chemistry and mechanics, taking advantage of the framework provided by a dual-structure model, named Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM), was implemented in TOUGHREACT-FLAC3D and is used to simulate the response of EBS bentonite in in clay formation for a generic case. The current work is to evaluate the chemical changes in EBS bentonite and the effects on the bentonite swelling stress under high temperature. This work sheds light on the interaction between THMC processes, evaluates the potential deterioration of EBS bentonite and supports the decision making in the design of a nuclear waste repository in light of the maximum allowance

  18. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  19. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  20. Medical waste management plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  1. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  2. Comparison of Surface and Structural Properties of Carbonaceous Materials Prepared by Chemical Activation of Tomato Paste Waste: The Effects of Activator Type and Impregnation Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Ozbay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared by carbonization of tomato paste processing industry waste at 500°C followed by chemical activation with KOH, K2CO3, and HCl in N2 atmosphere at low temperature (500°C. The effects of different activating agents and impregnation ratios (25, 50, and 100 wt.% on the materials’ characteristics were examined. Precursor, carbonized tomato waste (CTW, and activated carbons were characterized by using ultimate and proximate analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectroscopy, point of zero charge measurements (pHPZC, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Activation process improved pore formation and changed activated carbons’ surface characteristics. Activated carbon with the highest surface area (283 m3/g was prepared by using 50 wt.% KOH as an activator. According to the experimental results, tomato paste waste could be used as an alternative precursor to produce low-cost activated carbon.

  3. Estimating evolution of δ(13)CH(4) during methanization of municipal solid waste based on chemical reactions, isotope accumulation in products and microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A

    2012-01-01

    Natural isotopic composition in substrate may be used to reveal the metabolic pathways of substrate transformation by microbial community. In this paper, a change in δ(13)CH(4) during methanization of reconstituted municipal solid waste was described using a mathematical model based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, equation for the (13)C isotope accumulation in products at the low natural C(13)/C(12) ratio and microbial ecology. A set of experimental data used in the model was taken from Qu et al. (2009a). According to the model, during mesophilic municipal solid waste methanization initially hydrogenotrophic and further aceticlastic methanogenesis dominated. At the final stage hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis followed by acetate oxidation dominated again. In spite of rather high measured values of δ(13)C for CO(2) above -21‰, a sharp decrease in δ(13)CH(4) from -20‰ to -60‰ at the final stage was explained by a larger fractionation against (13)C during methanogenesis from H(2)/H(2)CO(3) due to a kinetic isotope effect when hydrogenotrophic methanogens preferentially take down light (12)C. The model also confirmed that in thermophilic conditions a comparatively stable value of δ(13)CH(4) about -60‰ measured earlier (Qu et al. 2009b) was due to a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis during all methanization process of cardboard waste.

  4. 弹药化验废液电渗析脱盐研究%The Research on Desalination of Waste Liquid of Ammunition Chemical Examination by Electrodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀智; 谢俊磊; 曹宏安; 谷智国

    2012-01-01

    为了解决弹药化验废液盐度高、毒性大且对环境污染严重等问题,采用电渗析技术对弹药化验废液进行脱盐处理.通过实验,研究了电渗析时间、实验温度以及物料流量等因素对脱盐效能的影响,结果表明:电渗析技术用于弹药化验废液脱盐处理是可行的,最佳脱盐温度为30℃.%In order to solve the high salinity, toxic and polluting of ammunition laboratory waste liquid, the waste liquid of ammunition chemical examination was desalinated by electrodialysis. Through the experiment the effect of time and temperature of electrodialysis, material flow on the efficiency of desalination was studied. The experimental results show that the technology used in their laboratory waste liquid electrodialysis desalination processing is feasible, the best temperature for desalination is 30℃.

  5. Assessing Worker and Environmental Chemical Exposure Risks at an e-Waste Recycling and Disposal Site in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Caravanos

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling/disposal site in Accra, Ghana revealed an area with extensive lead contamination in both ambient air and topsoil. Given the urban nature of this site e as well as the large adjacent food distribution market, the potential for human health impact is substantial both to workers and local residents.

  6. Comprehensive Treatment of Waste Water,Waste Oil and Waste Gas in Chemical Fertilizer Enterprises%化肥企业废水、废油和废气的综合治理技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东法

    2011-01-01

    介绍了针对合成氨、尿素装置进行的造气污水治理、节水减排改造、废油回收改造和废气回收再利用综合治理;对改造效果进行了综合评价,结果表明,改造后排放废水水质保持在COD≤60 mg/L,w(NH3-N)≤5 mg/L,废油回收100 t/a,吨尿素氨耗降低到586 kg/t。%Author has introduced the comprehensively hornessing concerning the gasification pollution water hornessing and reformation of water conservation and discharge reduction,reformation of waste oil recovery and reuse of waste gas recovery,all these reformations have been implemented in allusion to the ammonia synthesis and urea plant,result indicates that after reformation the water quality of waste water discharged is maintained within: COD≤60mg/L,w(NH3-N)≤5 mg/L,waste oil recovery 100 t/a,ammonia consume per tone of urea is reduced to 586 kg.

  7. Direct probe atmospheric pressure photoionization/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry for fast screening of flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Brandsma, S H; de Boer, J; Leonards, P E G

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we develop fast screening methods for flame retardants and plasticizers in products and waste based on direct probe (DP) atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) coupled to a high-resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass spectrometer. DP-APPI is reported for the first time in this study, and DP-APCI that has been scarcely exploited is optimized for comparison. DP-APPI was more selective than DP-APCI and also more sensitive for the most hydrophobic compounds. No sample treatment was necessary, and only a minimal amount of sample (few milligrams) was used for analysis that was performed within a few minutes. Both methods were applied to the analysis of plastic products, electronic waste, and car interiors. Polybrominated diphenylethers, new brominated flame retardants, and organophosphorus flame retardants were present in most of the samples. The combination of DP with HR mass spectra and data processing based on mass accuracy and isotopic patterns allowed the unambiguous identification of chemicals at low levels of about 0.025 % (w/w). Under untargeted screening, resorcinol bis(biphenylphosphate) and bisphenol A bis(bisphenylphosphate) were identified in many of the consumer products of which literature data are still very limited.

  8. Physical, Chemical and Structural Evolution of Zeolite-Containing Waste Forms Produced from Metakaolinite and Calcined Sodium Bearing Waste (HLW and/or LLW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutzeck, Michael W.

    2005-06-27

    Zeolites are extremely versatile. They can adsorb liquids and gases and serve as cation exchange media. They occur in nature as well cemented deposits. The ancient Romans used blocks of zeolitized tuff as a building material. Using zeolites for the management of radioactive waste is not a new idea, but a process by which the zeolites can be made to act as a cementing agent is. Zeolitic materials are relatively easy to synthesize from a wide range of both natural and man-made substances. The process under study is derived from a well known method in which metakaolin (an impure thermally dehydroxylated kaolinite heated to {approx}700 C containing traces of quartz and mica) is mixed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and reacted in slurry form (for a day or two) at mildly elevated temperatures. The zeolites form as finely divided powders containing micrometer ({micro}m) sized crystals. However, if the process is changed slightly and only just enough concentrated sodium hydroxide solution is added to the metakaolinite to make a thick crumbly paste and then the paste is compacted and cured under mild hydrothermal conditions (60-200 C), the mixture will form a hard ceramic-like material containing distinct crystalline tectosilicate minerals (zeolites and feldspathoids) imbedded in an X-ray amorphous hydrated sodium aluminosilicate matrix. Due to its lack of porosity and vitreous appearance we have chosen to call this composite a ''hydroceramic''.

  9. Le traitement des déchets polymères : la valorisation énergétique ou chimique Treatment of Polymer Wastes: Chemical Or Energy Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une protection accrue de l'environnement requiert la mise en place de nouvelles techniques fiables et économiques de traitement des déchets polymères. Parmi les diverses méthodes envisagées pour la réutilisation ou l'élimination des polymères usagés, les recyclages énergétiques et chimiques peuvent apporter des solutions satisfaisantes et complémentaires au recyclage de la matière. Cet article fait le point sur l'état d'avancement des techniques de valorisation énergétique et chimique des rejets de polymères et il propose une analyse critique des traitements actuels. Increased environmental protection requires the installation of new treatment techniques for polymer wastes. Competitive industrial facilities are not available from the economic standpoint for recycling spent plastic and rubber wastes in the form of materials, especially when mixtures are involved. It is only by using other treatment method for the chemical or energy upgrading of polymers, as a supplement to the recycling of materials, that it should be possible to make a significant reduction in the amount of spent polymers currently being scrapped. The energy upgrading of wastes by incineration with energy recovery or by pyrolysis with the formation of fuels in an interesting approach for a great many countries. When no reuse is possible, the energy content of the material is upgraded before the subsequent scrapping of an ultimate residue that is reduced to its incompressible minimum after having been inerted. There are currently several technical solutions for incineration furnaces and the treatment of the fumes produced, which meet the more and more severe requirements concerning environmental protection. Incineration systems with energy recovery can recover about 8000 thermies per ton of unsorted plastics. They already have an important position, albeit a varying one, from one European country to another (Table 6. They should develop considerably further in

  10. Physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of water treatment plant waste for use in soil-cement brick; Caracterizacao fisica, quimica e mineralogica de residuo de estacao de tratamento de aguas para aproveitamento em tijolo solo-cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessin, L.R.; Destefani, A.Z.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: larapessin@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (CCT/PPGECM/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The water treatment plants (WTP) for human consumption generate huge amounts of waste in the form of sludge (sludge) that have been over the years mostly inadequately prepared in water resources and the environment. Moreover, traditional methods of disposal of waste water treatment plants commonly used are generally costly activities. An alternative method for disposal of this waste abundant is its incorporation in ceramic products. This work is focused on the physical-chemical and mineralogical composition of a sample of waste water treatment plants from the region of Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ to their use in the manufacture of soil-cement brick. Several characterization techniques were used including X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, picnometry, particle size analysis and plasticity. The experimental results indicate that the waste water treatment plants have the potential to be used in the manufacture of ecologic soil-cement bricks. (author)

  11. Enhancing the functional and economical efficiency of a novel combined thermo chemical disperser disintegration of waste activated sludge for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Jayashree, C; Kumar, S Adish; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh

    2014-12-01

    In this investigation, an effort was made to pretreat surplus waste activated sludge (WAS) inexpensively by a novel combined process involving thermo chemical disperser pretreatment. This pretreatment was found to be efficient at a specific energy (SE) consumption of 3360.94 kJ/kg TS, with the chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization of 20%. This was comparatively higher than thermo chemically treated sludge where the solubilization was found to be 15.5% at a specific energy consumption of 10,330 kJ/kg TS respectively. Higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) (675 mg/L) in anaerobic fermentation of pretreated WAS indicates better hydrolysis performance. The biogas production potential of sludge pretreated through this combined technique was found to be 0.455 (L/gVS) and comparatively higher than thermo chemically pretreated sludge. Economic investigation provides 90% net energy savings in this combined pretreatment. Therefore, this combined process was considered to be potentially effective and economical in sludge disintegration.

  12. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  13. Digestibility and physico-chemical characteristics of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscarina de Souza Batalha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acid silage meal made of pirarucu waste in diets for commercial laying hens on apparent digestibility and energy metabolism. Seventy-two Hisex White hens with 71 weeks of age were assigned to a completely randomized with two treatments (control diet and diet with 3% pirarucu waste acid silage with six replicates of six birds each. The ensiled biomass was light brown in color, showing acidified aroma; creamy consistency; 4.38±0.11 pH; 84.16% dry matter; 40.06% crude protein; 26.82% ether extract; 9.31% mineral matter, 65.16 g kg-1 calcium and 22.90 g kg-1 phosphorus. Differences (p > 0.05 were detected in digestibility of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates (soluble carbohydrates, etherextract, mineral matter, metabolizable energy and metabolizable energy coefficient. Our results indicate that the acid silage mealmade of pirarucu waste can be included up to 3% in diets for laying hens, showing satisfactory nutrient digestibility and potential to be used as an energy source.

  14. A novel method for production of activated carbon from waste tea by chemical activation with microwave energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emine Yagmur; Meryem Ozmak; Zeki Aktas [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-11-15

    This study presents the production of activated carbon from waste tea. Activated carbons were prepared by phosphoric acid activation with and without microwave treatment and carbonisation of the waste tea under nitrogen atmosphere at various temperatures and different phosphoric acid/precursor impregnation ratios. The surface properties of the activated carbons were investigated by elemental analysis, BET surface area, SEM, FTIR. Prior to heat treatment conducted in a furnace, the mixture of the waste tea and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was treated with microwave heating. The maximum BET surface area was 1157 m{sup 2}/g for the sample treated with microwave energy and then carbonised at 350{sup o}C. In case of application of conventional method, the BET surface area of the resultant material was 928.8 m{sup 2}/g using the same precursor and conditions. According to the Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) method the micropore surface area for the sample treated with microwave energy was higher than the sample obtained from the conventional method. Results show that microwave heating reasonably influenced the micropore surface area of the samples as well as the BET surface area. The samples activated were also characterised in terms of the cumulative pore and micropore volumes according to the BJH, DR and t-methods, respectively. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Calculation of Hazardous Waste Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Treatment Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    examples of calculations of treatment standards including for High Concentration Selenium Wastes Using Data Submitted by Chemical Waste Management (CWM) and Antimony Using Data Submitted by Chemical Waste Management and Data Obtained From Rollins.

  16. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Chemical composition, effective atomic number and electron density study of trommel sieve waste (TSW), Portland cement, lime, pointing and their admixtures with TSW in different proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aygun, Murat; Erzeneoğlu, Salih Zeki

    2010-06-01

    The trommel sieve waste (TSW) which forms during the boron ore production is considered to be a promising building material with its use as an admixture with Portland cement and is considered to be an alternative radiation shielding material, also. Thus, having knowledge on the chemical composition and radiation interaction properties of TSW as compared to other building materials is of importance. In the present study, chemical compositions of the materials used have been determined using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (WDXRFS). Also, TSW, some commonly used building materials (Portland cement, lime and pointing) and their admixtures with TSW have been investigated in terms of total mass attenuation coefficients (mu/rho), photon interaction cross sections (sigma(t)), effective atomic numbers (Z(eff)) and effective electron densities (N(e)) by using X-rays at 22.1, 25keV and gamma-rays at 88keV photon energies. Possible conclusions were drawn with respect to the variations in photon energy and chemical composition.

  18. Chemical Recycling of Waste Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)%废旧聚酯(PET)的化学循环利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 吕毅军; 徐元源; 相宏伟

    2001-01-01

    Waste poly(ethylene terephalate)(PET) can be recyclized by chemical depolymerization.This paper reviews the state of the art of chemical recycling of PET polyester and introduces several methods for chemical recycling such as hydrolysis, methanolysis, glycolysis and so on. At the same time, the advantages and disadvantages of each method on technical process are also compared.%废旧PET聚酯可通过化学解聚来实现其循环利用。本文总结了废旧PET聚酯化学循环利用领域的研究现状,介绍了目前国内外开发的主要化学解聚工艺方法,包括水解法、甲醇解聚法、乙二醇解聚法等,同时对各种工艺过程的优缺点进行了综合比较。

  19. Chemical and ecotoxicological analyses of sediments and elutriates of contaminated rivers due to e-waste recycling activities using a diverse battery of bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Leung, A.O.W.; Wu, S.C.; Yang, M.S. [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-07-15

    A multi-trophic, multi-exposure phase assessment approach was applied to characterize the toxicity of sediments collected from two rivers in Guiyu, China, an e-waste recycling centre. Elutriate toxicity tests (bacterium Vibrio fischeri and microalga Selenastrum capricornutum) and whole sediment toxicity test (crustacean Heterocypris incongruens) showed that most sediments exhibited acute toxicity, due to elevated heavy metals and PAHs levels, and low pH caused by uncontrolled acid discharge. The survival rates of crustaceans were negatively (p < 0.05) correlated with total PAHs in sediments (411-1755 mg kg{sup -1}); EC50s of V. fischeri on the elutriates were significantly correlated with elutriate pH (p < 0.01). Significant (p < 0.05) correlations between the induction of hepatic metallothionein in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and metal concentrations (Cu, Zn, Pb) in sediments were also observed, when fish were fed with diets containing sediment. The results showed that uncontrolled e-waste recycling activities may bring adverse effects to local aquatic ecosystem. - Toxicity tests using different trophic organisms provided important information, supplementing chemical analyses.

  20. 浅谈化学废旧电池的回收和利用%Talking about the Recovery and Utilization of Chemical Waste Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆成禹

    2016-01-01

    本文简要介绍了锌锰干电池、镍镉蓄电池等几种电池类型,同时分析了废旧电池对环境、人体的危害,并详细介绍了化学废旧电池的回收处理技术,以便人们能够对上述两种电池及其他类电池加以妥善处理,避免其对环境以及人体造成污染与危害。%This article briefly describes the zinc-manganese batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, such as several battery types, and analyzes the waste batteries on the environment, health hazards, and details of chemical waste battery recycling technology, so that people be able to both batteries and other types of batteries are properly handled, avoid pollution and harm to the envi-ronment and the human body.

  1. Combinatorial bio/chemical analysis of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in waste recycling, feed/food, humans/wildlife and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnisch, P A; Hosoe, K; Sakai, S

    2001-12-01

    The present review describes international activities using bioassays/biomarkers in combination with chemical analysis to measure the effects of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in the environment. The above authors reviewed already the state-of-art bioanalytical detection methods (BDMs) for dioxins and DLCs [Environ Int (2001)]. The aim of this study will be to review applications of these bioassays/biomarkers to evaluate potential dioxins and DLCs. The present literature study lists relative potencies (REPs) of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PXDD/Fs; X = Cl, Br, F), their thio analogues polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs) and thianthrens (PCTAs), polyhalogenated biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and other Ah receptor agonists measured by several biodetectors (Tier 3 screening). The authors will discuss some examples of the applications of some of these biodetectors in biomonitoring programmes and recently occurred dioxin crisis in feed/food. The diagnosis of the biopotency of these pollutants in technical processes like thermally treated waste, waste water treatment, landfill leachate treatment, commercial PCB-mixtures, the release into the environment (soil, air and water) and the final intake into wildlife and humans will be reviewed.

  2. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery.

  3. EAF dust: An overview on the influences of physical, chemical and mineral features in its recycling and waste incorporation routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jorge Walburga Keglevich de Buzin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD is one of the several process residues generated in mini mills during steel production. The presence of valuable zinc in EAF dust and the rising costs for waste disposal are the motivating factors for EAFD recycling or its incorporation into other materials. Features such as small particle size, high zinc content and the existence of the decomposition-resistant mineral franklinite have long influenced both positively and negatively EAF dust processing. More recently, the growing presence of deleterious chlorine, lead and chromium is affecting equally the traditional as well as the new recycling routes or waste incorporation processes in a decisive way. In this study, a critical overview on the fundamentals of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical EAF dust recycling or incorporation processes is presented, as a starting point for the understanding of how the EAF dust processing routes are influenced by all cited factors. Especially important is the discussion on the influences of the dust composition – including the effects of the deleterious elements – which can point out some relevant issues that ought to be considered for a successful ending to old and new dust processing proposals.

  4. Influence of bulking agents on physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    A recyclable organic bulking agent (BA) that can be screened and was developed to optimize green waste (GW) composting. This study investigated the use of wood chips (WC) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) and/or composted green waste (CGW) (at 0%, 25%, and 35%) as the BAs in the two-stage composting of GW. The combined addition of WC and CGW improved the conditions of composting process and the quality of compost product in terms of composting temperature, porosity, water retention, particle-size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nitrogen losses, humification indices, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, macro- and micro-nutrient contents, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The compost matured in only 22days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days typically required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting process and the best quality of compost product were obtained with the combined addition of 15% WC and 35% CGW.

  5. Investigation on chemical composition and optimization of essential oil obtainment from waste Pinus taeda L. using hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Dias Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The extraction of essential oils obtained by the hydrodistillation of needles/twigs waste of Pinus taeda L. was optimized by applying response surface methodology (RSM, with 24 full factorial design, in order to improve oil essential production, and aggregate value to the production chain of pine wood. Through the model it was possible to ascertain the influence of the variables in the average amount of essential oil (0.1032 mL, being the variables analyzed: biomass - Bm (x1, extraction time - ET (x2, Bm:ET (x1x2 and sample size - SS: drying times - DT (x3x4. Only linear terms (biomass and extraction time and your interaction demonstrated significant positive values (0.0344, 0.0206 and 0.0131. The major components of the essential oil identified by GC-MS were: β-phellandrene: (30.39 and 22.44%, tricyclene (26.14 and 20.46%, β-myrcene (14.32 and 11.50%, β-pinene (22.49 and 1.43% and α-pinene (0.25 and 11.26% in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Our results show that the essential oil obtained from P. taeda represents a way of using some of the waste generated by the timber industry. The process of obtaining doesn't require treatments such as controlled drying or size reduction of the sample, indicating that it can be used in an industrial scale.

  6. Chemical and thermal characterization of potato peel waste and its fermentation residue as potential resources for biofuel and bioproducts production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G

    2014-08-20

    The growing demand for renewable fuels has driven the interest in the utilization of alternative waste materials such as potato peel waste (PPW) which contains fermentable carbohydrate. Fermentation of PPW using a mixed microbial consortium yielded about 60% unreacted PPW fermentation residue (PPW-FR). The PPW and PPW-FR were characterized by a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to quantify changes after fermentation. Fermentation of PPW resulted in fermentation of starch and concentrating lignin plus suberin and lipids in PPW-FR. TGA analysis showed that decomposition peaks differed for PPW (423 °C) and PPW-FR (457 °C). Pyrolysis-GC/MS showed an increase in phenolic and long chain fatty acid compounds with a concomitant decrease in carbohydrate derived compounds in the PPW after fermentation. Both the PPW and PPW-FR have shown potential based on properties to be converted into crude biofuel via thermochemical processes.

  7. 化工危险废物焚烧技术探讨%Study on Incineration Technology About Chemical Hazardous Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亦农; 李小勇

    2011-01-01

    文章在调查研究的基础上,指出了焚烧法是化工危险废物比较好的处置方法,并探讨了危险废物焚烧的技术要求、工艺及尾气净化处理。选择回转窑焚烧炉为今后焚烧技术的发展方向。%According to the research,we pointed out that incineration is the better disposal methods for chemical hazardous wastes,and discussed the technical requirements.crafts.and exhaust gas purification about incineration, concluding that rotary kiln incinerato

  8. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubber, Donata; Gray, Nicholas F

    2010-10-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment plants. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) was also included in the comparison as a control. The results show significant linear relationships between TOC, COD and BOD5 in settled (influent) domestic and municipal wastewaters, but only between COD and TOC in treated effluents. The study concludes that TOC can be reliably used for the generic replacement of both COD (COD=49.2+3.00*TOC) and BOD5 (BOD5=23.7+1.68*TOC) in influent wastewaters but only for COD (COD=7.25+2.99*TOC) in final effluents.

  9. EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL CONDITIONS AND ESTIMATED PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN THE RESIDUAL WASTE LAYER DURING POST-CLOSURE AGING OF TANK 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M.

    2012-02-29

    evolution. In Denham (2007, Rev. 1), the solubilities in the oxidized regions were estimated at Eh values in equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. Here, these are considered to be maximum possible solubilities because Eh values are unlikely to be in equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. More realistic Eh values are estimated here and plutonium solubilities calculated at these are considered more realistic. Apparent solubilities of plutonium that coprecipitated with iron phases are estimated from Pu:Fe ratios in Tank 18 residual waste and the solubilities of the host iron phases. The estimated plutonium solubilities are shown. Uncertainties in the grout simulations and plutonium solubility estimates are discussed. The primary uncertainty in the grout simulations is that little is known about the physical state of the grout as it ages. The simulations done here are pertinent to a porous medium, which may or may not be applicable to fractured grout, depending on the degree and nature of the fractures. Other uncertainties that are considered are the assumptions about the reducing capacity imparted by blast furnace slag, the effects of varying dissolved carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations, and the treatment of silica in the simulations. The primary uncertainty in the estimates of plutonium solubility is that little is known about the exact form of plutonium in the residual waste. Other uncertainties include those inherent in the thermodynamic data, pH variations from those estimated in the grout simulations, the effects of the treatment of silica in the grout simulations, and the effect of varying total dissolved carbonate concentrations. The objective of this document is to update the model for solubility controls on release of plutonium from residual waste in closed F-Area waste tanks. The update is based on new information including a new proposed grout formulation, chemical analysis of Tank 18 samples and more current thermodynamic data for plutonium and grout minerals. In

  10. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-04-30

    This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

  11. High-grade use of waste propane streams in the Dutch chemical industry. An exploratory study in the context of the Chemical Industry Roadmap; Hoogwaardig gebruik van reststromen propaan in de Nederlandse chemische industrie. Een verkenning binnen de Routekaart Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R.; Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of the Dutch chemical industry's Roadmap the industry is actively seeking concrete ways of improving the efficiency of its products and processes. One option is to make higher-grade use of current waste streams, as feedstocks for other products, for example. This study focuses on propane waste streams from the oil and gas processing industry. Today these are used partly as fuel (fuel gas) but there are no technical barriers to converting propane to propylene, which can then be used as a feedstock. Higher-grade use of this particular waste stream leads to CO2 emission reductions in the production chain. Given the high market price of propylene, such a move may also be economically attractive. The study focuses on the Rotterdam region, because propane suppliers and companies seeking propylene are in closest proximity there [Dutch] In het kader van de Routekaart Chemie is de chemische industrie actief op zoek naar concrete opties om in haar processen en producten de efficiency te verhogen. Een route is daarbij om reststromen hoogwaardiger te benutten en in te zetten als grondstof voor andere producten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op reststromen propaan uit de olie- en gasverwerkende industrie. Deze worden nu deels als brandstof (stookgas) ingezet maar technisch is het mogelijk propaan om te zetten in propeen, dat als grondstof voor de chemische industrie kan worden gebruikt. Door het hoogwaardiger benutten van deze reststroom wordt in de keten een reductie van CO2 gerealiseerd. Tegelijk kan het economisch interessant zijn, vanwege de hoge marktprijzen van propeen. De studie focust op de regio Rotterdam, omdat leveranciers van propaan en afnemers van propeen daar het meest dichtbij elkaar gevestigd zijn.

  12. Physic-Chemical treatment and demineralization by EDR to reutilize the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant; Tratamiento fisico-quimico y desmineralizacion por electrodialisis reversible para reutilizar el efluente de una EDAR urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Corral, M.; Pino, M.P. del; Gil Lodos, M.; Rodriguez Garcia, M.

    1998-12-01

    Etudes held at the research and development center DEREA placed at Gran Canaria, Canary islands, have proved the viability of regenerating urban waste waters treating the effluent of an urban waste water treatment plant (WWTP del surest) with a physic-chemical treatment followed by a demineralization by electrodialysis reversal. The physic-chemical system was composed of the following units: 1 coagulation tank, 3 floculators, 1 lamellar decanter, 1 pH neutralization system, 1 chlorination system, 1 multi bed filter with chemicals reservoir, dosifiers for lime, FeCl{sub 3} polielectrolytes, sulfuric acid, and NaOCl. The physic-chemical system treated daily about 250-300 cubic meters of the effluents of the EDAR del surest, without chlorination effluent, and worked with a 90% recovery (got 90 m``3 for each 100 feeded). (Author)

  13. Evaluation of the use of different coals in chemical looping combustion using a bauxite waste as oxygen carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Mendiara, Teresa; García Labiano, Francisco; Gayán Sanz, Pilar; Abad Secades, Alberto; Diego Poza, Luis F. de; Adánez Elorza, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The interest in the use of solid fuels such as coal in Chemical Looping Combustion is growing because of the benefits of the direct use of coal in this technology on the reduction of the costs linked to carbon dioxide capture. In CLC, the oxygen needed for the combustion is supplied by a solid oxygen carrier therefore avoiding the direct contact between fuel and air. Focusing on the use of solid fuels in the In-Situ Gasification Chemical Looping Combustion (iG-CLC), the oxygen ...

  14. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  15. Effects of heat treatment and formulation on the phase composition and chemical durability of the EBR-ll ceramic waste form.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. E.; Dietz, N. L.; Janney, D. E.

    2006-01-31

    High-level radioactive waste salts generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II will be immobilized in a ceramic waste form (CWF). Tests are being conducted to evaluate the suitability of the CWF for disposal in the planned federal high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In this report, the results of laboratory tests and analyses conducted to address product consistency and thermal stability issues called out in waste acceptance requirements are presented. The tests measure the impacts of (1) variations in the amounts of salt and binder glass used to make the CWF and (2) heat treatments on the phase composition and chemical durability of the waste form. A series of CWF materials was made to span the ranges of salt and glass contents that could be used during processing: between 5.0 and 15 mass% salt loaded into the zeolite (the nominal salt loading is 10.7%, and the process control range is 10.6 to 11.2 mass%), and between 20 and 30 mass% binder glass mixed with the salt-loaded zeolite (the nominal glass content is 25% and the process control range is 20 to 30 mass%). In another series of tests, samples of two CWF products made with the nominal salt and glass contents were reheated to measure the impact on the phase composition and durability: long-term heat treatments were conducted at 400 and 500 C for durations of 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year; short-term heat treatments were conducted at 600, 700, 800, and 850 C for durations of 4, 28, 52, and 100 hours. All of the CWF products that were made with different amounts of salt, zeolite, and glass and all of the heat-treated CWF samples were analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction to measure changes in phase compositions and subjected to 7-day product consistency tests to measure changes in the chemical durability. The salt loading had the greatest impact on phase composition and durability. A

  16. Methods and instruments for the ecological assessment of the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry; Methoden und Instrumente zur oekologischen Bewertung der Abfall-Loesungsmittelbehandlung in der chemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capello, Ch.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project which looked at the treatment of solvent wastes in the chemical industry and its ecological impact. The development of a method based on the life-cycle-analysis (LCA) approach is described. The LCA methodology is to provide support for decision-making in the area of solvent waste disposal in the chemical industry. Various methods of disposal, such as distillation or incineration are looked at. The results of calculations using a software tool called 'ecosolvent' are presented and discussed. The 15 most important solvents and their quantities as used in the 6 facilities examined, are listed. The functioning of the ecosolvent software is discussed and illustrated in a flow-diagram. Along with detailed results, a few qualitative rules of thumb are quoted for the treatment of solvent wastes.

  17. Utilization of chemically treated municipal solid waste (spent coffee bean powder) as reinforcement in cellulose matrix for packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagamani, Senthil Muthu Kumar; Nagarajan, Rajini; Jawaid, Mohammad; Anumakonda, Varadarajulu; Siengchin, Suchart

    2017-07-31

    As the annual production of the solid waste generable in the form of spent coffee bean powder (SCBP) is over 6 million tons, its utilization in the generation of green energy, waste water treatment and as a filler in biocomposites is desirable. The objective of this article is to analyze the possibilities to valorize coffee bean powder as a filler in cellulose matrix. Cellulose matrix was dissolved in the relatively safer aqueous solution mixture (8% LiOH and 15% Urea) precooled to -12.5°C. To the cellulose solution (SCBP) was added in 5-25wt% and the composite films were prepared by regeneration method using ethyl alcohol as a coagulant. Some SCBP was treated with aq. 5% NaOH and the composite films were also prepared using alkali treated SCBP as a filler. The films of composites were uniform with brown in color. The cellulose/SCBP films without and with alkali treated SCBP were characterized by FTIR, XRD, optical and polarized optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile tests. The maximum tensile strength of the composite films with alkali treated SCBP varied between (106-149MPa) and increased with SCBP content when compared to the composites with untreated SCBP. The thermal stability of the composite was higher at elevated temperatures when alkali treated SCBP was used. Based on the improved tensile properties and photo resistivity, the cellulose/SCBP composite films with alkali treated SCBP may be considered for packaging and wrapping of flowers and vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemically coupled microwave and ultrasonic pre-hydrolysis of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge: effect on sludge solubilisation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Lo, Shang-Lien; Rajpal, Ankur

    2014-05-01

    The effects of alkali-enhanced microwave (MW; 50-175 °C) and ultrasonic (US) (0.75 W/mL, 15-60 min) pretreatments, on solubilisation and subsequent anaerobic digestion efficiency of pulp and paper mill waste-activated sludge, were investigated. Improvements in total chemical oxygen demand and volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilisation were limited to 33 and 39 % in MW pretreatment only (175 °C). It reached 78 and 66 % in combined MW-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 175 °C), respectively. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand and VSS solubilisation were 58 and 37 % in US pretreatment alone (60 min) and it improved by 66 and 49 % after US-alkali pretreatment (pH 12 + 60 min), respectively. The biogas yield for US 60 min-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was significantly improved by 47 and 20 % over the control and US 60 reactors, respectively. The biogas generation for MW (150 °C)-alkali (pH 12)-pretreated sludge was only 6.3 % higher than control; however, it was 8.3 % lower than the MW (150 °C) reactor, which was due to the inhibition of anaerobic activity under harsh thermal-alkali treatment condition.

  19. Design of Incineration Treatment Engineering of Thiamine Waste Liquid From Chemical Plants%化工厂硫胺废液焚烧处理工程方案设计探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天杰

    2014-01-01

    近年来随着经济的发展,许多的化工厂不断地拔地而起,化工厂废气、废物的处理问题迫在眉睫。近些年雾霾在我国多个城市已经出现,雾霾的形成原因就是空气受到化工污染、汽车尾气污染等原因形成的。化工厂排放的硫胺废液内含多种对环境、人体有害的化学物质,选用恰当的废液处理方式不仅关系到化工企业自身的经济利益,还关系到人与生态环境的和谐发展。本文论述了焚烧处理硫胺废液的意义和流程,以期能够为相关的实践提供些许理论参考。%With economic development in recent years, many chemical plants constantly spring up, treatment problem of chemical waste gas and waste is more and more imminent. In recent years haze has appeared in a number of cities in our country, the cause of haze is subjected to chemical pollution and vehicle exhaust pollution. Thiamine waste from chemical plats contains a variety of chemical substances which are harmful to human and the environment, so appropriate selection of waste treatment method not only can concern their own economic interests, but also can concern the harmonious development of human being with nature. In this article, the significance and processes of thiamine waste incineration treatment were discussed in order to provide some theoretical reference for relevant practice.

  20. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  1. Comparison of the mopping ability of chemically modified and unmodified biological wastes on crude oil and its lower fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Ezenweke, Linus Obi; Ezenwa, Emmanuel Tagbo

    2008-11-01

    Activated and unactivated powders of goat hair and coir (coconut husk) separated into two particle sizes were used to mop up spills of crude oil, diesel, kerosene and petrol. It was observed that the materials (sorbents) mopped up appreciable volumes of the hydrocarbon liquids (sorbates) within 90 min of contact. Activation, particle size of sorbents and molecular weight (chain length) of sorbates (hydrocarbon) are major determining factors. Carbonization and particle size enhanced the mopping ability as follows--carbonized 325 microm > uncarbonized 325 microm > carbonized 625 microm > uncarbonized 625 microm, thus activated sorbents with large surface area (small particle size) mopped more hydrocarbons than unactivated of the same particle size. The sorbates were mopped in the order--crude oil > diesel > kerosene > petrol. It was further observed that goat hair (keratin protein) with oleophilic and aquaphobic properties adsorbed more of all the hydrocarbons than coir at all sizes and treatment. Large quantities of the mopped oils were recovered by mere pressing while the waste sorbents with 0.5-2.0% leachable residual oil could be utilized as alternative to fire wood.

  2. Utilization of inulin-containing waste in industrial fermentations to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Qureshi, Nasib; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jones, Marjorie A; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Lindquist, Mitchell R

    2017-04-01

    Inulins are polysaccharides that belong to an important class of carbohydrates known as fructans and are used by many plants as a means of storing energy. Inulins contain 20 to several thousand fructose units joined by β-2,1 glycosidic bonds, typically with a terminal glucose unit. Plants with high concentrations of inulin include: agave, asparagus, coffee, chicory, dahlia, dandelion, garlic, globe artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, jicama, onion, wild yam, and yacón. To utilize inulin as its carbon and energy source directly, a microorganism requires an extracellular inulinase to hydrolyze the glycosidic bonds to release fermentable monosaccharides. Inulinase is produced by many microorganisms, including species of Aspergillus, Kluyveromyces, Penicillium, and Pseudomonas. We review various inulinase-producing microorganisms and inulin feedstocks with potential for industrial application as well as biotechnological efforts underway to develop sustainable practices for the disposal of residues from processing inulin-containing crops. A multi-stage biorefinery concept is proposed to convert cellulosic and inulin-containing waste produced at crop processing operations to valuable biofuels and bioproducts using Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula glutinis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as thermochemical treatments.

  3. Discussion on Disposing Acid Waste Water by Physico-chemical Treatment Technology%利用物化技术处理含酸废水的技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍坤

    2013-01-01

    Based on analyzing al kinds of the disposal technology characters and application on acid waste water, the article approves that the physico-chemical treatment technology could effectively dispose al kinds of acid waste water. The physico-chemical treatment technology had some advantages such as wide adaptability on waste water, high heavy metal removal efficiency, and so on. So it can be used widely in the waste water disposal projects. According to the application of waste water disposal projects, the article points out several shortcomings need to be solved, such as the high disposal cost, the hard process control.%  通过分析各种含酸废水处理技术的特点和工程应用,指出利用物化技术能够有效处理各种含酸废水,具有废水适应性广、重金属去除效率高等优点,适合工程应用;物化技术在实际工程应用中,还存在处理成本高、工艺控制点不易控制等不足,需进一步研究加以克服。

  4. The effect of an organic waste compost on the agro-chemical characteristics of the soil, and the mineral composition of the sunflower leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radu Lăcătușu; Anca-Rovena Lăcătușu; Romeo Căpățână; Mihaela Lungu; Rodica Lazăr; Irina Ramona Moraru

    2017-01-01

    ... in the Romanian Black Sea coast, was used in association with another two organic wastes, farmyard manure from cattle-breeding farms and sewage sludge resulted from the waste water treatment, to produce a compost...

  5. Chemical composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of oil mill waste water from Tunisian olive varieties (Chetoui and Chemlali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissa Khemakhem Sellami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil mill waste water (OMWW is of great interest due to the presence of valuable resources such as biophenols that can be recovered as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study is to investigate the variation of physicochemical composition of OMWW from Chetoui and Chemlali varieties, to evaluate phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and phenolic profile of OMWW extracts under native and acidified conditions. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed for the extraction of polyphenols. Antioxidant activity was investigated by DPPH•, ABTS•+ and FRAP tests. Phenolic compounds content was determined by HPLC-DAD method. OMWW from Chetoui variety has been shown to contain an important amount of K, Ca and Na whereas Chemlali cultivar was rich in Mg. Phenolic extract from Chetoui fruit (COCt has been  shown to contain the highest amount of polyphenols (2.48 ± 0.21 g L-1 as well as an appreciable content of flavonoids (9.39 ± 0.32 g L-1. However, phenolic extract from Chemlali fruit (COCm has been shown to have the highest content of proanthocyanidins (0.39 ± 0.00 g L-1. Acidification treatment improved polyphenol recovery of extracts from both varieties. COCt was more active using DPPH (EC50 of 7.5 mg L-1 and FRAP tests. However, COCt and COCm exhibited the same activity using ABTS test. In general, acidification treatment decreased antioxidant activity of extracts. COCt has been shown to contain higher amount of hydroxytyrosol when compared to COCm (157.16 ± 0.820 and 23.440 ± 0.440 mg g-1 D.W. of extract, respectively as revealed by HPLC-DAD analysis. 

  6. Physical and chemical characterisation of crude meat and bone meal combustion residue: 'waste or raw material?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deydier, Eric [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France)]. E-mail: eric.deydier@iut-tlse3.fr; Guilet, Richard [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France); Sarda, Stephanie [Laboratoire de Chimie Inorganique et Sante, Universite Paul Sabatier, IUT A, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France); Sharrock, Patrick [LCBM, Universite Paul Sabatier, Avenue Georges Pompidou, 81100 Castres (France)

    2005-05-20

    As a result of the recent bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis in the European beef industry, the use of animal by-product is now severely controlled. Meat and bone meal (MBM) production can no longer be used to feed cattle and must be safely disposed of or transformed. Main disposal option is incineration, producing huge amounts of ashes the valorisation of which becomes a major concern. The aim of this work is to characterise MBM combustion residue in order to evaluate their physical and chemical properties to propose new valorisation avenues. The thermal behaviour of crude meat and bone meal was followed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (24 wt.%) inorganic residue was collected. The resulting ashes were characterised by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size distribution, specific surface area (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) couple with energy disperse X-ray analysis (EDX). Elemental analysis revealed the presence of chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium with high level of phosphate (56 wt.%) and calcium (31 wt.%), two major constituents of bone, mainly as a mixture of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phases. The impact of combustion temperature (from 550 to 1000 deg. C) on the constitution of ashes was followed by TGA, XRD and specific surface measurements. We observed a strong decrease of surface area for the ashes with crystallisation of calcium phosphates phases without major changes of chemical composition.

  7. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Addink, Rudolf; Yun, Sehun; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    The formation and release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from the incineration of electronic wastes (e-waste) that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a concern. However, studies on the determination of PBDD/Fs in environmental samples collected from e-waste recycling facilities are scarce. In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale e-waste recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-800000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89600-pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of sigmaPBDD/Fs and sigmaPBDEs (r = 0.769, p waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/ Fs, calculated in our previous study.

  8. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  9. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    expert in chemical security and work hard to safeguard the communities. Items discussed in this ... the public from injury, fire or other damage. In order to achieve these ..... 10.8 Transportation of hazardous chemicals and wastes? ... Chemical Security Engagement Program: https://chemsecurity.sandia.gov/. Chemical Safety.

  10. AN EVALUATION OF APPLICABILITY OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL THRTIARY TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC WASTE IN A REGION OF TEHRAN, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Samar

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study was comparison of applicability of tertiary treatment of Tehran domestic sewage with organic and inorganic coagulants or a combination of them. The far test procedure was applied utilizing: alum, polyelectrolyte WT 2600, anionic Polyelectorlyte WT 3000, and nonionic polyelctrolyte WT 2690 as organic coagulants (products of Calgon. The combination of lime with each of the organic coagulants WT 2600 and WT 3000 was subsequently used in jar test analysis. The optimum pH and optimum dosage of each coagulant were determined, based on the removal of turbidity, COD, and suspended solids. The removal of various parameters including COD, and suspended solids, algal nutrients, metals, bacteria, alkalinity, turbidity, and color were assessed by applying of optimum dosage of each coagulant in an evaluation of final selection in physico- chemical treatment. Lime was considered the most suitable among the polyelectrolytes, but combination of lime and polyelectrolytes was comparatively ruled out.

  11. The Effect of Pulp Industrial Waste as Chemical Admixture to Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Based Alkali Activated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmaji Andrie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is a toxic by-product from industrial pulp manufacture. It contains sodium hydroxide that can be used as precursor activator for alkali activated material, which is an aluminosilicate material that can be prepared from thermal activation of solid material containing alumina and silica as precursor and alkali activator solution. In this work, alkali activated mortar was prepared by mixing fly ash as main precursors, aggregate, followed by addition of activator solution containing sodium hydroxide solution and waterglass, and chemical admixture which is lignin or black liquor. The best compressive strength was 34.40 MPa achieved in addition of 10 wt% of black liquor to alkali activated mortar. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of albite in mortars, indicating that geopolymerization have been successfully formed. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxo and sialate peaks which commonly found in geopolymerization.

  12. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    CERN Document Server

    Gueroult, Renaud; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  13. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  14. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  15. Efficiency of horizontal roughing filter in removing nitrate, phosphate and chemical oxygen demand from effluent of waste stabilization pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Khezri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effective size of the end grain of horizontal roughing filters (HRFs is larger than 2 mm. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of HRFs in removing nitrate, phosphate, and chemical oxygen demand (COD from effluent of a wastewater stabilization pond. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2013. The pilot project was transferred to the Karaj wastewater treatment plant (stabilization pond, and the installation, equipping, and start-up of the system began using an effluent treatment plant. Sampling was done from March to August in 3 rates, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/h, and included simultaneous sampling from inlet and outlet filtering to determine the concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and COD. Results: At filtration rates of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/h, the average nitrate removal equaled 25%, 32%, and 34%, respectively, average phosphate removal equaled 29%, 26%, and 28%, respectively, and the average COD removal at filtration rates of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 m/h equaled 62%, 66%, and 68%, respectively. Outlet values of phosphate and nitrate were lower than the standards set by the Environmental Standards Organization (ESO (P < 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the HRF function was approximately adequate in COD removal, but its efficiency in nitrate and phosphate removal was lower.

  16. Novel integrated mechanical biological chemical treatment (MBCT) systems for the production of levulinic acid from fraction of municipal solid waste: A comprehensive techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Ng, Kok Siew; Martinez-Hernandez, Elias

    2016-09-01

    This paper, for the first time, reports integrated conceptual MBCT/biorefinery systems for unlocking the value of organics in municipal solid waste (MSW) through the production of levulinic acid (LA by 5wt%) that increases the economic margin by 110-150%. After mechanical separation recovering recyclables, metals (iron, aluminium, copper) and refuse derived fuel (RDF), lignocelluloses from remaining MSW are extracted by supercritical-water for chemical valorisation, comprising hydrolysis in 2wt% dilute H2SO4 catalyst producing LA, furfural, formic acid (FA), via C5/C6 sugar extraction, in plug flow (210-230°C, 25bar, 12s) and continuous stirred tank (195-215°C, 14bar, 20min) reactors; char separation and LA extraction/purification by methyl isobutyl ketone solvent; acid/solvent and by-product recovery. The by-product and pulping effluents are anaerobically digested into biogas and fertiliser. Produced biogas (6.4MWh/t), RDF (5.4MWh/t), char (4.5MWh/t) are combusted, heat recovered into steam generation in boiler (efficiency: 80%); on-site heat/steam demand is met; balance of steam is expanded into electricity in steam turbines (efficiency: 35%).

  17. Clarification and filtration of the floculated partuicles suspension from a chemical treatment of waste oil-in-water emulsions from a non-ferrous metalworking plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Vesna B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the coagulation/floculation conditions on clarification and filtration of the floculated particle suspension obtained by the chemical treatment of the waste oil-in-water emulsion (OWE from a non-ferrous metalworking plant were studied. The treatment involved the addition of aluminum(III sulfate and lime to the OWE. The main goal was to define the optimum conditions for clarification and filtration of the floculated particle suspension. The factors involved were amounts lime (i.e. pH and filter aid added the OWE on clarification and filtration rates. At pH>10, the clarification rate was increased and the final volume of the concentrated suspension (sludge was reduced, while filter aid affected negatively the clarification rate. The filtration rate was also increased when the coagulation was carried out at pH>10. The floculated particle suspension should be concentrated before filtration in order to decrease the filtration duration. The most efficient filter aid was Celite standard super-cel, its optimum initial concentration being found to be 2 g/dm3.

  18. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit``. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes.

  19. Urban energy mining from municipal solid waste (MSW) via the enhanced thermo-chemical process by carbon dioxide (CO2) as a reaction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Castaldi, Marco J

    2012-12-01

    The enhanced gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as the gasification medium was investigated to achieve environmentally benign and energy efficient ways for the disposal of MSW. Two main steps of thermal decomposition of MSW were observed. The first thermal degradation step occurs at temperature between 280 and 350°C and consists of the decomposition of the biomass component into light C(1-3)-hydrocarbons. The second thermal degradation step occurs between 380 and 450°C and is mainly attributed to polymer components, such as plastics and rubber, in MSW. To extend this understanding to a more practical level, MSW samples were tested in a drop tube reactor (DTR) at a temperature range from 500 to 1000°C under various atmospheres with CO(2) concentrations of 0-30%. The release of major chemical species from the DTR has been determined using a micro-GC. For example, CO (≈ 30%), H(2) (≈ 25%) and CH(4) (≈ 10%) were generated. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparative Studies on Dyeability with Direct, Acid and Reactive Dyes after Chemical Modification of Jute with Mixed Amino Acids Obtained from Extract of Waste Soya Bean Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Nilendu Sekhar; Konar, Adwaita; Roy, Alok Nath; Samanta, Ashis Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Jute fabric was treated with mixed natural amino acids obtained from waste soya bean seed extract for chemical modification of jute for its cataionization and to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes (like direct, reactive and acid dye) as well enabling soya modified jute for salt free dyeing with anionic reactive dyes maintaining its eco-friendliness. Colour interaction parameters including surface colour strength were assessed and compared for both bleached and soya-modified jute fabric for reactive dyeing and compared with direct and acid dye. Improvement in K/S value (surface colour strength) was observed for soya-modified jute even in absence of salt applied in dye bath for reactive dyes as well as for direct and acid dyes. In addition, reactive dye also shows good dyeability even in acid bath in salt free conditions. Colour fastness to wash was evaluated for bleached and soya-modified jute fabric after dyeing with direct, acid and reactive dyes are reported. Treatment of jute with soya-extracted mixed natural amino acids showed anchoring of some amino/aldemine groups on jute cellulosic polymer evidenced from Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This amino or aldemine group incorporation in bleached jute causes its cationization and hence when dyed in acid bath for reactive dye (instead of conventional alkali bath) showed dye uptake for reactive dyes. Study of surface morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of said soya-modified jute as compared to bleached jute was studied and reported.

  1. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  2. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueroult, Renaud, E-mail: rgueroul@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A detailed economic study on plasma mass filtering techniques is presented. • Comparison with chemical techniques shows similar costs for solid-waste pretreatment. • Significant savings potential is identified through superior waste minimization. - Abstract: Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  3. Test methods for evaluating solid waste. Volume 1A through 1C, and Volume 2. Field manual physical/chemical methods (3rd edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This manual provides test procedures that may be used to evaluate those properties of a solid waste that determine whether the waste is a hazardous waste within the definition of Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (PL 94-580). These methods are approved for obtaining data to satisfy the requirement of 40 CFR Part 261, Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste. Volume IA deals with quality control, selection of appropriate test methods, and analytical methods for metallic species. Volume IB consists of methods for organic analytes. Volume IC includes a variety of test methods for miscellaneous analytes and properties for use in evaluating the waste characteristics. Volume II deals with sample acquisition and includes quality control, sampling-plan design and implementation, and field-sampling methods.

  4. Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities Project Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Bruce Edward

    2001-09-01

    This feasibility study report presents a draft design of the Vitrified Waste Interim Storage Facility (VWISF), which is one of three subprojects of the Idaho Waste Vitrification Facilities (IWVF) project. The primary goal of the IWVF project is to design and construct a treatment process system that will vitrify the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) to a final waste form. The project will consist of three subprojects that include the Waste Collection Tanks Facility, the Waste Vitrification Facility (WVF), and the VWISF. The Waste Collection Tanks Facility will provide for waste collection, feed mixing, and surge storage for SBW and newly generated liquid waste from ongoing operations at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The WVF will contain the vitrification process that will mix the waste with glass-forming chemicals or frit and turn the waste into glass. The VWISF will provide a shielded storage facility for the glass until the waste can be disposed at either the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as mixed transuranic waste or at the future national geological repository as high-level waste glass, pending the outcome of a Waste Incidental to Reprocessing determination, which is currently in progress. A secondary goal is to provide a facility that can be easily modified later to accommodate storage of the vitrified high-level waste calcine. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the VWISF, which would be constructed in compliance with applicable federal, state, and local laws. This project supports the Department of Energy’s Environmental Management missions of safely storing and treating radioactive wastes as well as meeting Federal Facility Compliance commitments made to the State of Idaho.

  5. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  6. Solid Waste/Disease Relationships, A Literature Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thrift G.

    Presented is a comprehensive survey of the literature on the relationships between disease and solid wastes. Diseases are grouped on the basis of waste type or disease vector, such as chemical waste, human fecal waste, animal fecal waste, rodent-borne disease, mosquito-borne disease and miscellaneous communicable disease. The following format is…

  7. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  8. Waste generator services implementation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  9. Analysis and Disposal of Organic Pollutants in Waste Soil Chemical Pollution Accident Risk%化工污染事故危险废土中有机污染物的分析与处置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 王晓毅; 时治富

    2012-01-01

    以(某)化工公司污染事故为例,针对危险固废中主要污染物进行了测试分析和危险特性鉴别,通过对污染土壤焚烧实验研究,着重分析讨论了各种处置方法的优缺点,结果表明,利用民生砖厂隧道窑配制烧砖处置方案较好,通过实际应用,取得了良好效果。%Take a chemical company's pollution accident for example, after the accident of pollution, the test analysis and identification of hazardous properties is made for the major pollutants in the contaminated waste soil. The selection of incineration parameters of contaminated soil is studied and analyzed. Further exploration and study of environmental emergency disposal solution of pollution soil is made, so to provide a soild waste disposal methods for dealing with hazardous waste soil in chemical company pollution acci- dent.

  10. Physical-chemical bases of the recovery of surface active materials from aqueous solutions and waste water. Fiziko-Khimicheskie osnovy izvlecheniya poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv izvodnykh rastvorov i stochnykh vod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koganovskii, A.M.; Klimenko, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Contemporary data are given on the adsorption of surfactants on adsorbents of various chemical makeup, on the effect of the structure of their solutions, and the presence of strong electrolytes. An examination is made of the connection between the chemical structure of surfactants, their state in solution, and the structure of the adsorption layers. Data are presented for the first time on the joint adsorption of components from solubilized systems and the products resulting from the interaction between surfactants and dissolved dyes. Physico-chemical substantiation is offered for the absorption technology of removing surfactants and concomitant organic matter from industrial waste. Fundamental technological systems are presented for the sorption purification of sewage polluted by surfactants, and the conditions for their most effective utilization are substantiated. The book is intended for specialists engaged in the physical chemistry of surface phenomena as well as for investigators and planning personnel who are developing the technology of purifying industrial sewage. 81 figures, 53 tables.

  11. Influence of the presence of carbon dioxide on chemical composition of water in contact with mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cempa-Balewicz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays post mining areas are often reclaimed and used housing areas, sports areas and recreational areas. Mining waste weathering is a significant factor influencing the condition of the surrounding water and soil environment. It is necessary then to evaluate susceptibility of the waste to weathering in given conditions and predict the rate of the processes. The paper presents initial results of an experimental study evaluating the influence of the presence of CO2 on the composition of leachate obtained when mining waste is exposed to water. The results of the experiments confirm the importance of the oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of carbonate minerals in changing the pH of water interacting with the waste.

  12. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    decisions in waste planning thus require a holistic and systematic assessment of environmental impacts of different waste management options. Such assessment requires reliable information on the physical and chemical waste properties to model the flows of waste materials and substances throughout the entire...... the selection of appropriate acid digestion method for future waste characterization studies and the comparison of data across existing studies. A consistent dataset for 73 physico-chemical parameters in 49 residual and 24 source-segregated Danish household waste fractions was obtained and is now available...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions...

  13. Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals and industrial wastes as a Novel Carbon Capture and Storage Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is attributed to rising consumption of fossil fuels around the world. The development of solutions to reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere is one of the most urgent needs of today's society. One of the most stable and long-term solutions for storing CO2 is via carbon mineralization, where minerals containing metal oxides of Ca or Mg are reacted with CO2 to produce thermodynamically stable Ca- and Mg-carbonates that are insoluble in water. Carbon mineralization can be carried out in-situ or ex-situ. In the case of in-situ mineralization, the degree of carbonation is thought to be limited by both mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction kinetics, and must be well understood to predict the ultimate fate of CO2 within geological reservoirs. While the kinetics of in-situ mineral trapping via carbonation is naturally slow, it can be enhanced at high temperature and high partial pressure of CO2. The addition of weak organic acids produced from food waste has also been shown to enhance mineral weathering kinetics. In the case of the ex-situ carbon mineralization, the role of these ligand-bearing organic acids can be further amplified for silicate mineral dissolution. Unfortunately, high mineral dissolution rates often lead to the formation of a silica-rich passivation layer on the surface of silicate minerals. Thus, the use of novel solvent mixture that allows chemically catalyzed removal of this passivation layer during enhanced Mg-leaching surface reaction has been proposed and demonstrated. Furthermore, an engineered biological catalyst, carbonic anhydrase, has been developed and evaluated to accelerate the hydration of CO2, which is another potentially rate-limiting step of the carbonation reaction. The development of these novel catalytic reaction schemes has significantly improved the overall efficiency and sustainability of in-situ and ex-situ mineral carbonation technologies and allowed direct

  14. ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyaya, Luv

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to develop a clear vision on better waste management system. The thesis introduced the sustainable waste management along with innovation. The aim of the research was to find out the types of waste being introduced to environment, their consequence on human beings and surroundings, best policies, principles and practices to minimize the effect of the waste to lowest. The study was based on literature. The thesis includes the introduction of types of waste, clarifi...

  15. Biomedical waste in Indian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, S.

    2000-07-01

    In its broadest sense, medical waste applies to solid or liquid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment of immunization of human beings or animals in research, in the production or testing of biological material. Of all the wastes produced by hospitals, the World Health Organization estimated that 10 per cent of it is infectious and 5 per cent consists of hazardous chemicals such as methylchloride and formaldehyde. Of course, one of the major concerns is the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B or C viruses. If the medical waste is not properly managed, a high degree of pollution and public health risks exists, particularly if the medical waste is mixed with municipal solid waste and dumped in uncontrolled areas. In New Delhi, the daily medical waste generated is 60 metric tons. In 1989, the Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi published guidelines for the management of Solid Wastes-Hospitals. Some rules governing the classification of biomedical waste were published in 1997-98 by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. Recommendations by the author included the segregation of hospital wastes, the set up of common medical waste treatment facilities as well as the training of Municipality workers in the safe handling of medical wastes. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 1972, two chemical elements which generate a lot of heat were removed from the high level waste tanks at Hanford. Called cesium and strontium, these elements had...

  17. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)